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mnkhpf;fj; jPtputhjk;


vjw;nfLj;jhYk; jPtputhjj;ij xopf;fNt mnkhpf;fh Kaw;rpf;fpd;wJ vd;wnjhU $g;ghl;il mJ NghLtJz;L. mjpy; vs;ssNtDk; cz;ik ,y;iy vd;gij fPo;f;fhZk; jfty;fs; njhptpf;fpd;wd.

mnkhpf;fj; jPtputhjj;jpw;F Nfhbf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; gypaplg;gl;Ls;shHfs; : mjd; tpguk; tUkhW:

gphpl;ldplkpUe;J tpLjiyaile;j 1945 Mk; Mz;L Kjy; ,d;W tiu fpl;lj;jl;l 216 jlit ntspehl;L tptfhuq;fspy; ,uhZt hPjpahfj; jhf;Fjy;fis elj;jpAs;sJ. 1945 Kjy; jd;Dila Raeyj;jpw;fhf 20 ehl;L tptfhuq;fspy; %f;if Eioj;Js;sJ. mitahtd :

fphP]; (1947-49)> ,j;jhyp (1948)> nfhhpah (1950-53)> <uhd;(1953)> Fthl;bkhyh (1954)> fhq;Nfh (1960)> fpA+gh(1961)> tpal;ehk; (1961-75)> yhNth]; (1961-75)> nlhkpdpad; hpgg;spf; (1965)> fk;Nghbah (1969-71)> rpyp (1973)> fpundlh (1983)> nygdhd; (,uz;L Kiw: 1958 kw;Wk; 1983)> ypgpah (1986)> gdhkh (1989)> <uhd; (3 jlit: 1991> 1993> 1998-99)> Nrhkhypah (1991-92)> Mg;fhdp];jhd; kw;Wk; #lhd; (1998)> kw;Wk; nrHgpah (1999).

fle;j Ehw;whz;by; cyfpy; cs;s gy;NtW ehLfspd; gpur;idfspy; 100f;F Nky; jiyapl;L> jd;Dila mjpfhuj; jpzpg;ig mq;F elj;jpAs;sJ.

1890 y; 300 yhNfhlh]; kf;fis nfhd;W Ftpj;jJ Kjy;> jd;Dila fuj;ij vg;nghOJk; mnkhpf;fh ,uj;jk; Njha;e;jjhfNt itj;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

mHn[d;bdh 1890 - tpahghu Nehf;fk;

rpyp 1891 - Njrpathjg; gilAld; Nkhjy;

i`l;b- 1891 et]h vd;w  jPT rk;ge;jg;gl;l tptfhuj;jpy; jiyaPL. mq;F ele;j fytuj;ij xLf;f>

`tha; - 1893 jd;Dld; ,izj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. Mjw;F mnkhpf;f Netpiag; gad;gLj;jpaJ.

epfhuhFth-1894

rPdh 1894-95

nfhhpah - 1894-96

gdhkh - 1895

rPdh -  1894-1900

gpypg;igd;]; - 1893-1902 - 600>000 gpypg;igd; kf;fs; nfhy;yg;gl;lhHfs;.

fpA+gh - 1898-1902

NghHl;NlhhpNfh - 1898

epfhuhFth - 1898

rNfhth - 1899

gdhkh - 1901-14

N`hd;Luh]; - 1903

nlhkpdpad; hpgg;spf; - 1903-04

nfhhpah 1904-05

fpA+gh - 1906-09

epfuhFth - 1907

N`hd;Luh]; - 1911

rPdh - 1911-41

fpA+gh - 1912

N`hd;Luh]; -1912

epfuhFth  - 1912-33

nkf;]pNfh  - 1913

nlhkpdpad; hpgg;spf; - 1914

nkf;]pNfh 1914-18

i`l;b 1914-34

nlhkpdpad; hpgg;spf; - 1916-24

fpA+gh - 1917-33

Kjyhk; Cyfg; NghH - 1917-18

u\;ah 1918-22

n`hz;Luh]; 1919

Fthl;bkhyh 1920

JUf;fp 1922

rPdh 1922-27

N`hz;Luh]; 1924-25

gdhkh 1925

rPdh 1927-34

vy; rhy;tlhH 1932

,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghH 1941-45

A+Nfh];Nytpah 1946

cUFNt 1947

fphP]; 1947-49

n[Hkdp 1948> 444 ehl;fs; n[Hkdp kPJ tpkhdk; gwf;fj; jil tpjpf;fg;gl;bUe;J.

gpypg;igd;]; 1948-54

NghHl;Nlh hpNfh 1950

nfhhpad; NghH 1951-53

<uhd; 1953> [dehaf Kiwg;gb NjHe;njLf;fg;gl;l nkh];n]nlf; vd;gtiu gjtp ePf;fk; nra;J tpl;L> jd;Dila mbtUb kd;dH \h - it Ml;rp gPlj;jpy; Vw;wp itg;gjw;Fg; gpd;dzpahf mnkhpf;f csTj; Jiw rpIV nray;gl;lJ. ,tHfs; jhd; [dehaff; fhtyHfs; Nt\k; NghLgtHfs;.

tpal;ehk; 1954

fthbkhyh 1954

vfpg;J 1956

nygdhd; 1958

gdhkh 1958

tpal;ehk; 1950 kw;Wk; 1975 tpal;ehk; NghH

fpA+gh 1961 Nf];l;Nuh muirf; ftppo;g;gjpy; rpIV Njhy;tp fz;lJ

fpA+gh - 1962

yhNth]; 1962

gdhkh - 1964

,e;NjhNd\pah 1965 ([dehaf Kiwg;gb NjHe;njLf;fg;gl;l muirf; ftpo;f;f uhZtj;Jf;F xj;Jiog;G toq;fpaJ mnkhpf;fhtpd; csT mikg;ghd rpIV.

Nlhkpdpad; hpgg;spf; - 1965-66

Fthl;bkhyh 1966-67

Fk;Nghbah 1969-75 tpal;ehk; Nghiu tphpTgLj;j> fk;Nghbahtpw;Fs; mnkhpf;fg; gilfis mDg;gpaJ.

Xkd; - 1970 <uhDf;Fs; Eiotjw;F Xkd; ehl;ilg; gad;gLj;jpaJ

YhNth]; - 1971-75

rpyp 1973 [dehaf Kiwg;gb NjHe;njLf;fg;gl;l [dhjpgjp my;ypd;Nl mtHfisf; nfhiy nra;J tpl;L> gpNdhnrl; jiyikapy; ,uhZt Ml;rp miktjw;F> mnkhpf;fhtpd; rpIV xj;Jiog;G toq;fpaJ.

Fk;Nghbah 1975

Mq;Nfhyh 1976-92 njd;Mg;hpf;f fyff;fhuHfSf;F cjtp nra;J mq;Nfhyhtpd; khHf;]p];l; fk;dpA+];LfSf;F vjpuhd Aj;jj;jpw;F mnkhpf;fhtpd; csT mikg;ghd rpIV cjtp nra;jJ.

<uhd; 1980

ypgpah 1981 mnkhpf;fg; NghH tpkhdq;fs; ypgpahtpd; ,uz;L NghH tpkhdq;fisr; Rl;L tPo;j;jpd

vy;rhy;tlhH 1981-92 vy;rhy;tlhH Nghhpy; FMLN f;F vjpuhf Mnyhridfis rpIV toq;fpaJ.

EpfuhFth 1981-90

Nygdhd; 1982-84 nygdhdpd; cs;ehl;Lg; Nghhpd; nghOJ> mnkhpf;f uhZtk; jiyefH nga;&j;ijf; ifg;gw;wpaJ. Mnkhpf;f ,uhZtj;jpd; jq;Fkplj;jpy; Nghuhspfs; jhf;fp 241 mnkhpf;f uhZt tPuHfs; khz;ldH. HPfd; muR kPz;Lk; mnkhpf;f uhZtj;ij nygdhDf;Fs; mDg;gpaJ.

N`hz;Luh]; 1983-84

Fpundlh 1983-84 fpudlhtpd; khhp]; gp]g; muirj; Jhf;fp vwpa mnkhpf;f uhZtk; mDg;gg;gl;lJ

<uhd; - 1984 ngH]pad; tisFlhtpy; nrd;W nfhz;bUe;j ,uz;L <uhdpd; NghH tpkhdq;fis mnkhpf;f ,uhZtk; Rl;L tPo;j;jpaJ.

Ypgpah 1986 ypgpahtpd; jiyefH jphpg;Nghypia mnkhpf;f uhZt tpkhdq;fs; jhf;fp mopj;jd.

Nghyptpah 1986

<uhd; 1987-88 <uhd; - <uhf; Nghhpy; <uhf;fpw;F rhHghf mnkhpf;fh Nghhpy; Fjpj;jJ.

Ypgpah 1989 NkYk; ,uz;L ypgpag; NghH tpkhdq;fis mnkhpf;fh Rl;L tPo;j;jpaJ

TpH[pd; jPTfs; - 1989

Gpypg;igd;]; 1989

Gdhkh 1989-90 gdhkhtpd; Nehhpfh muirj; Jhf;fp vwptjw;fhf 27 Mapuk; mnkhpf;fj; Jug;Gfis mnkhpf;f ,uhZtk; mDg;gpaJ. ,jpy; 2000 gdkh ehl;L kf;fs; nfhy;yg;gl;ldH.

IygPhpah 1990

Nrsjp mNugpah 1990-91 <uhf;fpw;F vjpuhf ele;j Nghhpy; mnkhpf;fg; gilj;jskhf nrsjp mNugpah gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

Fitj; - 1991 <uhf; mjpgH rjhk; cNridf; ftpo;g;gjw;fhf Fitj;jpw;F mnkhpf;fg;gilfs; mDg;gg;gl;ld.

Nrhkhypah 1992-94 Nrhkhypahtpd; cs;ehl;Lg; Nghhpd; nghOJ> Nrhkhypahit mnkhpf;fg;gilfs; Mf;fpukpj;jd.

Ngh];dpah 1993-95 A+Nfh];Nytpahtpd; kPJ mnkhpf;fg; NghH tpkhdq;fs; jhf;Fjy; njhLj;jd.

I`l;b 1994-96

I]H 1996-97

My;Ngdpah 1997

#lhd; 1998 #lhdpd; kUe;J cw;gj;jpj; njhopw;rhiyia mnkhpf;f Vtfizfs; jhf;fp mopj;jd

Mg;fhdp];jhd; - 1998 Mg;fhdpy; cs;s Nghuhspfspd; gapw;rpj; jsj;ij mnkhpf;f Vtfizfs; jhf;fp mopj;jd.

<uhf; 1998-99 ghf;jhj; kw;Wk; nghpa efuq;fspd; kPJ mnkhpf;f tpkhdj; jhf;Fjy;eilngw;wJ

A+Nfh];Nytpah 1999 nkhy;];tpf;fpw;F vjpuhf ehl;Nlh gilfSld; ,ize;J mnkhpf;f tpkhdq;fs; jhf;Fjy; elj;jpd.

,tw;iwj; jtpHj;J ,d;Dk; 100f;Fk; mjpfkhd mnkhpf;fhtpd; me;epaj; jiyaPLfis ehk; ,q;F Fwpg;gpltpy;iy.

,it mnkhpf;f ,uhZtf; fhty; gilfis ntspehLfSf;F mDg;Gjy;> me;ehl;L cs; tptfhuq;fspy; jiyaplg; gzpj;jy;

Njrpaf; fhty; gilfisg; gad;gLj;Jjy;

Jq;fsJ gyj;ijf; fhl;Ltjw;F gy;NtW ehLfSf;F jq;fsJ fg;gy; gilia mDg;gp itj;jy;

vw;fdNt mnkhpf;f Jug;Gfs; ,lk; ngw;wpUf;fpd;w ehLfspy; NkYk;> Jug;Gfis mDg;Gjy;

Mnkhpf;fhtpd; Neubj; jiyaPL ,y;yhj ehLfspy;> mnkhpf;fhtpd; fgl ehlfj;ij muq;Nfw;Wjy;

RpW rpW flj;jy; Fof;fis ,af;Fjy;

Mnkhpf;f tpkhdg;il tpkhdpfs; %yk; me;epa tpkhdg;gil tpkhdq;fis ,af;f itj;jy;

Neubahfj; jhf;Fjy; njhLf;f Kbahj ehLfSf;F> ,uhZt Mnyhrid kw;Wk; gapw;rp toq;Fjy; Mfpait mlq;Fk;.

,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghhpypUe;J> ,J tiu 23 ehLfspd; kPJ Vtfiz kl;Lk; Fz;Lj; jhf;Fjy;fis elj;jpAs;sJ. ,jd; %yk; gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fisg; gLnfhiy nra;Js;sJ.

rPdh 1945-46> nfhhpah 1950-53> rPdh 1950-53> Fthbkhyh 1954> ,e;NjhNd\pah 1958> fpA+gh 1959-60> Fthbkhyh 1960> fhq;Nfh 1964> ngU 1965> yhNth]; 1964-73> tpal;ehk; 1961-73> fk;Nghbah 1969-70> Fthbkhyh 1967-69> fpNudlh 1983> nygdhd; 1984> ypgpah 1986> vy;rhy;tlhH 1980> epfuhFth 1980> gdhkh 1989> <uhf; 1991-,d;W tiu> #lhd; 1998> Mg;fhdp];jhd; 1998> A+Nfh];Nytpah 1999.

,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; jdf;F rhjkhf cs;s jiytHfis epakpg;gjw;fhf Ntz;b> 20 ehl;L jiytHfis mjpub eltbf;if kw;Wk; Ml;rpf; ftpo;g;G %yk; mfw;wp> jdf;F rhjfkhd jiytHfis epakpf;f mnkhpf;fhtpd; csT mikg;ghd rpIV gq;fhw;wpaJ. ,jpy; 6 f;Fk; mjpfkhd ehl;Lj; jiytHfis ,J nfhiyAk; nra;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

jd;Dila Kjhspj;Jt nfhs;ifiaj; jpzpg;gjw;fhfTk;> jd;Dila Nkyhjpf;fj;ij jf;fitj;Jf; nfhs;sTNk mnkhpf;f ,j;jifa me;epaj; jiyaPLfis Nkw;nfhs;fpd;wJ. Kw;w ehLfshf ,Ue;jhy;> fk;A+dp]j; jPtputhjpfs; vd;W $wp tpLtJk;> K];ypk; ehLfshf ,Ue;jhy; mbg;gilthjpfs; jPtputhjpfs; vd;wnjhU fijiaf; fl;b tpLtJk;> ,e;jf; Fw;wr;rhl;Lfisg; gpd;dzpahf itj;J> jq;fsJ fgl ehlfj;ij muq;Nfw;WtJk; jhd;> ,e;j mnkhpf;fhtpd; tof;fkhf ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. K];ypk; ehLfspy; mnkhpf;fh nra;J tUk; mlhtbj;jdq;fs; me;j ehLfspy; [dehafj;ij kyu itg;gjw;fhd mjd; Kaw;rp vd;gij tpl> me;j ehLfspd; fdpk tsq;fspd; kPJ mJ nfhz;bUf;Fk; fhjy; vd;Nw Fwpg;gplyhk;.

NkNy ehk; ghHj;j mnkhpf;fhtpd; me;epaj; jiyaPLfspy; ,Ue;J ahH cyfj; jPtputhjp vd;gJ> ahUf;F vjpuhf ,e;j KO kdpj rKjhak; eltbf;if vLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gijAk; czHe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

mnkhpf;fj; jPtputhjk; tphpthf :

<uhf; :

1991 Kjy; eilngWk; <uhf; Aj;jj;jpy; ,Jtiu 2 yl;rk; nghJkf;fs; nfhy;yg;gl;Ls;shHfs;. Fjphpaf;fk; nfhz;l nlg;yPl;ll; Anudpak;> fpny];lH ntbFz;Lfs;> Vtfizfs;> Mfpait gad;gLj;jg; gLfpd;wd. Cyf tuyhw;wpNy kpf mjpfkhd jlit tpkhdj;jhf;Fjy; <uhf;fpd; kPJ jhd; elj;jg;gl;ld> ,jpy; 177 kpy;ypad; gTz;l; vil nfhz;l Fz;Lfs; <uhf;fpd; nghJkf;fs; kPJ tPrg;gl;ld. 110000 jlit tpkhdq;fspy; gwe;J nrd;W <uhf;fpd; kPJ Fz;L kio nghopag;gl;lJ. Mnkhpf;f kw;Wk; gd;dhl;Lg; gilfSf;Fg; gae;J ehl;il tpl;Lr; nrd;W nfhz;bUe;j 160 iky; ePsk; neLQ;rhiyapy; gazkhfpf; nfhz;bUe;j kf;fs; kPJ> mnkhpf;f tpkhdg;gilAk;> fg;gy;gilAk; Vtfizj; jhf;Fjy; elj;jp me;j kf;fis capUld; Gijj;jhHfs;. Ghiytdg; Gay; vd;wiof;ff; $ba ,e;j jhf;Fjypd; nghOJ> 944000 gTz;l; vilAs;s gjg;gLj;jg;gl;l Anudpaj;jhy; Md Fz;Lfs; <uhf;fpd; midj;Jg; gFjpfspYk; Nghlg;gl;lJ. ,e;jf; Fz;Lfspy; ,Ue;J ntspf; fpsk;gpa fLikahd mZj;Jfs;fs; kw;Wk; mZf;fjpHfs; 190 iky; msTf;F ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;j ty;yitahf ,Ue;jd. ,e;j mZj;Jfisr; Rthrpj;j kf;fSf;F EiuaPuy; Neha;> rpWePufk;> fy;yPuy;> vYk;G Mfpait ghjpg;gile;J> Gw;Wneha;f;F toptFj;jJ.

<uhf; kw;Wk; Fitj; kPJ ele;j jhf;Fjypy; 300-800 ld; fjphpaf;fk; nfhz;l mZf; fopitf; nfhl;bajd; fhuzkhf> fhw;W khRgl;L tp\khdJ> kw;Wk; epyKk;> ePUk; $l fjphpaf;f jhf;fj;jhy; ghjpg;gile;jd. Vq;nfq;nfy;yhk; gjg;gLj;jg;gl;l Anudpaf; Fz;Lfs; mjpfkhfg; Nghlg;gl;ldNth> mq;F mjpfkhd njhw;Wneha;f; fpUkpfspd; ghjpg;G Vw;gl;lJ. ,jdhy; kl;Lk; 1000000 ypUe;J 2000000 kf;fs; ,we;jdH> ,jpy; 600000 NgH Foe;ijfshthHfs;. ,d;Dk; <uhf; Fitj; vy;iy neLfpYk; Gijf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; 1.2-1.5 kpy;ypad; fd;dp ntbfs; mfw;wg;glhky;> mg;ghtp kf;fspd; jPz;LjYf;fhf ntbf;ff; fhj;jpUf;fpd;wd. Kdpj chpik mikg;Gfspd; $w;Wg;gb> <uhf; Nghhpd; nghOJ 24 ypUe;J 30 kpy;ypad; ntbFz;Lfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;bUf;fyhk; vd;W mwpf;if je;jpUf;fpd;wJ. ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; tplhJ Nghlg;gl;l Fz;L kioapy;> <uhf;fpd; midj;J tho;thjhuq;fisAk; mnkhpf;f kw;Wk; gphpl;b\; gilfs; mopj;Nj tpl;ld. ,jpy; ePH epiyfs;> Foe;ij czT jahhpg;G njhopyfq;fs;> kUj;Jtkidfs;> ,d;Dk; gy mlq;Fk;.

,e;jg; Nghhpd; nghOJ> rpgpv]; rhdYf;F Ngl;baspj;j mnkhpf;f ntspAwTj; Jiw mikr;rhplk;> <uhf; fpy; 600000 Foe;ijfs; kbe;Js;sd> ,e;j tpiy NghJkhdjh vd;W Nfl;fg;gl;ljw;F> 600000 Foe;ijfs;>>> ,e;j tpiy NghJnkd;Nw epidf;fpd;Nwd; vd;W gjpyspj;Js;shH. Kdpjhgpkhdk; nfl;ltHfs;. Mnkhpf;f capHfs; vd;why; mt;tsT tpiy!! K];ypk;fspd; capHfs; vd;why; ,tHfSf;F fps;Sf;fPiu!!!

Mnkhpf;f n[duy; Nfhypd; gtyplk;> vt;tsT <uhf;fpa nghJkf;fs; ,e;jj; jhf;Fjypy; nfhy;yg;gl;bUg;ghHfs; vd;w Nfs;tpf;Fg; gjyspj;j Nfhypd; gty;>

Mij mwpe;J nfhs;s ehDk; Mtyhf ,Uf;fpd;Nwd;.

MtHfs; jq;fsJ nulhiuj; jpUg;gpdhHfs; vd;why;> vq;fsJ G+kpapypUe;J tpz;iz Nehf;fpg; ghAk; Vtfizfisf; nfhz;L mtHfis jfHj;njwpNthk;. ,g;nghOJ mtHfs; czHe;jpUg;ghHfs;> ehq;fs; mtHfsJ ehl;il nrhe;jkhf;fpf; nfhz;bUg;gij>>> mtHfsJ thd; vy;iyiaAk;>>> ehk; jhd; mtHfs; vt;thW tho Ntz;Lk; vd;gijAk;> vg;gbg; Ngr Ntz;Lk; vd;gijAk; mtHfSf;F cj;jutpLNthk;. ,g;nghOJ mnkhpf;f vt;tsT nghpa caHthd Njrk;>>> xd;W kl;Lk; ey;yjhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ>>> vd;ntd;why;> Fwpg;ghf> mq;F mjpfkhd vz;nza; tsk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ> mJ jhd; ekf;Fj; NjitahdJk; $l>>>

,tH jhd; ,d;W ,uhZtj;Jiw Mnyhrfuhf> G\; epHthfj;jpy; ,Uf;fpd;whH vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

Ghy];jPd; :

Fle;j nrg;lk;gH 2000 y; ,];Nuypa ,uhZtk; kpfg; nghpa jhf;Fjy; xd;iw ghy];jPdHfs; kPJ elj;jpaJ. ,jpy; 600 NgH nfhy;yg;gl;ldH. 15000 NgH ngz;fs;> Foe;ijfs; vd fhak;gl;ldH. ,jpy; 1000 NgH fLikahd fhakile;jJld;> kpf ePz;l fhy rpfpr;ir ngw Ntz;ba msT Czkhf;fg;gl;ldH. Ghy];jPdHfspd; fpuhkq;fisr; Rw;wp tisj;J> ,];Nuy; ,uhZtk; ,e;j mf;fpukj;ijg; Ghpe;jJ. Rpfpr;ir ngWjtw;Ff; $l ahiuAk; mJ ntspNa tpl mDkjpf;ftpy;iy. ,];Nuypd; Nfhg;uh n`ypfhg;lHfs; ghy];jPdg; gFjpfspd; kPJ gwe;J> tPLfs;> mYtyfq;fs;> njhiyf;fhl;rp epiyak;> fhty; epiyak; Mfpa midj;J ,lq;fspd; kPJk; Fz;Lfis tPrp mopTfis Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

Tpal;ehk;:

Rpy khjq;fSf;F Kd;G nll;uha;l; efhpy;> tpal;ehk; Nghhpy; fye;J nfhz;l Kd;dhs; uhZt tPuHfsplk; eilngw;w tprhuizapy;> jhq;fs; fw;gopg;GfspYk;> nfhiy nra;tjpYk;> mq;ftPdg;gLj;JtjpYk; <Lgl;Nlhk; vd;gij mtHfNs tpthpj;jdH. NkYk; Mz;fspd; kHk cWg;gpd; kPJ gpsh];bf; Nlg;ig xl;b tpLjy;> mjpy; kpd;rhuj;ijg; gha;r;Rjy;> iffis ntl;b Jz;bj;jy;> ntbFz;Lfis itj;J kdpj cly;fisg; gpsj;jy;> nrq;fp];fhd; Nghy $l;lk; $l;lkhf kf;fisg; gLnfhiy nra;jy;> fhy;eilfSf;F tp\q;fisg; Gfl;Ljy;> Mfpatw;wpy; <Lgl;ljhf mtHfs; $wpdhHfs;. 1963 y; 23 Mapuk; mnkhpf;fj; JUg;Gfs; Eioe;j tpal;ehkpy;> 1966 y; 184>000 Jug;Gfshf mjpfg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;j 13 tUl tpal;ehk; Nghhpy; 8000000 ld; vilAs;s Fz;Lfs; tpal;ehk; kPJ Nghlg;gl;ld. Fiwe;jJ 3 kpy;ypad; tpal;ehk; nghJkf;fs; ,g;Nghhpy; nfhy;yg;gl;ldH. ,g;Nghhpy; tpal;ehk; kf;fis vt;thW jpl;lkpl;Lg; gLnfhiy nra;tJ vd;gij> mnkhpf;f csT mikg;ghd rpIV jhd; tbtikj;Jf; nfhLj;jJ vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

Fk;Nghbah :

 1969-1975 tiu mnkhpf;fhtpd; vLgb murhd FkH Nuhf; vd;gtdpd; Ml;rpapd;nghOJ> 2>000>000 ypUe;J 2>500>000 fk;Nghba kf;fs;> mnkhpf;fhtpd; thd;ntspj; jhf;Fjy;fs; %yk; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ldH. Fk;Nghbahtpd; ,sturH rp`Ndhf; mnkhpf;fhTld; ey;YwT itj;Jf; nfhs;stpy;iy vd;w fhuzj;jpw;fhf> 1969-70 tiu epf;]d; kw;Wk; fp];]pq;fH muR njhlH ntbFz;Lj; jhf;Fjy;fis fk;Nghbahtpd; kPJ elj;jpaJ. 1970 y; ,Wjpahf ,sturH rp`Ndhf; ,sturH gjtpapypUe;J Jhf;fp vwpag;gl;L> mnkhpf;fhtpd; nghk;ik murhd FkH Nuhf; vd;gtd; gjtpapy; mkHj;jg;gl;lhd;. Mnkhpf;fhtpd; njhlH jhf;Fjy; fhuzkhf fk;Nghbahtpd; cs;fl;likg;G rpije;jNjhL kl;Lky;yhJ> nghUshjhuKk; rPHFiye;jJ.

YhNth]; :

Mnkhpf;f NghH tpkhdq;fs; xt;nthU 8 epkplq;fSf;F xU Kiw yhNth]; efuq;fs; kPJ gwe;J> 1965-1973 tiu 2>000>000 ld; vilAs;s Fz;Lfis kioahfg; nghope;jd. <uhf;fpw;F mLj;jjhf kpfg; nghpa thd; ntspj;jhf;Fjyhf ,J fzpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. 5 yl;rk; NgH ,we;jdH. Njd; fpof;F Mrpahtpy; ele;j Nghhpy; kl;Lk; mnkhpf;f 285 kpy;ypad; fps];lHghk; Fz;Lfisg; gad;gLj;jpAs;sJ. 1973 y; vLf;fg;gl;l Gs;sptptug;gb ,J tiu 9 kpy;ypad; ntbf;fhj Fz;Lfs; ,d;Dk; epyj;jbapy; gJq;fpAs;sd vd fzpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Kw;Wk; miu kpy;ypad; gpiukhp fps];lHghk; Fz;Lfs;> fpuhkg;gFjpfspy; epyj;jbapy; gJq;fpapUf;fpd;wd vd mwpag;gl;Ls;sJ. YhNth]; y; NghH epWj;jk; Vw;gl;L 35 Mz;LfshfpAk; ,d;Dk; mq;F mDjpdKk; vq;fhtJ xU ,lj;jpy;> epyj;jbapy; gJq;fpapUf;Fk; fd;dpntb ntbj;J> nghJkf;fs; caphpoe;J nfhz;L jhd; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;.

Nfhhpah :

RPdhtpw;Fk; tl nfhhpahtpw;Fk; ghlk; Gfl;LKfkhf mnkhpf;fh ngz;lfdpd; cjtpAld; xU kpfg; nghpa kdpjg; gLnfhiyia tl nfhhpahtpy; epfoj;jpaJ. [{d; 1950 y; njhlq;fpa tlnfhhpa Aj;jj;jpy; ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghhpy; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lij tpl> 20 klq;F mjpfkhd Neghk; tiff; Fz;Lfis mnkhpf;fh tl nfhhpahtpd; kPJ gad;gLj;jpaJ. Mz;fs;>ngz;fs;> Foe;ijfs; vd;W ghHf;fhky;> fLikahd Kiwapy; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ldH. Tlnfhhpahg; NghH Kbe;j nghOJ> 3 kpy;ypad; tl nfhhpa kf;fis gLnfhiy nra;jNjhL> mnkhpf;fhtpd; ,uj;j jhfk; jdpe;jJ. Tlnfhhpahtpd; xt;nthU 4 egHfspy; xUtH tPjk; ,e;jg; Nghhpd; nghOJ gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;lhH. ,d;Wk; ,e;j Nghhpd; nfhLikfisg; gw;wpa tpguq;fis tlnfhhpa kpA+rpaj;jpNy ghJfhg;Gld; itj;Js;sdH. Mnkhpf;fhtpd; kdpj ,uj;jj; jhfj;jpw;F 5484 tho;tplq;fSk; kw;Wk; 618 njhopw;rhiyfSk;> nghJkf;fs; thOk; fl;llq;fSk;> ePH epiyfSk;> kw;Wk; Mapuf;fz;f;fhd kf;fSk; gypahapdH. ,e;j cyfj;jpNy [dehaj;ij fhg;ghw;Wtjw;F> milf;fyk; Gfe;jpUe;j 900 kf;fspd; kPJ kz;nzz;izia mtHfs; jq;fpapUe;j fhg;gfj;jpd; $iuapd; Xl;il topNa Cw;wp> mjpy; jq;fpapUe;j 900 kf;fis capUld; jP itj;Jf; nfhSj;jpdhHfs;. NkYk;> Xhplj;jpy; 502 ngz;fisAk;> Foe;ijfisAk; ,uz;Lkpfg; nghpa nghUs; Nrkpg;Gf; fplq;fpy; milj;J itj;J> mtHfs; midtiuAk; jP itj;J capUld; nfhSj;jpdhHfs;. ,J ele;J nfhz;bUe;j 1950 fspy; jhd;> mnkhpf;f murpay;thjpfSk;> mjpfhhpfSk; fk;A+dp]j;jpd; mr;RWj;jy;fs; gw;wp tha; fpspahky; cyfnkq;Fk; giwrhl;bf; nfhz;bUe;jdH. Tlnfhhpahtpd; vy;iy jhz;b ve;j mfjpiaAk; nry;ytplhky;> vy;iy jhz;br; nry;Nthiur; Rl;Lf; nfhd;wdH. Mnkhpf;fhtpd; 8 tJ Fjpiug;gilahdJ> Jg;ghf;fp ,d;wp elj;jg;gl;l gLnfhiyfSf;F ,uz;L ehl;fs; Kd;djhf midj;J njhiyj; njhlHG trjpfisAk; Klf;fp tpl;L> rpWtHfs; tpl;by; G+r;rpAld; tpisahLtJ Nghy tl nfhhpa kf;fspd; kPJ> gLnfhiyfisf; fl;ltpo;j;J tpl;ldH> vd;W Rd; #d; [h vd;w 12 taJ (1950 y;) epuk;gpa> ,e;jg; gLnfhiyapypUe;J jg;gpj;j ngz;> 1950 fspy; mnkhpf;f ,uhZtk; elj;jpa gLnfhiyfisg; gw;wp epidT $Wfpd;whH.

[g;ghd; :

1945 Mf];L md;W `pNuh]pkh kw;Wk; ehfrhfp Mfpa ,uz;L ,uz;L ,lq;fspy; Nghlg;gl;L mZFz;Lfspd; tpisthf> 150000 NgH me;j ,lj;jpNyNa kuzkile;jhHfs;. ,tHfspy; Mz;fSk;>ngz;fSk;> Foe;ijfSk; vd taJ tpj;jpahrkpd;wp midtiuAk; ,e;j mZFz;L gyp thq;fpaJ. ,e;j mZFz;il [g;ghdpd; kPJ tPrpajd; %yk; mnkhpf;fh ,e;j G+kpg; ge;jpd; rl;lhk; gps;isahf cUntLj;jJ. Muf;f kdk; nfhz;l kh/gpah Fk;gyhf khwpaJ.

Gdhkh:

1989> brk;gH 20 md;W ,uz;L n[HkdpfisAk; gphpj;J epd;w ngHypd; RtH tPo;e;jNjhL> jd;Dila Mjpf;fj;ij ep&gpf;f mnkhpf;fh gdhkh kPJ gha;e;jJ.

15000 NgH tPboe;jdH> mnkhpf;fj; jiug;gilf;Fk;> gdhkh ehl;L jiug;gilf;Fk; eilngw;w Nghhpy;> 500 gdhkh ehl;L kf;fs; nfhy;yg;gl;ldH vd;gij mnkhpf;f murpdhy; nghk;ik murhfcUthf;fg;gl;l md;iwa muRk; xg;Gf; nfhz;lJ. NkYk; 3000 ghdh ehl;L kf;fs; fhakile;jdH> 23 mnkhpf;fH nfhy;yg;gl;ldH> 324 NgH fhakile;jdH.

Nehhpfhitf; ifg;gw;Wtjw;F ,t;tsT capHfisf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lkh vd;w Nfs;tpf;F md;iwa mnkhpf;f [dhjpgjp ,t;thW gjpy; mspj;jhH: xt;nthU capUk; tpiy kjpg;gw;wJ. ,Ug;gpDk; ehd; ,q;F cq;fsJ Nfs;tpf;F gjpy; nrhy;yf; flikg;gl;bUf;fpd;Nwd;. Mk;! NfhLj;j tpiy rhpahdJ jhd; vd;W gjpy; $wpdhH.

Jhk]; /gPhPl;nkd; vd;w epA+ahHf; ilk;]; ehspjopd; fl;LiuahsH> ,e;j mnkhpf;fhtpd; ngha; Kfj;ij ,t;thW chpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;whH. Mnkhpf;f uhZtk; kw;Wk; rpIV Mfpa ,uz;L ,ize;J cyfpy; gy;NtW ehLfspy; cs;s jq;fsJ nghk;ik muRfisg; ghJfhg;gjw;fhfNt>  me;j ehLfspy; cs;s nghk;ik muRfSf;F gapw;rpiaAk;> gz cjtpiaAk;> Majq;fisAk;> csTj; jfty;fisAk;> Neub uhZt cjtpfisAk; kw;Wk; jw;nfhiyg; gilfspd; cjtpiaAk; toq;fp tUfpd;wJ vd;whH Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH.

Gpypg;igd;]; :

];ghdp]; - mnkhpf;fg; Nghhpd; nghOJ> 200000 nghJkf;fs;> ngz;fs;> Foe;ijfs; MfpNahHfs;> gpypg;igd;]py; nfhy;yg;gl;ldH.1899 Kjy; 1902 tiu ele;j ,e;jg; Nghhpy; kdpjg; gLnfhiyfis mnkhpf;f ,uhZtk; nra;jJ. Vd;? Vy;yhk; nghUshjhu Nehf;fk; jhd;. Gpypg;igd;]py; jhd; rPdhit vjpHg;gjw;F trjpahdnjhU JiwKfk; (#gpf;) ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,J jhNd mnkhpf;fHfSf;F kpfTk; kjpg;G tha;e;j> yhgfukhdnjhU tHj;jfk;. VdNt> gioa ];ghdp]; kd;duhl;rpia ePf;fp tpl;L> gpypg;igd;]; kf;fspd; vjpHg;gpDhNl> gy Mapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fis mnkhpf;f uhZtk; nfhd;W Ftpj;jJ.

Ghy];jPdpy; [khy; my; Jhuh vd;w ghy];jPdr; rpWtid ,];Nuypa uhZtk; Rl;Lf; nfhd;wij ehk; mwpNthk;. MNj Nghd;wnjhU <dj; jdkhd nraiy> gpypg;igd;]; ehl;by; md;Nw mnkhpf;fh epiwNtw;wpaJ. Mk;! Gj;J taJ rpWtHfisf; $l mJ tpl;L itf;ftpy;iy. Rl;Lj; js;spaJ. ,e;jg; Nghhpy; 6 yl;rk; gpypg;igd;]; ehl;L kf;fs; nfhy;yg;gl;ljhfTk; mwpf;iffs; $Wfpd;wd.

Nkw;fz;l jfty;fs; ahTk; mnkhpf;fhtpd; VNjr;rjpfhuj;jpw;Fk;> ,uj;j ntwpf;Fk; xU rpy vLj;Jf; fhl;LfshFk;.

 
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