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kj;jpa Mrpah (u\;a) K];ypk;fspd; murpay; tuyhW


fle;j mf;NlhgH ,Wjpapy; u\;ahtpy; xU rk;gtk; epfo;e;jJ cq;fs; midtUf;Fk; epidtpUf;fyhk;. Mk;! xU jpNal;liuf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;l ,];yhkpa jPtputhj ,af;fj;jpdH> me;j kf;fisg; gpizf; ifjpfshf itj;Jf; nfhz;L> u\;ah ,uhZtk; K];ypk; ehLfis tpl;L ntspNaw Ntz;Lk; vd;w fl;lisiag; gpwg;gpj;jJ. Mdhy; u\;ah ,uhZtk; mjpubapy; ,wq;fp> kf;fis kPl;lNjhL> gpur;id Kbe;jJ.

mg;nghOJ cyfnkq;Fk; gj;jphpf;iffs; ,e;jr; nra;jpia kpfg; nghpa mstpy; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; nfhz;L te;jd. K];ypk;fisg; gw;wpAk;> mtHfsJ Ntj E}y;fisg; gw;wpAk; tpkHrpj;jd. ghUq;fs;! mtHfs; ifapy; FHMd; $l ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;W Nghl;NlhTld; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ,];yhkpa vjpHg;GzHit tsHg;gjpy; mit Nghl;b Nghl;bf; nfhz;bUe;jd.

Mdhy; me;j K];ypk;fisj; jPtputhjj;jpd; gf;fk; mioj;Jr; nrd;wtHfs; ahH? u\;a muRf;F vjpuhf 100 Mz;L fhyg; Nghiu elj;jp tUk; nrrd;ah K];ypk;fspd; tuyhW vd;d? KO nkhj;j u\;ahtpy; thOk; K];ypk;fspd; epiy vd;d vd;gJ Fwpj;J ahUk; ftiyg;gl;ljhfj; njhpatpy;iy. mjd; fhuzj;ij mwpe;J nfhs;sTk; topapy;iy.

,e;j epiyapy; murpay; #jhl;lf; fhuHfshy; tho;tpoe;j me;j K];ypk;fs;> jq;fsJ ,d milahsj;ijAk;> nkhop milahsj;ijAk; capnud kjpf;Fk; ,];yhkpa khHf;f milahsq;fisAk; u\;a fk;A+dp] muR vt;thnuy;yhk; Jilj;njwpe;jpUf;fpd;wJ vd;gijAk;> mjidg; kPsg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;F [dehaf topKiwfs; gydspf;fhj nghOJ> jPtputhj;jpd; gf;fk; nrd;wjd; fhuzk; jhd; me;j jpNal;liuf; ifg;gw;wpa rk;gtj;jpd; gpd;dzpahFk;.

[hH kd;dHfspd; nfhLq;Nfhz;ikapypUe;J kf;fis tpLtpf;f fk;A+dp]k; NghuhbaJ..> Gul;rp vd;why;!!?> u\;a ,Uk;Gj; jpiuf; nfhLikfspypUe;J Rje;jpuj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg; NghuhLtJ Gul;rpah? my;yJ jPtputhjkh? vd;gij thrfHfshfpa cq;fsJ rpe;jidf;Nf tpl;L tpLfpd;Nwhk;.

u\;ahtpy; eilngw;W tUk; Nghuhl;lq;fspd; gpd;dzp vd;d vd;gJ gw;wpa xU rpW tpsf;fj;ijNaDk; ,e;jf; fl;Liu jq;fSf;F toq;FNkahdhy;> mJNt ,iwtdpd; kpfg; nghpa fUizahFk;. vy;yhg; GfOk; ,iwtDf;Nf!

,q;Nf rpy jfty;fis kl;LNk clNd nfhz;L tu Kbe;jJ. ,dp tUk; ehl;fspy; ,d;Dk; gy jfty;fis jq;fSf;F toq;ff; fhj;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. ,iwtd; ehbdhy;!!

u\;ahtpw;Fs; ,];yhk;

vl;lhk; E}w;whz;bd; nghOJ jhd; ,];yhj;jpd; miog;G Nrhtpaj; u\;ahtpw;Fs; Eioe;jJ. mJ rkak; kj;jpa Mrpahtpd; midj;Jg; gFjpfSk; (f]f;];jhdpd; tlf;Fg; gFjp jtpu) K];ypk;fspd; MSiff;F cl;gl;bUe;jJ. mg;nghOJ ,g;gFjpapy; cs;s kf;fspy; ngUk;gFjpapdH ,];yhj;jpdhy; ftug;gl;L jq;fis ,];yhj;jpw;Fs; ,izj;Jf; nfhz;ldH.

kj;jpa MrpahtpypUe;Jk;> fhfh]pag; gFjpapypUe;Jk; u\;ahtpd; Vida gFjpfSf;F ,];yhk; gutpaJ. Nthy;fh gFjpfspy; tho;e;J te;j jhHj;jhhpaHfs; kj;jpa fhyg; gFjpapy; ,];yhj;jpid Vw;Wf; nfhz;ldH. ,e;j jhHj;jhhpaHfs; JUf;fpa nkhopiag; Ngrf; $batHfshfTk;> JUf;fpa tk;rh topiaf; nfhz;ltHfshfTk; ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,];yhk; 20 Mk; E}w;whz;bd; Muk;g fhyg; gFjp tiuAk;> ve;j tpj jilAk; ,y;yhky; u\;ahtpw;Fs; gutpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. Nthy;fh ejpg; gLifapy; tho;e;J te;j gy;NtW ,df; FOf;fis ,];yhk; jOtpf; nfhz;L> mtHfs; midtiuAk; ,d NtWghl;bypUe;J gphpj;J rNfhjuHfshf Mf;fp itj;j ngUik ,];yhj;ijNa rhUk;.

Ke;ija Nrhtpaj; Fbaurpd; 15 FbauR xd;wpaq;fspy;> 6 xd;wpaq;fs; K];ypk;fisg; ngUk;ghd;ikahff; nfhz;litahFk;. mtw;wpy; m]Hig[hd;> f]f;];jhd;> c];ngf;fp];jhd;> JUf;kpdp];jhd;> jh[pfp];jhd;> fpHfp]pah Mfpa ehLfshFk;. ,d;Dk; K];ypk;fs; mjpfkhf thof; $ba gFjpfs; u\;ahtpw;Fs; ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. jhHj;jhHfs;> g\;fpH]; kw;Wk; Nthy;fh A+uy; gFjpfs; kw;Wk; u\;ahtpd; tlf;F ft;fhrpag; gFjpfspy; mjpfkhd K];ypk;fs; trpj;J tUfpd;whHfs;. ,J jtpu jhHj;jhhpa K];ypk;fs; mjpfkhd mstpy; irgphpag; gFjpfspy; tho;e;J tUfpd;whHfs;.

,uz;lhtJ cyfg; Nghhpd; nghOJ> n[Hkdpf;F cjtpdhHfs; vd;w Fw;wr;rhl;bd; Nghpy; ,e;j jhHj;jhhpa K];ypk;fs; gdpglHe;j irgPhpag; gFjpf;F ehL flj;jg;gl;lhHfs;.

u\;ag; gFjpfspy; 3 gpuNjrq;fspy; K];ypk;fs; mjpfg;gbahf tho;e;J tUfpd;whHfs;. kj;jpa Mrpah> Nthy;fh A+uy; gpuNjrk;> ft;fh]pag; gFjp. tlf;F Mg;fhdp];jhd; kw;Wk; <uhdpa vy;iyia xl;ba gFjpfspy; 5 FbauRfs; K];ypk;fisg; ngUk;ghd;ikahff; nfhz;Ls;sd. mit f[f;];jhd;> fpHfPrpah> c];ngf;fp];jhd;> JHf;kpdp];jhd;> jh[pfp];jhd; MfpaitfshFk;. ,jidaLj;J> Nthy;fh ejpg; gLiffspy; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikahf tho;fpd;whHfs;. kw;Wk; jhHj;jhhpag; gFjpfs;> A+uy; kiyg; gFjpfs; kw;Wk; fUq;fly; kw;Wk; fh];gpad; fly; Mfpatw;Wf;F ,ilg;gl;l gFjpfs; Mfpatw;wpy; K];ypk; ngUk;khd;ikahf trpj;J tUfpd;whHfs;.

nkhj;j u\;ahtpd; ehd;fpy; xU gFjpfspy; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikahf tho;e;J tUfpd;whHfs;. ,jpy; irgPhpahitj; jtpHj;J tpLNthkhdhy;> u\;ahtpd; ghjpg;gug;gstpy; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikahf tho;e;J tUfpd;whHfs;. Vnddpy;> gdp %ba irgPhpag; gFjp u\;ahtpd; ghjpg;gug;gsit Mf;fpukpj;Jf; nfhz;Ls;sJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.

1975 y; vLf;fg;gl;l fzf;nfLg;gpd;gb u\;ahtpd; nkhj;j kf;fs; njhif 22 NfhbahFk;. ,jpy; K];ypk;fs; 4 Nfhbg; NgH ,Ue;jdH. K];ypk;fspd; kf;fs; njhiff; fzf;nfLg;G tpfpjhr;rhuk; gw;wpa rhpahd Gs;sp tpguq;fs; ,d;Dk; fpilf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.

u\;ahtpy; trpf;Fk; K];ypk;fspy; 85 rjtPjkhNdhH JUf;fpa nkhop NgRk; JUf;fpa tk;rh topiar; NrHe;jtHfs;. kj;jpa Mrpa ehLfshd f[f;];jhd;> fpHfP]pah> JHf;kpdp];jhd;> c];ngf;fp];jhd; kw;Wk; Nthy;fh A+uy; gFjpahd g];fPhpah> kw;Wk; m]Hig[hdpd; njw;F ft;fh]pa kiyg;gFjpfs; Mfpatw;wpy; thof; $ba K];ypk;fs; JUf;fpa nkhopiag; Ngrf; $batHfs;. ,d;Dk; tlf;F ft;fhrpag; gFjpfspy; thOk; gyH> irgPhpah> ypj;JNtdpah> ngyhu]; Mfpa gFjpfspy; thof; $batHfSk; JUf;fpa nkhopiaNa NgRfpd;whHfs;.

,J jtpHe;j kPjp 15 rjtPj K];ypk;fs; ghHrp nkhopiag; Ngrf; $bathfshf jh[pfp];jhd; gFjpfspy; tho;fpd;whHfs;. JUf;fp kw;Wk; ghHrp nkhopiaj; jtpHj;J> ft;fhrpag; gFjpfspy; thOk; K];ypk;fs; me;jg; gFjpfspy; tof;fpy; cs;s nkhopfisg; Ngrf; $batHfshf cs;sdH.

vdNt ,jpypUe;J njhpatUtnjd;why; u\;ah kw;Wk; kj;jpa Mrpag; gFjpfspy; ,d;W thof; $ba K];ypk;fspy; ngUk;ghd;ikapdH JUf;fpa tk;rh topiaf; nfhz;ltHfs; ,d;Dk; JUf;fpa nkhopiag; Ngrf; $batHfs; vd;gJ njspthfpd;wJ.

,d;iwf;F Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpy; ,Uf;ff; $ba K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikahf thof; $ba gFjpfspy; JUf;fpa nkhop tof;fpy; ,Ue;jhYk;> mit gy;NtW tpjkhd cr;rhpg;Gfisf; nfhz;bUg;gjpd; fhuzkhf> ,e;j mbg;gilia itj;J> kj;jpa Mrpah kw;Wk; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikahf trpf;Fk; gFjpfis> nkhop thhp ehLfshfg; ghpzkpf;fr; nra;jpUf;fpd;wJ. Njrk; kw;Wk; nkhop Mfpatw;wpd; %yk; K];ypk;fisg; gphpj;J itj;jpUe;jhYk;> xU c];ngf;fp];jhd; K];ypkpw;F> f[f;];jhd;> JHf;kpdp];jhd; kw;Wk; m]Hig[hd; Mfpa ehLfspy; tof;fpy; ,Uf;Fk; Ngr;R nkhopiag; Ghpe;J nfhs;tjpy; xd;Wk; rpukkpUf;fhJ vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj; jf;fJ.

u\;a K];ypk;fspd; murpay; ,af;f tuyhW

[hH kd;dHfspd; Ml;rpapd; nghOJ K];ypk;fspd; murpay; Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; u\;aHfSf;F epfuhd chpik vd;w epiyapy;> [jpj; vd;nwhU murpay; ,af;fj;ij kpfTk; ftdkhfTk;> vr;rhpf;ifahfTk; K];ypk;fs; Jtf;fpdhHfs;. 1905 Mk; Mz;L tiu ,e;j murpay; ,af;fk; njhlHe;jJ> Vnddpy; [hHfspd; Kb Ml;rpapd; fPo; ,j;jifanjhU murpay; ,af;fk; elj;jg;gLtJ kpfTk; Mgj;jhdnjhd;W vd;gijAk; K];ypk;fs; czHe;jpUe;j NghjpYk;> [hH kd;dHfSf;F tpRthrkhfTk; mtHfs; ele;J nfhz;L te;jhHfs;. ,jw;fpilNa u\;a kw;Wk; [g;ghd; Nghhpy;> u\;ahit vjpHj;J [g;ghd; ntw;wp ngw;wJ> K];ypk;fSf;F kj;jpapy; xU cshPjpahdnjhU njk;igf; nfhLj;jJ. gpd; 1905 y; Vw;gl;l Gul;rpapd; nghOJ> [hH kd;dHfs; jq;fs; KO mjpfhuj;jpdpd;Wk; ,wq;f Ntz;ba epHg;ge;jk; Vw;gl;lJ> u\;a ghHypnkz;l; ^kh Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ> u\;ahtpd; midj;J tptfhuq;fisAk; ,e;j ^kh ftdpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. NkYk; u\;a Gul;rpapd; tpisthf K];ypk;fs; murpay; ,af;fk; elj;JtJ kpfTk; vspjhdnjhU gzpahf khwpaJ.

u\;ahtpy; Kjd; Kjyhf mg;Jy; u\Pj; ,g;wh`Pk; vd;gtuhy; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf trpf;Fk; jhHjhhp];jhd; gpuNjrj;jpy; xU murpay; ,af;fk; xd;W Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jw;fpilNa ,tH 1904 ypNyNa gy;NtW fUj;Jf;fs; nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;l K];ypk;fsplj;jpy; murpay; ,af;fk; Muk;gpg;gJ rk;ge;jkhf ufrpa MNyhridf; $l;lk; xd;iwAk; ,tH elj;jpapUe;jhH. ,t;thW elj;jg;gl;l ufrpa $l;lq;fspy; vLf;fg;gl;l Muk;g fl;l KbTfspd; gpd;dzpahf> Kjy; K];ypk; fhq;fpu]; mikg;G 1905 Mf];by; epf;dp NehNthNfhHl; vd;w ,lj;jpy; itj;J Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; ,jw;F muR mDkjpapd;ikahy;> ufrpakhfNt ,e;jf; $l;lk; elj;jg;gl;lJ.

fphpkpahtpd; ,];khapy; nghfhk;gphpd;];fp> m]Hig[hdpd; myp NkhHld; gp Nlhg;[pgh\p kw;Wk; Nthy;fh jhHjhH d; A+Rg; Xf;Y Mfpa Kf;fpaj; jiytHfs; ,e;j fhq;fpu]; y; fye;J nfhz;ldH vd;gjpypUe;J u\;ahtpd; ngUk;ghd;ik K];ypk; gpuNjuq;fspd; gpujpepjpfs; ,e;j fhq;fpu]; ufrpar; re;jpg;gpy; fye;J nfhz;ldH vd;gJ Gydhfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,e;j fhq;fpu]; u\;aHfSf;F ,izahd chpikfs; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; Ntz;Lk; vd;w nfhs;ifia typAWj;jpaJ. NkYk;> ,e;j fhq;fpu]; $l;lj;jpy; K];ypk;fSf;nfd xU murpay; ,af;fkhf> ,j;jp/ghf;Fy; K];ypkpd; vd;w ngahpy; xU murpay; mikg;ig cUthf;FtJ vd;Wk; jPHkhdkhfpaJ.

1906 y; nrapz;l; gPl;lH];gHf; y; K];ypk;fspd; khehL xd;W elj;jg;gl;lJ. ,jpy; ft;fhrpag; gFjpfs;> f[f;];jhd;> fPhPkpah kw;Wk; Nthy;fh Mfpa gFjpfspy; ,Ue;J 100 f;Fk; mjpfkhd gpujpepjpfs; fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;. u\;ahtpd; fhd;];bbA+rdy; nlkhf;ubf; ghHl;b vd;w murpay; mikg;Gld; ,ize;J nray;gLtJ vd;Wk; ,e;j khehl;by; jPHkhdpf;fg;gl;lJ. Vnddpy; ,e;j nlkhf;ubf; ghHl;b K];ypk;fspd; Nfhhpf;iffs; epahakhdNj vd;W nfhs;if hPjpahf xg;Gf; nfhz;lNj> ,e;j $l;lzp miktjw;Ff; fhuzkhf mike;jJ. ,jd; gpd; mjpfhug; G+Htkhf ,j;jp/ghf;Fy; K];ypkpd; vd;w murpay; mikg;G muR mq;fPfhuj;Jld; 1906 Mk; Mz;L> Kiwahf mwptpg;Gr; nra;ag;gl;lJ. Mdhy; rpy tyJ rhhp MjuT K];ypk;fs; ,e;j ,j;jp/ghf;Fy; K];ypk; mikg;Gld; NrHe;J nfhs;shky;> khHf;]pa Nrhrpay; nlkhf;ubf; ghHl;bAld; ,ize;J nfhz;lhHfs;.

gy;NtW K];ypk; ,af;fq;fs; Njhd;Wjy;

,j;jpghf;Fy; K];ypkPd; ,af;fj;ijj; jtpHj;J> gy;NtW gFjpfspy; gy;NtW ,af;fq;fis K];ypk;fs; Njhw;Wtpj;J elj;j Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. aq; Gfhud; vd;w ,af;fk; jh];nfz;bd; GfuhtpYk;> aq; fpthd; vd;w ,af;fk; [jpj; ,af;fj;jtHfspd; jiyikapYk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,tHfs; u\;ahtpy; thof; $ba K];ypk;fSf;F nghUshjhur; Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; rKjha kWkyHr;rpiaAk; Ntz;b> u\;a mlf;FKiw muir vjpHj;J> midj;J tpjr; Rje;jpuk; Nfhhp mjdbg;gilapy; jq;fsJ ,af;fj;jpd; nray;ghLfisf; nfhz;L nrd;wdH. ,tHfs; ,];yhkpa kjr; rhHghsHfsplk; mjpf nry;thf;Fk; ngw;wpUe;jhHfs;. ,e;j ,af;fq;fs; JUf;fp];jhdpy; xU kWkyHr;rpiaNa cz;L gz;zpd. mf;NlhgH Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dhs; [jpj; ,af;fj;jtHfshd mg;Jy; uT+/g; gpj;uj; kw;Wk; Kd;tH fhhp MfpNahH Nrhtpaj; murpyikg;G epHthfj;jpy; Kf;fpakhdnjhU gq;fhw;wpdhHfs;.

Njrpathj K];ypk;fSk; Myk; XHjh vd;w ngahpy; f[f;];jhdpy; myp fhd; kw;Wk; m`;kJ igj;JHrd; vd;gtHfsJ jiyikapy; xU ,af;fj;ijAk; Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. [6. Ali Khan(1869-1932) was the governor general of the Steppe region of Kazakhstan. He was the elected member of the 1st and 2nd Duma.]

,tHfs; ,e;j ,af;fj;ij 1905 Mk; Mz;L xUq;fpizj;jhHfs;. ,tHfs; Xy;fh gFjpfspy; tho;e;j jhHj;jhhpa rpe;jidahsHfspd; jhf;fj;ijAk; kw;Wk; u\;a FbauRf; fl;rpapd; mjpfhu rigapd; MjuthsHfshfTk; nray;gl;lhHfs;. Myk; XHjh ,af;fj;jtHfspd; Nfhhpf;ifAk; u\;aHfisg; NghyNt K];ypk;fSf;Fk; rk chpik kw;Wk; f]f;];jhdpy; u\;af; FbNaw;wq;fis epWj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nfhhpf;iffis Kd;dpWj;jp jq;fsJ ,af;fj;ij Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

K`k;kJ mkPd; u]{y;[hjh vd;gtuJ jiyikapy; K]t;tj; vd;w ,af;fj;ij 1911 Mk; Mz;L m]Hig[hdpy; Jtq;fpdhHfs;. [8. Amin Rasuljada(1884-1954) was a prominent writer and publisher. He went to Iran in 1908 and published the paper named 'Irane-Nao' from there. In 1910 he went to Turkey and joined in the Pan-Turk movement. In 1913 he returned to Russia and became the President of Musawat party in 1917. When independent Azerbaijan state was declared in 1918, he became the President of it. He left the country after the fall of independent Azerbaijan. Died in Turkey in 1954.]. ,e;j ,af;fk; m]hp Njrpathjpfspd; jhf;fj;jhy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. MHkpdpaHfSf;Fk; kw;Wk; m]hp K];ypk;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa eilngw;w murpay; Nghl;bfs;> murpay; hPjpahf kpfTk; $He;J Nehf;fj;jf;fit.

,d;Dk; ft;fh]; gFjpfspy; tho;e;j JUf;fpa ,d kf;fs; nra;jpg;gj;jphpf;ifs; kw;Wk; rQ;rpiffs; topahf czHT ngw;W> ,tHfSk; `ahj;> ,H\hj; kw;Wk; juhf;fp Nghd;w murpay; ,af;fq;fis Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

mHkPdpaHfs; kw;Wk; u\;aHfSld; Vw;gl;l fLikahd njhlH Nghl;bfspd; tpisthf> m]Hig[hd; kf;fs; jPtpu Njrpathjpfshf khw;wg;gl;lhHfs;.

u\;ah kw;Wk; INuhg;gpaj; jhf;fj;jpd; tpisthf kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; ,g;nghOJ Nrhryp]r; rpe;jid nfhz;l gy;NtW murpay; ,af;fq;fs; neLfpYk; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;jd. czHT hPjpahf njhopw;Gul;rpahy; ce;jg;gl;l njhopyhsHfs; kw;wk; Gjpjhf NkiyehLfspy; fy;tp fw;Wj; jpUk;gpatHfs; jhd; Nrhryp]f; nfhs;ifiaAk; mjd; murpay; rhHG ,af;fq;fisAk; Vw;Wf; nfhz;L> me;j ,af;fq;fspy; ,ize;J jq;fsJ gq;fspg;Gfs; %yk;> Nrhryp]r; rhHG murpay; ,af;fq;fs; gy Njhd;wTk; fhuzkhf mike;jhHfs;.

mg;JH u\Pj; nk`;jp vd;gtuJ jiyikapy; (1880-1912) aq; jhHj;jhH vd;w ngahpy; xU Nrhryp] ,af;fk; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. Nrhryp]r; rpe;jid nfhz;l kf;fspilNa ,e;j ,af;fk; kpFe;j jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mg;JH u\Pj; nk`;jpAk; $l jPtpu Nrhypr];l; kw;Wk; NjrpathjpahfTk; ,jd; %yk; khw;wk; ngw;whH. ,tuJ KO Nehf;fKk; [hH kd;dHfspd; Ml;rpia ePf;f Ntz;Lk; kw;Wk; u\;ahtpd; Mjpf;fj;jpypUe;J fphPkpahit kPl;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhfNt ,Ue;jJ. ,tH epyq;fis muRlikahf Mf;fp> mtw;iw tptrhapfSf;F gphpj;Jf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w epyr; rPHjpUj;j eltbf;ifia Ntz;b epd;whH.

f]f;];jhdpy; cUthfpapUe;j Nrhryp] ,af;fq;fspy; c];`{]; vd;w ,af;fk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,e;j ,af;fk; khHf;rpa rpe;jidapdhy; ftug;gl;lJ vd;gijf; fhl;bYk; ,];yhkpa rhHGf; nfhs;ifapd; jhf;fNk ,e;j ,af;fj;jpy; fhzg;gl;lJ. ,e;j ,af;fk; u\;ahtpd; nfhLq;Nfhz;ik Kbahl;rpf;F vjpuhf MAjg; Gul;rpNa top vd;w nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.

1904 y; khHf;rpa Nrhryp];l; Ma;T tisak; xd;W m]Hig[hdpy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,tHfs; u\;ahtpd; nlkhf;ubf; ghl;bapd; jiyikapd; fPo; nray;gl;lhHfs;. 1905 y; ,e;j ,af;fk; K];ypk; Nrhrpay; nlkhf;ubf; ghHl;b vd;w ngaH khw;wk; ngw;wJ. ,d;Dk; nrhy;yg;Nghdhy; ,e;j ,af;fk; `pk;kj; ghHl;b vd;w ngauhy; mwpag;gl;L te;jJ. ,tHfs; Nrhryp] rpj;jhe;jj;ijNa jq;fsJ ,af;ff; nfhs;ifahff; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. ,tHfs; tHf;fg; Nghuhl;lk; kw;Wk; mfpycyf Njrpathjk; kw;Wk; ,jw;nfjpuhd nfhs;iffis tpkHrpj;jy; Nghd;w nfhs;iffis Kd; itj;J ,af;fk; elj;jpdhHfs;. ,tHfspilNa JUf;fpa rhHG kw;Wk; JUf;fpa Njrpathjk; epiwe;jpUe;jJ.

Nthy;fh gFjpapy; cs;s f]hd; vd;w gFjpapy; Nghy;];tpf;Ffspd; fUj;jpaypy; mike;j xU ,af;fk; xd;W Njhd;wpaJ. mjw;F A+uy; rpy;yH vd;Wk; ngahplg;gl;L> ,e;j ,af;fk; u\;ahtpd; Nghy;];tpf;Ffspd; xU gphpthd u\;ad; Nrhrpay; nlkhf;ubf; ghHl;bapd; mjpfhuf; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPo; ,e;j ,af;fk; ele;J te;jJ.

1917 tiu ,e;j K];ypk;fspd; ,af;fq;fspy; Nrhryprr; rpe;jidAk; jhf;fq;fs; Fwpg;gpl;Lr; nrhy;Yk;gb ,y;iy. gy;NtW ,af;fq;fspy;> `pk;kj; kw;Wk; A+uy; rpy;yH jtpHj;J kw;w midj;Jk; Nrhryp]r; rpe;jidiaf; nfhz;bUe;jhYk;> ngaustpy; jhd; mit ,aq;fp te;jd. ,e;j ,af;fq;fs; njhopyhsHfspd; kWkyHr;rp> epyr;rPHjpUj;jk; kw;Wk; u\;a Nrhryp]f; nfhs;ifia mit Kd;ndLj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhYk;> mit Njrpthjj; jhf;fj;ijNa jq;fsplk; mjpfk; ngw;wpUe;jd. mjhtJ JUf;fp rhHG Njrpathjk; kw;Wk; ,];yhkpar; rhHG Njrpathjk; Mfpatw;iwf; Fwpg;gpl;Lf; $wyhk;. ,jd; %yk; khHf;rp]r; rpe;jidapdhy; KOj;jhf;fKk; ngw;W tpl;lhHfs; vd;W $w ,ayhjpUe;jJ. `pk;kj; kw;Wk; A+uy; rpy;yH ,af;fq;fspy; $l Nrhryp]r; rpj;jhe;jk; KO mstpy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ vd;Wk; $l nrhy;y KbahJ.

`pk;kj; ,af;fj;ijj; Njhw;Wtpj;jtHfspy; xUtuhd mkPd; u]{y;[jh `pk;kj; ,af;fj;ij tpl;L tpl;L JUf;fpa rhHG Njrpathj ,af;fkhd K]t;tj;jpy; Ngha; ,ize;J nfhz;lhH. fk;A+dp];l; Nrhtpaj; u\;ah cUthdjd; gpd;dH `pk;kj; ghHl;b m]Hig[hd; muir epHtfpj;jJ> ,Ug;gpDk; `pk;kj; ghHl;bia xU ek;gj;jFe;j murpay; ,af;fkhf Nrhtpaj; fk;A+dp] u\;a Vw;Wf; nfhs;stpy;iy. ,j;jifa ek;gj;jfhj murpay; ,af;fj; jiytHfis Jilj;njwpAk; Nehf;fj;Jld; 1938 y; ,tHfSf;F kuz jz;lid mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. A+uy; rpy;yH ,af;fj;jpd; jiytHfspy; mjpfkhNdhH MA+jNke;jpg; Nghuhlf; $ba nkNdhN]htpf; gphpT 1917 ypw;Fg; gpwF fk;A+dp] u\;ah vjpHj;J Nghuhba njhlHgpy; ,e;j ,af;fj;jpy; ,ize;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,jpy; ckH nlhpFNyht; kw;Wk; fhypkPd; i]Gj;jPd; MfpNahH Fwpg;gplj;jFe;jtHfs;.

Nkw;fz;l K];ypk;fspd; murpay; njhlHG gw;wp Ma;tpy;> 1917 f;F Kd; K];ypk;fspy; rpW njhifapdH khHf;rpa fk;dpA+];L nfhs;ifapd; jhf;fj;ijg; ngw;wpUe;jdH vd;gJ> Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; cUthdjd; gpd;dH jhd; ,e;jf; nfhs;if gutyhf K];ypk;fs; kj;jpapy; gut Muk;gpj;jJ vd;gJk; Nehf;fj;jf;fJ.

1914 y; KjyhtJ cyf Aj;jk; njhlq;fpaJ. n[Hkdpia vjpHj;J u\;ah gpuhd;];> gphpl;ld; Mfpa ehLfs; fsj;jpy; Fjpj;jd. ,jd; tpisthf u\;ahtpy; nghUshjhu tPo;r;rp Vw;gl;lJ. tho;f;if nrytpdq;fs; mjpfhpj;jd. cs;ehl;Lf; Fog;gk; mjpfhpj;J> cs;ehl;Lg; NghH Kbtpy;yhky; ePz;L Ngha;f; nfhz;bUe;jJ. u\;a uhZtk; gy epiyfspy; Njhw;fbf;fg;gl;lJ. mJ jd;Dila typikia nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhf ,oe;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. NghUf;F vjpuhd fUj;Jf;fs; nghJ kf;fs; kj;jpapYk;> ,uhZtj;jpdH kj;jpapYk; gut Muk;gpj;jJ. 1917 Vw;gl;l ,e;j kf;fs; vjpHg;G ]hH kd;dHfis Ml;rpia tpl;Lf; fPopwq;fg; gzpj;jJ. 1917 y; gpg;uthp 27 y; ,uhZtk; Gul;rpahsHfSld; ,ize;J nfhz;lJ. [hH kd;dHfs; Ml;rpia tpl;L fPopwq;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ. ,e;j gpg;uthp Gul;rpf;F nlkhf;ubf; ghHl;b> Nrhrpay; nlkhf;ubf; ghHl;b (Nghy;];tpf; kw;Wk; nkd;];tpf;) kw;Wk; Nrhryp] Gul;rpfu Kd;dzp Mfpait Kf;fpa gq;F tfpj;jd.

Nghhpd; nghOJ Vw;gl;l cs;ehl;Lg; Gul;rp> gztPf;fk;> nghUshjhur; rPuopT Mfpatw;wpd; fhuzkhf Nghiuj; njhlHtjh? my;yJ mikjpia Vw;gLj;Jtjh? vd;w Fog;gkhd #o;epiyapy;> gpuhd;]; kw;Wk; gphpl;ldpd; tw;GWj;jy; fhuzkhf u\;ah Nghiuj; njhlu Ntz;ba epHg;ge;jk; Vw;gl;lJ. Nghhpd; Kf;fpa Nehf;fkhf ,];yhkpa fpyhgj;ij tPo;j;j Ntz;Lk;> ,];jhd;Gy;iyf; ifg;gw;w Ntz;Lk;vd;w Nehf;fk; gd;dhl;Lg; gilfsplk; ,Ue;j fhuzj;jhYk;> rpWghd;ik ehLfspd; kPJ u\;ahtpd; nfhs;if vd;d vd;gJ jpl;ltl;lkhf mwpe;J nfhs;s ,ayhjjhYk;> u\;ahtpw;F vjpuhd Nghf;if u\;ahitr; Rw;wp cs;s K];ypk; ,af;fj; jiytHfs; vLf;fj; J}z;lg;gl;lhHfs;.

gpg;uthp Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; u\;ahtpd; vjpHfhy epiy vt;thW ,Uf;Fk; vd;w cz;ikia czu Muk;gpj;j K];ypk; ,af;fj; jiytHfs;> 1917 y; jhq;fs; Njhw;Wtpj;j ,af;f eltbf;iffis ,g;nghOJ kpfj; jPtpukhff; nfhz;L nry;y Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. u\;a Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; ,af;fq;fs; kPjpUe;j jilfs; ePf;fg;gl;ljhy;> ,e;j ,af;f eltbf;iffis kpfr; Re;jpukhfTk; tpWtpWg;ghfTk; nra;a Kbe;jJ.

NkYk; u\;ah Mjpf;fj;jpd; jhf;fj;ij czHe;j K];ypk;fspd; ,af;fj; jiytHfs;> jq;fSf;fpilNa ,Ue;J nfhz;bUe;j rpW rpW gpur;idfis Xuq; fl;b tpl;L xd;Wgl;Lr; nray; gl KbntLj;J> \{uh ,];yhkpa vd;w xUq;fpizg;Gf; FOit Vw;gLj;jp mjd; topfhl;Ljy;fspd; gb nray;gl Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

1917 y; etPd fy;tpawpT ngw;w rpy K];ypk;fs; gpyhbfht]; efhpy; xU khehl;ilf; $l;b> mjpy; NrhA]; NfhHrpf; NehHNlht; vd;w mikg;igj; Jtq;fp> ,e;j mikg;ig u\;a fl;Lghl;bw;F cl;gl;l Rje;jpu ehnlhd;iwg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJ vd;w Nehf;fj;Jld; jdJ murpay; ghijia Muk;gpj;jJ.

,];yhkpa Gul;rpf;F tpj;jpl;l K];ypk;fs;

Mdhy; kf;fspd; nry;thf;ifg; ngw;wnjhU ,af;fkhf ft;fh]; gFjpapy; ef;]ge;jp #gpj;Jt rpe;jid nfhz;lk; ,Ue;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,jd; cWg;gpdHfs; KhPj; vd;wiof;fg;gl;lhHfs;. ,tHfs; jhd; u\;a Mf;fpukpg;ig vjpHj;J tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;G kpf;f Nghiuj; Jtf;fpatHfs;. ,tHfs; fle;j E}whz;LfSf;F Nkyhf u\;ahtpd; Mjpf;fj;ij vjpHj;J kd;#H kw;Wk; ,khk; \hkpy;mtHfs; jiyikapy; NghuhbdhHfs;. u\;ag; Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; e[;Kj;jPd; Nfhl;rpd;];fP vd;gtH jiyikapy; ,tHfsJ Nghuhl;lk; eilngw;wJ. tlf;F ft;fh]; gFjpapy; ,];yhkpa rl;l mikg;ig mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lnjhU Ml;rpia Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;vd;gNj ,tHfsJ Nehf;fkhfTk;> Fwpf;NfhshfTk; ,Ue;jJ.

mNj Neuj;jpy; njw;F ft;fh]; gFjpapy; JUf;fpa rhHG ,af;fkhd K]t;tj; kw;Wk; `pk;kj; fl;rpfspd; jhf;fk; mjpfkhf Nt&d;wpapUe;jJ. mf;NlhgH Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; gy;NtW ngaHfspy; Nrhryp] kw;Wk; Njrpathj rpe;jid nfhz;l K];ypk; ,af;fq;fs; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;jd. ,jpy; Ky;yh E}H t`Pj; vd;gtuhy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l f]hd; fkpl;b Nghy;];tpf;Ffspd; ed;kjpg;igg; ngw;w ,af;fkhf khwp> mjd; %yk; fl;rpapd; Kf;fpakhf gy nghWg;Gfis ,e;j Ky;yh tfpj;jhH.

K];ypk;fs; murpay; hPjpahf xd;WgLjy;

K];ypk;fsJk; kw;Wk; K];ypk; ehLfsJk; chpikfisAk;> Rje;jpuj;ijAk; cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;F kj;jpa Mrpahtpd; u\;ahtpd; fPo; cs;s midj;J K];ypk; ehLfspdJk; ,af;fj; jiytHfs; ,jw;fhf xd;wpize;J ghLgl Ntz;Lk; vd;w rpe;jidapd; tpisthf> u\;a fk;A+dp];l; fl;rpapd; kj;jpa mjpfhu rigahd ^kh tpy; mq;fk; tfpf;Fk; K];ypk;fspd; khehL xd;W ngl;NuhfhHby; (nrapz;l; gPl;lH];gHf;) 15 khHr; 1917 y; elj;jg;gl;lJ.

,e;j khehL ft;fhrp K];ypk; jiytuhd m`;kj; ng]hypNfh vd;gtuJ jiyikapd; fPo; nray;gl Muk;gpj;jJ. ,e;j khehl;Lf; fkpl;b mbf;fb ,J Nghd;w xUq;fpizg;G khehLfis $l;l Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk;> ,e;j khehl;Lf;F midj;J K];ypk; cWg;G ehLfisAk;> mjd; jiytHfisAk; mioj;J gpur;idfs; gw;wp fye;jhNyhrid nra;aTk; gzpf;fg;gl;lJ. NkYk; ,e;j mikg;G u\;ahtpy; midj;J murpay; fl;rpfSf;Fk; toq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j Mjuit jpUk;gg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;ljw;fhd fhuzk; vd;dntdpy;> ,tHfs; kPJ ,e;j K];ypk; mikg;Gfs; itj;jpUe;j ek;gpf;ifia ,oe;J tpl;bUe;jd vd;gNj Kf;fpa fhuzkhFk;.

Gjpjhfj; Jtf;fg;gl;l K];ypk;fspd; ,e;j mjpfhu rig Kjd; Kjyhf midj;Jg; gpujpepjpfspd; khehl;il 1917 Nk md;W kh];Nfhtpy; $l;bajpy; 900 cWg;gpdHfs; ,jpy; fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,e;j cWg;gpdHfs; NjrpathjpfSk;> JUf;fp rhHG NjrpathjpfSk;> ,];yhkpa rhHGthjpfSk; fye;J nfhz;lik Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

,e;j khehl;by; ehd;F Kf;fpa jPHkhdq;fs; epiwNtw;wg;gl;ld.

K];ypk; ,uhZtg; gilia cUthf;FtJ

Nfk;ghpd;];fp vd;gtuJ khjphpiaf; nfhz;l fy;tpr; rPHjpUj;jk; nra;tJ

u\;aj; jiyaPby;yhj Rje;jpu ,];yhkpa fyhr;rhu rigia cUthf;FtJ

nghpa gz;izahHfsplk; epyj;ij ifafg;gLj;JtJ

Mdhy; ,j;jifa nfhs;iffis ntd;nwLg;gjpy; ftdk; nrYj;Jtij tpl;L tpl;ljdhy;> xNu khjphpahd nfhs;if Kbit vLf;f ,ayhky; ,e;j khehl;bd; KbT Njhy;tpaile;jJ. K];ypk;fspd; epHthfj;jpy; fyhr;rhu Rje;jpuj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjh my;yJ ika murpd; fPo; Rje;jpu ehlhf kyHtjh vd;w nfhs;iff; Fog;gj;jpy; ,e;j khehL cUthf;fg;gl;ljd; Nehf;fk; Njhy;tpaile;jJ. mjpy; gpsTfSk; Vw;gl;ld.

gpd; ,e;j K];ypk; xUq;fpizg;G khehl;L rig kpy;yp #uh fTd;rpy; xd;iw Muk;gpj;J> mjd; %yk; u\;ahtpy; cs;s midj;J K];ypk;fspd; ,af;fq;fspd; nray;ghLfisAk; xUq;fpizj;jJ. ,jd; jiytuhf m`;kj; rhypNfht; epakpf;fg;gl;lhH.

,jd; ,uz;lhtJ khehL 1917 [{iyapy; elj;jg;gl;lJ. Kjy; khehl;by; vLj;jpUe;j jPHkhdj;jpd;gb K];ypk;fisf; nfhz;l ,uhZtj;ij mikg;gjw;fhd FO cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. Njrpa K];ypk;fspd; khHf;f tptfhuq;fisf; ftdpf;f kpy;yp ,jhuh vd;w mikg;Gk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. kpy;yj; k[;yp]; vd;w nraw;FOTk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. kpy;yj; k[;yp]; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;ljd; gpd; mf;NlhgH Gul;rp eilngw;w fhyj;jpy; ,e;j mikg;G gy;NtW murpay; rq;flq;fisr; re;jpf;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ.

mr;RWj;jYf;F Mshd K];ypk; jiytHfs;

1918 gpg;uthpf;Fg; gpd; gy K];ypk; jiytHfs; jpBHf; ifJfisr; re;jpj;jhHfs;. ,jd; fhuzkhf K];ypk; jiytHfs; gy ,lq;fSf;Fg; gphpe;J nrd;W jiykiwT tho;f;if tho Ntz;ba epiyAk;> jpiukiwT eltbf;iffspy; <Lgl Ntz;ba epHg;ge;jKk; Vw;gl;lJ.

[dthp 14 y; nrk;gil m]Hig[hidf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJ> ,jpy; 3000 K];ypk; giltPuHfs; caphpoe;jhHfs;. 1918 y; Nrhtpaj; muR tlf;F ft;fh]; (jh[p];jhd;) gFjpiaf; ifg;gw;Wtjpy; Njhy;tpiaNa re;jpj;jJ. tlf;F ft;fh]; e[;Kj;jPd; jiyikapy; Rje;jpu muir Vw;gLj;jpaJ. fpth kw;Wk; Gfhuhtpd; gilfs; Nrhtpaj; gilfis vjpHj;J kpfTk; jPukhd Kiwapy; Nghhpl;lJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

Nghy;];tpf;Ffspd; tPo;r;rpAk;> K];ypk;fspd; Rje;jpug; gpufldKk;

1917 y; Nghy;];tpf;Fs; jq;fsJ Ml;rpia ,oe;jTld;> ,e;jr; re;jHg;gj;ijg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;l K];ypk; jiytHfs; gy;NtW gFjpfis Rje;jpu ehLfshf mwptpj;jdH. Nk khjj;jpw;Fs; ft;fh]; gFjpapy; ,uz;Lk; (,it fpwp];JtHfs; ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf ([hH[pah> mHkPdpah) cs;s gFjp) kw;Wk; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf cs;s m]Hig[hd; kw;Wk; tlf;F ft;fh]; MfpaitAk; Rje;jpug; gpufldk; nra;jd. i`jH ghkh vd;gtH [19. Haider Bammate(1890-1965) born in the North Caucasus. Got Ph.D degree in law from Leningrad University. Was a sincere practitioner of Islamic ideology. Got excellence in Arabic language and Islamic studies. Went to France in 1921 after the fall of independent North Caucasus. From there he published the paper 'The Caucasus' by which he tried to create sentiment in favour of freedom of North Caucasus. He wrote a book named, 'The Caucasus Problem'. He got the citizenship of Afganistan by king Amanullah as a reward for his contribution towards Muslim people. He died in Paris on 31st march 1965.]tlf;F ft;fh]; gFjpapd; [dhjpgjpahfTk; kw;Wk; ntspAwTj; Jiw mikr;ruhfTk; nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. ,e;ehL JUf;fpAld; el;GwT xg;ge;jk; xd;iwAk; mg;nghOJ nra;J nfhz;lJ. m`;kj; ]hfp tyPj; Nghy;];tpf; tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gpd; g\;fPUf;Fj; jpUk;gp te;j ,tH> mq;F muR xd;iwAk; epWtpdhH. NkYk; Myk; XHjh ghHl;bAk; ,e;j #o;epiyiag; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L> f]f;];jhdpd; fpof;F kw;Wk; Nkw;Fg; gFjpapy; jd;Dila Rje;jpu muir epWtpaJ. ,e;j ,U muRfSf;Fk; KiwNa Njh];j; K`k;kJ kw;Wk; myp Giffhd; ,UtUk; muRj; jiyikg; gjtpiag; ngw;whHfs;. Mdhy; ,tHfspd; Ml;rp mjpfhuk; vy;yhk; GwefHg; gFjpapy; jhd; ,Ue;jJ. Kf;fpa efuq;fspy; Nghy;];tpf;Ffspd; gpb ,Wf;fkhf ,Ue;jJ. JUf;fp];jhd; kPz;Lk; jd;Dila Ml;rpia NfhNfhz;l; y; epiyepWj;jpaJ. fphPkpahtpd; ,uhZj;jhy; Nrhtpaj; muR fiyf;fg;gl;lJ. 1918 y; fphPkpah ,uhZtk; fphPkpahit tpl;L tpyfpaJld;> K];ypk; Njrpathj muR xd;iw kpy;yp /gpHfh ghHl;b Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

Nghy;];tpf; Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dhs; mNefkhf vy;yh K];ypk; ngUk;ghd;ikg; gFjpfspypUe;Jk; Nrhtpaj; muR jd;Dila gpbia ,oe;jJ vdyhk;. nkd;];tpf; fSf;F ,jid vjpHj;J Gul;rp xd;iw elj;j typik ,Ue;Jk;> K];ypk;fspd; Kaw;rp kw;Wk; cWjpapd; fhuzkhf mJ eilngwhky;> K];ypk;fs; ,Wjpahf Rje;jpu ehLfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs;.

K];ypk; Njrq;fs; u\;ahit tpl;Lg; gphpe;jjd; fhuzk; vd;dntdpy;> u\;aHfs; kw;Wk; fk;dpA+];Lfs; K];ypk;fspd; kPJ fhydp Mjpf;fj;ij epiyepWj;jpajd; tpisNtahFk; vd;W tuyhw;W MrphpaHfs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whHfs;.

gwpNghd K];ypk;fspd; Rje;jpuk;

Mdhy; jhq;fs; ngw;Wf; nfhz;l ,e;j Rje;jpuj;ij rhpahd Kiwapy; K];ypk;fshy; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s ,aytpy;iy. mtHfsJ ,uhZtk; rhpahd Kiwapy; mikf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gJk;> mjpfhu KjpHr;rp mw;wtpjj;jpy; ,Ue;jJNk ,jd; fhuzq;fshFk;. ,jid tpl ,e;j K];ypk;fs; ehLfs; jq;fSf;Fs; rhpahd njhlHGfis tsHj;Jf; nfhs;stpy;iy.

Nghy;];tpf; vjpHg;G Kd;dzp K];ypk;fs; Fwpj;J rhpahd nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;bUf;ftpy;iy vd;gJk;> K];ypk;fs; ehLfspd; Rje;jpuj;ij mq;fPfhpf;fNth my;yJ K];ypk;fspd; Nfhhpf;ifia nrtp Vw;W> mtw;iw Vw;Wf; nfhs;sNth kdkpy;yhjtHfshfTk; mtHfs; ,Ue;jdH. ,e;j epiyapy; Nghy;];tpf;Ffs; xU Njrpaf; nfhs;ifia Kbit vLj;J> mjd; %yk; K];ypk;fis ftHe;jpOf;f Kaw;rp nra;jdH. ,jd; tpisT g\;fPH kw;Wk; f[f;];jhd; Nrhtpaj; u\;ahtpd; MjuT ehlfhf jd;id mwptpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. n[duy; nldpfpd; fphPkpahtpd; Rje;jpug; gpufldj;ij uj;J nra;jhH. Nghy;];tpf;Ffs; kPz;Lk; fphpkpahit 1920 ifg;gw;wpdhHfs;. m]Hig[hd; 1920 y; Nrhtpaj; gpbapy; tPo;e;jJ. tlf;F ft;fh]; kPz;Lk; Nghy;];tpf;Ffspd; fuq;fSf;F 1919 y; nrd;W tpl;lJ.

Rje;jpu K];ypk; ehLfshf jq;fis mwptpj;Jf;nfhz;l ,e;j K];ypk; ehLfs; midj;Jk; jw;nghOJ> jw;fhypfkhf jq;fsJ Rje;jpuj;ij kPz;Lk; ,oe;jd. ,J 1990 y; fhHg;gNrtpd; kWkyHr;rpf; nfhs;if (gpu];l;uha;fh) gpufldg;gLj;Jk; tiuf;Fk; njhlHe;jJ.

K];ypk;fspd; kPjhd u\;ahtpd; murpay; nfhs;if epiyg;ghL

nydpd; mwptpj;j Rje;jpug; gpufldk;

1917 y; eilngw;w mf;NlhgH Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; Nrhtpaj; u\;ahtpy; cs;s gy;NtW ehLfSf;fhd chpikfisg; gw;wpa rpy nfhs;iffis nydpd; jiyikapyhd Gjpa fk;A+dp] muR gpufldg;gLj;jpaJ. ,e;jf; nfhs;iffs; 1917 etk;gH 24 k; Njjpad;W Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jhy; ntspaplg;gl;lJ. Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpy; cs;s ehLfspd; chpikfs;> Rje;jpug; gpufldk; (jdpj;J ,aq;Fjy;) kw;Wk; Rje;jpug; gpufldk; nra;J Rje;jpu ehLfshfg; ghpzkpj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;> u\;ahtpypUe;J gphpe;J nfhs;Sjy; cl;gl gy nfhs;iffs; gw;wp me;j gpufldk; mwptpg;Gr; nra;jJ. ,e;jg; gpufldk; K];ypk;fisg; nghUj;jtiu kpfTk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fnjhU gpufldkhf ,Ue;jJ. Vnddpy; u\;ahtpy; cs;s kpfg; nghpa rpWghd;ikapuhf K];ypk;fs; jhd; tho;e;J te;jhHfs;. ,e;j mwptpg;G nydpd; mwptpj;j Vg;uy; nfhs;if vd;w mtuJ jpl;lj;jpypUe;J cjpj;jjhFk;. ,e;jf; nfhs;if mwptpg;ig nydpd; 1917 Vg;uy; khjj;jpy; ele;j u\;a Rje;jpuf; fl;rp (Russian Social Democratic Party) f; $l;lj;jpy; ntspapl;lhH. ,jpy; ek;Kld; ,ize;Js;s Jiz ehLfspd; chpikfis kjpj;J> mit ek;ik tpl;Lg; gphpe;J Rje;jpu ehLfshfg; gpufldg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;F mitfSf;Fj; jhHkPf chpikfs; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gij ehk; kjpj;J> mjw;F mDkjp toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W $wpdhH.

cz;ikapy; ele;jJ vd;dntd;why;> ve;jnthU K];ypk; ehLk; jdpj;Jg; gphpe;J Rje;jpu ehLfshf ghpzkpj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F mDkjp toq;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gJk;> ,e;j epiy 1990 Mk; Mz;L Nrhtpaj; u\;ah Jz;L Jz;lhf cile;J nehUq;Fk; tiu njhlHe;jJ. u\;ahtpy; ele;j Gul;rpapd; nghOJ> Rje;jpu ehLfshfj; jq;fisg; gpufldg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;l gy;NtW K];ypk; ehLfisg; gpd;dhspy;> Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; tYf;fl;lahkhf me;j ehLfspd; Rje;jpuj;ijg; gwpj;J jdJ Ml;rpg; gpuNjuq;fshf K];ypk; ehLfis Mf;fpf; nfhz;lJ. ,jw;F mtHfs; nrhd;d fhuzk; vd;dntdpy;> Rje;jpug; gpufldk; nra;J nfhz;l ehLfs; mf;NlhgH Gul;rpf;F vjpuhdtHfshf khwp tpLthHfs; vd;w gaj;jpd; fhuzkhfj; jhd;> ,e;j K];ypk; ehLfspd; Rje;jpuj;ijg; gwpj;Jf; nfhz;ljhf nydpd; muR fhuzk; $wpaJ. Mdhy; Nghy;];tpf;FfSf;F Mjuthf ,Ue;j rpy K];ypk; jiytHfs; jq;fs; Njrq;fspd; Rje;jpug; gpufldk; gw;wp myl;bf; nfhs;stpy;iy vd;gJk;> mjidg; gw;wp mtHfs; rpe;jpf;ftpy;iy vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,jd; %yk; mtHfsJ fhuzk; epahag;gLj;jTk; gl;lJ. Mdhy; eilKiw cz;ik vd;dntd;why;> Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpd; MSiff;F cl;gl;l K];ypk;fs; mjpfkhf thOk; gpuNjrq;fSf;F Rje;jpug; gpufldk; toq;FtJ vd;gJ eilKiw rhj;jpakw;wjhfNt ,Ue;jJ. Vnddpy;> xt;nthU gpuNjrq;fspYk; ,Ue;j fk;A+dp];l; ghHl;bfs; ahTk;> Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpd; MjuTf; fk;dpA+];LfshfNt nray;gl;L te;jdH. ,e;jf; fl;rpfspd; fpisfs; ahtw;iwAk; fl;rpapd; Rje;jpu - ikaj; jiyikg;gPlk; fl;Lg;gLj;jp top elhj;jp te;jJ. ,jd; njhlHgpy; ghHj;jhy;> fl;rpj; jiyik vLf;Fk; KbT jhd; muirf; fl;Lg;gLj;jf; $bajhf> murpd; nfhs;iffis tFf;ff; $bajhf ,Ue;jJ.

,J njhlHghf Kd;dhs; cf;iuidr; NrHe;J fk;dpA+];bd; kj;jpa rig cWg;gpdH NrhHNlhNyht; mtHfs; Fwpg;gpl;Lf; $wpaij ehk; ,q;F epidT $wf; flikg;gl;Ls;Nshk;. khHr; 1919 y; $ba cf;iudpd; fk;A+dp];L fl;rpf; $l;lj;jpy; ,t;thW mtH $wpdhH> mjhtJ> topfhl;Lf; nfhs;ifia tFg;gJ vd;gJ cf;iudpd; fk;dpA+];L rigapd; mjpfhuj;jpy; cs;sjy;y> topfhl;Lf; nfhs;if KbTfis mwptpg;gJk;> vLg;gJk; kj;jpa rigapd; mjpfhuj;jpy; cs;sit vd;W $wpdhH. ehk; cUthf;fp ,Uf;fpd;w kj;jpa rigapd; mjpfhuj;ijj; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;tijNa ehk; tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk; vd;Wk; mtH $wpdhH. ,e;j kj;jpa rigia capNuhl;lkhf itj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w fk;A+dp]f; fl;rpapd; rpj;jhe;jj;jpd; fhuzkhf> nydpd; mwptpj;j Vg;uy; nfhs;ifg; gpufldk;> kw;Wk; etk;gH gpufldk; Mfpa ahTk; nrayw;wjhf> eilKiwg;gLj;jg;glhj rl;lkhfNt ,Ue;jJ. [3. A. Bennigsen and CL. Quelquejay; Islam in The Soviet Union. Pale Mall Press, London; page 137]

Rje;jpuj;ijg; gwpj;j u\;ah> K];ypk;fis nkhop thhp ehLfshfTk;> ,dthhp ehLfshfTk; gphpj;jJ> ,];yhkpa milahsq;fis mopj;J Njrpathj K];ypk;fis cUthf;f Kide;jJ

Mdhy; K];ypk; jq;fsJ kj ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; JUf;fpa Ngr;R nkhop tof;F> Njrpa milahsk; Mfpatw;wpd; fhuzkhf xU Njr kf;fshff; fhl;rpaspj;jhHfs;. ,Ug;gpDk; Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; K];ypk;fis gy;NtW Njrpa milahsk; nfhz;ltHfshfg; gphpf;fNt tpUk;gpaJ. Vnddpy;> Nghy;];tpf;Ffshd ,e;j fk;dpA+];Lfs; ,];yhkpa rNfhjuj;Jtk; ,tHfsplk; epiyj;J epw;gij ve;jtpjj;jpYk; mDkjpf;f tpUk;gtpy;iy vd;gNj ,jd; fhuzkhFk;.

];lhypDila nfhs;ifg; gb xU Njrj;jpd; milahsk; vd;gJk;> mjd; xw;Wik vd;gJk; Gtpapay;> nkhop> nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; fyhr;rhuk; Mfpatw;iwf; nfhz;ljhFk;. u\;a tho; K];ypk;fs; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fnjhU Gtpapay; mikg;gpYk;> mtHfspy; mNefk; NgH JUf;fpa nkhopiag; Ngrf; $batHfshfTk;> mtHfspy; rpyH ngH]pa nkhopiag; Ngrf; $batHfSk; ,Ue;jdH. ,d;Dk; JUf;fpa nkhop Ngrf; $batHfsplKk; rpy gpuNjr fUj;JkhWghLfSk; ,Ue;jd. mtHfs; tho;e;j gFjpfspy; rpy fyhr;rhu khWghLfSk; $l fhzg;gl;ld. ,e;j khWghLfs; jhd; K];ypk;fisg; gphpj;jhs u\;ahtpw;Ff; fhuzkhfTk; mike;jJ.

,d;Dk; f[f;];jhd;> fpHfP]pah> JHf;nkd; Mfpa gFjpfspy; ehNlhb tho;f;if Kiwapyhd tho;f;if mikg;G eilKiwapy; fhzg;gl;lJk;> ,d;Dk; mNef gpuNjrq;fspy; nghUshjhuk; vd;gJ tptrhaj;ij ek;gpNa ,Ue;jJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. ,jd; fhuzkhf> gy;NtW gpuNjrq;fisg; gphpj;J> mtw;Wf;Fg; Gjpa Njrpa milahsq;fSk; nfhLf;fg;gl;ld.

Nthy;fh gFjpapy; ,uz;L Gjpa Njrq;fs; cUthf;fg;gl;ld>

g\;fPhpah 1919 Yk;>

jhHj;jhH ehL 1920 Yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

g\;fPhpah vd;w Njrj;ij cUthf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w mtrpakpy;yhj NghJk;> mJ cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

Mdhy; Nthy;fh - A+uy; gFjp kf;fspd; fdNth xd;wpide;j A+uy; ehL xd;iw cUthf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;wnjhU mgpyhi\ mtHfsplk; ,Ue;jJ.

,e;j g\;fPhpahtpy; tho;e;j kf;fspy; 25 rjtPjk; NgH jhd; g\;fPhpa ,d kf;fs;> kw;w midtUk; jhHj;jhHfshthHfs;. Ngr;R tof;fpy; kl;Lk; ,Ue;j g\;fPhpa nkhopf;F> vOj;J milahsj;ij 1923 Mk; Mz;L Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak; toq;fpaJ. ,e;j g\;fPhpah nkhop jhd; g\;fPhpa Njrj;jpd; Ml;rp nkhopahfTk; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

mnyf;]hz;lH ngdpq;]d; vd;gtuJ $w;Wg;gb ,g;nghOJ 62 rjtPj kf;fs; ,e;j g\;fPhpa nkhopiag; NgRfpd;whHfs;. tlf;F fhfh]]; gFjpapy; thOk; kf;fSf;Fj; njhlHG nkhopahf mugp nkhop jhd; ,Ue;J te;jJ. cz;ikapy; tlf;F fhf;fh]pa kf;fSf;Fg; nghJ nkhopahfTk; mugp nkhop jpfo;e;J te;jJ. ,e;j mbg;gilapy; ghHj;jhy; tlf;F fhf;fh]pag; gFjp KOtijAk; mugp nkhop Ngrf; $batHfs; vd;w mbg;gilapy; jdpahdnjhU Njrkhf mjidg; gphpj;njLj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

gpuNjr nkhop mbg;gilapy; gphpg;gJ vd;why;> gy nkhopfSf;F vOj;J tbtk; ,y;iy vd;gijg; gw;wp ,g;nghOJ Nrhtpaj; rpe;jpf;f Muk;gpj;jJ.

Nrhtpaj; xd;wpa Ml;rpapd; nghOJ> nrrd;ah nkhop vOj;J tbtj;ij 1925 Yk;> ,d;$]pa nkhop 1923 Yk;> fgHlh - Nghy;fH nkhop 1924 Yk; vOj;J tbtk; ngw;Wf; nfhz;ld. ,jd; gpd; nkhop mbg;gilapy; tlf;F fhf;fh]pag; gFjpfis 6 Rje;jpu ehLfshfg; gphpj;jJ Nrhtpaj; xd;wpak;.

mitahtd :

nrrd;ah - ,d;$]pa Rje;jpug; gFjp ( ,uz;L nkhopfs;)>

fgHlh-Nghy;fH Rje;jpug; gFjp (,uz;L nkhopfs;)>

jh[p];jhd; Rje;jpug; gFjp>

mb]ha;>

tlf;F xrprpah> kw;Wk;

fu[ha;-n[nufP]; Mfpa MW gpuNjrq;fshfg; gphpj;jJ.

jh[p];jhdpy; Gof;fj;jpy; ,Ue;j gy nkhop NgRgtHfspd; jiyaPl;bd; fhuzkhf 11 nkhopfis Ml;rp nkhopahfTk; Mf;fpaJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf gy;NtW nkhopfs; Gof;fj;jpy; ,Ue;jhYk;> gy;NtW Rje;jpug; gpuNjrq;fspy; thOk; gy;NtW ,d kf;fspd; njhlHG nkhopahf> u\;a nkhopia Vw;Wf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ ,aw;ifahfNt mike;J tplf; $ba fl;lha #o;epiy xd;W cUthf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ.

Mdhy; tuyhw;Wg; G+Htkhf Nehf;fpdhy;> Vd; Nrhtpaj; u\;ah ,e;j fhf;fh]pag; gFjpfis ,j;jid gphpTfshfg; gphpj;jJ vd;gJ xU epahakhdnjhU eltbf;if ,y;iy vd;gJ GydhFk;. ,jd; fhuzk; vd;dntdpy;> K];ypk;fs; midtUk; xNu Njrpa milahsj;jpd; gpd;dzapy; jpuz;L tplf; $lhJ vd;gNjahFk;. 100 Mz;L fhyg; Nghul;lj;jpw;Fg; gpd; ,Wjpahf 1918 y; jpBnud Rje;jpug; gpufldk; xd;iw Nrhtpaj; gpd;dzpiaf; nfhz;l ,khk; e[;Kj;jPd; vd;gtH jiyikapy; toq;fp> tlf;F fhf;fh]pag; gFjpapd; K];ypk;fspd; murpay; xw;Wikia Nrhtpaj; u\;ah gphpj;jJ.

,jd; gpd; njw;F fhf;fh]pag; gFjpapy; m]Hig[hd; vd;Dk; Rje;jpu ehl;ilAk; kw;Wk; mjd; Ml;rp nkhopahf m]hP-JHf; vd;W mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; kpf ePz;l Ma;Tf;Fg; gpd; Ie;J Rje;jpu kz;lyq;fshfTk;> kw;Wk; Ie;J Rje;jpu ehLfisAk; mjhtJ> kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ :

f]f;];jhd; 1924 Yk;>

c];ngf;fp];jhd;> JHf;kpdp];jhd; 1925 Yk;>

fpHfp]; 1926 Yk;>

jh[pfp];jhd; 1929 Yk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.

jh[pfp];jhidg; nghWj;jtiu Njrpa nkhopahf ngH]pa nkhopAk;> kw;iwa Ie;J gpuNjrq;fspy; JHf;fpa nkhopAk; Ngrg;gl;L te;jJ. Mdhy; Nrhtpaj; A+dpaNdh ,e;jg; gpuNjrq;fspy; Ngrg;gl;L te;j gpuNjr nkhopfspd; mbg;gilapy; Nkw;fz;l ehLfisg; gphpj;jJ. vdNt ,tw;Wf;Fk; vOj;J tbtk; nfhLf;f Ntz;ba mtrpaNkw;gl;lJ.

f]f; nkhopahdJ Gul;rpf;F Kd;Ng vOj;J tbtj;ijg; ngw;W tpl;lJ> ,g;gFjpapy; ngUk;ghyhd kf;fshy; Ngrf; $ba f]f;-JHf; nkhop Vw;fdNt gpugykhd vOj;J tbt nkhopahfTk; ,Ue;jJ. 1923 y; fpHfp]; nkhopf;F vOj;J tbtk; nfhLf;fg;gl;L Ml;rp nkhopahfg; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. 1921 y; Ngr;Rtof;F nkhopahd Nahkz;l; kw;wk; nlf;fp-JHf;kd;]; nkhopf;F vOj;J tbtk; nfhLf;fg;gl;L> JHf;kpdp];jhdpd; Ml;rp nkhopahfg; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,J NghyNt c];ngf; nkhkpahdJ jh];fz;l; Ngr;R nkhop tof;fg;gb cUthf;fg;gl;L> [fhjh-JHf; vd;w ngaiug; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lJ.

,jd; %yk; fk;dpA+];l; murhdJ K];ypk; gpuNjrq;fis nkhop thhp khepyq;fshfg; gphpj;jJ. ,jd; %yk; ,];yhkpa rhHG kw;Wk; JHf;fpa rhHG vd;w nghJj; Njrpaj; jd;ikapypUe;J jw;fhypfkhf K];ypk;fisg; gphpj;J itj;jJ. ,t;thW cUthf;fg;gl;l jdpj;jdp Njrpa milahsq;fs; fhyg; Nghf;fpy; khwp> K];ypk;fsplk; xU gpuNjrthjj;ijj; Njhw;Wtpj;J tpLk; vd;W Nrhtpaj; muR ek;gpaNj ,e;j gphptpidj; JNuhfj;jpd; Nehf;fkhFk;.

,];yhk; gw;wp u\;af; nfhs;if mwptpg;G

1917 etk;gH 24y; K];ypk; gpuNjrq;fs; kw;Wk; ,];yhj;ijg; gw;wpanjhU nfhs;if mwptpg;G xd;iw nydpd; gpufldg;gLj;jpdhH. ,e;jg; gpufldk; K];ypk;Sf;F miog;G vd;w jiyg;gpy;> kpfTk; rf;jp tha;e;j thHj;ij [hyq;fshy;> kdij kaf;fp tplf; $ba nkhop tHzidfshy;> ,e;jg; gpufldk; cUthf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ.

u\;ahtpy; thof; $ba K];ypk;fNs!> fphPkpah kw;Wk; Nthy;fh gFjpfspy; thof; $ba K];ypk; rNfhjuHfNs> irgPhpah kw;Wk; JHf;fp];jhdpd; fpHfp]; kw;Wk; rul;]; kf;fNs> njw;F ft;fh]; gFjpiar; NrHe;j JHf; kw;Wk; jhHj;jhhpaHfNs> tlf;F ft;fh]; Ir; NrHe;j nrrd;aHfNs! (nydpd; mwpKf ciuNa! K];ypk;fis ,d milahsj;NjhL gphpj;Jg; ghHg;gij czuyhk;).

cq;fsJ gs;spthry;fs; kw;Wk; tzf;fj;jsq;fs; ahTk; [hH kd;dHfspd; Ml;rpapd; nghOJ jiukl;lkhf;fg;gl;ld> cq;fsJ kj ek;gpf;iffSk;> nfhs;iffSk; Klf;fg;gl;ld. ,d;W Kjy; cq;fsJ nfhs;iffSk;> kj ek;gpf;iffisAk; kPz;Lk; cq;fSf;F ehq;fs; ngw;Wj; je;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. ,jid ePq;fs; vg;nghOJk; Rje;jpukhf gpd;gw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;> ,jpy; ve;jtpj jiyaPLk; ,Uf;fhJ> ,d;Dk; xd;iwAk; ePq;fs; mwpe;J nfhs;Sq;fs;> u\;ahtpy; thOk; midj;J gpuNjrq;fspd; kf;fisg; NghyNt ePq;fSk; Rje;jpukhdtHfs;> midj;J chpikfisAk; ngw;wtHfs;> NkYk; ,e;jg; Gul;rpapd; %yk; njhopshHfs;> mikjpia tpUk;GgtHfs; kw;Wk; Nrhtpaj; uhZtk; Mfpait ghJfhf;fg;gl;bUg;gJ Nghy;> ePq;fSk; ghJfhf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wPHfs; [9. VI. Lenin; Sochieeniya, Moscow, 3rd edition. vol:16 page 507.]".

,e;j gpufldj;jpd; %yk; K];ypk;fspd; kj> ek;gpf;if kw;Wk; fyhr;rhu tpOkq;fs; ghJfhf;fg;gLk; vd;gjpy; ve;jtpj re;NjfKk; ,y;iy. Mdhy; fk;A+dp] rpj;jhe;jj;jpd;gb kj ek;gpf;iffs; kdpjDf;F ve;jtpj gpuNah[dq;fisAk; mspg;gjpy;iy> ,Ug;gpDk; nydpd; mtHfsJ mwptpg;G xU Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhf fUjg;gl;lJ. nydpDila mwptpg;gpd; Nehf;fk; vd;dntd;why;> Gul;rpfs; eilngw;w me;j mghafukhd fhyg;gFjpapy; K];ypk;fSila xj;Jiog;G fk;A+dp] u\;ahtpw;Fj; Njitg;gl;ljd; fhuzkhf> nydpd; ,j;jifa mwptpg;ig ntspapl;lhH vd;W tuyhw;W Nehf;fHfs; fUJfpd;whHfs;. [10. In the, 'Great Soviet Encyclopedia' published in 1953 it was said about Islam, "like all religions, Islam has always played a reactionary role, being a weapon in the hands of the exploiting classes and an instrument for the subjection of the peoples of the east by foreign coloniality".]

,d;Dk; rpy tuyhw;W Nehf;fHfspd; $w;Wg;gb nydpd; gpwe;J tsHe;jJ vy;yhk; K];ypk;fs; mjpfk; thof; $ba gFjpahfpa Nthy;fh gFjpahFk;. NkYk; mtH gbj;jJ f]hd; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy;> ,e;j mtuJ K];ypk;fspDila njhlHGfs;> K];ypk;fisg; gw;wpa mjpfkhd Ghpe;JzHTfis mtHfs; kPJ cz;lhf;fp> K];ypk;fspd; mbg;gil ek;gpf;iffis mtH $He;J ftdpj;jjd; fhuzkhf> Nkw;fz;l mwptpg;G ntspaplg;gl;bUf;fyhk; vd;Wk; fUJfpd;whHfs;.

Mdhy;> nydpd; mtHfshy; mwptpg;Gr; nra;ag;gl;l me;jg; gpufldkhdJ> eilKiwg;gLj;jg;glhkNyNa ,Ue;jJ jhd; cz;ikahFk;. ,e;jg; gpufldj;jpd; 124 tpjpapd;gb> kf;fspd; Rje;jpuj;ij cWjpg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf> Nrhtpaj; A+dpadpy; cs;s midj;J Njthyaq;fSk; murpd; epHthfj; jiyaPLtjpypUe;J gphpj;J itj;Jk;> ,d;Dk; Njthyaq;fspypUe;J fy;tpiaAk; gphpj;J itf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W me;j tpjp $Wfpd;wJ. [11. By the term 'Church' it is meant here all religious organizations and institutes.]

,];yhkpa tzf;f topghl;L chpik> khHf;ff; fy;tp fw;Fk; chpikiag; gwpj;jy;

xt;nthU gpui[Ak; mtd; Rje;jpukhf kj topghLfisr; nra;J nfhs;tjw;F chpik gilj;jtdhfTk;> kw;Wk; kj ek;gpf;iffSf;F vjpuhf Gul;rpfisr; nra;aTk; chpik gilj;jtdhfpd;whd; vd;Wk; me;j tpjp $Wfpd;wJ.

,e;j tpjpahdJ ,jw;F Kd; nydpd; mwptpg;Gr; nra;j gy;NtW chpikfisj; jil nra;tjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. ,e;j tpjp kjr; rlq;Ffis topghLfisr; nra;tjw;F chpikfis toq;fpapUf;Fk; mNj Ntisapy;> kjj;ijg; gug;Gtjw;Fk; my;yJ ,];yhkpa fy;tpia K];ypk;fSf;F toq;Ftjw;Fk; mDkjp toq;ftpy;iy. Nrhtpaj; A+dpaidg; nghWj;jtiu fy;tp ];jhgdq;fis muR jhd; Vw;gLj;jp elj;jp tUk;> fy;tpj; Jiwapy; kjf; fy;tp Gfl;Ltjw;F ve;jtpj chpikAk; nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy.

cz;ikapy; Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpy; ,uz;L kj;u]hf;fs; jhd; ,Ue;jd> mit KiwNa kpH V mug; kj;u]h vd;wiof;fg;gl;l Gfuh kw;Wk; guf;fhd; Mfpa ,lq;fspy;> ,khk;fs; kw;Wk; njhOiff;F miof;ff; $ba Kmj;jpd;fis cUthf;Fjw;fhf cUthf;fg;gl;litNaahFk;. [12. Mir-e-Arab Madrasa of Bukhara was established in 1535. It was closed by Soviet government after revolution and reopened in 1952.]

rhjuhzkhf ve;j K];ypKk; jq;fSila Foe;ijfSf;F ,];yhkpa mwpT Cl;Ltij mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. Nrhtpaj; Mjuthsuhd vOj;jhsH A+R/g; rhjpf; $l> jd;Dila E}ypy; K];ypk;fSf;F ,j;jifa chpikfs; toq;fg;gl;bUe;jjw;F ve;jtpj Mjhuj;ijAk; mtH fhl;ltpy;iy. [13. Yousuf Sadiq; Soviet Union's Musalman (Bengali translation)(Muslims of Soviet Union). Protiva Prokashani. Dhaka]

Foe;ijfSf;Fg; ngw;NwhHfs; jq;fsJ ,y;yq;fspy; itj;Jj; jhd; ,];yhkpa khHf;f mwpit Cl;l Ntz;bapUe;jJ. ,Ug;gpDk; ,jw;Fj; Njitahd ,];yhkpa E}y;fs; $l Nrhtpaj; A+dpadpy; kpfTk; mwpjhfNt fpilj;jJ. NkYk; rl;lg;gb ,J Nghd;w khHf;f rk;ge;jkhd E}y;fis Nrhtpaj; muR jhd; Kiwahf ntspapl Ntz;Lk; vd;w tpjpAk; ,Ue;jJ. ,j;jifa rq;flq;fspd; fhuzkhf jq;fsJ tUq;fhy re;jjpapdUf;F ,];yhkpa khHf;f mwpit Cl;Ltjpy; Nrhtpaj; xd;wpaj;jpy; tho;e;j K];ypk;fs; mjpfkhd rpukq;fis re;jpj;jhHfs;.

,jd; fhuzkhfNt Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; te;j Nrhtpaj; A+dpadpy; gs;spthry;fspd; vz;zpf;if gbg;gbahff; Fiwe;jJ. nrapz;l; gPl;lH];gHf; ypUe;J ntspte;J nfhz;bUe;j kpH ,];yhk; vd;w gj;jphpf;ifr; nra;jpg;gb> 1912 y; 26279 gs;spthry;fs; ,Ue;jd. Nrhtpaj; NghHr; nra;jpfs; (Soviet War News) vd;w gj;jphpf;ifr; nra;jpg;gb> 1942 y; ,e;j vz;zpf;if 1312 Mff; Fiwe;jJ. [14. A. Bennigsen and CL. Quelquejay; Islam in The Soviet Union, page 151] kw;w gs;spthry;fs; ahTk; fpl;lq;fpfshfTk;> fpsg;GfshfTk; my;yJ rpdpkh jpNal;lHfshfTk; khw;wg;gl;L> ,jw;Ff; fhuzkhf ,e;j gs;spthry;fs; njhOtjw;F Ms; ,d;wp %lg;gl;ld> my;yJ Nkw;gb mehr;rhuq;fSf;fhf khw;wp mikf;fg;gl;ld vd;w fhuzk; $wg;gl;lJ. [15. A. Bennigsen and CL. Quelquejay; Islam in The Soviet Union, page 151]

nydpd; mwptpg;Gr; nra;j rl;l gpufldj;jpd;gbAk;> mjd; tpjp 124 d;gbAk;> xt;nthU gpui[Ak; kj topghLfisr; Rje;jpukhfr; nra;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;> ,d;Dk; kjq;fSf;F vjpuhf Gul;rpfs; nra;tjw;F mDkjp mspj;jpUe;jhYk;> Mdhy; eilKiwapy; kj kw;Wk; ,];yhkpaHfSf;F ,e;j tpjpapdhy; ve;jtpj gpuNah[dKk; ,y;yhjpUe;jJ.

Vnddpy;> tpjp 124 d;gb kjq;fSf;F vjpuhf Gul;rp nra;tjw;F mDkjp toq;fg;gl;bUe;j mNj Ntisapy;> kjq;fSf;F vjpuhf Gul;rp nra;gtHfSf;F vjpuhf fUj;Jf;fs; $wNth> mjid kWj;Jiuf;fNth mDkjp toq;fg;gltpy;iy.

vdNt tpjp vz; 124 kjq;fSf;F vjpuhd jd;ikiaf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. xU kj ek;gpf;if mw;w ehj;jpfd; jd;Dila ehj;jpff; nfhs;ifiag; gug;Gtjw;F mDkjpaspf;fg;gl;bUe;j mNjNtisapy;> xU kj ek;gpf;if nfhz;ltd; mjid vjpHj;Jf; fUj;Jr; nrhy;yNth my;yJ jd;Dila kjj;ijg; gug;gNth chpik toq;fg;gltpy;iy. vdNt jhd; tpjp vz; 124 kjq;fSf;F vjpuhdjhf mike;jJ.

tpjp vz; 124 toq;fpa chpikapd; fhuzkhf> kjf; nfhs;iffis kpfTk; mehfhPfkhd Kiwapy; ,e;j ehj;jpf thjpfs; jhf;f Muk;gpj;jdH. ,jw;nfd;Nw 1925 y; A+dpad; M/g; fhl;ny]; ]PNyhl;]; vd;w mikg;G Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. 1932 f;Fs; m]Hig[hdpy; kl;Lk; ,jd; cWg;gpdHfspd; vz;zpf;if 70000 MdJ. ,tHfs; midtUk; u\;ahtpy; ,Ue;J m]Hig[hdpy; FbNawptHfshthHfs; vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ,e;j ,af;fk; K];ypk;fs; neUf;fkhf thOk; gpuNjuq;fspy;> my;yh`; rp];yH> Nfhlh rp];yH my;yJ bd; rp];yH vd;w ngahpy; ,aq;f Muk;gpj;jJ. Kjypy; ,e;j mikg;G ,];yhj;jpd; kPJ kpfTk; ftdkhdnjhU jhf;Fjy;fisj; njhLj;jJ> gpd; 1928 f;Fg; gpd; ,];yhj;jpd; kPJ jdJ jhf;Fjy;fis Neubahfj; njhLf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. ,jpy; nfhLik vd;dntd;why;> ,tHfs; gs;spthry;fspd; kPJk; jq;fsJ jhf;Fjy;fisj; njhLj;jhHfs;> ,jd; fhuzkhf gs;spthry;fspd; vz;zpf;if gbg;gbahff; Fiwa Muk;gpj;jJ. [16. A. Bennigsen and CL. Quelquejay; Islam in The Soviet Union, page 151]

cyfg; Gfo; ngw;w ,];yhkpa khHf;f rpe;jidahsUk;> J}jUkhd my;yhkh K`k;kJ m]j; mtHfs; jd;Dila Gfo; ngw;w rhpijahd> jp Nuhl; L kf;fh vd;w E}ypy;> u\;ahtpy; ,Ue;j K];ypk; vjpHg;GzHtpd; cr;rk; vg;gb ,Ue;jJ vd;gij mtH ,t;thW tpsf;Ffpd;whH.

u\;ahtpd; Clhf Mg;fhdp];jhdj;jpypUe;J n[Hkdpf;F ,lk; ngaHe;J nrd;W nfhz;bUe;j nghOJ> u\;ahtpd; khHt; vd;w ,uapy;Nt epiyaj;jpy; epd;W nfhz;bUe;Njd;. mg;NghJ> mq;Nf kpfg; nghpa mofhd Rtnuhl;biaf; fz;Nld;. mjpy; xU njhopyhsp jhb itj;j xU kdpjiuj; jd;Dila # mzpe;j fhypdhy; vl;b cijg;gJ NghyTk;> thd Nkfj;jpypUe;J ntspg;gl;l fapWfs; thd kz;lyj;ijNa epiwj;J epw;gJ NghyTk;> mjd; gpd;dzpapy;> fPo;f;fz;l thrfk; nghwpf;fg;gl;bUg;gijAk; fz;Nld; :

,t;thW jhd; Nrhtpaj; A+dpaidr; NrHe;j njhopyhspfs;> thd kz;lyj;ij tpl;Lk; flTisj; Juj;jpabj;jdH vd;Wk;> ntspaPL : ehj;jpf ,af;fj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs; vd;Wk; mjpy; nghwpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ vd;Wk;> m]j; mtHfs; Fwpg;gpl;Lf; fhl;bapUf;fpd;whHfs;. [17. Muhammad Asad; Road to Mecca. Max Rein Hardt. London 1954. page 299.]

K];ypk;fisg; nghWj;jtiu Nrhtpaj; u\;ahtpd; nfhs;iffs; mt;tg;nghOJ khwpf; nfhz;NlapUe;jJ. vg;nghOJk; xNu khjphp ,Ue;jNj ,y;iy. rpy rkaq;fspy; K];ypk;fisg; gw;wpa jPtpukhd fUj;Jf;fisAk; ,d;Dk; rpy rkaq;fspy; kpjkhd Nghf;ifAk; Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,Ue;jNghjpYk;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;Fs; K];ypk;fspd; Rje;jpuk; vd;gJ xU tiuaiwf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L tpl;lJ.

Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; Vd; Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; K];ypk;fs; kPJ rpwpJ fUiz nfhz;bUe;jnjd;why; mjw;Ff; fhuzKk; ,Ue;jJ> Nrhtpaj; Gul;rpapd; nghOJ K];ypk; jiytHfs;fs; Nrhtpaj; Gul;rp vjpHg;Gf; FOtpdhplk; ,Ue;J tpyfp> Nrhtpaj; fk;dpA+];Lfsplk; NrHe;J nfhz;likNa ,jd; fhuzkhFk;.

K];ypk;fs; re;jpj;j Nrhjidahd fhy fl;lk;

1921 ypUe;J K];ypk;fspd; kPJ fLikiaf; fhl;l Muk;gpj;jJ. murpd; nfhs;iffs; Kjd;Kjyhf tf;/Gr; nrhj;Jf;fs; kPJ gha;e;jd. nghJthff; $wpdhy;> K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd Nthy;fh gFjpapypUe;j tf;/Gr; nrhj;Jf;fs; [hH kd;dHfspd; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy;; nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhf muRlikahf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;jd> mjid Nrhtpaj; fk;dpA+];Lfs; gpd;dH njhlHe;jdH. ,e;j tf;Gr; nrhj;Jf;fs; Nrhtpaj; A+dpadpd; MSiff;F cl;gl;bUe;j fphPkpah> ft;fh];> kj;jpa Mrpah Mfpa gFjpfspYk; ,Ue;jJ. kj;jpa Mrpahtpd; 10 rjtPj tpisepyq;fs; tf;Gr; nrhj;Jf;fshFk;. Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH jh];nfz;bd; tf;Gr; nrhj;Jf;fs; muRlikahf;fg;gl;ld. Mdhy; JHf;fp];jhd; muRlikahf;fpa tf;Gr; nrhj;Jf;fis 1922 y; ,aw;wpa ,uz;L rl;l tpjpfspd; %yk; K];ypk;fsplNk jpUg;gpj; je;jJ. mNj Neuk; 1925 y; c];ngf;fp];jhd; ,d;ndhU rl;l tpjpKiwapd; %yk; K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd midj;J tf;Gr; nrhj;Jf;fisAk; muRlikahf;fpaJ. muRlikahf;fpa ,e;jr; nrhj;Jf;fis kf;fSf;Fg; gphpj;Jf; nfhLj;J tpl;lJ. 1930 f;Fs; Nrhtpaj; A+dpadpy; ,Ue;j midj;J K];ypk;fspd; tf;Gr; nrhj;Jf;fSk; muRlikahf;fg;gl;L tpl;ld.

mjd; %yk; Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; K];ypk;fspd; kj topghl;Lj;jskhd gs;spthry;fs;> kj;u]hf;fs; kw;Wk; fyhr;rhu epHthff; Nfe;jpuq;fspd; KJnfYk;igNa cilj;J nehWf;fp tpl;lJ. ,jd; gpwF Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; \hPmj; ePjpkd;wq;fspd; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;jj; Jtq;fpaJ. ,e;j \hPmj; ePjpkd;wq;fs; K];ypk;fspd; jpUkzk;> tpthfuj;J> nrhj;Jhpik Nghd;w tof;Ffspy; K];ypk;fSf;F jPHg;G toq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. brk;gH 1917 ntspaplg;gl;l rl;lefy; %yk; ,e;j \hPmj; ePjpkd;wq;fis Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; jil nra;jJ. nghJkf;fspd; Nghuhl;lq;fspd; tpisthf 1921 y; kPz;Lk; JHf;fp];jhdpy; \hPmj; ePjpkd;wq;fs; jpwf;fg;gl;ld. gpd; 1927 nrg;lk;gH khjk; 27 md;W ,aw;wg;gl;l rl;l tiuaiw %yk;> midj;J \hPmj; ePjpkd;wj; jPHg;GfSk; nry;yj;jfhjit vd;W mwptpj;jJ. [19. A Bennigsen and CL. Quelquejay: Islam in The Soviet Union. page 144-149]

gpd; Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; K];ypk;fshy; elj;jg;gLk; gs;spf; $lq;fs; gw;wp Ma;it Nkw;nfhz;lJ. ,jpy; 1921 y; vLf;fg;gl;l Gs;sp tpguq;fspd;gb JHf;fp];jhdpy; kl;Lk; 1117 gs;spf; $lq;fs; ,Ue;jd. K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd tf;Gr; nrhj;Jf;fs; muRlikahf;fg;gl;ljd; gpd;dH> tUkhdkpd;wp ,e;jg; gs;spf; $lq;fs; elj;j ,ayhj #o;epiy cUthfp tpl;lJ. ,jidAk; rkhspj;J elj;jg;gl;l gy K];ypk; fy;tp epWtdq;fisAk; Nrhtpaj; muR %b tpLk;gb cj;jutpl;lJ. [20. A Bennigsen and CL. Quelquejay: Islam in The Soviet Union. page 144-149].

1928 thf;fpy; ,];yhj;jpd; midj;J milahsq;fSk; fLikahd mr;RWj;jy;fSf;F Mshfp tpl;bUe;jd. ,e;j Neuj;jpy; ehj;jpf ,af;fq;fs; jq;fsJ fLikahd gpur;rhuj;ij ,];yhj;jpd; kPJk; K];ypk;fs; kPJk; Jtf;fp tpl;bUe;jd. ,tHfs; K];ypk; khHf;f mwpQHfs; kPJ jpUl;L> yQ;rk;> Nghd;w Fw;wr;rhl;Lfisf; $wp mtHfisr; rpWikg;gLj;jj; Jtq;fpdH. ,d;Dk; mjpfkhf> Mypk;fs; midtUk; n[Hkdpapd; Vn[z;Lfs; vd;Wk;> Nthpy;yh xl;Lz;zpfs; vd;Wk; tpkHr;rpf;f Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. 1935 y; `[; nra;tjw;Fk; jil nra;ag;gl;lJ. [21. A Bennigsen and CL. Quelquejay: Islam in The Soviet Union, page 151.] n[HkdpAld; ele;j Nghhpd; nghOJ ,J tp\aj;jpy; K];ypk;fSld; rpy tpl;Lf; nfhLg;GfSld; ele;J nfhz;lJ. murpd; xj;Jiog;Gld; ele;J nfhz;bUe;j kj vjpHg;Gg; gpur;rhuj;ijAk; rw;W epWj;jpdH.

1944y; `[; nra;jtw;F ,Ue;j jilia ePf;fpdhHfs;. mg;NghjpypUe;J> rpy K];ypk;fis `[; nra;jtw;fhf mDkjpj;jdH> ,t;thW mDkjpf;fg;gl;l K];ypk;fs; murpd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,aq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j rpy K];ypk; ];jhgdq;fspy; gzpahw;wpf; nfh;zbUe;jtHfshthHfs; vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. 1942 y; K];ypk;fSf;fhd gy khHf;f epWtdq;fis muR cUthf;fpaJ. ,e;j epWtdq;fs; 1943 kw;Wk; 1944 y; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. 1944 y; rpy gs;spthry;fisAk; fl;bf; nfhs;s muR mDkjp je;jJ.

Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; fhHg;gNrt; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpd; nghOJ cile;J Rf;F E}whfpg; Nghdjpd; gpd;dhs;> K];ypk;fs; rw;W Rje;jpuf; fhw;iwr; Rthrpj;jdH. ,Ug;gpDk;> mtHfshy; md;W gphpj;Jg; Nghlg;gl;l xd;Wgl;l K];ypk; rhk;uh[;aq;fs; ahTk; ,d;W> fk;dpA+];L rhHg;G Ml;rpahsHfshy; jhd; Msg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. Rje;jpukhd muR ,d;Dk; ,e;j ehLfspy; cUthftpy;iy. ,];yhkpa ,af;fq;fs; elj;jg;gl ,d;Dk; ve;j ehl;bYk; mDkjp mspf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; cs;s midj;J rf;jpfSk; ,];yhj;jpd; tsHr;rpiaj; jLg;gjw;fhfNt nray;gLj;jg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,jpypUe;J ehk; Ghpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;baJ vd;dntd;why;> ,d;Dk; ,e;jg; gFjpfspy; ,];yhk; mize;J tplhky;> jd;Dila xspf; fPw;iw gug;gpf; nfhz;L jhd; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;gJ kl;Lk; njspthfj; njhpfpd;wJ. ,];yhkpa kWkyHr;rpia ve;j jPtputhj rf;jpfSk; jLj;J tpl KbahJ vd;gJk; ,jpypUe;J njspthfj; njhpfpd;wJ.

u\;ah Mf;fpukpg;Gk; mjd; tpisTfSk;

kj;jpa Mrpahtpw;Fs; ,];yhk; vl;lhk; E}w;whz;Lfspd; nghOJ gutpaJ. Fu]hdpd; ftHduhf ,Ue;j ,g;D K];ypk; vd;w muhgpaf; ftHdH jhd; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; ,];yhkpa fpyhgj; gutf; fuhzkhf ,Ue;jhH. vl;lhk; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjpf;Fs; tlf;F f[f;];jhd; jtpu kj;jpa Mrpahtpd; midj;Jg; gFjpfSk; ,];yhkpa fpyhgj;jpw;Fs; ,ize;jd. ,];yhk; gutpa Ntfj;jpy; mugpa nkhopAk; ,ize;Nj gutpaJ. ,e;j fhy fl;lj;jpy; ,];yhk; fiy fyhr;rhuk;> mwptpay; kw;Wk; epHthfj; Jiwfspy; kpfTk; Kd;Ndw;wkhd fhy fl;lj;jpy; ,Ue;J nfhz;bUe;jJ.

Gfhuhitj; jiyikaplkhff; nfhz;l rkhdp vd;w FLk;gj;jpduJ Ml;rp kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; Fwpg;ghf <uhd; kw;Wk; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; 9 kw;Wk; 10 k; E}w;whz;Lfspy; ele;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. kpfg; ngUk; Gfo; ngw;w \h`hehkh vd;w ghHrpaf; ftpij E}iy vOjpa /gpHnjsrp vd;gtH ,e;j fhy fl;lj;jpy; tho;e;jtH> vdNt ghHrp nkhopAk; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; NtH gpbj;jpUe;jJ. ,e;j fhy fl;lj;jpy; mwptpay;> fzpjk;> kw;Wk; njhopy; mwpTk; kpFe;jpUe;jJ.

,g;D %]h my; Fthu];kp vd;gtH my;[pg;uh fzpj Kiwiaf; fz;L gpbj;jJk;> my; [gH vd;w mtuJ E}y; mtuJ ,e;j Gjpa my;[pg;uh fzpj Kiwia giwrhw;wpf; nfhz;bUe;jJk; ,e;j fhy fl;lk; jhd;. ,J kl;Lky;y ,tH thdtpay;> Gtpapay;> tuyhW Mfpa JiwfspYk; kpfr; rpwe;j gilg;Gfisj; je;jJk; ,e;j fhy fl;lk; jhd;.

kpfg; Gfo; ngw;w kUj;Jt Nkijahd ,g;D rpdh vd;w mwpQH tho;e;jJk;> mtH vOjpa Gfo;ngw;w E}yhd fhD}d; ntspahdJk; ,e;j fhy fl;lk; jhd;. fhD}d; vd;w ,e;j kUj;Jt E}y; 600 Mz;Lfshf INuhg;gpa gy;fiyf;fofq;fspy; kUj;Jt E}yhfg; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;jJk;> kUj;Jt E}y;fSf;F mbg;gil E}yhfTk; ,J mike;jJk; ,e;j fhyfl;lk; jhd;. NkYk; ,e;j E}y; yj;jPd; nkhopf;F nkhop khw;wKk; nra;J gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

jj;Jtf; fiy mwpQH mG e];H my; /gugp vd;gtH tho;e;jJk;> gy Ma;Tfis jj;Jtf; fiyapy; Nkw;nfhz;lJk;> ,d;Dk; my; ig&dp vd;w tuyhw;W Ma;thsH tho;e;J> jthhpf; V `pe;j; vd;w tuyhw;W E}iyj; je;jJk; ,e;j fhy fl;lk; jhd;.

gpd;dH ,g;gFjpfs; f[;dp kw;Wk; fufhdp FLk;gj;jtHfshYk;> mjd; gpd; nry;[{f; FLk;gj;jtHfshYk; Msg; gl;L te;jJ. gpd;dH ,e;j K];ypk;fspd; Mjpf;fk; K];ypky;yhj kq;NfhypaHfshy; KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;L> nrq;fp];fhd; jiyikapy; ,g;gFjp Msg;gl;L te;jJ. kq;NfhypaHfs; top te;j ij%Hfspd; Ml;rp ,e;jpah kw;Wk; rPdh tiuAk;gutp ,Ue;jJ.

14 E}w;whz;bw;Fg; gpd;dH ,e;jg; gFjpapy; epiyahd kj;jpa Ml;rp ,y;yhkypUe;jJ. ,e;j epiy u\;ah kj;jpa Mrpahitf; ifg;gw;Wk; tiu njhlHe;jJ. mijg; NghyNt ,g;nghOJ gpur;idf;Fhpa gpuNjrkhf cs;s nrrd;ah cs;slq;fpa jh[p];jhd; gFjpfSk; u\;ahtpd; Mjpf;fj;jpy; ,y;yhkypUe;jnjhU gFjp vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. u\;ahtpd; Mf;fpug;gpw;Fg; gpd; ,jid vjpHj;J ,khk; \hkpy; mtHfsJ jiyikapy; MAjg; Nghuhl;lk; njhlq;fg;gl;L> ,d;W tiu me;jg; Nghuhl;lk; eilngw;W tUfpd;wJ.

K];ypk;fspd; Ml;rpg; gpuNjrq;fSf;Fs; u\;ah 16 k; E}w;whz;bypUe;J CLWtp Mf;fpukpf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. ]hH ,thd; jiyikapd; fPo; u\;ah ,Ue;j nghOJ> K];ypk;fSf;nfjpuhd eltbf;if njhlH;e;jJ. gpd; 1522 y; u\;ah f]hd; gFjpiaf; ifg;gw;wpaJ. f]hdpd; jiyefuk; epH%ykhf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %yk; K];ypk;fspd; gpuNjrq;fs; u\;a MSiff;F cl;gl;ld. ]hHfspd; ,uhZtk; Nthy;fh gFjpia 1554 ypYk;> irgPhpag; gFjpfis 1598 ypYk; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;ld.

18 k; E}w;whz;L tiuf;Fk; jq;fsJ Ml;rpg; gpuNjr vy;iyfis ,e;j ]hHfs; tphpthf;fpf; nfhz;Nl nrd;whHfs;. 1822 ypUe;J 1848 tiu f]f;];jhdpd; ehd;F goq;Fbg; gpuNjrq;fis u\;ahtpd; Mjpf;fj;jpd; fPo; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. Kjypy; ,e;jg; goq;Fbg; gpuNjrq;fs; jq;fSf;nfjpuhd Nkw;fpYk; fpof;fpYk; tho;e;j fhy;kpf;]; vjpuhf ]hHfSld; njhlHG itj;jhHfs;> Mdhy; ,tHfSf;F cjTtjw;Fg;gjpyhf mtHfis Mf;fpukpj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs; ]hHfs;.

fphPkpah> kw;Wk; jhHj;jhHfspilNa fhzg;gl;l cs;ehl;Lf; Fog;gj;ijg;gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;l u\;ah 1782 y; tlf;F ft;fh]; gFjpfisf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJ. rkntspg;gFjpfspy; tho;e;J te;j K];ypk;fis tlf;F ft;fh]pd; kiyg;gpuNjrq;fis Nehf;fp> u\;a Nfh];]hf;]; (Cossaks) ,dj;jtiuf; nfhz;L tpul;babj;jJ u\;a muR. [The English term 'Cossack' evolved from the term Quzzak. It means he who works in favour of others. Those who left South-East Russia to save themselves from the brutality of land lords of Russia were termed 'Cossack'. They used to work as a defence force for Russian Government to save the South-East part of the empire.]

Mdhy; kw;w gFjpfis tplTk; ,q;F jhd; u\;a ,uhZtk; kpFe;j gjpybj; jhf;Fjy;fisr; re;jpj;jJ. u\;a Mf;fpukpg;gpw;F vjpuhf 1784 njhlHe;J 1877 tiuf;Fk; ,e;j tlf;F ft;fh]; K];ypk;fs; Nghuhl;l tho;itr; re;jpj;jhHfs;. K];ypk;fspd; ,e;j MAj Nghuhl;lj;jpw;F ,khk; \hkpy; mtHfs; Kf;fpa gq;fhw;wpdhHfs; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ft;fh]; gFjp vd;gJ ,g;Nghija nrrd;ah vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. 1877 f;Fg; gpd; ft;fh]; K];ypk;fspd; vjpHg;ig mlf;fp tpl;l u\;ah ft;fh]; gFjpiaj; jdjhf;fpf; nfhz;lJ. ,e;j fhyfl;lj;jpy; nghJthf midj;J K];ypk; gpuNjrq;fSk; u\;a Mf;fpukpw;F cs;shfp tpl;ld.

,e;j fhy fl;lj;jpy; u\;a Kbahl;rp Fwpg;gpl;lnjhU khw;wj;ijg; ngw;wpUe;jJ. gpd;dhspy; te;j fk;dpA+];Lfs; ,e;jg; gFjpapy; Kjyhspj;Jt rpe;jidfs; Vw;fdNt ,g;gFjpapy; jq;fsJ nry;thf;if Muk;gpj;Jtpl;ljd; fhuzkhf tHf;fg; Nghuhl;lq;fs; Muk;gpj;J tpl;ld. vdNt ,e;j Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpw;F vjpuhf fk;A+dp]j;ij tphpthf;f Ntz;ba mtrpak; u\;ahtpw;F mtrpakhfp tpl;lJ vd;W> u\;ahtpd; Mf;fpukpg;ig rpy tuyhw;W Ma;thsHfs; epahag;gLj;Jfpd;whHfs;.

Vw;fdNt Nrhryp];LfSld; K];ypk;fs; njhlHghf ,Ue;jjpd; fhuzkhf> ,e;j tphpthf;fk; vspjhfp tpl;lJ vd;Wk; mtHfs; $Wfpd;whHfs;.

1917 f;Fg; gpe;ija u\;ahtpd; Mf;fpukpg;ghdJ fhydpj;Jt Mjpf;fj;jpd; tpisNt vd;Wk; rpy tuyhw;W Ma;thsHfs;> u\;ah Mf;fpukpg;igr; rhlTk; nra;fpd;whHfs;. u\;a Mf;fpukpg;G xU fhydpj;Jtg; gutyhf;fkhf ,Ue;j mNj Neuj;jpy; K];ypk;fspd; vjpHg;GzHT xU K];ypk;fspd; Njrpa czHtpd; ntspg;ghlfNt mike;jJ vd;gJ> tuyhw;wpd; gf;fq;fspy; nghd;ndOj;Jf;fshy; Fwpg;gplg;gl Ntz;bajhFk;. [Bennigsen, Islam in the Soviet Union, Page 218.].

,e;j tuyhw;W Ma;thsHfs; u\;a Mjpf;fk; epahakhdJ vd;W $WthHfshdhy; njw;fhrpa ehLfis gphpl;ld; Mf;fpukpj;jijAk;> ,e;Njh rPdhit gpuhd;]; Mjpf;fk; nrYj;jpaijAk; epahag;gLj;j Ntz;bajpUf;Fk;. xU ehL etPd njhopy; El;gq;fis gpw ehLfis Mf;fpukpf;fhkNyNa> kw;w ehLfsplk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s KbAk;. ,jw;F gy ehLfs; cjuhzq;fshfj; jpfo;fpd;wd. cjhuzkhf [g;ghidf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. gy ehLfs; gpw ehLfis Mf;fpukpf;fhkNyNa kw;w ehLfis etPdg;gLj;j cjtpAk; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,jw;F <uhidAk;> JUf;fpiaAk; Fwpg;gplyhk;.

fk;A+dp] u\;ahit Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpypUe;J ghJfhg;gjw;fhf K];ypk; ehLfis jd;Dila fhydp ehLfshf Mf;fpukpj;Jf; nfhz;lij ve;j epiyapYk; epahag;gLj;j KbahjJ. ,J u\;ah K];ypk;fspd; kPJ Ghpe;jtuyhw;Wj; jtwhFk;. ,e;jj; jtiw ,d;Dk; u\;ah njhlHe;J nfhz;bUg;gJ jhd; mjd; mopTf;Fk; fhuzkhf mike;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ.

u\;a Mjpf;fj;jpd; tpisthf kj;jpa Mrpag; gFjpfspy; tho;e;j K];ypk;fspd; murpay;> r%fk;> gz;ghL Nghd;wtw;wpy; gyj;j khw;wq;fSk;> mjpub tpisTfSk; Vw;glj; Jtq;fpd. K];ypk; Ml;rpahsHfs; jhd; u\;a Mf;fpukpg;gpd; Kjy; Fwpahf;fg;gl;lhHfs;> mtHfis u\;a Mjpf;fj;jpw;nfjpuhd vjphpfshf Nehf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. ,jd; fhuzkhf u\;ah Kjypy; Mf;fpukpf;fg;gl;l gFjpfspy; tho;e;j K];ypk; epyf;fpohHfspd; epyq;fis mgfhpj;J> mtHfspd; nghUshjhuj;ij Klkhf;fpdhHfs;.

u\;a K];ypk;fis fpwp];jtHfshf kjk; khw;wpa JNuhfk;

u\;a Mf;fpukpg;gpd; nghOJ> K];ypk;fisf; fpwp];j;Jtj;jpw;F kjk; khw;Wtij xU nfhs;ifahfNt u\;ah filgpbj;J te;jJ. ]hH ,thd; vd;gtuJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy;> kjk; khw;wg;gl;l jhHj;jhhpaHfs; xU FOthf mike;J> K];ypk;fis fpwp];j;jtHfshf kjkhw;wy; vd;w JNuhfj;ijr; nra;a Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. ,e;jf; kjkhw;wy; nfhs;if nuhkNeht; ]hH III vd;gtuJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; thg]; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. kPz;Lk; ,e;jf; nfhs;if ]hHgPl;lH vd;gtuJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; nfhz;L tug;gl;L> K];ypk;fis fpwp];jtHfshf khw;Wk; Nghf;F filgpbf;fg;gl;lJ. 1738 ypUe;J 1755 tiu cs;s fhy fl;lj;jpy; 418 ypUe;J 536 gs;spthry;fs; %lg;gl;ld. tf;g; nrhj;Jf;fis muR muRlikahf;fpf; nfhz;lJ. ,];yhj;ijg; gpur;rhuk; nra;tJ nfhLk; jz;lidf;Fs;s Fw;wkhf mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ kl;Lky;yhky;> kuz jz;lidf;Fhpa Fw;wkhfTk; mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ.

u\;aHfspd; K];ypk;fSf;nfjpuhd ,e;jf; nfhs;iffs;> K];ypk;fspd; kj;jpapy; epk;kjpapd;ikiafj; Njhw;Wtpj;jJ. gpd; Nfjhpd; II vd;gtuJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; ,e;jf; nfhs;if thg]; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Gjpa gs;spthry;fs; fl;bf; nfhs;s mDkjp mspf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH myf;]hz;lH II vd;gtuJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; kPz;Lk; ,];yhj;jpw;nfjpuhf mNj rl;lq;fs; nfhz;L tug;gl;ld. ,g;nghOJ Kd;G K];ypk;fshf ,Ue;J fpwp];jtHfshf kjk;khwpa jhHj;jhHfs; gpur;rhufHfshfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;ldH. ,e;j gpur;rhu Kiwfs; %yk; 3 yl;rj;jpypUe;J 4 yl;rk; K];ypk;fs; fpwp];jtHfshf kjk; khw;wg;gl;lhHfs;. ,jdhy; fytukile;j gy K];ypk; jhHj;jhHfs; gHfPhpah> f[f;];jhd;> jh[pfp];jhd; Nehf;fp ,lk; ngau Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. ,e;jf; nfhLikahf fhy fl;lk; jhd; u\;aHfSf;nfjpuhfTk;> u\;ahTf;nfjpuhfTk; cs;s kdepiyia K];ypk;fs; kj;jpapy; tpijj;jJ.

Gjpa FbNaw;wq;fs; %yk; K];ypk;fspd; tpfpjhr;rhuj;ijf; Fiwj;jy;

u\;aHfspd; ,e;j ntw;wp K];ypk;fspd; gpuNjrq;fspy; kf;fs; tpfpjhr;rhuj;jpy; kpfg; nghpanjhU ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ntw;wp ngw;w gFjpfspy; Gjpa FbNaw;wq;fs; epfoj; njhlq;fpd> K];ypk;fspd; gFjpfspy; te;J u\;aHfs; Gjpjhff; FbNaw Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

fphpkPahtpYk;> tlf;F ft;fh]pd; rk ntspfspYk; u\;aHfspd; FbNaw;wq;fs; kpf Ntfkhf eilngwTk;> K];ypk;fs; tlf;F ft;fh]pd; kiyg;gpuNjrq;fis Nehf;fp efHj;jg;gl;lhHfs;. 1783 y; fphpkpahit u\;ah Mf;fpukpj;Jf; nfhz;ljd; gpd;dhs;> mjpypUe;J ntspNawpa K];ypk;fs; 1893 tiuf;Fk; JUf;fpia Nehf;fp ,lk; ngaHe;J nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. fphpkpahtpd; kpf cd;djkhd tpisepyq;fis cf;iudpypUe;J te;J FbNawptHfs; K];ypk;fsplkpUe;J mgfhpj;Jf; nfhz;lhhfs;. 1914 f;Fs; xU kpy;ypad; u\;aHfs; cf;iudpypUe;J ,e;jg; gFjpfspy; FbNawpa mtyk; ele;jJ.

gpwe;j kf;fSf;Fk; Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfSf;Fk; ,ilNa ,g;nghOJ kpfg; nghpa Nkhjy;fs; elf;ffj; Jtq;fpd. Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfis K];ypk;fs; ve;jtpjj;jpYk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sj; jahuhf ,y;iy. Vnddpy; K];ypk;fspd; nghUshjhuj;jpy; kpfg; nghpa rPuopit ,e;j Mf;fpukpg;Gfs; Vw;gLj;j Muk;gpj;jNj ,jd; fhuzkhFk;. u\;a muR MjuT gaq;futhjk; kw;Wk; epHthf xj;Jiog;gpd; fhuzkhf K];ypk;fsplk; ,Ue;j kpfr; rpwe;j tpis epyq;fs; ,g;nghOJ> Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfspd; iffSf;Fr; nrd;W nfhz;bUe;jd.

,e;j Mf;fpukpg;gpd; tpisNt 1917 mf;NlhgH Gul;rpf;Fk; gpd;G> K];ypk;fis murpay; Nghuhl;lj;ij Nehf;fp ,Oj;Jr; nrd;wJ. K];ypk;fspd; ve;jf; Nfhhpf;ifiaAk; nrtp jho;j;jpf; Nfl;Fk; epiyapy; Gjpjhfg; nghWg;Ngw;Wf; nfhz;l fphpNdh];fp muR jahuhf ,y;iy. vdNt> ,g;nghOJ NtW topapd;wp K];ypk;fs; MAjg; Nghul;lj;ijf; ifapnyLg;gjw;F u\;ah muNr mtHfisj; js;sp tpl;lJ. tlf;F ft;fh];> g\;fPhpah kw;W f]f;]; gFjpfspy; Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfSf;Fk; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa kpfg; nghpa fytuq;fs;> Nkhjy;fs; elf;f Muk;gpj;J> ,e;j Nkhjy;fs; kpfg; nghpa kdpj ,uj;j nts;sj;ijr; rpe;j itj;jJ kl;Lky;yhJ> ,g;nghOJ u\;a vjpHg;GzHT K];ypk;fsplj;jpy; NtH tpl;Lf; fpis gug;g Muk;gpj;jJ.

1917 mf;NlhgH Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;Gk; ,e;j Mf;fpukpg;Gfs; njhlu Muk;gpj;jd; tpisT> kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; 1926 thf;fpy; 78 rjtPjkhf ,Ue;j K];ypk;fspd; kf;fs; njhif tPjk;> 1965 y; 55 rjtPjkhff; Fiwe;jJ. ,Ue;j NghjpYk; ,g;nghOJk; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf tho;fpd;whHfs;. ,J Nghf ,d;Dk; gy gFjpfspy; K];ypk;fs; rpWghd;ikapduhfTk; tho;fpd;whHfs;.

1959 y; f[f;];jhdpy; K];ypk;fspd; kf;fs; njhif 35 rjtPjkhFk;. Mdhy; JUf;kpdp];jhd;> c];ngf;fp];jhd; kw;Wk; jh[{fp];jhdpy; KiwNa ,e;j kf;fs; njhif 78> 80> kw;Wk; 82 rjtPjkhf cs;sJ. fpHfp]pahtpd; K];ypk; kf;fs; njhif 60 rjtPjkhFk;. ,q;Nf FbNaw;wq;fs; eilngw ,ayhj #o;epiyfspd; fhuzkhf ,d;Dk; K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf tho;fpd;whHfs;. u\;ah midj;J kpfg; nghpa efuq;fspYk; INuhg;gpaHfNs kpFjpahf tho;fpd;whHfs;.

K];ypk;fspd; nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; tptrhaj;ijr; rPuopj;jy;

fhydp Mjpf;fk; nrYj;Jk; xt;nthU ehLk; jd;Dila Ml;rpg; gpbf;Fs; ,Uf;fpd;w Njrj;jpd; nghUshjhuk; jd;idr; rhHe;jhfNt ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;GtJ xU nghJthd eilKiwahFk;. ,ijNa u\;a muRk; nra;jJ. ,jid nydpd; ,t;thW mwptpg;Gr; nra;jhH. kj;jpa MrpahthdJ u\;ahtpd; Neub mjpfhuj;jpd; fPo; cs;s fhydp ehLfshFk; vd;whH. vdNt u\;ahtpw;Fj; Njitg;gLk; %yg; nghUl;fis rg;is nra;Ak; Nfe;jpuq;fshf kj;jpa Mrpahit u\;ah khw;wpf; nfhz;lJ.

vdNt jhd; fhydp Mf;fpukpg;gpw;Fs;shd kj;jpa Mrpa ehl;L kf;fspd; czTg; nghUs;fshf mhprp kw;Wk; NfhJik gaphpLtjpd; Njitiaf; fhl;bYk; gUj;jp gapH nra;tjw;F Cf;fkspf;fg;gl;lJ.

JHf;fp];jhdpd; epy Miza mjpfhhp 1913 y; ntspapl;lnjhU mwpf;ifapy; ,t;thW xU Fwpg;gpl;lhH> JUf;fp];jhdpy; tpisaf; $ba xt;nthU mhprp kzpAk; u\;ahtpw;F Nghl;bahdJ> mNj Nghy irgPhpahtpy; tpisaf; $ba xt;nthU gUj;jp nkhl;Lk; mnkhpf;fhtpw;Fg; Nghl;bahdJ.

kw;w czTg; gapHfis tpistpf;f Ntz;ba mtrpaj; Njitfs; ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> gUj;jp gapH nra;tjw;F ,g;gFjpapy; Cf;fkspf;fg;gl;lJ. ,Ue;j NghjpYk; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; vq;FNk gUj;jp njhopyfq;fs; cUthf;fg;gltpy;iy> khwhf u\;ahtpy; epWtg;gl;bUe;j gUj;jpj; njhopyfq;fSf;F ,e;j kj;jpa Mrpag; gUj;jpfs; Vw;Wkjp nra;ag;gl;ld. K];ypk;fs; ngUk;ghd;ikahf trpf;ff; $ba gpuNjq;fspy; ve;jnthU njhopy; Kd;Ndw;wKk; Vw;glhjthW u\;a fyhdpahjpf;fthjpfs; kpfTk; ftdkhf nray;gl;lhHfs;. kpfg; nghpa njhopyfq;fs; jtpu> rpW rpW njhopyfq;fis mq;nfhd;Wk; ,q;nfhd;Wkhf mDkjpj;J> gUj;jpf; nfhl;ilfspypUe;J gUj;jpg; gQ;irg; gphpj;njLg;gJ Nghd;w njhopyfq;fis kl;LNk kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; epWtpdhHfs;.

u\;ahtpw;Fk; kj;jpa Mrpahtpw;Fk; ,ilNa Nghlg;gl;Ls;s 3377 fp.kP. ePsKs;s uapy; ghij ,uhZtg; gad;ghl;Lf;Fk; kw;Wk; nghUshjhu Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf kl;LNk Nghlg;gl;lJ. ,e;j uapy; ghij rhkHfz;il jh];nfz;l kw;Wk; mb]hDld; ,izf;fg;gl;ljd; gad;> gpw;fhyj;jpy; kj;jpa Mrpah kw;Wk; INuhg;ghit ,izj;j ,e;j uapy; ghij ,izg;G u\;ah nghUshjhuj;ij tsg;gLj;j kpfg; nghpa gq;if Mw;wpaJ.

u\;af; fy;tpf; nfhs;ifAk;> kj;u]hf;fspd; epiyAk;

19 E}w;whz;L tiu K];ypk;fs; tho;e;j kj;jpa Mrpag; gFjpapy; me;jf; fhy muG kj;u]hf;fs; kl;LNk ,Ue;j Kiw khwp> ]hH fspd; Ml;rpapd; nghOJ rpwpJ khw;wk; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,e;j kj;u]hf;fs; tsHe;J tUfpd;w Gjpa njhopy;El;g mwpTf;F <LnfhLf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; jd;Dila gq;if Mw;wtpy;iy vd;gJ kpfTk; tUj;jj;jf;fJ. 1870 y; Kjy; u\;a nfhs;if top mike;j gs;spf; $lk; rhkHfz;by; Jtf;fg;gl;lJ.

fpwp];jt Nghjidfs; etPd njhopy; El;gg; ghlj;jpl;lj;Jld; ,e;jg; gs;spf; $lq;fspy; gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;jg; gs;spf; $lq;fspy; ,];yhkpa ghlj;jpl;lq;fs; vjidAk; Nghjpf;f KbahjpUe;jJ. vdNt> nghJkf;fspd; xj;Jiog;ig ,e;jg; gs;spf; $lq;fs; ,of;f Muk;gpj;jd. gpd;dH Gjpa gs;spf; $lq;fs; Jtf;fg;gl;L> fpwp];jtHfs; etPd ghlj;jpl;lj;jpd; mbg;ilapYk;> K];ypk; MrphpaHfs; tl;lhu nkhop> gz;ghLfs; kw;Wk; ,];yhj;ijAk; Nghjpf;f Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

,e;j ,Utif Nghjdh Kiwfs; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ey;ytuNtw;igg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Muk;gpj;jd vd;gjhy;> ,t;tif fy;tp epiyaq;fs; ngUf Muk;gpj;jd. gpd;dH [jPj; ,af;fj;jtHfshy; Gjpa Kiw ghlj;jpl;l Kiw nfhz;L tug;gl;L> etPd tpQ;Qhd ghlj;jpl;lj;Jld;> ,];yhkpaf; fy;tpAk; gs;spapy; Nghjpf;f Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j Kiw ghlj;jpl;lq;fs; KO kj;jpa MrpahtpYk; gutyhf;fg;gl;lJ.

u\;ag; Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;dhs; kj;jpa Mrpahtpy; midj;J K];ypk; ehLfSk; u\;ahTld; ,izf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;j Gul;rpf;F Kd;Ng midj;J kj;jpa Mrpa K];ypk; ehLfSk; xw;WikAld; ,Ue;J xU xd;Wgl;l Njrj;ij cUthf;fp ,Ue;jpUg;ghHfNsahdhy;> u\;ahtpd; Mjpf;fk; mt;tsT vspjhf eilngw;wpUf;fhJ. ,J K];ypk;fs; nra;j kpfg; nghpa tuyhw;Wj; jtwhFk;. ,e;jj; jtWf;fhd jz;lidia ,d;Wk; K];ypk;fs; mDgtpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs;.

Vnddpy;> ,d;iwf;F kj;jpa Mrpa ehLfspy; K];ypk;fNs Ml;rpahsHfshf ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> ,tHfs; midtUk; u\;a MjuT ngw;w Ml;rpahsHfs; vd;gjhy;> ,tHfs; ,];yhj;ij mjd; nfhs;if topg; gpd;gw;wj; Jbf;Fk; K];ypk;fSf;F vjpuhdtHfshfNt ,Uf;fpd;whHfs; vd;gJ jhd; Ntjidapd; cr;r fl;lkhFk;.

 
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