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ngz;ikAk;> tpgr;rhuKk;


tpgr;rhuk;> nghUshjhu Nehf;fj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ vd;gNj kpfg; nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;. tWik jhd; tpgr;rhuj;jpd; gf;fk; ngz;fis neUq;fr; nra;fpd;wJ> mtHfs; jq;fsJ cly; ,r;irfis kw;wtHfsplk; gfpHe;J nfhs;tjd; %yk; gzk;> ghpRfs; my;yJ rk;gsk; vd;gd fpilf;fpd;wd. mjhtJ tpgr;rhuk; vd;w njhopypy; ngz;fspd; clk;Ng %yjdkhfg; gad;gLfpd;wJ.

,e;j tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ Xhpdr; NrHf;if kw;Wk; vjpHvjpH ghypdUld; itj;Jf; nfhs;sf; $ba nghUshjhuk; rhHe;j xd;W vd;W fUj;Jf; $wg;gLfpd;wJ. tuyhW neLfpYk; ,e;jg; ghypay; rhHe;j njhopy; ngz;fs; jhd; mjpfkhf rPuopf;fg;gl;L tUfpd;wdH. Vndd;why; mtHfsJ clk;G jhd; me;jj; njhopypd; cd;djkhd %yjdk;. fhuzk;> r%fj;jpy; epyTfpd;w r%f nghUshjhu fhuzq;fs; jhd; ngz;fis ,e;j tpgr;rhuj;jpd; gf;fk; nfhz;L tUfpd;wd. ,d;Dk; ,e;j cyfj;jpd; kpfg; GuhjhdkhdnjhU njhopyhf gy;NtW r%f fyhr;rhuq;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ,Ue;J te;jJ vd;gJk;> mjpy; ngz;fs; %yjdkhf;fg;gl;bUe;jhHfs; vd;w epiy fle;j 19 k; E}w;whz;L tiuf;Fk; ,Ue;J te;jpUf;fpd;wJ vd;gijAk;> Mz;fNs ,e;jj; njhopiy jq;fsJ fl;Lg;ghl;by; itj;jpUe;jhHfs; vd;gijAk; ghHf;f Kbfpd;wJ. mNefkhf Mz;fNs ,e;jj; njhopYf;F thbf;ifahsHfshf ,Ue;Js;shHfs; vd;gJk;> rpyNtisfspy; Mz;fSk; ngz;fisg; NghyNt tpgr;rhuHfshfTk; ,Ue;Js;sijAk; ghHf;f Kbfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> fle;j fhyq;fspy; rpWkpfSk; $l ,e;j tpgr;rhuj;jpw;Fs; js;sg;gl;l mty epiyiaAk; jha;yhe;J> [g;ghd; Nghd;w ehLfspy; ele;J tUtijAk; ghHf;f Kbfpd;wJ. ,tHfsJ Kf;fpakhd Fwpf;Nfhs; gzk; rk;ghjpg;gJ kl;LNkahFk;. Fwpg;ghf rpWkpfis tpg;gr;rhuj;jpy; <Lgl itg;gJ vd;gJ cyfk; KOtJk; eilngw;W tuf; $banjhU njhopyhfNt khwp tpl;lJ> ,jpy; gadhspfshf ,Ug;gtHfs; gzf;fhu ehLfisr; NrHe;j cy;yhrg; gphpaHfs;> ,tHfsJ cly; grpiaj; jPHf;ff; $batHfshf Vio ehLfisr; NrHe;jtHfs; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. ,jpypUe;J gzk; vd;w xd;Nw ,e;j tpgr;rhuj;ij xU njhopyhf khw;wp itj;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

gz;ila fhyq;fspy; tpgr;rhukhdJ gy;NtW Kfq;fspy; gutp ,Ue;jJ. mJ r%f> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; me;j gFjpapd; mikg;igg; nghWj;J khWglf; $bajhf ,Ue;jJ. ,J kjr;rhHgw;w my;yJ rpy rkaq;fspy; kjj;jpd; mbg;gilapYk; ,e;j njhopy; nfhb fl;bg; gwe;jJ. rpy r%fq;fspy; tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLtJ vd;gJ jq;fsJ FLk;gj;jpd; ,Ug;igj; jf;f itg;gjw;fhd fhuzpahf ,Ue;jJ. mjhtJ> ek; ehLfspy; Muk;g fhyq;fspy; fhzg;gl;l Njtjhrp Kiwfisg; Nghy. ngz;fs; tw;GWj;jy; %ykhf my;yJ gyte;jkhf my;yJ nghUshjhuj; Njitapd; nghUl;Nl mNefkhf ,e;jj; njhopYf;Fs; Eioaf; $batHfshf ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. rpy r%fq;fspy; ,e;jj; njhopiy kf;fs; mtkhdfukhdjhff; fUjpaNjhL> mt;thwhd ngz;fSf;F r%f me;j];ij toq;f kWj;jhHfs;> Vndd;why; mtHfs; thof; $ba me;j r%fk; ,jid ,opnjhopyhff; fUjpaNj fhuzkhf ,Ue;jJ. ,d;Dk; rpy ,lq;fspy;> rpy tpgr;rhhpfs; nry;t tsj;ijAk; ,d;Dk; mjpfhuj;ijAk; $l jq;fsJ jpUkz cwTfspd; %yk; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs;. cjhuzkhf> ig]he;jpag; NguurH [];bd;(1) vd;gtuJ kidtp jpNahNlhuh vd;gts; xU tpgr;rhhp vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. kd;diu kze;J nfhz;ljd; %yk; mts; kfhuhzpahfp tpl;lhs;.

njhopy;tsk; ,y;yhj r%fq;fspy; tpgr;rhuk;

njhopy; tsHr;rpailahjpUe;j r%fq;fspy; tpgr;rhuk; gutp ,Ue;jJ. jq;fsJ kidtpkhHfisf; $l khw;wpf; nfhs;tJ ,e;j r%fq;fspy; fhzg;gl;lJ. gz;ila fhy kj;jpa fpof;F> ,e;jpah> Nghd;w ehLfspy; Nfhapy;fspy; Vuhskhd tpgr;rhhpfs; ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,tHfs; rpy rkaq;fspy; mjpfk; gbj;jtHfshfTk;> jpwik kpf;f ehl;ba kq;iffshfTk;> ghlfpfshfTk;> ghly;fs; ,aw;Wk; ftpQHfshfTk;> GytHfshfTk;> Fwpg;ghf ,tHfsplk; kype;jpUe;j fiyfs; kw;w ngz;fSf;F jLf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. ,tHfsplk; clYwT itj;Jf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ flTsplk; If;fpakhfp tpLtjw;Fr; rkkhff; fUjg;gl;lJ.

gz;ila fhy fphP]; ehfhPfj;jpy;> tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ r%fj;jpd; midj;J kl;lj;jpYk; gutp ,Ue;jJ. tpgr;rhuj;jpNyNa fPo; kl;lj;jpy; ,Ug;gtH mDkjp ngw;Wf; nfhz;l rptg;G tpsf;Fg; gFjpfspy; gzpahw;wpdhHfs;> ,d;Dk; mtHfs; jhq;fs; mDkjp ngw;w tpgr;rhhpfs; vd;gij mwptpg;gjw;fhf Ntz;ba milahs ml;ilfisAk; njhq;f tpl;bUe;jhHfs;. tpgr;rhuj;jpy; caHkl;lj;jpy; gzpahw;wf; $ba ngz;fs; eld kq;iffshfTk;> ghlfpfshfTk; ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,e;j caH kl;lj;J tpgr;rhhpfs; murpay; gpuKfHfs; $Lk; fpsg;Gfspy; gzpahw;wpdhHfs;> mtHfspy; rpyH mjpfhu kl;lj;Jj; njhlHGfs; fhuzkhf caH me;j];JfisAk; mjpfhu kl;lj;jpy; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhHfs;.

gz;ila fhy NuhkhGhpapy;> tpgr;rhuj;jpw;F gy;NtW fl;Lg;ghLfs; nghJthf fhzg;gl;ld. ,Ug;gpDk;> ntspNjrq;fspy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L tug;gl;l ngz;zbikfs;> fl;lhag;gLj;jg;gl;L tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLj;jg;gl;lhHfs;> ,d;Dk; mtHfsJ v[khdHfshy; ghypay; td;Kiwf;Fg;gLj;jg;gl;lhHfs;. ,t;thwhf mbikfis tpgr;rhuj;jpy; js;sg;gLtij NuhkHfs; jLf;f Kaw;rp nra;jhHfs;. ,jw;fhf fLikahd eltbf;ifiaAk; vLj;jhHfs;. tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLk; ngz;fs; jq;fis milahsg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s mjw;nfd cs;s milahskplg;gl;l milahs ml;ilfis mzpe;J nfhs;tJ> jq;fsJ ngaHfis muR gjptfj;jpy; gjpe;J nfhs;tJ vd;w epiy ,Ue;jJ> kw;Wk; mtHfs; kPJ fLikahd thpAk; tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ.

kj;jpa fhyq;fspy;> kf;fspd; fw;G newpiag; ghJfhf;Fk; nghUl;L fpwp];jt rHr;Rfs;> tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLNthHfis kjk; khw;wpdhHfs; my;yJ mtHfSf;nfd kWtho;T ikaq;fis Vw;gLj;jpdhHfs;. Mdhy; ,e;j njhopYf;F vjpuhf mtHfs; NghuhLtjw;F Kd;tutpy;iy. Gdpj mf];jpd; vd;gtuJ mwpTiuapd;gb> mt;thW me;jj; njhopiyj; jil nra;jhy;> mjd; fhuzkhf Kd;igf; fhl;bYk; mjpfkhd mstpy; xOf;f tPo;r;rpia Nehf;fp Mz;fs; nry;thHfs; my;yJ jtwhd topapy; jpUkz cwtpw;F mg;ghy; jq;fsJ ,r;irfisj; jPHj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;Ff; fpsk;gp tpLthHfs; vd;W $wg;gl;lJ. kj;jpa fhy INuhg;ghtpy; murhy; mDkjp toq;fg;gl;l tpgr;rhu ikaq;fs; Njrnkq;Fk; fhzg;gl;ld> ,e;j tpgr;rhu ikaq;fs; %ykhf muR mjpfhhpfSf;Fk;> ,d;Dk; jtwhd topapy; nry;Yk; Njthyag; gpuKfHfSf;Fk; mjpf tUkhdj;ijf; nfhLj;jd. Mrpahitg; nghUj;jtiuapy;> ngz;fis fPo;j;jukhd gilg;ghff; fUjpdhHfs;> mtHfSf;F kj mbg;gilapy; ngz;fs; tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLtij; jLf;Fk; mr;RWj;Jk; rl;lq;fs; ,Uf;ftpy;iy> khwhf tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ nghJthf xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl;lnjhd;whfNt ,Ue;J te;jJ.

16 k; E}w;whz;bypUe;J Guhl;l];lz;L kw;Wk; fj;Njhypf;f jpUr;rigfspd; eltbf;iffspd; %ykhf ,e;j tpgr;rhuk; Fiwa Muk;gpj;jJ. tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ xOf;ff; NflhdJ vd;Wk;> mjpy; <LgLgtHfs; xOf;ff; NflhdtHfs; vd;Wk; gpur;rhuk; nra;ag;gl;lJ> mt;thwhdnjhU eltbf;if vLg;gjw;Ff; fhuzk; ,Ue;jJ> mg;nghOJ kf;fspilNa mjpkhd ghy;tpid Neha;fs;> mjhtJ 'rpgpyp];" Nghd;w ghy;tpid Neha;fs; ntFNtfkhfg; gut Muk;gpj;jNj ,e;j eltbf;iff;Ff; fhuzkhf mike;jJ. efhpd; gy;NtW tpgr;rhu ikaq;fis mjpfhhpfs; %bdhHfs;. fp.gp.1635 k; Mz;L ghhp]; ,aw;wg;gl;l rl;lj;jpd;gb> tpgr;rhhpfSf;F firab nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ> mtHfsJ jiy nkhl;il mbf;fg;gl;lJ> Kd; tprhuiz ,d;wp mtHfs; ehL flj;jTk;gl;lhHfs;.

njhopy;tsHr;rpaile;j ehLfspy; tpgr;rhuk;

njhopy; tsHr;rp Fd;wpa ehLfspy; jhd; nghUshjhu Nehf;fj;ij Kd;dpl;L ngz;fs; tpgr;rhuj;ij ehbdhHfs; vd;W Kd;G ghHj;Njhk;. Mdhy;> njhopy; tsHr;rpaile;j ehLfspy; gy;NtW fl;Lg;ghLfSf;F ,ilNaAk; tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ ntspg;gilahdnjhd;whf khwpg; NghdJ> tsHr;rpaile;jJ> mj;Jld; ghypay; Neha;fSk; $l mjpfk; gut Muk;gpj;jd. ,d;Dk; 18 kw;Wk; 19 k; E}w;whz;Lfspy; Nkw;Fyfpy; kf;fs; mjpfk; tho;e;j ngUefuq;fspy; tpgr;rhuk; nfhbfl;bg; gwf;f Muk;gpj;jJ.

1700 k; Mz;Lfspy; INuhg;gh kw;Wk; u\;a vy;iyg; gFjpfspy; gutp te;j ghy;tpid Neha;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; Kfkhf tpgr;rhu ikaq;fisAk;> tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLNthHfisAk; muR mYtyfq;fspy; gjpT nra;J nfhs;Sk; eilKiwiaf; nfhz;L te;jhHfs;. mt;thW iyrd;]; toq;fg;gl;l tpg;gr;rhu ikaq;fSf;F mbf;fb kUj;Jt ghpNrhjfHfs; nrd;W ghpNrhjpj;Jk; te;jhHfs;. Mdhy;> gphpl;ldpy; iyrd;]; toq;Fk; eilKiw ,y;iynadpDk;> 1860 y; ,aw;wg;gl;l nfhs;isNeha; jLg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; tpgr;rhhpfSf;F kUj;Jt ghpNrhjid mspf;fg;gl;lJ> kw;Wk; fg;gy;Jiw kw;Wk; ,uhZt ikaq;fspy; tpgr;rhuk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;lJ. gphpl;ldpYk;> mnkhpf;fhtpYk; rptg;G tpsf;Fg; gFjpfspy; ,e;j tpgr;rhuk; ntspg;gilahfNt nfhbfl;bg; gwf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. efu mjpfhhpfs; tpgr;rhuj;ij ''NjitahdnjhU jPik"" vd;Nw fUjpdhHfs;. ,e;jg; gFjpapy; thof; $ba VjhtnjhU fz;zpakpf;fnjhU kdpjH jiyapLk; tiuf;Fk;> mjpfhhpfs; tpgr;rhuj; njhopiy me;jg; gFjpfspy; mDkjpj;jhHfs;. mJkl;Lky;y> gz;lq;fs; Nghy xUehl;bypUe;J ,d;ndhU ehl;bw;F tpgr;rhhpfs; nfhz;L Nghfg;gl;lhHfs;> tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLj;jg;gl;lhHfs;.

tpgr;rhuj; njhopYf;F toq;fp te;j iyrd;]; Kiwfspy; ele;j KiwNfLfs;> gy;NtW fpsHr;rpfis gphpl;ldpYk;> INuhg;gpYk; cz;lhf;fpaJ. gphpl;ldpy; nfhz;L tug;gl;l nfhs;is Neha;fSf;F vjpuhd rl;lj;jpdhy; ve;jtpjkhd rhjfq;fSk; tpisatpy;iy> khwhf> jq;fsJ nrhe;j tho;tpy;> Rje;jpuj;jpw;F mr;RWj;jyhf mJ miktjhf kf;fs; fUj Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. tpgr;rhuj; njhopYf;fhf ngz;fSk;> Foe;ijfSk; flj;jg;gLtijj; jLg;gjw;F gy;NtW jLg;G Kiwfis gy;NtW ehLfs; nfhz;L te;jd. ,t;thW ngz;fisAk;> Foe;ijfisAk; tpgr;rhuj;jpw;fhf flj;Jtij fphpkpdy; Fw;wk; vd;W gphpl;ld; mwptpj;jJ> ,jw;fhf 1885 y; fphpkpdy; rl;l tiuaiwia mwptpj;jJ. ,d;Dk; 1904 y; 13 tsHe;j ehLfs; ifnaOj;jpl;l xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> ,e;j flj;jiyj; jLg;gjw;fhd eltbf;iffspy; gu];guk; xj;Jiog;G toq;fpf; nfhs;sTk;> jfty; ghpkhw;wk; nra;J nfhs;sTk; jPHkhdpj;jd. 1910 y; mnkhpf;fhthdJ> nts;is mbikfs; flj;jy; jLg;G eltbf;if (Mann Act> 1910) d; mbg;gilapy;> ngz;fisAk;> rpWkpfisAk; 'xOq;fPd" Nehf;fj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; (tpgr;rhuj;jpw;fhf flj;Jtij) jil nra;jJ.

20 k; E}w;whz;by; tpgr;rhuk; vd;gJ gy;NtW ghpkhzq;fspy; jiynaLf;f Muk;gpj;jJ. rpy tpgr;rhhpfs; jq;fis ''fhHy; NfHs;];"" vd;wioj;Jf; nfhz;L> jq;fSf;nfd;wnjhU Kfthpapy; ,Ue;J nfhz;L> thbf;ifahsHfisj; jpUg;jpg;gLj;j Muk;gpj;jdH. ,d;Dk; rpyH k]h[; ghHyHfspy;> mjhtJ tpgr;rhu tpLjp vd;wpy;yhky; Gjpatif Kfj;NjhL njhopy; nra;a Muk;gpj;jdH. mNefkhf njUtpy; trpf;ff; $batHfs; jhd; ,Jkhjpahd tpgr;rhu tpLjpfSf;F thbf;ifahsHfisf; nfhz;L NrHf;ff; $batHfshf ,Ue;jhHfs;. ,d;Dk; fpuhkg;Gwq;fspypUe;J efHg;Gwk; Nehf;fp tuf; $batHfs;> jq;fsJ tho;f;ifj; Njitia epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L> ,e;jj; njhopypy; fhy; gjpf;f Muk;gpj;jdH. ,t;thW tPl;il tpl;L Xb te;j Mz;fspy; rpyH thbf;ifahsHfisf; nfhz;L tUgtHfshf khwpdhHfs;> ngz;fs; tpgr;rhu tpLjpfspy; gzpahw;w Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. ,it ahTk; ,tHfis nghUshjhuj; Njitia epiwT nra;J nfhs;SKfkhfj; jhd; ,e;jj; njhopypy; <Lgl itj;jd.

nghJthf vy;yh r%fq;fspYk; tpgr;rhuj;ij mq;fPfhpf;ftpy;iy vdpDk;> murhq;fq;fs; ,jidj;jil nra;jpUg;gpDk;> tpgr;rhuj;jpw;F MjuT jUtJ> tpgr;rhhpfis itj;jpUg;gJ my;yJ mJ rhHe;j njhopypd; %yk; tUkhdk; ghHg;gJ MfpaitNa rl;lq;fshy; jil nra;ag;gl;lJ vd;whfpaJ. ,d;Dk; ,e;jj; njhopypy; <Lglf; $ba tpgr;rhhpfspd; kPJ fphpkpdy; eltbf;if vLf;fg;gl;lNj xopa> mtHfsJ thbf;ifahsHfs; kPJ eltbf;if vLf;fg;gl;ljhf ,y;iy.

mNefkhf tpgr;rhu ikaq;fis Mz;fNs elj;JgtHfshf epHtfpg;gtHfshf ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;> ngz;fs; jq;fsJ clk;ig tpw;Wg; ngWfpw $ypapy; ,e;j Mz;fNs mjpf Cjpaj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;. rk;ghj;jpaj;jpy; XusT gzj;ijNa me;jg; ngz;fSf;F toq;fpaNjhL> murpd; eltbf;iffspd; nghOJ Njitg;gl;lhy; mtHfSf;fhf gpizahsHfshfTk; nray;gl;L mtHfis rpiwapypUe;J ntspNa nfhz;L tu cjtpdhHfs;. tpgr;rhu ika epHthfpf;Fk;> tpgr;rhhpf;Fk; cwT Kiwfspy; neUf;fk; ,Ue;jhYk;> mNefkhd Neuq;fspy; tpgr;rhhpNa ghjpg;Gf;F Mshff; $batshf ,Ue;jhs; vd;gJ njspT.

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