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khh;f;rprKk; urpa nghJTlikAk;


Nrhryprk; nghUj;jkhd xd;wh ,y;iyah vd njhpe;J nfhs;tjw;Fhpa kw;nwhU top vd;dntd;why;> mJ gpur;rhuk; nra;j mjDila nrhe;j nfhs;ifiaNa mjdhy; nray;gLj;j Kbe;jjh vd;gij njhpe;J mJ nray;gLj;j jFe;j nfhs;ifah ,y;iyah vd;gij fz;L nfhs;tjhFk;. ,e;j fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; urpa nghJTlik gw;wpj; njhpe;J nfhs;tJ kpfTk; mh;j;jk; kpf;fjhfTk; mij nray;gLj;jyhk; vd;W vz;zpj; jphpgth;;fSf;F vr;rhpf;if jUk; xU ghlKkhFk;. urpah Nrhryprj;ij xU gf;fk; gpd;gw;wpAk; kW gf;fk; mij kPwpAk; te;Js;sJ vd urpahtpd; etPd fhyr; rhpj;jpuk; ekf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ. rhpahd khh;f;rprf; nfhs;ifg;gb urpaf; fk;A+dprj;ij Nehf;fpdhy;> mjDila gy nray;ghLfs; mij xl;baJ vdf; $w ,ayhJ.

khwhf> urpahtpd; rhjidfs; vd;gJ> Nrhtpaj; mikg;gpy; khh;f;rprj;ij ,ioa tpl;ljhy; cz;lhdJ vd;gij tpl mij epuhfhpj;jjhy; cz;lhdJ vd;gij ehk; fz;bg;ghf xj;Jf; nfhz;Nl Mf Ntz;Lk;.

 

Gul;rp gw;wpa Nrhryp] nfhs;if jtwhdJ!

Nrhrypa rhpj;jpu jj;Jtj;jpd; gpufhuk;> Kjyhspj;Jtk; mjDila Kjph; epiyia mile;j gpwNf Nrhryprk; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ vd;gJk; mt;tpjk; mJ Njhd;Wk; NghJ Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpDila ghpzhk tsh;r;rp Kbtile;J mopTk; tPo;r;rpAk; njhlq;fp tpl;lJ vd;gNjahFk;. Mdhy; urpahtpNyh Kjyhspj;Jtk; Kbe;J nghJTlik Njhd;WtJ vd;gJ xUGwkpUf;fl;Lk;> Mdhy; mJ KOik ngWtjw;F Kd;NgNa nghJTlikg; Gul;rp mq;Nf Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. Kjyhspj;Jt Kiw mq;Nf tsUk; epiyapypUe;jJ> njhopw;Gul;rp mjDila Muk;g epiyapy;jhd; ,Ue;jJ> ghl;lhsp th;f;fk; cUthFk; epiyapy; ,Ue;jJ. ,j;jifa R+o;epiyfs; mq;F epytpa NghJjhd; urpahtpy; nghJTlikg; Gul;rp nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. xU Gwk; ,e;jg; Gul;rpahdJ khh;f;rprf; nfhs;ifahd rhpj;jpuk; kw;Wk; Gul;rp vd;gij kWf;fpd;wJ kWGwk;> Nrhrypr nfhs;ifapd; gpufhuk; Nrhryprk; fle;J nry;y Ntz;ba gb epiyia ,J jLj;J tpl;lJ. ,J urpahtpy; Nrhryprj;jpw;F vjpuhd Mjpghtk; MFk;> vt;tsJ fhyk; tiujhd; urpa Nrhryprk; mjw;fhf tUe;jpAk; jpUj;jq;fs; nra;J nfhz;Lk; ,Uf;Fk; vd vtUf;Fk; njhpahJ.

Nrhryprf; nfhs;ifg; gpufhuk; ghl;lhsp th;f;fNk Gul;rpiaf; nfhz;L tUk; xU ,af;fk; vd;gjhFk;. Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpy; epyTk; cs; Kuz;ghLfshy; ,g;ghl;lhsp th;f;fk; gyk; ngWk;: mk; Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpd; rpijT ,g; ghl;lhsp th;f;fj;jpdh; mjw;nfjpuhff; fpsh;njse;J mjw;F ,Wjp kuz mb nfhLg;gjw;F xU ey;y tha;g;ig mspf;Fk;. ,t;thwhf mth;fspd; fuq;fshNyNa khw;wk; nfhz;L tug;gl;L mth;fs; MSk; rf;jpahf cUthFthh;fs;. ,jdhy;jhd; Nrhryprg; Gul;rp Kjypy; ,q;fpyhe;jpy; nfhz;L tug;gLk; vd;W khh;f;R Kd;dwptpg;Gr; nra;jhh;. Vnddpy; ,q;fpyhe;jpy;jhd; Kjd; Kjypy; kw;w Kjyhspj;Jt ehLfSf;F kpfTk; Kd;ghfNt njhopw;Gul;rp Njhd;wp mjDila Kjph;r;rpiaAk; KOikiaAk; mile;jpUe;jJ: ghl;lhspth;f;fj;jpdhpd; vz;zpf;ifAk; rf;jpAk; kpfTk; Ntfj;jpypUe;jJ. Mdhy;> vq;nfy;yhk; Nrhryprg; Gul;rp nfhz;L tug;gl;ldNth mq;nfy;yhk; mJ ghl;lhsp th;f;fj;jpduhy; nfhz;L tug;gltpy;iy. khwhf mJ ,uhZtj;jhNyh my;yJ mjDila JizapdhNyhjhd; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ vd;gJ tpNehjkhd rhpj;jpu khw;wkhFk;. Vd;> urpahtpYk; $l> cyf Aj;jj;jpd; filrpf; fl;lj;jpy;> uhZtg; Gul;rp Nrhryprg; Gul;rpf;F mb NfhypaJ. NkYk; 1918 Kjy; 1924 tiu njhlh;e;j 'Aj;jg; nghJTlikf; fhyk;"|KOtjpYk; urpahtpd; gy gpuNjrq;fs; Nrhryprj;jpd; MjuNthL ,uhZt eltbf;if %yKk; ntw;wpfspd; %yKNk urpahNthL ,izf;fg;gl;ld. midj;J fpof;F INuhg;gpa ehLfspYk; urpa ,uhZt ntw;wpfspd; epoypNyNa khw;wk; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. Gul;rpapdhy;jhd; khw;wk; tUk; vd;w nfhs;if ,q;NfAk; Njhy;tpiaj; jOtpaJ. Nrhryprk; jd;Dila fUj;jpaypy; ,J Nghd;w khw;wq;fisr; nra;a Ntz;bajhapw;W. urpahtpYk; irdhtpYk; $ypf;fhuh;fisAk; tptrhapfisAk; Gul;rp rf;jpahf Ntiyf;F mkh;j;j Ntz;bajhapw;W. urpa murpayikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpy; $l tptrhapfis Fwpg;gplg;gl Ntz;bajhapw;W Mdhy; khh;f;rprj;jpNyh (-mij epiy ehl;Ltjpy;) tptrhapf;F ve;j ,lKkpy;iy: mth;fs; Gul;rpfu rf;jpahf mq;fPfhpf;fg;gltpy;iy.

 

$l;LlikAk; jdpAlikAk;

Nrhryprj;jpd; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhd nfhs;if $l;LlikahFk;. md;whl cgNahfg; nghUl;fisg; nghWj;j tiu> Nrhryprf; fUj;jpaypd;gb> jdpAlik vd;gJ FWfpa fhyj;jpw;F Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;glf; $baJ. Mdhy; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fUtpfisg; nghWj;jtiu jdpAlik vd;w Ngr;Rf;Nf ,lkpy;iy. mjdhy;jhd; ||$l;Llik|| vd;gJ Nrhrypr eilKiwfspd; Muk;gkhfTk; ,WjpahdjhfTk; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. ,J tpraj;jpy; urpah Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;b te;j> jw;NghJ Nkw; nfhs;fpd;w ePf;Fg; Nghf;F eltbf;iffs; mf; nfhs;ifapd; Nky; mtek;gpf;ifia Cl;Lfpd;wJ. ,q;Nf mjDila rpy mq;fq;fis khj;jpuk; ehk; Fwpg;gpLfpd;Nwhk;.:

mnkhpf;f murpayikg;G jdpAilia ghJfhg;gJ Nghd;Nw urpa murpay; mikg;Gk; jdpAlikia ghJfhf;fpd;wJ. ,uz;bw;Fk; cs;s tpj;jpahrk; vd;dntdpy;> urpahtpy; jdp kdpjdpd; nrhj;ijf; nfhz;L $ypahis Ntiyf;F mkh;j;j KbahJ. NtW thh;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy;> urpahtpy; Efh;nghUs; jdpAlik khj;jpuky;y nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fUtpfisf; $l xUth; jdpAlikahf itj;jpUf;fyhk;. Mdhy; mjpy; Ntiy nra;tjw;F $ypf;F Ml;fis itj;jpUf;ff; $lhJ. ve;j kdpjUk; mtUila FLk;gKk; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fUtpfis jq;fSila jdp clikahf itj;jpUf;fyhk;> mjpy; Ntiy nra;ayhk;> mjDila jahhpg;Gf;fis nrhe;jkhf cgNahfpf;fyhk; Vd; tpw;fTk; nra;ayhk;. ,itnay;yhk; rl;lj;jpdhy; jLf;fg;gl;ljy;y. MapDk;> mj;;jifa cw;gj;jpg; nghUspd; kPJ thp tpjpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. jdpAlikNah my;yJ nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fUtpfisNah jdpAlikahf itj;jpUg;gNjh jLf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gij ,J fhl;Lfpd;wJ. $ypf;fhuh;fis Ruz;Lk; tifapy; cs;s jdp egh; nrhj;jpw;Fjhd; mDkjpapy;iy.

tptrha tl;lj;ijg; nghUj;j tiuapy; jdpahh; gz;izfSf;F mDkjpAz;L. 1962y; mitfs; 25.8 kpy;ypadhf ,Ue;jd. gaphplj; jFe;j nkhj;j epyq;fspy; 1.4% khj;jpuk; mth;fs; gaphpl;l NghjpYk; nkhj;j tptrha tpis nghUl;fspy; 32% mth;fs; cw;gj;jp nra;jpUe;jdh;. mth;fs; urpahtpd; nkhj;j cw;gj;jpapy; 60% cUisf;fpoq;FfisAk; 50% rjtpfpjk; ghy; cw;gj;jpiaAk; NkYk; 80% Kl;il cw;gj;jpiaAk; nra;jpUe;jdh;. (See : 1. Crisis in World Communism, p. 42. 2.Newth, J.M., The Private Sector of Soviet Agriculture, Soviet Studies, October 1961 and April 1962). (jdpAlikapdhy; kdpjd; jd;Dila KO Mw;wiyAk; ntspg;gLj;jp cw;gj;jpia ngUf;Ffpd;whd; mjdhy; r%fKk; ehLk; Kd;NdWfpd;wJ vd;gjw;F ,ijtplj; njspthd Mjhuk; Njitapy;iy)

Nrhrypr ghh;l;bapd; 22tJ khehl;bd; NghJ ,aw;wg;gl;l Gjpa rl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk; (1961)> xU kzkhd jk;gjp jkf;nfd;W nrhe;j tPl;il itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. xt;nthU FbkfDk; ngUk; mstpyhd kpUfq;fis nrhe;jkhf itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. mJ Nghd;Nw> ePbj;J ciof;Fk; fhh;> Fsph;rhjdk;> njhiyf;fhl;rp> Jzp Jitf;Fk; fUtp kw;Wk; mJ Nghd;w tPl;L cgNahfr; rhkhd;fis jdpg;gl;ltUf;F nrhe;jkhdjhf itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

 

rk;ghjpf;fhky; te;j tUkhdj;ij itj;jpUj;jy;

nry;tj;ijAk; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fUtpfisAk; xUth; jdpAlikahf itj;jpUf;fyhk;. vd;gJ khj;jpuky;y> mitfis thhpRhpikr; rl;lg; gpufhuk; jdJ gpd; re;jjpfSf;F vOjpAk; itj;J tpl;Lr; nry;yyhk;. Gul;rpf;Fg; gpwF thhpRhpik vd;gJ Kw;wpYk; jLf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. Vg;uy; 27> 1918y; (Decree of April 27, (14) 1918, V.Ts. I.K. All Union Central Executive Committtee;) ,aw;wg;gl;l rl;lg;gpufhuk; thhpRhpik vd;gJ rl;l hPjpahfNth> my;yJ nrhe;j tpUg;gk; %ykhfNth tpl;Lr; nry;tJ Kbtile;J tpl;lJ: ,we;jthpd; midj;J nrhj;Jf;fSk; muRf;Nf rhUk;. MapDk;> r%f eyr; rl;lk; mKy;gLj;jg;gLk; tiuapYk; ,we;jthpd; neUq;fpath;fSf;F mth; tpl;Lr; nrd;w nrhj;jpypUe;J nghUshjhu cjtp nra;ayhk; vd;w tpjp kl;Lk; tplg;gl;bUe;jJ. 1919k; Mz;L MAs; ghJfhg;GWjpAk; KjyPl;bw;fhd ,d;R+ud;Rk; tUkhdKk; jil nra;ag;gl;lJ. Mdhy; 1936k; Mz;bd; murpayikg;Gr; rl;l(tpjp 10)j;jpd;gb thhpRhpikr; rl;lk; kPz;Lk; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ: ',wg;gthpd; capy;" %yk; jdJ nrhj;ij jd; cwtpdh;fSf;F thhprhf tpl;Lk; nry;Yk; chpik xt;nthU Fbkfdpw;Fk; toq;fg;gl;lJ: ,t;tsTjhd; tpl;Lr; nry;y Ntz;Lk; vd;w fl;Lg;ghL vJTk; mjw;F tpjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. MAs; ghJfhg;Gj; jpl;lKk; (,d;R+ud;R) jpUk;gf; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ kf;fis ,d;R+ud;R nra;a Cf;Ftpg;gjw;fhf murpd; ,d;R+ud;R epWtdkhd NfhRj;uhf; nra;jpg; gj;jphpf;iffspy; tpsk;guk; nra;jJ. mk;khjphpahd ,d;R+ud;Rfspy; Fiwe;j gl;r gphPkpak; 5000 &gps;fshFk;. mJ ,we;jthpd; thhpRfSf;F nfhLf;fg;gLk;. (For example see: The Insurance Advertisement in Literature Isskusqvo, dated October 9, 1942.) ,jdhy;> mnkhpf;fhtpYk; gphpl;ldpYk; cs;sJ Nghd;Nw kpfTk; cah;e;j gjtpapYs;s kw;Wk; gzf;fhu Njhoh;fspd; Foe;ijfs; gpwf;Fk; NghNj gzf;fhuh;fshfg; gpwf;fpd;wdh;. mth;fspd; re;jjpfs;; Vuhskhd njhiffis thhpRhpikapd; %yk; ngWfpd;wdh; (mJ kpff; FWfpa tl;lj;jpw;Fs;).

Nrhryprk; ciof;fhky; te;j tUkhdj;jpw;F kuz vjphpahFk;> mij vy;yh tifahd Ruz;lypw;Fk; %yfhuzkhfTk; fUjpaJ. mjdhy;jhd; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fUtpfspd; jdpAlikia mJ xU Kbtpw;F nfhz;L te;jJ. ,jd; %yk; tl;bf;F %yk;> gzj;jpd; Nky; yhgk; rk;ghjpg;gJ NkYk; epyj;ij thliff;F tpLjy; Nghd;witfs; KbT ngw;W xt;nthUtUk; Neh;ikahd ciog;gpd; %yk; rk;ghjpf;fyhk; vd;W fUjpj;jhd; ,t;thW nra;jJ. Mdhy; ,e;jf; nfhs;ifAk; kpfTk; fLikahdnjdTk;> nraw;gLj;j ,ayhj xd;nwdTk; urpag; nghJTlik czh;e;jJ. mjd; gpd;G> ciof;fhky; tUkhdk; tuf;$ba Vuhskhd topfis mJ jpwe;J tpl;lJ. ,q;Nf cjhuzj;jpw;F rpy:

thhprhf tpl;Lr; nry;Yk; gzKk; nghUl;fSk; rk;ghjpf;fhky; te;j tUkhdk;jhd;. ,J fk;A+dprj;jhy; rl;lG+h;tkhf;fg;gl;L mJ xOq;Fk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd.

gzf;fhuh;fs; ,we;j gpwF mth;fspd; re;jjpfs; fk;A+dprj;jhy; cUthf;fg;gl;L mKy;gLj;jg;gl;L tUk; rpwg;G Kiwfspd; %yk; ftdpf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;. rhjhuz Ntiyf;fhuiur; rhh;e;jth;fs; Kg;gJ Kjy; vOgJ &gpy;fs; tiu ngWk; mNj Ntisapy; nghpa Ml;fspd; re;jjpfs; khjk; %thapuk; Kjy; ehyhapuk; &gpy;fs; tiu ngWtNjhL khj;jpuky;yhky;> gy yl;rf;fzf;fhd &gpy;fs; cjtpahf nkhj;jkhfTk; nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,ij tpsq;Fk; tifapy; cs;s murhq;f mwptpg;G xd;iw ehk; ,q;Nf jUfpd;Nwhk;.

Nrhtpaj; ghl;lhspfspd; Kd;NdhbAk;> Nky;kl;l Nrhtpaj;jpd; cWg;gpdUk;> tpkhdj;jpw;fhd tbtikg;Gf;fis cUthf;fpatUkhd Njhoh; N.M. nghypfhh;Nght; mth;fspd; kuzj;ijnahl;b mtUila kidtpf;F Mapuk; &gpy;fs; khj cjtpj; njhifahf tho; ehs; KOtJk;> mtUila kfs; gbg;ig Kbf;Fk; tiu khjk; IE}W &gpy;fSk;> mtUila rNfhjhpf;F tho;ehs; KOtJk; khjk; ehD}W &gpy;fSk; jUtjhf murhq;fk; KbT nra;Js;sJ. Soviet War News, August 2, 1944.

FLk;gj;jpw;f thhpRr; nrhj;jhf fpilj;jJ Nghf> xU yl;rk; &gpy;fs; ifapUg;Gk; khjhe;jpuk; njhlh;r;rpahf ,uz;lhapuk; &gpy;fs; tUkhdKk; cs;s gzf;fhuf; FLk;gj;jpy; nghypfhg;Nghtpd; kfs; tsh;f;fg;gLths;.

xt;nthUtUk; jd;Dila Nrkpg;ig tq;fpapy; Nrkpj;J %d;W rjtpfpjk; tl;bAk; mjw;F ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;. KjyPl;il mjpfhug;G+h;t gj;jpukhfTk;> gpizahfTk; itj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;> mitfSk; njhlh; tUkhdj;ij mspf;fpd;;wd. ,t;tifapy; KjyPL nra;AkhW kf;fSf;F muR tpsk;guq;fspd; %yk; Mh;t%l;Lfpd;wNjhL khj;jpuky;yhky; mjw;fhd tl;bf;Fk; cWjpaspf;fpd;wJ. ehLNjhWk; cs;s kj;jpa tq;fpapd; mWgj;njhd;whapuk; fpisfspy; ve;j xd;wpYk; gzj;ij KjyPL nra;ayhk;. gy yl;rf;fzf;fhd &gpy;fSf;fhd gpizfs; jq;fs; iftrk; itj;Js;s egh;fs; gy;yhapuk; Ngh;fs; cs;sdh;. Kjd; Kiwahf 1943k; Mz;L ||njhopyhsp NfhBRtuh;|| gw;wpa nra;jp gpuRuk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. mth; Njrpa Kd;NdhbahfTk; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gl;lhh;. me;jg; ngUe;jif f[f;fp];jhdpYs;s murhq;f tptrhag; gz;izapd; Nkyhsuhd Njhoh; ngh;il gPNfht; Mthh;. mjw;Fg; gpwF mq;Nf Vuhskhd NfhBRtuh;fs; Njhd;wp tpl;ldh;. Nfhb Nfhbahd mth;fs; gzk; KOtJk; murhq;fj;jplk; fld; gj;jpuq;fshfTk; gpizfshfTk; cs;sd. mjw;F mth;fs; yl;rf;fzf;fhd &gpy;fis tl;bahfTk; ngw;W tUfpd;wdh;. (Koestler, The Yogi and the Commissar, pp. 159-166) gy tifahd ciog;gw;w tUkhdk; Njhd;wp mitfs; tsh;e;J tUtJ cz;ikahd Nrhryprj;jpw;F rhT kzpahFk;.

 

ciog;Gr; Ruz;ly;

kw;w njhopyhspfspd; ciog;gpypUe;J gad; ngWtij jil nra;tJk; Nrhrypr mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffspy; xd;whFk;. ||ve;j xUtUk; jd;Dila nrhe;j eyj;jpw;fhf kw;wthpd; ciog;ig gad;gLj;jf; $lhJ|| vd;gjhfj;jhd; guhk;ghpakhf Ruz;ly; tiuaWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ciog;Gr; Ruz;ly; rl;lhPjpahf urpahtpy; jil nra;ag;gl;bUe;jhYk;> jd;Dila nrhe;j FLk;g cWg;gpdh;fspd; ciog;gpypUe;J gad; ngWtij rl;lk; mDkjpg;gNjhL khj;jpuky;yhky; me;j FLk;gj;jpdh; jahhpj;j nghUl;fis mq;fhbapy; tpw;gidf;F nfhz;L tUtjw;Fk; mDkjpAz;L. thfd Xl;b> rikay;fhuh;> tPl;L Ntiyf;fhuh; Nghd;Nwhiu Ntiyf;Fk; mkh;j;jpf; nfhs;syhk;. Vide, Vigor, A Guide to Marxism, p. 191-192

 

tFg;Gr; Ruz;ly;

tFg;Gf;fsw;w rKjhaj;ij cUthf;Ftjhf Nrhryprk; chpik nfhz;lhLfpd;wJ. ,d;Dk; rhpahfr; nrhy;Nthkhdhy;> mjDila Muk;g fl;lj;jpy; tFg;Gf;fs; cs;s rKjhaj;ijAk; mjw;F mLj;jgbahf tFg;Gf;fs; mw;w rKjhaj;ijAk; cUthf;f mJ tpisfpd;wJ. Mdhy; urpahtpy; tFg;Gf;fs; ,Uf;fj;jhd; nra;fpd;wd> tFg;G Ntw;Wikfis mopf;f Kbatpy;iy. nfhs;ifhPjpahf Fiwe;j gl;rk; ,uz;L tFg;Gf;fs; mjpfhug;G+h;tkhf mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. rw;W Ke;jpa fk;A+dpr ghh;l;bapd; epfo;r;rpapd; NghJ Nrhtpaj; A+dpadpy; njhopyhspfs;> tptrhapfs; vd;w Ner tFg;Gf;fs;|| cs;sjhf xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. ("Programme of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union") mJ NghyNt> mth;fspd; Gs;sp tpguj;Jiw Nrhtpaj; rKjhaj;jpYs;s tFg;G tpj;jpahrk; njhlh;ghf $Wk; nghOJ njhopyhspfs;> tptrhapfs; vd;w ,uz;L tFg;Gf;fisf; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. (See for instance, Naradnoya Khovyaistro USSR 1961, Moscow 1961, p. 27 vide Viger p. 192) ,Jjhd; mjpfhug;G+h;tkhf elg;gpy; cs;sJk; nfhs;if hPjpAkhd epiyAkhFk;. fk;A+dpr Nrhrypr jj;Jtf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpd;gb ghh;j;jhy; $l> xU tFg;ig kw;nwhU tFg;G Ruz;LtJ rhj;jpak;. NkYk;> ,e;j ,uz;L tFg;Gf;fSk; \Ner| tFg;Gf;fsy;y: khwhf xd;iwnahd;W vjph;j;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; tFg;Gf;fs; vd;gNj cz;ikahFk;. urpahtpd; njhopy; tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;f;fhd tpiyia tptrhapfs;jhd; mspj;jdh;. Mdhy; mth;fSf;Nfh r%f eyj; jpl;lj;jpd; gyd;fs; kWf;fg;gl;ld. Xa;T+jpaj; njhiff;fhd chpikia mth;fs; mDgtpf;ftpy;iy. urpa efuq;fspy; trpg;gjw;fhd milahs ml;ilAk; kw;w Mtzq;fSk; vspjhf mth;fSf;F fpilg;gjpy;iy> mg;gbNa fpilj;jhYk; kw;w Fbkf;fSf;F ,izahf mth;fs; elj;jg;glhky; ghuhgl;rj;jpw;F cs;shf;fg;gLfpd;whh;fs;. ciog;gpw;fhd Cjpak; kw;Wk; kw;Ws;s trjpfs; rYiffs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; ,uz;lhk; ju Fbkf;fshf elj;jg;gLfpd;wdh;. MfNt cz;ikapy;> mjpfhug;G+h;tkhf mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l ,uz;L tFg;Gf;fspy;> xd;W kw;nwhd;iwr; Ruz;Lfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,J khj;jpuk; Ruz;lypd; xNu xU Kiway;y. gy tifahd ,d kf;fSk; ngUkstpy; Ruz;lYf;F cs;shf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;. vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; Nkyhf> MSk; th;f;fKk; ghh;l;bAk; mth;fshfNt xU tFg;ghfp tpl;ldh;. mth;fSf;F vjpuhf vQ;rpa kf;fs; jhq;fs; ifaW epiyapy; cs;sij fhz;fpd;wdh;. mth;fspd; tFg;ig vjph; nfhs;tjw;F vtUk; ,y;iy. mjDila murpay;> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; r%f mjpfhuk; Nkw;fj;jpa Kjyhspj;Jj;jpw;F ve;j tifapYk; Fiwe;jjy;y-khwhf mijtpl gd; klq;F mjpfkhFk;. clik khw;wj;jpdhy; Ruz;ly; xope;J tpLk; vd;W Nrhryprk; kdg;ghy; Fbj;jJ: Mdy; ,e;j khw;wj;jpd; gpwF $l KO ,aw;if tsj;ijAk; kdpj rf;jpiaAk; cgNahfpf;Fk; mjpfhuk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l FOtpd; iffspNyNa cs;sJ. mth;fshy; kw;w FOf;fs;> njhopyhsh; th;f;fk; $l> ngUkstpy; Ruz;lYf;F cs;shf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

 

kiwKf thp tpjpj;jy;

kiwKf thpf;Fk; ,Nj fjpjhd; Neh;e;Js;sJ. fyg;glkw;w khh;f;rPa rpe;jidapy; mjw;F ,lNk ,y;iy. nydpd; kpfTk; re;Njfkw;w thh;j;ijfspy; $Wfpd;whh;: kiwKf thpfs; cz;ikapy; Viofspd; Rkj;jg;gLk; xd;NwahFk;. (Collectd Works. vol. II, 3rd edition, p. 225) Mdhy; urpahtpNyh 60% mjpfkhd gl;n[l; njhif kiwKf thpfspypUe;Nj ngwg;gLfpd;wJ. rhjhuz Ml;fs;jhd;> Fwpg;ghf> njhopyhsh;fs;> tptrhapfs;> fpuhkg;Gw kf;fs;jhd;> mijj; jhq;Ffpd;whh;fs;.

 

nghUshjhu Cf;fj; njhiffs;

Nrhryprk; nghUshjhu kw;Wk; gz Cf;fj; njhiffSf;F vjpuhdJ. vy;NyhUf;Fk; xNu msT tUkhdk; r%f ePjpf;F kpfTk; mj;jpahtrpakhdJ vd;w vz;zj;jpy; mJ ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; r%f hPjpahfTk; $l;L hPjpahfTk; fpilf;Fk; Cf;f czh;Tfs; Ntiy nra;tjw;Fk; Ntiyg; gq;fPl;bw;Fk; Njitahd ce;Jjiy mspf;Fk; vd;Wk; vz;zpaJ. kpfg; ngUk; nghWg;Gs;s mjpfhhpf;Fk; rhjhuz gapw;rp ngw;w njhopyhspf;Fk; tUkhdj;jpy; ve;j tpj;jpahrKk; ,Uf;fhJ vd;W Gul;rpf;F Kd;G nydpd; nrhy;ypapUe;jhh;. Mdhy; urpahtpy; ];lhypd; mth;fshy; ||rkkhd $ypf; Nfhhpf;if vd;gJ Vfhjpagj;jpa Nfhhpf;iff;F rkkhdjhFk;: NkYk; Nrhryprj;jpw;fhd vjpuhd xd;whFk;|| vd;W tpsf;fg;gl;lJ. rkj;Jtj;jpy; ek;gpf;if nfhz;l cah;kl;l Nrhryprthjpfs; xt;nthUtuhf fisag;gl;ldh;. gphpl;ld; kw;WKs;s Kjyhspj;Jt ehLfspy; fhzg;gLtJ Nghd;w kpfg; ngUk; tpj;jpahr(tUkhd)k; nfhz;l eilKiw epiy ehl;lg;gl;lJ.

(tUkhd) Vw;wj;jho;tpw;F Mjuthf Kjd; Kjypy; Fuy; vOg;gpath; jpU. ]lhypd; mth;fs;jhd;. Nrhryprk; rkj;Jtj;ij Mjhpf;ftpy;iy vd;Wk; mt;thW $Wgth;fs; khh;f;rpaj;jpd; vjphpfd; vd;Wk; mth; typAWj;jpdhh;. mth; $wpajhtJ : rkj;Jtk; khh;f;rpaj;jpw;F vjpuhdJ. Stalin, J., Problems of Leninism, Moscow, 1945, p. 503.

xU Ngl;bapy; kpf;Nfhahd; (tUkhd) Vw;wj;jho;T jj;Jtj;ijAk; nghUshjhu Cf;fj; njhifiaAk; gw;wp $wpajhtJ:

tptrhag; nghUshjhuk; (-mjd; tsh;r;rpf;fhf) gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl;l epGzh;fs; kw;Wk; fy;tp fw;wth;fs; MfpNahh; nfhz;l tFg;ig tsh;f;f Ntz;bajpUg;gjhy; ,e;j (tUkhd) Vw;wj;jho;T kpf kpf ,aw;ifahdNj. fLk; Kaw;r;rpf;Fk;> fw;gjw;Fk; NkYk; cd;dj epiyf;F Ml;fis cah;j;Jtjw;Fk; kpfg; ngUk; ,ilntsp (tUkhd tpj;jpahrk;) Njitg;glj;jhd; nra;fpd;wJ. MfNt ,J jtph;f;f ,ayhjJk; epahakhdJk; MFk;. ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; ,e;j ,ilntsp kpfTk; mjpfkhdJ. cyf Aj;jj;jpd; NghJk; cldbahf mjw;Fg;gpd;dUk; jFjpahd Ml;fis ftuj; jtwpa Fwpg;gpl;l NtiyfSf;F mjpf Cjpak; jUtjhf cah; njhopw;rhiyfSk;> kpy;fSk; mwptpj;jd. fd uf njhopypy;> mitfs; kUj;Jth;fs;> gapw;rp ngw;w Ntiyf;fhuh;fs;> nghwpahsh;fs; Nghd;Nwhh;fspd; rk;gsj;ij msT fle;J cah;j;jpdh;. (Perlo, Victor, How the Soviet Economy Works, An interview with A.I. Mikoyan, p. 48.)

FUNrTk; ,e;j (Vw;wj;jho;T) nfhs;ifia ntspg;gilahfNt mwptpj;jhh;. 1960 Mk; Mz;L Nk 5k; Njjp cah;kl;l Nrhtpaj;jpd; Kd; mth; ciwahw;Wk; NghJ $wpajhtJ:

$ypfspy; rkj;Jtj;ijf; nfhz;L tu Kaw;r;rpf;Fk; ve;j ,af;fq;fSf;F vjpuhfTk; ehk; kuz vjphp MNthk;. $ypapy; rkj;Jtj;ij epiyehl;b mitfis (nraw;ifahd Kiwapy;) mNj epiyf;F nfhz;L tUtij ehk; ntspg;gilahfNt vjph;f;fpd;Nwhk;. ,Jjhd; nydpdpDila NghjidahFk;. Nrhrypr r%fj;jpy; nghUshjhu Cf;fj; njhiffs; KO MjuitAk; kjpg;igAk; ngWk; vd;Wk; mth; Nghjpj;jhh;. (Vide, " Soviet World" p. 346. nydpd; muRk; Gul;rpAk; vd;w jkJ E}ypy; Nrhtpaj; rKjhaj;jpy; $ypapy; rkj;Jtk; epyTk; vd;W $wpAs;sij FUNrt; trjpahf kwe;J tpl;lhh;. 1919k; Mz;L eilngw;w ,uz;lhk; th;j;jf fhq;fpu]; $l;likg;gpd; NghJ kpfTk; mjpfgl;r tpj;jpahrk; 1 Kjy; 1.72 tiuNah ,Uf;Fk; vd;W $wg;gl;lJ. mjpfhuj;jpw;F te;j gpd; %d;W tUl Njhy;tpfu Nrhjidf;Fg; gpd; te;j (,e;j) Gjpa nghUshjhu jpl;lj;jpy; mth; Vw;wj;jho;T kpf;f $yp> nghUshjhu Cf;fj; njhiffs; Mfpatw;iwg; gw;wpAs;s mthpd; nfhs;iffis mth; Gj;jikf;f Ntz;bajhfp tpl;lJ.)

,t;thwhf> Vw;wj;jho;T kpf;f mNj nfhs;ifAk; tpj;jpahrq;fis cUthf;Fk; mNj rl;lq;fSk;jhd; nghJTlik urpahtpYk; Kjyhspj;Jt ehLfspYk; cs;sd.

vk;. ANahd; vd;w Nrhtpaj; vOj;jhsh; ,e;j $yp Vw;wj;jho;T gw;wp ,t;thW $wpAs;shh; :

Ntiyf;fhuhh;fs; : 110-400 &gpy;fs; gpujp khjk; (rhjhuz 150-250)

kj;jpa ju mjpfhhpfs; kw;Wk; njhopw; El;g fiyQh; 300-1000 gpujp khjk;

nghWg;ghsh;fs; 1500-10000 gpujp khjk; (rhjhuzkhf 20>000 Kjy; 30>000 tiu)

(M. Yuon, L’URSS, telle qu’elle est : pp 215-18)

urpa mjpfhug;G+h;t gj;jphpf;ifahd TRUD mspj;j jfty; ntspr;rj;jpd; gpufhuk;> (Trud, January 20, 1936) 1535 gzpahsh;fs; cs;s Donet Basin Mine vd;w Ruq;fj;jpy; Ntiy nra;gth;fspd; $ypfs; gpd; tUkhW :

1000k; Ngh;fs; egh; xd;wpw;F khj tUkhdk; 125 &gpy;fs;

400 Ngh;fs; egh; xd;wpw;F khj tUkhdk; 500 Kjy; 800 &gpy;fs; tiu

75 Ngh;fs; egh; xd;wpw;F khj tUkhdk; 800 Kjy; 1000 &gpy;fs; tiu

60 Ngh;fs; egh; xd;wpw;F khj tUkhdk; 1000 Kjy; 35>000 &gpy;fs; tiu.

1934k; Mz;L Nkw;nfhz;l Ma;tpd; mbg;gilapy; mdhNlhy; \g; vd;gth; KbTfis njhptpf;ifapy; 2% Fiwthdth;fNs khjk; xd;wpw;F 500 my;yJ mjw;F mjpfkhd &gpy;fs; ngWtjhfTk; 79% 240 f;Fk; Fiwthfg; ngWtjhfTk; mth;fs; %d;wpy; xU ghfj;jpdh; 120f;Fk; Fiwthfg; ngWtjhfTk; $wpAs;shh;. Shub, Anatole, Labour in the Soviet Orbit, p. 24.

,af;Feh; epjp - ,jw;F nkhj;j jpl;lj;jpy; 4% mjw;Fg; Nghfpd;wJ. NkYk; (mjpfhug; G+h;t kjpg;gPl;bw;F Nky;) tUk; mjpf cw;gj;jpapypUe;J 50% mjw;Fg; Nghfpd;wJ. fhh;Nfht; gpuNjrj;jpy; epjp fPo;fz;lthW gphpf;fg;gl;lJ:

,af;Feh; gq;F 36.6% (1936k; Mz;L Ma;tpd;gb xU tUlj;jpy; ,e;jj; njhif 22>000 &gpy;fs; MFk;).

fof fhhpajhprpapd; gq;F 16.6% (jw;NghJ ,J 90>000 &gpy;fs; MFk;)

cw;gj;jp mYtyfj; jiythpd; gq;F 13.3

A+dpad; jiytUf;F 6.6%

kPjKs;s gzpahsh;fSf;F 8.6% (Lin Yu Tang, The Secret Name, p. 134.)

1943k; Mz;L> urpa uhZtj;jpy; cs;s gil tPuh; 10 &gpy;fs; ngWk; mNj itisapy; xU nyg;bdd;l; 1000 &gpy;fSk; xU fhydy; 2>400 &gpy;fSk; ngw;wdh;. (The Economist, London, July 3, 1943.) ypNahd; rhNlh vOJfpd;whh; :

tPuh;fspd; kpff; Fiwe;j rk;gsk; 10 &gpy;fs;. nyg;bdd;bw;F 100 klq;F mjpfk; (1000 &gpy;fs;) : fhydypd; kpf cah;e;j rk;gsk; rhjhuz tPuhpd; mbg;gil rk;gsj;ij tpl 240 klq;F mjpfk; (2400 &gpy;fs;).

nghJ epWtdq;fspy; Vw;wj; jho;T 1 klq;F Kjy; 20 klq;F tiu cs;sJ vd rhNlh Mjhuq;fSld; ep&gpj;Js;shh;. Mdhy; gapw;rp ngw;w nghwpahsh;fs; kw;Wk; cah; mjpfhhpfs; MfpNahiu ehk; fzf;fpnyLj;jhy; Vw;wj;jho;T tpfpjk; 1 klq;F Kjy; 80 klq;F tiuAk; Vd; 1 klq;F Kjy; 100 klq;F tiu $l Nghfpd;wJ. New International, February, 1936

Vw;wj;jho;it tYg;gLj;Jk; xU ,af;fkhf ];BghNehitl; ,af;fk; tpsq;fpaJ. $ypfspy; cs;s tpj;jpahrk; 1 klq;F Kjy; 30 klq;F tiuAk; 1 klq;F Kjy; 100 klq;F tiu ,Ue;jJ. ,af;Feh;fs;> Kjd;ik nghwpahsh;fs;> kw;Wk; eph;thfpfs; MfpNahiu fzf;fpnyLj;jhy; tUkhd tpj;jpahrk; 1 klq;F Kjy; 30 klq;F tiuahFk;. (Koestler Arthur, The Yogi and the Commissar, Jonathan Cape, London, 1947, p. 163)

1943k; tUlk; Kjy; ||njhopyhs NfhBRtuh;|| gw;wp ngUQ; rj;jk; vOe;jJ. ,e;j Kjy; NfhBRtuh; vd;w rpwg;Gg; ngw;wth; ngh;ilgPNfht; vd;w gz;izapd; jiyth;jhd;. mjd; gpwF mJ Nghd;w NfhBRtuh;fspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wJ. Nrhtpaj; tzpf $lj;jpd; jiyth; khjj;jpw;F 16>000 &gpy;fs; rk;gsk; ngWfpd;whh;> ke;jphpapd; rk;gsk; 20>000 &gpy;fshfTk; mwptpay; fofj;jpd; jiythpd; rk;gsk; 30>000 &gpy;fshfTk; cs;sJ vd xU nra;jpg;gj;jphpf;if njhlh;ghsh; 1952k; Mz;L vOjpAs;shh;. (Economic Weekl, delhi, Vide Banerji Jayanta, Aspects of Soviet Economy, Calcutta, 154, p. 21) Kf;fpa fz;Lgpbg;G nra;Ak; vtUk; 20>000 &gpy; ngWfpd;whh; NkYk; ];lhypd; ghpR nty;gth; ,uz;L yl;rk; &gpy;fs; ngWfpd;whh;.

,itfs; vy;yhk; vd;d? ,e;j Kjyhspj;Jtf; Fzq;fisf; nfhz;l nfhs;iffisg; eilKiwg;gLj;jhj tiu nghUshjhu Kd;Ndw;wk; vd;gJ vl;lhf; fdpahfNt ,Ue;jJ. urpahtpw;nfjpuhf irdh vOg;Gk; Ml;Nrgizfspy; xd;W vd;dntd;why; urpahtpDila Kd;Ndw;wk; vd;gJ nghJTlikf; nfhs;iffis tOthky; filg;gpbj;jjhy; Vw;gl;ljy;y khwhf mf;nfhs;iffis kPwpajhy; Vw;gl;lNjahFk; vd;gNj. gPfpq; hptPA+ vOJfpd;wJ:

Nghd]; Cf;fj;njhiffspd; fhuzkhf tUkhdq;fspy; tpj;jpahrk;... ... ... xU gf;fk; nghJthd gzpahsh;fs;> tptrhapfs;> kw;Wk; fy;tp fw;w tFg;gpd; (Fiwe;j) tUkhdk; kW gf;fNkh mjph;\;ltrkhd rpWghd;ikapdhpd; (cah;e;j) tUkhdk;. ,e;j ,UtUf;fpilNa cs;s Vw;wj;jho;T rPuhtJ xU gf;fk; ,Uf;fl;Lk;> Mdhy; mJ mjpfhpj;j tz;zNk cs;sJ. Kf;fpakhdth;fSf;F nghJthd gzpahsh;fs; kw;Wk; tptrhapfis tpl E}W klq;F tiu mjpfk; nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ("on Kurushchev’s Phoney Communism", Peking Review, Peking, July 17, 1964, pp. 14-15)

mnkhpf;fhtpy; tUkhd tpj;jpahrk; 1 klq;F Kjy; 30 klq;F tiu cs;sJ vd urpa Gs;sp tpguj;Jiw $Wfpd;wJ. mth;fspd; (urpahtpd;) nrhe;j Gs;sptpguj;jpd;gb urpahtpy; khj rk;gs tUkhdj;jpNyNa 1 klq;F Kjy; 30 klq;F tiu tUkhd tpjjpahrk; cs;sJ. NkYk; Nghd]; kw;Wk; NtW tUkhd %yq;fisAk; fzf;fpnyLj;jhy; ,e;j tUkhd tpj;jpahrk; ,d;Dk; mjpfkhFk;. b Nfh];l; mth;fs; mspf;Fk; tpguj;jpd;gb ghh;j;jhy; nkhj;j tUkhdj;jpd; 50% 11 Kjy; 12% tiuAs;s kf;fSf;F my;yJ Nky; kl;lj;jpYs;sth;fSf;Fg; Nghfpd;wJ. Mdhy; mnkhpf;fhtpNyh Nky; kl;lj;jpYs;s 10% Ngh;fSf;F 35% Nky; fpilg;gjpy;iy. nghJTlik Kiwapd; fPo; fhzg;gLk; Vw;wj;jho;Tfs; cz;ikapy; kaf;fk; jUgit jhd;.

gphpl;ld; r%ftpayhsh; lf;sh]; N[ vOjpAs;sjhtJ :

,d;W ,Uf;Fk; Nrhtpaj; r%fj;jpy; kpfTk; mjpf rk;gsk; cs;stUf;Fk; Fiwe;j rk;gsk; cs;stUf;Fk; ,ilapy; (cz;ikapy; cioj;J te;j) cs;s tUkhd tpj;jpahrk; thp tpjpg;G Nghf> epr;rakhf gphpl;ld; my;yJ ];Nfd;bNetpahtpy; cs;s tUkhd tpj;jpahrj;ij tpl mjpfkhFk; NkYk; mnkhpf;fhtpYs;sijg; Nghd;W kpfg; ngUk; mstpw;F tUkhd tpj;jpahrk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. (gf;fk; 12) nghUshjhu Cf;fj; njhiffshy; Vuhskhd gyd; fpilg;gjhf Nrhtpaj; jiyth;fs; ek;Gfpd;whh;fs;. kpfTk; nghpa Cf;fj; njhiffs; mspf;Fk; muir mth;fs; cUthf;fpAs;sdh;. mjd; tpisTfis Neub thp tpjpg;gpd; %yk; ey;y Kiwapy; khw;w mth;fs; tpUk;;gtpy;iy. jdpAlik khj;jpuk;jhd; Vw;wj;jho;tpw;F fhuzk; my;y vd;gij mth;fs; epr;rakhf fhz;gpj;J tpl;lhh;fs;.

,Jjhd; rpl;dp kw;Wk; gpah;l;lh;]; ntg; MfpNahuhy; tptukhf tpthpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,ij kpfg; ngUk; tpkh;rfh; $l kWf;f ,ayhJ.

NkYk;> Vw;wj;jho;tpd; NtW gy tpjq;fSk; cs;sd:

fpuhkg;Gw kw;Wk; efh;g;Gw kf;fspilNa Vw;wj;jho;Tfs;. KO rp];lj;jpd; gad;fs; ahTk; efh;g;Gw njhopw; kf;fSf;Fj;jhd; Nghfpd;wJ. Mdhy; 50% cs;s fpuhkg;Gw kf;fs; gw;wp ,e;j rp];lk; vijAk; fz;L nfhs;tjpy;iy.

gy;NtW gpuhe;jpaq;fSf;fpilNa Vw;wj;jho;Tfs;.

urpa Fbkf;fspy; gy;NtW gphptpdUf;fpilNa Vw;wj;jho;Tfs; NkYk; urpah; kw;Wk; urpauy;yhNjhUf;FkpilapYs;s Vw;wj;jho;Tfs;.

gy;NtW $l;lq;fs; kw;Wk; gy;NtW th;j;jfq;fspy; <Lgl;bUf;Fk; gzpahsh;fSf;fpilNa Vw;wj;jho;Tfs;.

Njrj;jpd; tUkhdj;jpypUe;J ve;j tpj ciog;Gkpd;wp jq;fspd; gq;if vLj;Jf; nfhs;gth;fSf;fhd top jpwe;jpUg;gJ khj;jpuky;y> Mdhy; mth;fs; kpfg; ngUk; gzq;fis rk;ghjpj;Jf; nfhz;Lk; cs;sdh;.

tUkhdj;jpdhy; cz;lhFk; Vw;wj;jho;Tfis tUkhdthp ngUkstpy; ePf;Ffpd;wJ. Mdhy; urpahtpNyh ,J Klq;fpf;fplf;fpd;wJ. khhp]; Nlhg;g; ,ij xj;Jf; nfhz;Ls;shh;. tUkhdj;jpdhy; cz;lhFk; Vw;wj;jho;Tfis Nghf;Ftjpy; tUkhdthp kpff;Fiwe;j tpisitNa Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. kpf mjpf thp tpfpjk; 13% MFk;. kpfTk; cah;e;j tUkhdj;ij cilNahh; ,jpypUe;Jk; jg;gpj;J tpLfpd;wdh;. mNj Neuj;jpy;> Efh;nghUs;fSF;F kpfg; gaq;fukhd tjp tpjpf;fg;gl;L fPo;j;jl;L kf;fspd; jiy kPJ mjd; ghuk; Rkj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. MfNtjhd; urpa epjp Kiw goikahdnjd;W miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

rhjhuz kf;fspd; KJfpid Kwpf;Fk; kpfg;ngUk; tUkhd Vw;wj;jho;tpd; jPa tpisTfspypUe;J mth;fis XusT fhg;gJ mj;jpahtrpag; nghUl;fis rk mstpy; tpepNahfpg;gJ my;yJ Nurd; KiwahFk;. Mdhy; Aj;jj;jpw;F gpwF ,e;j KiwAk; gpd; thq;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. jw;nghOJ vtUk; mtUila tUkhd $lNth FiwaNth vy;NyhUk; xNu jpwe;j ntsp re;ijapy;jhd; thq;f Ntz;Lk;. Kd;G re;ijapy; ,uz;L tifahd tpiyapy; tpw;fg;gl;ld. Fiwe;j tUkhdk; cs;sth;fSf;F js;Sgb tpiyapYk; mjpf tUkhdk; cs;sth;fs; rhjhuz jpwe;j ntsp re;ij tpiyapy; mjpf tpiyf;F nghUl;fis thq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. Mdhy; ntFfhyj;jpw;F Kd;NgNa js;SgbAk; uj;J nra;ag;gl;L tpl;ld.

Vw;wj;jho;T Xustpw;F fy;tpapd; %ykhf ePf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. urpahtpy; fy;tp ,ytrkhf fw;Wf; nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. fy;tpf;F kpfTk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fg;gl;Lk; mjd; %yk; Vuhskhd gad;fisAk; mile;Jk; te;jJ. Mdhy; ,uz;lhk; cyf Aj;jj;jpw;Fg; gpwF rpy fy;tpj; Jiwfspy; fy;tpf; fl;lzk; tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gJk; cz;ik. ,t;thwhf> nghUshjhuj;jpy; gpd;jq;fpath;fis XusT <Nlw;Wk; khh;f;fKk; %lg;gl;lJ. ,e;j fy;tpf; fl;lzq;fs; mf;Nlhgh; 2> 1940y; tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j fUiz kpFe;j? thptpjpg;gpd; tpisthf MW yl;rk; khzth;fs; fy;tpf; fl;lzk; nrYj;j ,ayhky; gs;spf;Fr; nry;tij Jwf;f Ntz;bath;fshfp tpl;ldh;. cah;fy;tp fw;Wj;jUk; epiyaq;fspypUe;J cly;tUe;jp ciog;gth;fspd; gps;isfs; Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wd. Vwf;Fiwa me;j fy;tp epiyaq;fs; midj;Jk; gzf;fhug; gps;isfshy; VfNghfkhf;fg;gl;Nl tpl;ld. Fiwe;j rk;gsk; ngWgth;fspd; gps;isfs; fy;tp epiyaq;fs; NrUk; tpfpjk; gpd;tUkhW:

 

1933

1935

1938

gy;fiyf;fofq;fs;

50.3%

45.0%

33.9%

cah;epiyg; gs;spfs;

41.5%

31.7%

27.1%

 

njhopw; fy;tp epiyaq;fspy; NrUk; 45.4 khzth;fs; cah; mjpfhhpfs; kw;Wk; epGzh;fspd; gps;isfNsahth;. r%fj;jpy; cah; nghWg;Gf;fspy; cs;sth;fspd; gps;isfSf;F khj;jpuk;jhd; ,uhZt mfhnlkpfspy; vspikahf ,lk; fpilf;fpd;wJ. jw;NghJ urpahtpy; epytp tUk; ,e;j cz;ikfnsy;yhk; (nghJTlik gw;wp) kpfTk; NkhrkhdnjhU rpj;jpuj;ijNa ekf;F mspf;fpd;wJ.

,d;Dk;> nghUshjhu Cf;fj; njhiffs; mspj;jy; Nghd;w nfl;bf;fhuj;jdkhd nray;fs;jhd; urpahtpd; tsh;r;rp> Kd;Ndw;wk; Mfpatw;wpw;F fhuzkhapUe;Njjad;wp fk;A+dprk; my;y vd;gJ kpfTk; njspthd xd;W.

 

tptrhapfisAk; gzpahsh;fisAk; Ruz;Ljy;

Kjyhspj;Jtk; jd;Dila jzpahj nghUshjhu tsh;r;rpj; jhfj;jhy; cgNahfpj;j kw;nwhU MAjk; vd;dntdpy; mJ gzpahsh;fspd; rl;lG+h;tkhd chpikfis kWj;jJjhd;. mth;fs; nfhj;jbikfshf gzpapy; mkh;j;jg;gl;ldh;> Ntiy Neuk; ePl;lg;gl;lJ NkYk; mth;fs; jq;fspd; tpUg;gj;jpw;F khwhf gzp nra;AkhW eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gl;ldh;. Foe;ijfSk; ngz;fSk; $l Ntiy nra;AkhW eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gl;ldh;. mth;fspd; $l;likg;G fPo;ikg;gLj;jg;gl;ld NkYk; mitfspd; topapy; gy;NtW tpj jilfs; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ld. $yp kpfTk; Fiwf;fg;gl;L mepahakhf mth;fspd; tapw;wybj;J|nghUshjhu tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wk; Mfpait cz;lhf;fg;gl;ld. NrhryprKk; mNj topiaj;jhd; gpd;gw;wpaJ. xU tpj;jpahrk; (ngUq;nfhLik?) vd;dntdpy; efh;g;Gw kf;fshd Miyj; njhopyhspfis tpl tptrhapfisNa mjpfk; Ruz;baJ. ,itnay;yhk; ,e;j ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;by; mJTk; njhopshsh;fspd; tpLjiy vd;Dk; ngahpy; nra;ag;gl;ld. Kjyhspj;Jk; jd;Dila nghUshjhu tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wk; Mfpatdtw;wpw;F Ruz;liyNa rhh;e;jpUg;gijg; Nghd;Nw> nghJTlikAk; mjDila nghUshjhu tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;F mijNa rhh;e;jpUf;fpd;wJ vd;gij cz;ikfs; ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

fle;j Ik;gjhz;L fhykhf tptrhapfs; njhlh;e;J Ruz;lg;gl;L tUtNj Ruz;ly; njhlh;ghf Kjypy; ele;j tprakhFk;. xU rpyh; nrhFrhd> gfl;lhd tho;f;if elj;j tpthrapfs; jq;fspd; fjfjg;ghd ,uj;jj;ij rpe;Jfpd;wdh;. tptrhag; nghUshjhu JiwfspypUe;J njhopw;Jiwf;F Vuhskhd %yg; nghUl;fs; nfhz;L nry;yg;gLk; mNj Ntisapy; tptrhaj;ijNah my;yJ Vio tptrhapfspd; epiyiaNah Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;F mNj khjphpahd Kaw;r;rpfs; nra;ag;gltpy;iy. $l;Lg; gz;izapd; nkhj;j cw;gj;jpapy; 31% muRf;F nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;: 37% tpijf;Fk; fhy;eilj; jPtdj;jpw;Fk; muR vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;. nkhj;j cw;gj;jpapy; ,e;j Vio tptrhapfSf;F kpQ;RtNjh 26.9%. nghUshjhu tsh;r;rpf;fhf tptrhapfspkpUe;J ,t;thW Ruz;lg;gLfpd;wJ Mdhy; mth;fNsh ve;j cjtpapy;yhky; jq;fis jhq;fNs rkhspf;fTk;> Jd;g epiyapYk; kpfTk; Fiwe;j cgNahfg; nghUl;fNshLk; tplg;gLfpd;wdh;.

KO tptrha nray;KiwfisAk; murpd; ghyprpfSf;F fl;Lg;glr; nra;tJk; fpilf;Fk; %yg;nghUl;fis ||nghUshjhu tsh;r;rpf;fhf|| gwpj;Jf; nfhs;s re;jh;g;gk; cz;lhf;fpj; jUtJNk cz;ikapy; tptrhag; gz;izfis xd;WNrh;f;Fk; jpl;lj;jpd; kpfj; jpwikahd gzpahf tpsq;fpaJ. khhp]; lg; (Maurice Dobb) mth;fSk; ,ij xg;Gf; nfhs;fpd;whh;.

kpfTk; gzr; rpf;fy; tUk; R+o;epiyfspy;> mjpfg;gbahd tptrha tpisr;ry;fis ngWtNj $l;L tptrha nrhj;Jf;fs; Jiw kw;Wk; gz;izfis ,af;Fk; JiwapdJk; gzpahf ,Ue;jJ. jhdpaq;fSk; cUisf;fpoq;FfSk; MW tUlq;fSf;F Kd;dhy; ngwg;gl;lij Nghy; ,uz;L klq;F ngwg;gLfpd;wJ. cy;yd; kw;Wk; mJ rhh;e;j nghUl;fs; ,d;Dk; mjpfkhfg; ngwg;gLfpd;wJ.

tptrhapfs; gl;bdpahy; nrj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ ,e;j ''mjpfg;gbahd tpisr;ry;|| mth;fsplkpUe;J gpLq;fg;gl;L ntspapypUe;J ,ae;jpuq;fs; thq;Ftjw;F jpUg;gg;gl;lJ"". tptrha cw;gj;jp rhpe;J nfhz;Lk; ehL gQ;rj;ij vjph; nfhz;bUe;j fhyj;jpy;jhd; jhdpaq;fspd; Vw;Wkjp KO tPr;rpy; ,Ue;jJ vd gha;Nfht; mth;fs; $Wfpd;whh;fs;:

nkhj;j cw;gj;jpapy; Vw;Wkjp nra;ag;gl;l jhdpaj;jpd; rjtpfpjk;

1929 21.2%

1930 31.6%

1931 35.2%

1932 22.5%

urpahtpd; ,e;j Ruz;Lk; Nghf;Fj;jhd; mjDila tsh;r;rpf;Fk; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Fk; fhuzkhapUe;jJ. ,q;Fs;s epiyiaAk; 19k; E}w;whz;by; ,q;fpyhe;jpy; cs;s tptrhapfs; kw;Wk; njhopyhsh;fs; MfpNahhpd; epiyiaAk; xg;gpl;Lg;ghUq;fs;. ,uz;Lf;FkpilNa ngUk; xw;Wikia ePq;fs; fhz;gPh;fs;.

kPz;Lk;> tptrhapfs; cw;gj;jp nra;j tpis nghUl;fspd; tpiyfs; kpfTk; Fiwe;j epiyapy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd mNj Neuj;jpy; mth;fshy; cgNahfpf;fg;gLk; Efh;nghUs;fspd; tpiyfNsh kpfTk; fpuhf;fpahf cs;sd NkYk; mitfspd; Nky; tpjpf;fg;gLk; tpw;gid thp xU $Ljy; Rikahf cs;sJ. ehl;bd; 75% epjpia tpw;gid thp mspf;fpd;wJ. tptrhapfSk;> njhopyhsh;fs; cl;gl;l nghJthd Efh;Nthh;fs;jhd; ,jd; KO mbiaAk; jhq;Ffpd;wdh;. mjdhy; tho;f;ifj;juk; kpfTk; Fiwthf cs;sJ NkYk; tptrhapfs; kw;Wk; njhopyhsh;fs; MfpNahh; thOk; R+o;epiy jpUg;jp jUk; epiyapypUe;J kpfTk; njhiytpNyNa cs;sJ.

 

NjrPathjj;ij kPz;Lk; caph;g;gpj;jy;

(Kd;NdWtjw;F) nghUshjhu Cf;fj; njhif khj;jpuky;yhky; Njrpathj czh;TfSk; kpf mjpfkhf Njit vd;gij mDgtj;jpd; %yk; nghJTlik czh;e;jJ. ''ve;j ehl;bYk; Gul;rp|| vd;w Nfhrj;Jld; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l ,af;fk; ,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghhpd; NghJ Rj;j Njrpathjj;jpy; Kbe;jJ> vy;yh Gul;rpj; Jbg;Gk; ----."" ,J rk;ge;jkhf Nrhryprj;jpd; re;jh;g;gthjj;jpw;F xU rpy cjhuzq;fisAk; mJ Njrpathjj;ij vjph; nfhz;lNghJ mjw;F Neh;e;j ntl;ffukhd Njhy;tpiaAk; ehk; vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;Nwhk;.

Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfspd; Ntz;LNfhSf;fpzq;f mfpy cyf nghJTlikf; $l;likg;G Klf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J xU tifapy; mfpy cyf ,af;fk; vd;w nfhs;ifapypUe;J khwpr; nry;tJk; Njrpa thjj;jpw;fhd jsj;ij cUthf;Ftjw;Fkhd Kjy; gbahFk;.

Aj;j fhyj;jpd; NghJ n[h;khdpa Njrpathj Kof;fj;jpw;nfjpuhf urpahTk; ];yht; ,d Kof;fj;ij vOg;gpaJ. 1941k; Mz;L Kjy; Vwf;Fiwa xt;nthU tUlKk; \\midj;J ];yht; fhq;fpu];|| urpahtpy; $l;lg;gl;lJ. ||mfpy cyf ghl;lhspfspd; kz;|vd;w mth;fspd; Kof;fk; ''];yht; ,dj;jpd; jiyik"" vd;W khw;wg;gl;lJ. NkYk; mjDila uhZtk; tUk; vy;yhf; fhyq;fspYk; ];yht; rKjhaq;fspd; uhZtkhf khwpaJ.

uhZt tPuh;fsp;d; rj;jpag; gpukhzKk; khw;wg;gl;lJ. 1939f;F Kd;G tiu uhZtj;jpy; gzp Ghpgth;fs; vLj;j rj;jpag; gpukhzk;:
''vd;Dila midj;J nray;fSk; rpe;jidfSk; ghl;lhspfspd; tpLjiy vd;w ,yl;rpaj;ij Nehf;fpAk;> Nrhtpaj; $l;likg;gpw;fhfTk;> Nrhryprj;jpw;fhfTk;> vy;yh kf;fspd; rNfhjuj;jpw;fhfTk; NghhpLtjw;fhfTNk ,Uf;Fk;.""
Mdhy;
1939k; Mz;L KjNyh mthpd; rj;jpag; gpukhzk;
''vd;Dila jha;ehl;bw;Fk; murhq;fj;jpw;Fk; ,Wjp %
r;R cs;stiu ghLgLNtd;"" vd;W khwpaJ.

1944k; tUlk; khh;r;R 15 md;W NjrPafPjk; iftplg;gl;L ''kpfg; ngUk;|| urpahit typikg;gLj;Jk; Gjpa fPjk; eilKiwf;F nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ.""

Gul;rpf;F Kd;gpUe;j nfa;]h; fhyj;J urpa n[duy;fis Gfo;tJ Gjpjhf eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. mth;fs; Njrj;jpd; Kd;khjphpfshf kPz;Lk; Kd; itf;fg;gl;ldh;. ,J fhyk; tiu vth;fs;> Vfhjpgj;jpathjpfshfTk; mbikf;fhyj;J iff;$ypfshfTk; miof;fg;gl;lth;fs; jw;NghJ fz;zpag;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;. 1942k; Mz;L [_iy 29 md;w nfa;]h; fhyj;J n[duy;fshd ]{thNuht;> FNlhNrht; kw;Wk; mnyf;]hz;lh; net;];f;fp MfpNahh; fz;zpaj;jpw;Fhpath;fshf mwptpf;fg;gl;ldh;. ,Wjpahf 1943 [dthp 6 md;W nfa;]h; fhyj;jpy; mzpag;gl;lJ Nghd;W milahsq;fis jq;fspd; Njhy; gl;ilfspy; mzpaj; njhlq;fpdh;.

fk;A+dprj;jpd; Muk;g fhyj;jpy; kpfTk; khpahijahff; fUjg;gl;l tuyhw;W Mrphpah; Nghf;Nuht;];f;fp Mthh;. mthpd; Gj;jfq;fs; $l ghlg;Gj;jfq;fshf itf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. mf;fhyj;jpy; vOjg;gl;L te;jJ Nghd;W jdpg;gl;l jdpg;gl;l egh;fspd; rhpj;jpukhf vOjhky; KO rhpj;jpuj;ijAk; Rj;j khhf;rp];l; ghzpapy; vOjpdhh;. me;Njh ghpjhgk;! 1934k; Mz;L mthpd; rhpj;jpug; Gj;jfq;fs; fisag;gl;L mt;tplj;jpy; nr];lhNfht; vOjpa Gj;jfq;fs; te;jd. nr];lhNfhtpd; Gj;jfq;fs; ghlg;Gj;jfq;fshf khwpd. mtUila Gj;jfq;fspd; jdpr;rpwg;G vd;dntdpy; \\ek; ehl;il Nerpg;Nghk;: mjd; cd;dj rhpj;jpuj;ij gw;wp ehk; ed;fwpa Ntz;Lk;|| vd;gjhFk;. KO rhpj;jpuKk; Njrpathjj;ijAk; mjpfhuth;f;fj;ijAk; Cl;Lgtdhf jpUj;jp vOjg;gl;ld. ,J ve;j mstpw;F nrd;wnjd;why;> ,Jehs; Gul;rpapd; Kd;Ndhbfshf fUjg;gl;l gjpNdohk; kw;Wk; gjpndl;lhk; E}w;whz;bd; ghl;lhsp th;f;fj;jpd; jiyth;fs; midtUk; jpBnud Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij ,oe;jdh;. \\mth;fs; khpahijkpf;f murpay;thjpahf fUjg;gltpy;iy Vnddpy; nfhs;isf;fhuh;fs; mth;fspd; ,af;fj;jpy; xU ghfkhf ,Ue;jdh;.||

,f; fhyfl;lj;jpy; Njrk; tzq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf Kd; itf;fg;gl;l jiyth;fspy; khh;f;N]h my;yJ Vq;fy;N]h my;yJ nydpNdh ,y;iy. 1941k; Mz;L etk;gh; 7md;W Gul;rp Mz;L tpohtpd; NghJ ];lhypd; mth;fspd; Ngr;R ,t;thW njhlq;Ffpd;wJ:
,e;j Aj;jj;jpy; ek;Kila Kd;Ndhh;fshd mnyf;]hz;lh; epA+];fP> jpkpl;hp Nlhd;];fP> F];kh kpdpd;> jpkpl;hp Ngh]hh;];fP> mnyf;]hz;lh; ]{NthNuht;> kpfhapy; FJN]ht; MfpNahhpd; Mz;ik kpf;f cUtq;fis kdjpy; nfhz;L ePq;fs; czh;T ngWtPh;fshf.
Aj;j fhyj;jpd; NghJ ,e;j mWtUk; cz;ikahd jiyth;fshfp tpl;ldh;. mth;fspy; ehy;th; ,sturh;fs;> xUtNuh ghjphpahh; mth;fspd; vtUk; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;fhd nfhs;if vd;W miof;fg;gl;lij milAk; nghUl;L xU JUk;;igf; $l efh;j;jhjth;fs;. Mdhy; jw;NghNjh ,e;j rKjhak; tzq;Fk; flTs;fshf Mf;fg;gl;L tpl;ldh;. ,th;fisg; gw;wpnay;yhk; ve;j mstpw;F xU fhyj;jpy; fUjg;gl;lnjdpy;> VNjDk; xU Gj;jfj;jpy; mth;fisg; gw;wp rw;W Gfo;e;J vOjpdhy; $l mJNt mij jil nra;tjw;F fhuzkhf tpsq;fpaJ.

,yf;fpa tl;lj;jpYk; fyhr;rhuj;jpYk; mNj NjrPa kdg;ghq;F Njhd;wpaJ. ];lhypd; tpUJ ngw;w ehd;F E}y;fs; : jpkpl;hP Nthd;];Nfhapd; tho;f;if> Nghh;Nthtpd; ,sturh;> me;NjhNdht;];fP vOjpa cd;dj NkhNuhtp ([hh;[pahtpd; NjrPa jiyth;) kw;Wk; Nahd; vOjpa nrq;fp];fhd; vd;Dk; E}y;fshk;. mn`Nuhd;ngh;f; vOjpa ''ghhP]pd; tPo;r;rp"" vd;w Gj;jfj;jpw;F ];lhypd; tpUJ fpilj;jJ. mth; vOjpa kpfTk; Gfo;ngw;w ftpij ,t;thW njhlq;Ffpd;wJ :
''ehndhU urpa ,isQd;> kh];Nfhtpd; ike;jd;;> urpag; ngUikapd; thhpR""

,f;fhyfl;lj;jpy; Njrk; urpa Njrpathj kJthy; Nghija+l;lg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;jij ehk; fhz;fpd;Nwhk;. Nrhryprj;jpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Nghw;Wtjw;Fg; gjpyhf urpahtpd; Kd;Ndw;wk; Nghw;wg;gl;lJ. cjhuzj;jpw;F> Mrphpag; gapw;rp ngWgth;fSf;F fw;gpf;fgl;l ghlj;jpd; xU gFjpiaf; fhZq;fs;:

Nrhtpaj; $l;likg;gpw;F khj;jpuky;y Mdhy; KO kdpj ,dj;jpw;FNk urpa kf;fspd; Nrit kpf kpf cd;djkhdJ. Nrhtpaj; kf;fspdmurpay; J}u Nehf;F> uhZt ijhpak; kw;Wk; tpNtfk; Mfpatw;Wf;fhd Mjhuq;fs; mth;fspd; rhpj;jpuj;jpy; epiwe;Js;sd. ek;Kila ijhparhypfisg; gw;wp rhpj;jpuj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; ,e;j cz;ikfs; kpfTk; Kidg;NghL khzth;fs; Kd; vLj;J itf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ek;Kila rhpj;jpuj;jpy; epuk;gp topAk; me;j Gul;rpfu kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;w rk;gtq;fshy; mth;fspd; neq;rQ;fs; ngUikahy; tpk;kl;Lk;.

mfpy cyf Nrhryprk; vjph;nfhz;l tpgj;J ,J. mfpy cyf ,af;fk; kiwe;jJ: NjrPathjg; Nga; jd; jiyiaj; J}f;fpaJ. ,J cyf Nrhrypr ,af;fj;ij ml;ilg;G+r;rp Nghd;W cwpQ;rp tUk; mbg;gil NehahFk;. urpahtpy;jhd; Njrpathjk; jdf;nfhU ,lj;ij cUthf;fp Kz;zdpf;F tUtjpy; ntw;wp fz;lJ. ,uz;lhk; cyf Aj;jj;jpw;Fg; gpd; ,e;j ,af;fj;ij mfpy cyf ,af;fkhf khw;wpl xU Kaw;rp nra;ag;gl;lJ. Mdhy; A+Nfh];yhtpah mjw;nfjpuhf fpsh;e;njOe;j mjDila NjrPa jdpj;jd;ikia mq;fPfhpf;fr; nra;jJ. ,J Nrhrypr vjph;g;gpd; Muk;gkhfapUe;jJ. irdh> &khdpah kw;Wk; my;ghdpah Mfpa ehLfs; ,ijj; njhlh;e;jd. ,d;Nwh urpahit mnkhpf;fhTld; ,izf;Fk; \\Neubj; njhlh;Gfs;|| cz;L> cyf tptfhuq;fspy; xj;Jiog;Gk; cz;L. Mdhy; irdhTk; urpahTk; guk vjphpfshth;> ,e;j ,U nghJTlik ehLfspd; uhZtq;fspd; xd;iwnahd;W jhf;Ftjw;F Maj;jkhf vy;iyapy; epd;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. nfhs;ifapy; khw;wk; nra;J tpl;ljhfTk;> Kjyhspj;Jt kdg;ghd;ikNahL nray;gLtjhfTk;> nghJTlikf; nfhs;ifia gbg;gbahf iffOtp tpl;L Vfhjpgj;jpa Mirfis jdf;Fs; tsh;j;J tUtjhfTk; Vfhjpgj;jpathjpfNshL xj;Jioj;J tUtjhfTk; urpahit irdh Fw;wk; rhl;b tUfpd;wJ. Nrhryprk; Nghd;w xU fUj;jpaypd; Njhw;wKk; me;jf; fUj;jpaiy xl;ba xt;nthd;iwAk; ,e;j FWfpa Ik;gJ tUl fhyj;jpw;Fs; Jwe;J tUtJk;> Nrhryprj;jpw;F Vw;gl;l kpfg;ngUk; tpgj;jhFk;. ,d;iwf;F Nrhryprthjpfs; kf;fs; Kd; vij vij itf;fpd;whh;fNsh mitfis mth;fNs jq;fspd; \\rptg;Gr; Rth;f;fj;jpy;|| Jwe;J tUfpd;wdh;.

 

murpay; re;jh;g;gthjk;

murpay; cwTfspy; $l ve;j tpj nfhs;ifAk; gpd;gw;wg;gltpy;iy. Kjy; Aj;jj;jpd; NghJ Aj;jg; gOJghh;g;Gf;fis xU r%f mePjpahf tpthpj;J mij fLikahf vjph;j;jdh;. Mdhy; ,uz;lhk; cyf Aj;jj;jpw;Fg; gpwF urpahNt mJ Nghd;w Aj;jg; gOJghh;g;ig tpjp;j;J gpLq;fpaJ. n[h;khdpa ghrprk; fLikahf vjph;f;fg;gl;lJ> tpkh;rpf;fg;gl;lJ NkYk; mJ Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpd; kpfTk; Nfhukhd cUtk; vdTk; kpfTk; jPtpukhdJ vdTk; th;zpf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy;; tpUg;gq;fs; mth;fis Ntz;LNfhs; tpLj;jNghJ> mth;fs; n[h;kdpNahL $l;L cld;gbf;if nra;jdh;> n[h;kdpapd; NjrPa fPjk; kh];Nfh tpkhd epiyaj;jpy; ghlg;gl;lJ NkYk; Aj;jj;jpd; Kjy; ,uz;L tUlj;jpd; NghJ KO xj;Jiog;Gk; ey;fg;gl;lJ mj;jifa xj;Jiog;G nra;Njhk; vd;w fhuzk; fhl;bj;jhd; Nghye;jpd; kPJ urpah chpik nfhz;lhb mq;fPfhuk; ngw;wJ. mfpy cyf xg;ge;jq;fs; rk;ge;jkhfTk urpah kpfTk; re;jh;g;gthjj;Jld; ele;J nfhz;lJ.

 

nfhs;ifg; gpd;thq;fy;

kpfTk; rkPgj;jpy; urpahtpYk; kw;w fpof;F INuhg;gpa ehLfspYk; cUthfp tUk; nghUshjhu mbg;gil rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; nfhs;ifg; gpd;thq;fy;fNsahFk;. ,e;j rPh;jpUj;jq;fSf;fhd fhuzpfs; vd;dntdpy; re;ij Kiwia jLj;J tpl;l gpwF> Nrhrypj;jplk; ve;jtp;jkhd eilKiwj;jg;gLj;jg;glf;$ba nghUshjhu fzf;fPl;L KiwAk; ,Ue;jpltpy;iy. jpl;lkpLjypd; %yk; nghUl;fis tpepNahfpj;jy; eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ> Mdhy; Njitahd msT ePz;l fhyj;jpw;F mDgtj;jpw;Fg; gpd;G toq;Fjy; kw;Wk; Njit Mfpatw;wpd; rf;jpfs; (Forces of Supply and Demand) vj;jid J}uk; jtph;f;f ,ayhjit vd;gij mth;fs; ngUkstpy; czh;e;J mjw;F mq;fPfhuk; mspj;jdh;. nraw;ifahd tpiy eph;zak; rpy fhyq;fSf;F gzp Ghpfpd;wd Mdhy; gpd;Ngh Gjpa rpf;fy;fis Njhw;Wtpj;J tpLfpd;wd. nghUl;fs; jl;Lg;ghL cz;lhfpd;wd NkYk; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; fUtpfspYk; xU ,zf;fkw;w epiy cz;lhfpd;wd. $ypapy; Vw;wj;jho;T ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> nghUshjhu Cf;fj;njhifg; gpur;id jPh;f;fg;gltpy;iy. gy;NtW tpj cw;gj;jp fhuzpfspd; nray;jpwid eph;zapg;gjw;fhd ve;j tpj nfhs;ifAk; mq;Nf ,Ue;jpltpy;iy. ,e;jr; rpf;fy;fspypUe;njy;yhk; tpLgl Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nehf;fj;Jld;> kpfTk; mjpf msT ,wf;Fkjp nra;fpd;wdh;. ,JTk; ve;j mstpw;F Ntiy nra;fpd;wJ vd;W Nrhrypf cyfk; ghPl;rpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. Nghye;Jjhd; Kjd; Kjypy; ,e;jf; nfhs;ifg; gpd;thq;fiy Nehf;fpr; nrd;wJ. ];fhh;NyhNfapd; topfhl;Ljypd; fPo; jd;Dila nghUshjhu rl;l tiuaiwf;Fs; re;ij Kiwia kPz;Lk; xU Kiw mKy;gLj;jpaJ. urpah mij jPtPukhf vjph;j;jJ. (mij mKy;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpy;) \\Nghye;Jtpd; Kd;khjphp|| gw;wp ahUk; Muha;r;rp nra;tJ jLf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; IaNfh! vd; nra;a! jpl;lkpl;l nghUshjhuj;jpypUe;J tpise;j rpf;fy;fs; jhq;f ,ayhj mstpw;F nrd;W tplNt urpa nghUshjhu epGzh;fNs mjw;fhd jsj;ij cz;lhf;fp tpl;ldh;. Nguhrphpah; fz;NlhNuhtp~;~{k; Nguhrphpah; <t;]p ypgh;nkd; MfpNahh; ,e;jg; gpur;id rk;ge;jkhf mbg;gil gzp nra;Js;sdh;.; (nghUspd;) kjpg;gPl;Lg; gpur;id rk;ge;jkhf fz;NlhNuhtp~;~pd; rpe;jidf; NfhL; khh;f;rpd; jj;Jtj;jpypUe;J rw;W tpyfpAs;sJ: ypgh;Nkd; tpiy eph;zak; gw;wp Gjpa Kiwia mspj;Js;shh;. Nfh]pfpd; mth;fsk; gpnu~;ndt; mth;fSk; ,e;j Gjpa Kiwia ghuhl;bAs;sdh;. mij ghPl;rpj;Jg; ghh;f;fTs;sdh;.

jpl;lkpLjypYs;s rpf;fy;fisg; gw;wp ypngh;nkd; 1962 nrg;lk;gh; khjk; ntspap;l;l fl;Liu xd;wpy; Rl;bf;fhl;bapUe;jhh;. ,jw;F ehd;F tUlq;fSf;Fg; gpwFk; $l nghUshjhutpayhsh;fs; ,e;jg; gpur;id gw;wp tpthjpj;Jf; nfhz;Lk; rz;ilapl;Lf; nfhz;Lk; ,Ue;jdh;. jw;NghJ fle;j ,uz;L tUlq;fshfj;jhd; ghPl;rpj;Jg; ghh;f;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nehf;fj;Jld; Gjpa Kiw mKy;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. 1968k;Mz;L ,Wjpf;Fs; urpahtpd; KO njhopYk; ,e;jf; nfhs;ifapd;gb khw;wpaikf;fg;gLk; vd gpujkh; Nfh]pfpd; mwptpg;Gr; nra;J cyif tpag;gpyho;j;jpAs;shh;.

1959-1965 Mz;bw;fhd Vohz;Lj;jpl;lk; Njhy;tpaile;jNj ,e;jg; Gjpa Kiwfspd; gf;fk; jpUk;Gtjw;fhd gpz;zdpahFk;. fle;j gj;J Mz;Lfshf njhlh;r;rpahf njhopy; kpfTk; fPo; Nehf;fpg; Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wij itj;J Nehf;FNthkhdhy; urpag; nghUshjhu R+o;epiyfs; cw;gj;jp nra;tjw;F vj;jid rhjfkhf ,y;iy vd;gJ njspthfj; njhpa tUfpd;wJ. ---------------------------------- . mjpfhpj;J tUk; kj;jpakhf;FjYk; mjdhy; tUk; rpf;fy;fSk; Fog;gq;fSk; nghUshjhu epGzh;fis Fog;gj;jpy; Mo;j;jp tUk; kw;nwhU jPikahFk;. (nghUshjhu) Cf;f Kiw vjph;ghh;j;j mstpw;F gad; juj; jtwpaJk; %d;whJ jPikahFk;. juj;jpy; ftdk; nrYj;jhky; vz;zpf;ifapy; ftdk; nrYj;jpaJk; GJg; GJf; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fs; nra;jy; kw;Wk; etPd kakhf;Fjy; Mfpatw;wpy; Vw;gl;bUf;Fk; Njf;fk; Mfpait ehd;fhtJ jPikahFk;. tise;J NghFk; jd;ik ,y;yhjJk; gpd;gw;w ,ayhjJk; Ie;jhtJ FiwghlhFk;. MwhtJk; vy;yhtw;wpw;Fk; NkyhdJk; vd;dntd;why;;> Nfh]pfpd; mth;fNs xg;Gf; nfhz;lJ Nghy; ngha;ahd tpiyfshFk;. mth; $wpdhh;: \\ek;Kila tpiyfs; cz;ikahd kjpg;ig gpujpgypf;ftpy;iy.|| ,e;jj;; jPikfnsy;yhk; rkPgj;jpa nghUshjhu thjg;gpujp thjq;fspy; re;Njfkw;w thh;j;ijfshy; xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd. ypngh;Nkd; mth;;fshy; cUthf;fg;gl;l Gjpa rpe;jid Mf;fk; tUkhW:

jw;NghJ Kd; nkhopag;gLk; jpl;lj;jpd; tpisthf vy;yh (cw;gj;jp) epiyaq;fisAk; cd;dpg;ghf Nkw;ghh;it nra;Ak; nghWg;gpypUe;J kj;jpa jpl;l epiyak; tpLtpf;fg;glNtz;Lk;. mJ Nghd;Nw> nghUshjhu topahf my;yhky; eph;thfj;jpd; jiyaPl;lhy; cw;gj;jpapy; khw;wk; nra;Ak; nryTkpf;f Kiw fisag;gl Ntz;Lk;. xU mikg;G jd;Dila mjpfgl;r rf;jp vd;d vd;gij jhNd jPh;khdpf;f KbAk; vd;gij ehk; KOikahf Ghpe;J nfhz;bl Ntz;Lk;.

murpduhy; mKy; nra;ag;gl;l Gjpa rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; Kjd; Kjyhf kh];NfhtpYk; Nghy;~ptpf;fh khapf; Mfpa efuq;fspy; cs;s Mz;fs; Jzp jahhpf;Fk; MiyfspYk; Nfhh;f;fp khapf;fpYs;s ngz;fs; Jzp jahhpf;Fk; MiyapYk; 1964k; Mz;L ghPl;rpj;Jg; ghh;f;fg;gl;lJ. 1965 [dthpapy; cf;iudpYs;s fd uf jahhpg;G MiyAk; ,e;j nfhs;ifapd;gb nray;gl Muk;gpj;jJ. 1965d; ,Wjpf;Fs; Efh;Nthh; nghUs; jahhpf;Fk; ehD}W epWtdq;fSk; 3000 rpy;yiw tpw;gidf;filfSk; ,e;jf; nfhs;ifapd; mbg;gilapy; thh;j;njLf;fg;gl;ld. 1967 [dthpf;Fs; %d;wpy; xU gh; njhopy; ,e;jg; Gjpa nfhs;ifapd; fPo; xd;wpizf;fg;gl;ld. 1968f;Fs; KO nghUshjhuKk; ,e;jf; nfhs;iffspd; gbNa ,aq;Fk; vd vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ. RUf;fkhfr; nrhy;Nthkhdhy; nra;ag;gl;l rPhj;jpUj;jq;fs; gpd;tUkhW:

jpl;lkpLjy; th;j;jf Cf;fj; njhiffs; Nghd;w gioa Kiw khw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ. jw;nghOJ> vy;yhtw;iwAk; kj;jpapypUe;J fl;lisapl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gjw;F gjpyhf> xt;nthU fk;ngdpf;Fk; tiuaiwf;Fl;gl;l Rje;jpuk; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ MfNt mJNt jd;Dila nrhe;j nghUshjhu jpl;lj;ij jahhpj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;.

ngUk;ghYk;> mth;fspd; KO Kaw;rpahNyNa (Kd;Ndw;wk; jUk;) nghUshjhu nfhs;ifis fUj;jpy; nfhz;L nghUshjhu KbTfis vLg;gJ: xU Gwk; KO jahhpg;Gf;fSk; jq;F jilapd;wp tpw;Fk; tifapy; tpiyfis eph;zapg;gJk; kWGwk; Efh;Nthh;fspd; Njitfis G+h;j;jpahf;Fk; tpjj;jpYs;s nghUl;fisNa jahhpg;gJk; mjDila cz;ikahd ,yl;rpakhFk;.

,e;j Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf> cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; gzpahsh;fspd; $ypAk; tpiy eph;zaj;NjhL Nrh;f;fg;gLfpd;wd. epyj;jpw;fhd tjp tpjpf;fg;gLk;. KjyPl;Lw;F KjyPl;L thp 6% tpjpf;fg;gLk;. tq;fpapypUe;J ngwg;gLk; gzj;jpw;F 2 Kjy; 5% tiu tl;b tpjpf;fg;gLk;. ,t;thW rhj;jpakhd tiu nghUshjhu cz;ik epiyfSf;F Vw;w tpiy eph;zak; nra;ag;gLk;. Miyapd; tUkhdj;ij Miy NkyhsNu ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;thh;: mJ Nkyjpfhhpfshy; eph;zapf;fg;glhJ.

xU nghUspd; tpiy ehL KOtjpYk; xNu khjphp ,Uf;fhJ. xt;nthU MiyAk; mJ cw;gj;jp nra;j nghUspd; tpiyia Vw;wthW eph;zak; nra;Ak;. nghUspd; GJik> cah; juk; kw;Wk; nraw;jpwd; Mfpatw;iw fUj;jpy; nfhz;L tpiy mjw;Nfw;wthW cah;j;jpf; nfhs;syhk;.

toq;F Kiwapy; (System of Supply) Gjpa Kiwnahd;W filg;gpbf;fg;gLk;. xt;nthU MiyNah my;yJ epWtdNkh mJNth nfhs; Kjy; kw;Wk; tpw;gidfis ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;. mth;fSila nrhe;j tpw;gidahsh;fisAk; itj;Jf; nfhs;s mDkjpf;fg;gLk;. mth;fs; th;j;jf fz;fhl;rpfspy; gq;F ngwyhk;> re;ij Muha;r;rpf;F gzk; nrytplyhk;> NkYk; jq;fspd; tpNrr jahhpg;Gf;fisg; gw;wp nra;jp Clfq;fspy; tpsk;guk; $lr; nra;J nfhs;syhk;.

xU th;j;jfj;jpd; ntw;wp vd;gJ mjDila cw;gj;jpiaf; nfhz;L eph;zapf;fg;glhJ khwhf> ypngh;Nkd; tiuaWj;jJ Nghd;W \\yhgj;jpd; tpfpjk; jahhpg;gpw;fhd epjp tpfpjj;NjhL ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;|| vd;W yhgq;fspd; mbg;gilapNyNa eph;zapf;fg;gLk;. jw;NghJ ve;j njhopy;fs; my;yJ epWtdq;fs; ey;y jpUg;jpfukhd nray; jpwd; nfhz;bUe;J kw;Wk; mitfSila jahhpg;Gf;fSf;Fk; ey;y fpuhf;fp ,Uf;fpd;wNjh me;j njhopy;fs; epWtdq;fs; ey;y yhgj;ijg; ngWk;. kw;iwtfs; gpd; jq;fp ,Uf;Fk;. vt;thwhapDk;> ,e;j yhgk; vd;gJ Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpy; cs;sijg; Nghd;W ,y;yhtpl;lhYk;> jw;Nghija epiyapy; kj;jpa jpl;lkpLjy;> Nrhrypr Cf;fj; njhiffs; Mfpatw;wpypUe;J kpfTk; tpyfpg; NghtjhFk;.

yhgk; Miyapd; Nkyhsh; trNk ,Uf;Fk; NkYk; xt;nthU epWtdKk; jhq/fNs mij cgNahfpj;Jk; nfhs;Sk;. mij cgNahfpg;gjw;F %d;W tifahd epjpfs; ,Uf;Fk;. Cf;fj; njhif epjp> fyhr;rhu kw;Wk; jq;Fkpl epjp> tsh;r;rp kw;Wk; Kd;Ndw;w epjp. xt;nthU epjpf;Fk; vt;tsT njhif nry;Yk; vd;gJ yhgj;ij nghWj;Nj eph;zapf;fg;gLk;. ,e;j Kiwapy;> mjpf yhgk; ngw;why; mjpf $ypg; gq;F njhif fpilf;Fk;> fyhr;rhu tpraq;fSf;F mjpfk; nrytspf;f KbAk; NkYk; tpahghuj;jpw;Fk; mjpf gzk; fpilf;Fk; vd;gij NkyhsUk; njhopyhsh;fSk; czh;th;. Kd;Ndw;w epjp vd;gJ Gjpa xd;W. mjd; %yk; Gjpa fz;L gpbg;Gf;fs;> fUtpfs; kw;Wk; jpl;lkply; Mfpait xU ey;y ce;Jjiyg; ngWk;.

,e;j rPh;jpUj;jq;fs; vy;yhk; urpa nghUshjhu Kiwapy; xU Gul;rpfu khw;wq;fis nfhz;L te;J mitfis Kjyhspj;Jt nghUshjuk; kw;Wk; nghUshjhuf; nfhs;ifSf;F kpf mUfpy; nfhz;L tUgitfshFk;.

Kd;dh; tpthjpj;jitfspypUe;J ,uz;L tpraq;fis ehk; njspthf czh;e;J nfhs;syhk;:

urpahtpy; Nrhrypr fUj;jpaypypUe;J tpyfpg; NghtJ njhlh;r;rpahf ele;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ: NkYk; mjDila mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffs; xd;wd; gpd; xd;whf if fOtg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

,e;j khw;wq;fsps; tpisthf> urpa nghJTlik gy tiffspy; Nkw;fj;jpa Vfhjpgj;jpa Kiwf;F kpf ntF mUfpy; te;Js;sJ. ,e;j ,uz;L KiwfSk; xd;Wld; xd;W fye;J tUtjhfNt jw;NghJ r%ftpaiyr; rhh;e;j fzprkhd nghUshjhu epGzh;fSk; rpe;jidthjpfSk; fUJfpd;wdh;. mitfs; Kuz;ghLk; tpraq;fs; kpfTk; Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl te;J> xNu khjphpahtJ mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;L tUfpd;wJ.

,e;j ,U cz;ikfisAk; Mjhpf;ff; $ba cWjpg;gLj;jf;$ba NtW rpy Mjhuq;fisAk; ehk; Rl;bf; fhz;gpg;Nghk;. njhopw;Gul;rpapdhy; urpahtpy; xU njhopw;fyhr;rhuk; Njhd;wpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. urpahtpy; nghUshjhu tsh;r;rp mjd; cr;rpia mile;jpltpy;iy. mth;fs; gw;whf;Fiwg; gpur;idia vjph; nfhz;L tUfpd;whh;fs; NkYk; nghJ kf;fspd; nghUl;fs; cgNahfk; $Ljy; ,y;iy. NtW thh;j;ijfspy; $Wtjdhy; Nuh];Nlh mth;fs; $wpa ngUk; nghUl; fplq;fhfNth my;yJ fhy;gpnua;j; mth;fs; vjph;ghh;j;j tskpf;f rKjhakhfNth MFtnjd;gJ njhiy J}uf; fdNt. ,itaidj;Jk; ,Ue;J te;j NghjpYk;> njhopw; rKjhaj;jpd; gy;NtW rhay;fs; mjpy; Njhd;wpf; nfhz;Ljhd; tUfpd;wd. gpuQ;R rpe;jidahsh; Nua;khz;L MNuhd; mth;fspd; thh;j;ijfspy; $wpl Ntz;Lkhdhy;> \\fhUk;> Fsph; rhjdKk; njhiyf;fhl;rpfSk; Gul;rpj; Jbg;ig mopj;Jf; nfhz;L tUfpd;wd.

Gul;rpf;fhyj;J ,isQh;fs; Nrhryprj;jplk; nfhz;bUe;j <Lghl;il ,d;iwa urpa ,isQh;fsplk; ,y;iy. Nkw;fpy; epytptUtJ Nghd;w gy;NtW tpj jpUl;L> Fb> uTbj;jdk;> tpgr;rhuk; kw;Wk; gy;NtW nrf;]; Fw;wq;fs; Mfpatw;iw jq;fspy; ntspg;gLj;jp tUfpd;wdh;. (nghJTlik) fUj;jpaypd;gbNa fy;tp fw;Wf; nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wnjdpDk;> ,isQh;fSf;F me;jf; nfhs;ifapYs;s Mh;tk; Fd;wpf; nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wJ. ,isQh;fs; kPl;bq;fSf;F tUtJ kpf kpf Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wJ vd ,isQh; Nrhrypr xUq;fpizg;gfk; Gfhh; $wpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. ghh;l;bapd; cWg;gpdh;fshf Nrh;f;fg;gl;l gpwFk; $l> ghh;l;b ,l;l flikfis mth;fs; nra;tjpy;iy. ,isQh;fSf;fhf ntspaplg;gLk; ,jo;fspy; tUk; aPNkh];l; Nghd;w gj;jphpf;iffspy; tUk; fijfs; ,ij ntspr;rk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. kf;fspd; tuNtw;igg; ngWk; fUj;Jf;fs; mth;fs; iftplg;gl;lijAk; md;dpakhfpg; NghdijANk Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. gs;spf;F fl; mbj;J tpLjy;> xOf;fj;ij Jr;rkhf fUjy;> flikfis epiwNtw;Wjpy; myl;rpak; fhl;Ljy; Mfpad fUj;Jf;fis nfhz;l fijfNs ,g;gj;jphpf;iffspy; nghJthf gpuRhpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. urpa elg;Gf;fsp;y; epGzj;Jtk; ngw;w xUth; fPo;fz;lthW vOJtJ epahaNk:

,e;jg; Gj;jfq;fis gbg;gJ urpahtpd; nghJthd tho;f;if Kiwapy; epyTk; jPikfis ntspf;fhl;LtJld;> gaDs;sjhfTk; cz;ikapy; vd;d elf;fpd;wJ vd;gij ekf;F czh;j;JtjhfTk; cs;sd. ngsjPftpayhh; kpfTk; ghpfhrkhfTk; ntWg;GlDk; \\cuj;J xypf;Fk; ,e;j ntw;W thh;j;ijfnsy;yhk; vd;d vd;W Nfl;Fk; NghNjh my;yJ \\,itfnsy;yhk; ntWk; thh;j;ij [hyq;fNs|| vd;W $Wk; NghJk; ,ij czh;e;J nfhs;s KbAk;. kf;fis (,e;jf;) fUj;jpaypw;F mbikahf;Fk; ke;jpuj;jpy; khq;fha; tpOe;J tpLk; Nghd;w ek;gpf;iffSk; thh;j;ij [hyq;fSk; ,e;j nfhs;iffSf;F xU rthyhf tpsq;Ffpd;wd.

nghUshjhuj;ijg; nghWj;j tiuapy; mjpy; mjpfhhpfspd; vjph;f;fKbahj jiyaPLfSk; xUjiyg;gl;lr eltbf;fSk; ,U ,lq;fspYk; ntspg;gilahfNt fhzg;gLfpd;wd.. murpaiyg; nghWj;j tiu jdpeghpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; Fiwe;J tUfpd;wJ. r%f mikg;igg; nghWj;j tiu FLk;g mikg;G Kw;wpYk; rpijf;fg;gl;L mope;J tUfpd;wJ. Nkw;fj;jpa ,ir gpugy;akhfp tUfpd;wJ. ve;j mstpw;nfd;why; urpa ,isQh;fs; [h]; ,irapy; mjpfkjpfk; igj;jpakhfpf; nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wdh;.

mwpT kw;Wk; fy;tpapYk; Kf;fpakhd khw;wq;fs; Njhd;wp tUfpd;wd. nghJTlikAld; mwptpay; NkhJtJ mjpfhpj;J tUfpd;wd. ,e;jj; Jiwapy; nghJTlik gw;wp typAWj;jy; vd;gNj ,y;yhky; Nghapw;W. mwptpaypw;F mjpf Rje;jpuk; toq;fg;gLfpd;wJ. nghUshjhuj;jpNyh khh;f;rpd; tpiy eph;zaf; nfhs;if Jwf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. Kd;gf;fj;jpy; $wg;gl;l ,e;j milahsq;fs; kw;Wk; cz;ikfs; ahTk; ep&gpg;git vd;dntdpy;> Nrhrypr fUj;jpay; Fog;Gk;> ----- Mfpatw;iw mile;J tpl;lJ NkYk; vjd; mbg;gilapy; Gul;rp cUthf;fg;gl;lNjh mJNt mbg;gilia ,oe;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. mjDila ,lj;ij Kjyhspj;Jt rpe;jid gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L Kd; te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. urpa nghJTlikAk; Nkw;fj;jpa Kjyhspj;JtKk; xNu fyhr;rhuj;jpd;- mjthJ Nkw;fj;jpa nghUshjha fl;Lg;ghlw;w fyhr;rhuk; - ,U cUtq;fs; vd;gJ jw;NghJ njspthfp tUfpd;wJ. ,d;Nwh ,it ,uz;Lk; xd;Wf;nfhd;W mUNf te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,J rk;ge;jkhf gpbhpk; NrhNuhfpd; mth;fspd; rkPgj;jpa Ma;T kpfTk; Mh;t%l;LtJk; gaDs;sJk; MFk;. fw;wwpe;j ,e;j Mrphpah; jd;Dila \\ek; fhyj;jpd; mbg;gil elg;Gf;fs;|| vd;w jdJ Gj;jfj;jpy; ,e;j ,U KiwfSf;Fk; cs;s xw;Wikia myrpAs;shh; NkYk; mitfs; vt;thW xd;NwhL xd;W rq;fkkhfp tUfpd;wd vd;gijAk; tphpthf tpsf;fpAs;shh;. jj;Jtk; kw;Wk; rpe;jid Mfpatw;wpypUe;J mwptpay;> njhopy;El;gk; kw;Wk; Mzt Ml;rp Kiw Nghd;w xt;nthU JiwapYk; ,uz;Lk; kpfTk; mUNf te;J tpl;ld vd mjpy; mth; $Wfpd;whh;. mtUila Muha;r;rpapd; rhuk;:

Kjyhtjhf> NrhryprKk; Kjyhspj;JtKk; Njhd;wpa tpjq;fs; mitfspd; ,Wjpahf Md tpjq;fs; Mfpatw;iw fzf;fpnyLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; mitfs; kpfTk; FiwghLs;sitfSk; kdpj ,dj;jpw;F fUizk;f gilg;Gj; jpwd; kpf;f xU cah;e;j tho;f;ifia mikj;Jf; nfhLf;f mitfs; rf;jpaw;witfs; vd;gJ Gydhfpd;wJ.

,uz;lhtjhf> ,e;j ,uz;L KiwfSk; rpy Fwpg;gpl;;l R+o;epiyfspy;> Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;F gaDs;sjhf ,Uf;FNk jtpu khwpa R+o;epiyfspy; mit ,uz;LNk gadw;wJk; Njitaw;wJkhFk;.

%d;whtjhf> Nrhtpaj; kw;Wk; INuhg;gpa tl;lq;fs; ,uz;bYNk> jq;fsp;d; jdpj;jd;ikfis tpl;L gbg;gbahf tpyfp xd;W kw;nwhd;wpd; ,ay;Gfis gpd;gw;wp xd;Nwhnlhd;W ,ize;J tUfpd;wd.

mitfs; gbg;gbahf cUt Ntw;Wikia mile;J tUfpd;wd vd;gJk; NkYk; fyhr;rhu> r%f epWtdq;fs;> khz;G Kiw> jd;idf; fhj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; Kiw Mfpatw;wpYk; mitfs; xd;Nwhnlhd;W neUq;fp tUfpd;wd vd;gJk; mjd; mh;j;jkhFk;.

,J r%f mwptpay;fspy; epGzj;Jtk; ngw;w mwpQh; xUthpd; fUj;jhFk;. ,J mwpQh; n`t;]p mth;fshYk; Mjhpf;fg;gl;L cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;ljhFk;. ,uz;Lk; Nkhjpf; nfhz;l fhyk; Kbtile;J tpl;lJ: (cUf;Fiye;J Nghd) ,e;j ,uz;bypUe;Jk; cs;s gy;NtW mq;fq;fs; ,ize;J %d;whtjhf xU nfhs;if cUthfp tUfpd;wJ. urpahitg;gw;wp kw;nwhU epGzh; vOJtjhtJ:

rPh;jpUj;j khw;wq;fSk; GJf; fz;Lgpbg;Gf;fSk; cz;lhfpapUe;j NghjpYk;> KO fUj;jpay; Nfhl;ilAk; mirf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. gytPdkhd mbj;jsj;jpd; Nky; fl;lg;gl;l tPL Nghd;W tPo;e;J tUfpd;wJ.

nghUshjhu epGzh;fspy; xUtuhd irhpy; [pNghl;bd; fUj;J:

,d;iwa cyfpYs;s gy nghUshjhu KiwfSf;fpilNa ngUk; NtWghLfs; ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> mitfspy; mbg;gil ,af;fk;> nray;ghL Mfpatw;iwg; nghUj;jtiuapy; mitfs; xd;Nwhnlhd;W neUq;fp te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wNjhL kl;Lky;yhky; mitfs; xNukhjphp MfptUtJk; mjpfhpj;J tUfpd;wJ.

Ruhd;AAq;fh;> bk;ngh;n[d; (Suranyiunger and Timbergen) MfpNahUk; ,Nj Nghd;Nw fUJfpd;wdh;. nghJTlikf;Fk; Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpw;FKs;s Nkhjy; Kbe;J tpl;lnjd;Wk; jw;nghOJ mitfs; xd;Nwhnlhd;W neUq;fp tUtNjhL kl;Lky;yhky; xd;Nwhnlhd;W rq;fkkhfpAk; tUfpd;wd vd ,UtUk; fUJfpd;wdh;. jw;nghOJ nghJTlikapd; fUQ;rptg;G kq;fpf;nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wJ: Kjyhspj;Jj;jpd; Kfj;jpy; G+rg;gl;l rhag;nghb fiue;J Ngha; mjDila ntSg;ig ntspg;gLj;jp tUfpd;wJ. Nkw;fj;jpa fyhr;rhuj;jpd; ,e;j ,U Foe;ijfSk; xUtiunahUth; jOtpf; nfhs;fpd;wdh;.

mry; Nrhrypr nfhs;ifapd; fz;Nlhj;jpy; ghh;j;jhy; $l> Nrhryprk; mDgtg;G+h;tkhf eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gLk; NghJ mJ kpfTk; Vkhw;wj;;ijNa jUfpd;wJ vd;w Kbtpw;Nf ek;Kila Ma;tpd; ,e;jg; gFjp ek;ik ,l;Lr; nry;fpd;wJ.

 

Nrhryprj;jpd; cz;ikahd Njhy;tp

Nrhrypr fUj;jpaypy; xd;wy;y ,uz;ly;y vz;zw;w jj;Jthh;j;j Fog;gq;fSk; rpf;fy;fSk; ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> kdpjd; jdf;Fhpa rhpahd ,lj;ij fz;lilaf; $ba xU ehfhpfj;ij cUthf;fpapUe;jhNyh> mq;Nf ePjpAk; rkj;JtKk; Ml;rp nra;jhNyh> mJ rkhjhdk;> ghJfhg;G Mfpatw;wpw;F Kd;Ndhbahf ,Ue;jhNyh> mJ ed;ik kw;Wk; ed;dlj;ij Mfpatw;wpd; njhl;byhf tpsq;fpdhNyh> ,jak; MWjy; ngWk; ,lkhfTk; Mj;kh tpUk;gpa mikjpiaAk; ngWk; ,lkhf tpsq;fpdhNyh me;j Fog;gq;fisnay;yhk; xJf;fp tpl;L tplyhk;jhd;. Mdhy; NrhryprNkh ,e;j Fog;gq;fs; midj;ijAk; itj;Jf; nfhz;L> Nkw;fz;l epiyia vl;bltpy;iy. khwhf> Nrhryprj;jpd; kpfTk; gytPdkhd> kpfTk; ,Uz;l ghfk; ,J vd;W nrhy;tJ kpfTk; nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk;.

gy Jiwfspy; Nrhryprk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Kd;Ndw;wj;ij mile;Js;sJ vd;gij ehk; kWf;ftpy;iy. mjDila fl;Lg;ghL> tpopg;Gzh;T Mfpaitapd; fPo; nghUshjhu tsh;r;rp NkNy nrd;Ws;sJ> fy;tpAk; mwptpaYk; gL Ntfj;jpy; tsh;e;J Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Kd;Ndw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. mJ Gjpa ehLfis ntw;wp nfhz;Ls;sJ NkYk; kw;w ehLfSf;fpilNa mjDila fUj;J Kbthd epiyia mile;Js;sJ. mopT jUk; MAjq;fis cz;lhf;FtjpypUe;J tpz; fpufq;fis gilf;Fk; mstpw;F mjidg; gpd;gw;Wgth;fs; xU cd;dj epiyia mile;Js;sdh;. ,itnay;yhk; ey;yitjhd;. xU nfhs;ifapd; ngUik vitfspd; kPJ rhh;e;Js;sJ vd;gNj jw;NghJ vOk; Nfs;tpahFk;. mJ nrOik> kpfg;ngUk; jahhpg;G Mfpatw;iwr; rhh;e;jpUf;fpwJ vd;W nrhd;dhy;> Kjyhspj;Jk; Nrhryprj;ij tpl cah;e;jJ vd;Nw $wp tplyhk;. ,ijg; nghUj;jtiuapy; ,d;W tiuapy; Kjyhspj;Jt ehLfs; Nrhrypr ehLfisf; fhl;bYk; xU gb Kd;NdNa cs;sd. kf;fs; njhifAk; kpfg; ngUk; epyg;gug;Gk; (Mf;ukpf;fg;gl;l epyg;gug;G) nfhs;ifapd; ngUikahf nfhz;lhy;> mnyf;]hz;lhpd; fpNuf;fg; NguuRk;> nfa;]hpd; Nuhkg; NguuRk;> ijNkhpd; muRk; epr;rakhf Nrhrypr cyfk; midj;Jk; nfhz;Ls;sij tpl kpfg; nghpaJ vd;gij fhzyhk;. kpfg; ngUk; Miyfs;> cl;Gf ,ayhj kpfg; ngUk; Nfhl;ilfs;> kaf;f itf;Fk; nghUshjhuj; jpl;lq;fs; Mfpait cah;tpw;fhd Mjhuk; vd;W nrhd;dhy;> ghNuhf;fspd; fhyj;jpy; xLf;fg;gl;l mbikfs; jq;fspd; ,uj;jk; rpe;Jk; fuq;fshy; fl;ba kdijf; nfhs;is nfhs;Sk; gpukpLfs; kpfTk; cd;dJkhdJk; kdpj fiy kw;Wk; nghUshjhug; ngUikia gpufhrpf;Fk; tuyhw;Wr; rpd;dq;fshFk;. xU nfhs;if cz;ik vd;gjw;fhd Mjhuk; mjDila mjp Ntfg; guty;> jd;Dila MSifapd; fPo; Vuhskhd G+kpiaAk; kf;fisAk; nfhz;LtUtJ vd;W nrhd;dhy;> nrq;fp];fhd;> `yf;F MfpNahhpd; R+whtsp ntw;wpiaAk;> INuhg;gpa fhyzpahjpf;fj;jpd; nfhLq;Nfhz;ik Ml;rpiaAk; xUth; vz;zpg; ghh;j;jhy; mitapuz;ilj;jhd; mth; ngUikahff; fUJthh;.

xU fyhr;rhu Kiwapd; ngUik Vuhskhd nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; kpfg; ngUk; MiyfspNyh> my;yJ jPg;nghhpfis ff;Fk; MAjq;fspNyh ,y;iy: nrOikNah my;yJ uhZt typikNah mjw;Fg; ngUik Nrh;g;gjpy;iy. mjDila ngUik kpfg; ngUk; gug;gsit Mf;fpukpj;jjpdhNyh my;yJ kw;w Njrq;fspd; kPJ kpd;dy; Ntfj;jpy; jd;Dila Ml;rpia epiy ehl;bajhNy tUtjpy;iy. mjDila cz;ikahd ngUik vd;dntdpy;> me;jf; nfhs;if my;yJ tho;f;if Kiw ve;j mstpw;F khdpl ,dj;jpw;F cgNahfkpf;fjhTk; gaDs;sjhTk; cs;sJ vd;gjpYk;> ve;j mstpw;F ,e;jg; gpugQ;rj; jpl;lj;NjhL xd;whf mJ ,zq;fpg; NghAs;sJ vd;gjpYNk cs;sJ. khdpl ,dk; jd;Dila cah;e;j Fzj;ijAk; fz;zpaj;jpd; cr;rpf;Fk; nry;fpd;wjh my;yJ mbikj;jdk; ,opT Nghd;w mjsghjhsj;jpw;F ,wq;fpg; NghFfpd;wjh vd;gjpYk; xOf;fk; rPh;jpUj;jg;gl;L mJ kdpj tho;f;ifapy; cah;j;jg;gLfpd;wjh my;yJ kpUfj;jdk; mjpfhpj;J tUfpd;wjh vd;gjpYk;> Rje;jpuk;> rk chpik> rNfhjuj;Jk; NkNyhq;Ffpd;wjh my;yJ mlf;FKiw> Fog;gk;> nfhiy Mfpaitfs; gPL eil NghLfpd;wdth vd;gjpYNk xU nfhs;ifapd; ngUik mlq;fp cs;sJ. cz;ikahd mikjp ,t;Tyfpy; epiy ehl;lg;gl;Ls;sjh my;yJ Aj;j neUg;Gf;fSk;> Nghuhl;lq;fSk; Njrj; jfuhWfSk;> gfikAzh;TfSk; tsh;f;fg;gLfpd;wdth vd;gjpYk; ePjpAk; rkj;JtKk; kdpj ,dj;ij Ms;fpd;wjh my;yJ mePjpAk; Vw;wj;jho;Tk; NkNyhq;Ffpd;wjh vd;gjpYk;> cz;ik Gfog;gLfpd;wjh my;yJ ngha;ikAk; Fl;bf;flTs;fSk; Gfog;gl;L tzq;fg;gLfpd;wduh vd;gjpYk;> kdpjd; kfpo;r;rpahfTk; jpUg;jpaile;jtdhfTk; cs;shdh my;yJ mtdJ Mj;kh rydg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Lk; mikjpaw;Wk; cs;sjh vd;gjpYNk cs;sJ. Vnddpy;>

G+j;j kyUk; fz;fisf; ftutpy;iy: jhkiuAk; Gjpjhfj; Njhw;wkspf;ftpy;iy> ,jaj;jpd; G+hpg;Ng tre;j fhyj; Njhw;wj;ij cz;lhf;Ffpd;wJ.

xU nfhs;if mJ vt;tsTjhd; nghUs; hPjpahf Kd;Ndw;wkile;jpUe;jhYk;> kdpj ,dj;jpd; mbg;gilg; gpur;idfis mJ jPh;j;jpltpy;iynadpy;> kdpj fz;zpaKk; cah;Tk; mitfSf;Fhpa ,lj;ijf; fhZk; xU tho;f;if Kiw epiy ehl;lg;gl tpy;iynadpy;> MNuhf;fpakhd mbg;gilfspd; Nky; xOf;fj;ij fl;bnaOg;gtpy;iynadpy;> r%f tho;tpy; ePjp> Rje;jpuk;> mr;rk;> md;G> rNfhjuj;Jtk; Mfpatw;wpd; eWkzj;ijAk; fspg;igAk; nfhz;Ltuj;; jtwpdhy;> m cyfj;jpw;F xU mUl;nfhil my;y khwhf mJ xU rhgNkahFk;. mJ xUNghJk; kdpj ,dj;jpd; rpukq;fSf;fhd ghpfhuj;ij nfhz;LtuNt KbahJ.

,e;jf; fz;Nzhl;ljpy; Nrhryprj;jpd; cs;slf;fj;ij ehk; Ma;Nthnkdpy;> mJ Kw;wpYk; Njhy;tpaile;J tpl;lJ vd;w Kbtpw;F tUtjpypUe;J ehk; jg;g KbahJ.

 

kdpjdpd; jdpj;jd;ik kWg;G

Nkw;fj;jpa ehfhPfk; kdpjid NghJkhd mstpw;F fPo;j;jukhf kjpg;gpl;l mNj ,lj;jpypUe;Jjhd; NrhryprKk; jd;Dila gazj;ijj; Jtf;fpaJ. kdpjdpd; ,Ug;gplk; (G+kp) ,g; gpugQ;rj;jpd; ikakhfTk; kdpjd; mjDila gilg;gpd; ,yl;rpakhfTk; fUjg;gl;l fhyk; xd;W ,Ue;jJ. ,g;gpugQ;rj;jpy; cs;s midj;Jk; ,k;kdpjdpd; cgNahfj;jpw;fhfTk;> mjpy; kdpjdpd; epiy ,iwtdpd; gpujpepjpahfTk;> xt;nthd;Wk; mtDf;F fPo;g;gbar; nra;ag;gl;ljhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. G+kp gpugQ;rj;jpd; ikak; my;y vd;W ep&gpg;gjw;F xU tpQ;Qhdpfs; $l;lk; Kd; te;jJ. mJTky;y> ,e;j vy;iyaw;w gpugQ;rj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> G+kpnad;gJ rpW kz;Jspia tpl Kf;fpak; Fiwe;jJ vd $wpdhh;fs;. gpd;G> kdpjd; rpwe;j gilg;Ngh my;yJ ,iwtdpd; gpujpepjpNah my;y khwhf mtd; ed;F ghpzkpj;j kpUfk;jhd; vd;nwhU nfhs;if vOe;jJ. ehpfSk; eha;fSk; Fuq;FfSk; mtDila nrhe;jf; FLk;gj;ijr; Nrh;e;jth;fNsahthh;. kdpjd; Rje;jpukhdtdy;y: mtd; thOk; r%fj;jpd; Mf;fNk mtd; vd;w Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;ig mwptpg;gjd; %yk; kw;nwhU tYthd mb nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. Nrhryprk; xU gb Kd; nrd;W> r%fk; $l xU Fwpg;gpl;l nghUshjhur; R+o;dpiyapd; tpisTjhd; vd;W cyfj;jpdplk; $wpaJ. jdp kdpjdpw;F mtDf;nfd;W xU milahsk; ,y;iy. mtd; rhpj;jpu rf;jpfspdhy; jd;dpr;irahf ,aq;Fk; xUtd;jhd;. mtDf;fpUe;j Kd; Rje;jpuj;jpypUe;J kpQ;rpapUg;gJ ,aq;Fk; ve;jpuj;jpd; xU ghfNk. jd;Dzh;T> xOf;fk;> kdpjMj;kh Mfpatw;iw Nrhrypr jj;Jtk; epuhfhpj;jJ. jw;nghOJ> khdplg; gz;G;F ve;j ,lKkpy;iy mtDf;f ve;j cah;e;j xOf;f epiyAk; ,y;iy. kdpj czh;r;rpfSk;> ,yf;FfSf;Fk; ve;j Kf;fpaj;JtKk; ,y;iy. rpe;jid> czh;T Mfpatw;wpd; ikakhf NkYk; njhlh;e;J ,y;iy. cw;gj;jp KiwNa rpe;jid fUj;J Mfpatw;wpd; ikakhf MfpaJ. kdpj khz;GfSf;fy;yhky;> cw;gj;jp nra;tjw;F nghWg;ghditfSf;Nf cz;ikahd Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLf;fg;glyhapJ. gpd;G xOf;fk; vd;gJ rhh;G Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngw;wjhf Mapw;W. cz;ik> ePjp> Neh;ik> md;G> ed;ik> eyk; Mfpait jq;fspd; nrhe;j epiyia ,oe;jd. cw;gj;jpiag; ngUf;FtNj Kf;fpakhdjhFk;: mjw;fhf vt;tsT tpiy nfhLf;fg;gbDk; mij vg;gb mile;j NghjpDk; rhpNa. epiyahd cd;djkhd xOf;f khz;Gfisg; gw;wp mq;Nf Nfs;tpNa ,y;iy.

Nkw;fj;jpa Kjyhspj;J Kiwapy;> kdpjd; NghJkhd mstpw;F juk; jho;j;jg;gl;lhd; NkYk; mtDila epiyik Fiwj;J kjpg;gplg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; nfhs;ifastpy; xd;Nw xd;W khj;jpuk; caph; gpioj;jpUe;jJ. mJjhd; jdp eghpd; fz;zpakhFk;. jdp eghpd; jdpj;jd;ikf;F ,d;Dk; rhj;tPf kjpg;G ,Ue;jJ NkYk; mtDila Rje;jpuk; kWf;f Kbahj chpikahf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. NrhryprNkh> Mj;khitAk; xOf;fj;ijAk; kWj;jNjhly;yhky;> mtid r%fj;jpw;Fk; th;f;fj;jpw;Fk; gyp nfhLj;jJ. jdpj;jd;ik vd;gJ jw;nghOJ $l;lj;jpd; my;yJ th;f;fj;jpd; gphpf;f KbahJ ghfkhf MfpaJ.

$l;lk; th;f;fk; Mfpatw;wpd; \\gpw;r;Nrh;f;if||f;fhd Rje;jpuk; vd;gjw;F jw;NghJ mh;j;jkpy;yhky; Ngha; tpl;lJ. th;f;fj;jpd; yhgNkh ,og;Ngh mJ jdpeghpd; yhgkhf MfpaJ. Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpd; %h;f;fj;jdkhd jhf;FjYf;Fg; gpd; caph;gpioj;jJ vJ vJNth mijnay;yhk; Nrhryprk; Gwe;js;spaJ. jw;nghONjh> jdpkdpjd; Kw;wpYk; cjtpaw;w ifaW epiyapyhfp tpl;lhd;. Nrhrypr Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpw;F top tFj;j nfhs;if ,JNtahFk;.

 

xOf;f topfs; NkYk; ,yl;rpaj;ij milAk; Kiwfs; Mfpatw;iw epahag;gLj;Jjy;.

kPz;Lk;> ,it midj;JlDk; kw;nwhU jPq;F Nrh;f;fg;gl;lJ: mjhtJ xU ,yl;rpaj;ij ve;j KiwiaAk; - ey;yNjh nfl;lNjh- cgNahfpf;fyhk; vd;gNj. cz;ikahd ,yf;F vd;gJ vLj;Jf; nfhz;l ,yl;rpaj;jpd; ,Wjpia miltNj my;yhky; mij milAk; Kiw nry;Ygbahdjh my;yth vd;W ghh;j;Jf; nfhz;bUg;gjy;y. xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,yl;rpak; nfhLik> Vkhw;W> fglk;> ngha;fs;> nfhiy> nfhs;is Mfpatw;wpd; %yk; epiwNtw;wg;gLnkdpy; mitSk; epahag;gLj;jg;gLk;.

Nrhrypr ghh;l;bapd; ghl;lhspfSf;F ciuahw;Wk; nydpd; mth;fs;:

,itfs; midj;ijAk; (rpj;jputijfs; Nghd;witfis) vjph;j;J epd;wpl ehk; rf;jp ngw;wpl Ntz;Lk;. xt;nthd;wpw;Fk; xt;nthU jpahfj;jpw;Fk; xg;Gf; nfhz;blTk;> Njit Vw;gbd; gy;NtW Af;jpfs;> Vkhw;Wf;fs;> rl;l tpNuhj Kiwfs;> kiwKf jpl;lq;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; %yk; th;j;jf fofq;fspy; ,iza Kaw;r;rpf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjpNyNa njhlh;e;jpUe;J vt;tpiy nfhLj;Jk; fk;A+dpr Ntiyia njhlh;e;J nra;jpl Ntz;Lk;.

kw;nwhU re;jh;g;gj;jpy; nydpd; $wpajhtJ:

xUthplk; jdpg; ngUk;ghd;ik ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ> mtd; Neubahf Kd;te;J Kz;ddpj; jhf;Fjypy; ntw;wp ngwyhk;. mdhy; mthplj;jpy; cs;s rf;jp nghUj;jkw;wjhf ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ> Kz;dapypUe;J jhf;fhky; gpd;Gwj;jpypUe;J jhf;f Ntz;Lk;. rhjfkhd R+o;epiyAk; re;jh;g;gKk; tUk; tiu fhj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. (Nghf;Ff; fhl;Lk;) gpd;thq;Fjy;> jphpj;jy;> jpUk;Gjy; Nghd;w kw;w MAjq;fis mth; gad;gLj;jpl Ntz;Lk;.

jd; ,yl;rpaj;ij milAk; nghUl;L rf;jpiaAk; td;nfhLikiaAk; cgNahfpg;gJ mtrpankd Nrhryprk; fUJfpd;wJ. \\fk;A+dp];l; khdpng];Nlh||tpy; khh;f;]{k; vq;nfy;]{k; $wpAs;sjhtJ:

jq;fspd; rpe;jidfisAk; nfhs;iffisAk; kiwg;gij fk;A+dp];l;fs; ntWf;fpd;wdh;. jw;nghOJ epytp tUk; midj;J r%fr; R+o;epiyfisAk; rf;jpiag; gpuNahfpg;gjd; %yk; mfw;wptpl Ntz;Lk; vd;w jq;fspd; ,yl;rpaj;ij mth;fs; ntspg;gilahfNt mwptpf;fpd;wdh;.

vq;fy;]; kpfTk; rhpahfr; nrhd;djhtJ:

... ... ... xU Gul;rp vjph;ghh;f;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mJ Kd;dh; ele;j ve;jg; Gul;rpiaAk; tplTk; kpfTk; nfhLikahdjhf ,Uf;Fk;. (p. 334 Oxford Basil Blakwell 1958.)

\\Nghuhl;lk; my;yJ kuzk;: ,uj;jf; fswpia Vw;gLj;JtJ my;yJ ,y;yhky; MfptpLtJ. ,t;thWjhd; Nfs;tp vjph;g;gw;W mlf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.||

vd;w mstpw;F khh;f;R mth;fs; td;nfhLikia Nghjpj;jhh;.

nydpd; td;nfhLikia Nghjpj;J fyff; nfhs;iffis mth; tpsf;fpdhh;. MfNt> td;nfhLik vd;gJ Nrhryprg; Gul;rpapd; gphpf;f Kbahj ghfkhfpaJ: gpw;ghL Nrhrypr ghh;l;bapd; gphpf;f Kbahj ghfkhTk; MfpaJ.

Kd;dh; ehk; tpthjpj;jitfspypUe;J fPo; tUk; kWf;f ,ayhj KbTfis ehk; mwpe;j nfhs;syhk;.

Nrhrypr fUj;jpaypYk; me;jf; fUj;jpaypd; fPo; tUk; fyhr;rhuj;jpYk;> kdpjDf;F kpf eLehaf(Kf;fpa)khd epiy jug;gLtjpy;iy. mtDila epiy njhlh;GilaJk; rhh;GilaJk; MFk;.

Nrhryprj;jpd; Rj;j nghUspay; kw;Wk; ---- nfhs;if Mj;kh> czh;T Mfpatw;iw kWj;J> tuyhw;W rf;jpfspd; Row;fhw;wpy; te;j xU itf;NfhNy kdpjd; vd mJ mwptpf;fpd;wJ.

jdp egh; xUthpd; Rje;jpukhd tPhpakpf;f jdpj;jd;ik kWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

Nrhrypr mikg;gpy; jdpeghpd; Rje;jpuj;jpw;fhd ve;j tpj cz;ikahd jj;JtNkh xOf;f mbg;gilNah ,y;iy.

xOf;fk; xOf;fk; rhh;e;j topfs; Mfpatw;wpw;Fk; eph;g;ge;jk;> td; nfhLik Mfpatw;wpw;Fk; ,ilNa ve;j tpj tpj;jpahrKk; gphpf;fg;gltpy;iy. xOf;ftopf;F Nkyhf rf;jpiag; gpuNahfpg;gJ Kd;dpiyg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.

tiuaWf;fg;gl;l cz;ik ehzak; ,;y;iy. mJ Nghd;Nw Nrhryprj;jpy; khwhj ePjp> rkj;Jtk; Mfpait fhzf;fpilf;fhJ.

,e;j KbTfnsy;yhk; Nrhrypr jj;Jtj;jpd; ,ay;ghd tpisTfshFk;. Nrhrypr r%fj;jpy; ,e;j R+o;epiyfs; vt;thW cUthfpd;wd vd;gij jw;NghJ ehk; fhzyhk;.

 

Nrhrypr r%fk; - xU glg;gpbg;G

vq;nfy;yhk; Nrhrypr Gul;rp Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lNjh mq;nfy;yhk; nghUs; cw;gj;jpia mjpfg;gLj;jTk; Nkw;nfhz;L ,uhZt typikia $l;lTNk ftdk; nrYj;jg;gl;lJ. ,Jjhd; urpahtpd; nfhs;if> fpof;F INuhg;gpa Nrhrypr muRfSk; ,Nj eilKiwia gpd;gw;wpd> irdhtpd; mbg;gil eilKiwAk; ,Jjhd;. ,e;j ,yf;if milAk; nghUl;L xt;nthU KiwAk;> mjw;F vt;tsT tpiy nfhLf;f NehpbDk;> gpd;gw;wg;gl;ld. rhp jtW vd;gjw;fhd msTNfhy; kdpjNdh my;yJ mtDila eyNkh my;y khwhf Njr cw;gj;jpAk; mjd; typikia fl;bnaOg;GtJNk MFk;. Nkw;f;fj;jpa fyhr;rhuKk; Kjyhspj;Jt mikg;Gk; mitfspd; tpisthy; kdpjid ,opthd Kiwapy; Fiwj;J kjpg;gpl;ld. NrhryprNkh ,e;j eilKiwia kpfTk; fLikahd epiyf;F nfhz;L nrd;wJ. ,ijg; nghWj;j tiuapy; Kjyhspj;Jt mikg;Gk; Nrhrypr mikg;Gk; xNu fz;Nzhl;lj;ijNa nfhz;Ls;sd. Kjyhspj;JtNkh nghUs; yhgq;fis topfhl;Lk; rf;jpahf vLj;jpUe;jJ NrhryprNkh cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; rf;jpia mjpfhpf;fTk; mitfspd; Fwpg;gpl;l mikg;igAk; mjpfhpf;fTNk tpUk;gpaJ.

,e;j ,uz;L mikg;Gf;fspd; fPOk; kdpjd; Kf;fpakhd xU epiyia tfpf;ftpy;iy. mtDk; cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; xU fUtpahfj;jhd; fUjg;gl;lhd;. INuhg;ghtpy; Nrhryprj;jhd; vOg;gg;gl;l kdpjhgpkhdk; gw;wpa gpur;idAk; kdpj ,dk; ghpjhgfukhd epiyapy; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;w mjDila fjwYk;> Nrhryprj;jpd; murpay; eilKiwapy; xU rpwpa tpisitAk; Vw;gLj;jpltpy;iy. me;jr; rj;jk; mOif vy;yhk; nghJ kf;fspd; ,uf;fj;ij Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sNt Nkw;f;nfhs;sg;gl;ld. Nrhrypr jj;Jtj;Jld; mjw;F ve;jtpj rk;ge;jKk; ,y;iy. ,e;j kdg;ghq;fpd; tpisthfj;jhd; me;jj; jj;Jtk; edthfp Gjpa eilKiw cUntLj;j NghJ kpfTk; myl;rpag;gLj;jg;gl;l xd;W vd;dntd;why; mJ kdpjd;jhd;. ,e;jg; Nghf;fpd; rpy cjhuzq;fis ehk; Rl;bf;fhl;bLNthk;:

mjpfhuj;jpw;F te;jTld; nydpd; $wpajhtJ: vd;gJ Nrhtpaj; urpahtpd; ngaUk; kpd; rf;jpia fl;bnaOg;GtJNk MFk;.|| kw;nwhU re;jh;g;gj;jpd; NghJ mth; $wpdhh; vd;gJ Nrhtpaj; urpahTk; njhopw; tsh;r;rp Kd;Ndw;wk; vd;gjhFk;.|| nydpdpd; ,e;jf; $w;W Nrhryprj;jpd; mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffshf fUjg;gl;ld.; njhopy; tsh;r;rpAk; cw;gj;jpg; ngUf;fKk;jhd; Nrhryprk; vd;gjhFk; vd;w mbg;gilapNyNa gpw;fhyj;ija midj;J Kd;Ndw;wq;fSk; cz;lhf;fg;gl;ld. cw;gj;jp ngUf;fNk ey;yijAk; jPaijAk; jPh;khdpf;Fk; msTNfhy; vd;w khwpa fUj;Njhl;lNk ,jw;Ff; fhuzk;. ,e;jg; ngUf;fj;jpw;F vd;d tpiy nfhLf;fg;gl;lhYk; rhpNa midj;J rf;jpfSk; mij Nehf;fp khj;jpuk; nrYj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. KO mikg;GNk ,e;j kdg; Nghf;fpy; ,aq;Fk; NghJ kdpjd; mq;Nf vt;thW elj;jg;gLthd;> gpd;tUk; cjhuzq;fs; ,tw;iw tpsf;Fk;.

 

typikia cgNahfpj;jy; (td;nfhLik)

$l;Lg;gz;iz Kiwapy; tptrhaj;ij nfhz;L tUk; nghUl;L Fyhf; kf;fNshL njhlh;r;rpahd Aj;jk; nra;a Ntz;bajhapw;W. jq;fSila epyq;fisNah my;yJ fhy;eilfisNah $l;Lg; gz;izf;F ve;j tifapYk; xg;gilf;f mth;fs; Maj;jkhapy;iy. Mdhy; typikia -kpfg; gaq;fukhd td;nfhLikia- cgNahfpj;Jj;jhd; mth;fsplkpUe;J mJ gpLq;fg;gl;lJ. gpLq;fp ifg;gw;Wk; ,e;j ,uj;jf;fswpkpf;f nrayhy; Vwj;jhs xU Nfhb caph;fs; Nghf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; ,e;j mikg;gpw;F (Nrhryprj;jpw;F) mijg;gw;wpa ve;j tpj kdcWj;jYk; ,y;iy. ahy;lh (mikjp) khehl;bd; NghJ ];lhypd; rh;r;rpyplk; nrhd;dhh; \,jpy; (,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghhpy;) ,oe;j caph;fSf;F vd;d kjpg;G ,Uf;fpd;wJ? (,uz;lhk; cyfg; Nghhpy; urpah ehw;gJ Kjy; Ik;gJ yl;rk; caph;fis tpiyahff; nfhLf;f Ntz;baJ te;jJ vd;gij thrfh;fSf;F epidT+l;Lfpd;Nwhk;.) jdpegh;fspd; tpis epiyq;f$l;Lg; gz;izfshf khw;Wtjw;F ,ijg; Nghd;W ,uz;L klq;F vz;zpf;ifia \jpahfk;| nra;a Ntz;baJ te;jJ.

 

ngz;fisr; Ruz;Ljy;

cw;gj;jpg; tsh;r;rp> Kd;Ndw;wk; Mfpatw;wpw;fhf ngz;fs; Nygh;fshf Ntiyf;F mkh;j;jg;gl;ldh;. clYiyg;G> Mgj;J Fiwe;j Ntiyapy; khj;jpuk; mth;fs; mkh;j;jg;gl;lhh;fs; vd;gjy;y> mth;fs; kpfg; ngUk; njhopw;rhiyapYk; ,Uk;G> fhpr; Ruq;fq;fspYk; Ntiy nra;a Ntz;bajpUe;jJ. gphpl;b\; Kjyhspj;Jtthjpfs; ngz;fis fLikahd Kiwapy; elj;jpaijg; Nghd;Nw cw;gj;jpiag; ngUf;Fk; ntwpapy; Nrhtpaj; urpahtpy; cs;s ngz;fSf;Fk; mNj fjpjhd; Vw;gl;lJ. mf;Nlhgh; Gul;rpf;F Kd; ngUk;ghd;ikahd ngz;fs; (%d;wpy; ,U gq;fpdh;) ,Nyrhd Ntiyapy;jhd; mkh;j;jg;gl;ldh;. 1936k; Mz;bd; epiy gpd;tUkhW.

Ntiyf;fhuh;fspy; ngz;fspd; tpfpjk;

fhpr; Ruq;fk; 24.8%

,Uk;Gr; Ruq;fq;fs; 23.6%

,Uk;G njhopw;rhiyfs; 24.9%

31.7%

kuj;njhopy; 43.9%

nrg;lk;gh; 7> 1944 Njjpaplg;gl;l gput;jh ntspaPl;by;> gpuhe;jpa fk;A+dp];l; ghh;l;bapd; nrf;ul;lhp $wpajhtJ \\gy Ruq;fq;fspy; ngz;fs;jhd; cw;gj;jpf;F fhuzkhf cs;sdh;. Knibagsherugol, Sovetskugol, Artemugol Nghd;w fhpr; Ruq;fq;fspy; ngz;fspd; tpfpjk; 15-60% tiu cs;sJ.||

nfhj;Jk; fLq; FsphpYk; MwhtJ khbapy; ngz;fs; nrq;fy;fis mLf;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs; vd ,j;jhypa th;j;jfr; rq;fk; vOjpAs;sJ. KO ehfhpf cyfj;jpYk; ,k;khjphpg; gzp nra;tjw;fhd mtrpaj; Njitfs; (cilfs;> ghJfhg;G cgfuzq;fs;) nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy; ,g;ngz;fSf;Nfh mJTkpy;yhky; ,g;gzp nra;a itf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;.

ngz; Nygh;fs; ve;j tpfpjj;jpy; $bf; nfhz;L tUfpd;wdh; vd;gij gpd;tUk; ml;ltiz %yk; njhpe;J nfhs;syhk;:

tUlk;

Nygh;fspy; ngz;fspd; tpfpjk;

1927-28

27.0%

1939

34.7%

1942

39.3%

1947

47.0%

khh;r; 8> 1948 Njjpaplg;gl;l gput;jhtpy; $ypf;fhuh;fs; kw;Wk; rk;gsk; thq;Fgth;fs; MfpNahh;fspy; ngz;fs; 47% cs;sdh; vd;W $wg;gl;Ls;sJ.

kpfTk; mjpf clYiog;Gj; Njitg;gLk; Ntiyia ngz;fs; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. mth;fSila ,aw;gpay; Njitfs; $l fUj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. NjrPa Rfhjhu fkprh; xU mwpf;ifapy; \ngz;fis mth;fspd; khjhe;jpu jPl;bd; NghJk; $l tpLKiwapy; Nghf mDkjpf;ff; $lhJ| vd kUj;Jth;fsplk; $wpAs;shh;;. ngz;fs; Ntiy nra;tjw;F eph;;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLfpd;wdh; Vnddpy; mt;thW nra;ahtpby; mth;fSf;Fk; mth;fspd; Foe;ijfSf;Fk; Njitahd czTg; nghUl;fisg; ngw KbahJ.

 

Foe;ijfisr; Ruz;Ljy;

Foe;ij njhopyhsh; (if]h; fhyj;jpypUe;Nj ,e;j rl;l G+h;tkhd jil ,Ue;J te;jJ. 1882 kw;Wk; 1885 Mz;L rl;lq;fispd;gb Foe;ijj; njhopyhsh; jil nra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ.) rl;lj;jhy; jLf;fg;gl;bUe;Jk;> cw;gj;jpiag; ngUf;Ftjw;fhfTk; jpl;lq;fis KOikg;gLj;Jtjw;fhfTk; ,JTk; $l tpl;L itf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,isQh;fSf;fhd mjpfhug;G+h;t gj;jphpf;ifahd Nfhk;N]hNkhy;];fhah gput;jh> Mf];l; 4> 1935y; ntspaPl;by;> 12 taJ Kjy; 14 taJs;s Foe;ijfs; epyq;fspy; jpdKk; 12 kzp Neuk; Kjy; 16 kzp Neuk; tiu Ntiy nra;fpd;wdh; vd;gij xg;Gf; nfhz;bUe;jJ. ,ijnahl;ba gy rk;gtq;fis mjpy; Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jJ. 12 taJf; Foe;ij njhlh;e;J %d;W ehl;fs; Ntiy nra;J ,Wjpapy; kaq;fp tpOe;j rk;gtq;fSf;Fk; Fiwtpy;iy.

 

njhopyhsh;fisr; Ruz;Ljy;

cw;gj;jpiag; ngUf;Fthd; Ntz;b Kjyhspj;Jtthjpfs; njhopyhsh;fis mth;fspd; gzp Neuk; Kbe;j gpd;Gk; Ntiyapy; <LgLj;Jfpd;wdh;. njhopyhsh;fSk; jq;fspd; gw;whf;Fiwapdhy; mth;fspd; MNuhf;fpaj;ij nfLj;J Vd; rpy Neuj;jpy; capiuAk; nfhLj;J gzpapy; <LgLfpd;wdh;. ,e;j urpahtpYk; gpd;gw;wg;gl;lJ. mJ ];lhfhNehtp]k; vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ. ];lhfhNdht; vd;gth; fhpr; Ruq;fj;jpy; Ntiy nra;gth;. rhjhuzkhf xU ehspy; 7 ld; fhpia ,lk; khw;wp itf;Fk; ,th;> xU Kiw 102 ld; fhpia ,lk; khw;wp itj;jhh;. mjd; gpwF ,JNt mq;F eilKiwahfpg; NghdJ. xt;nthU njhopw;rhiyapYk; njhopyhsh;fs; jhq;fs; nra;tij tpl 200%> 500%> 1000%> 2000% tiu mjpfk; cw;gj;jp nra;J mjpf $ypiag; ngw;wdh;. ];lhNfhndhtpfh njhopyhsp kw;w rhjhuz njhopyhspia tpl mjpfk; $yp ngWfpd;whh;. ,t;thwhf xt;nthU njhopyhspapd; ,uj;jKk; filrpr; nrhl;L tiu gpope;J vLf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,q;NfAk; $l> kdpjd; Kf;fpakhff; fUjg;gltpy;iy> cw;gj;jpNa Kf;fpakhf fUjg;gl;lJ.

 

kdpjj;jd;ikaw;w Kd;Dhpikfs;

cw;gj;jpapYk; $l rp];lj;jpw;Fj; Njitahd nghUl;fSf;Nf Kd;Dhpik mspf;fg;gl;ld> mitfs; kdpjdpd; mbg;gilj; Njitia G+h;j;jp nra;fpd;wdth ,y;iyah vd;gijg;gw;wp fpQ;rpw;Wk; ftiy nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy. vy;yh Nrhrypr ehLfspYk;> fd uf cw;gj;jpf;F Kd;Dhpik nfhLf;fg;gl;ld mdhy; nghJthf kf;fs; cgNahfpf;Fk; nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jpNah myl;rpag;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. urpahtpy; Nrhryprg; Gul;rp Vw;gl;L Ik;gJ Mz;Lfs; Mfp tpl;ld. Mdhy; nghUshjhuf; nfhs;ifsapd; mbg;gil Muk;g ehl;fspy; ,Ue;jijg; Nghd;Nw jw;NghJk; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. cgNahfpf;Fk; nghUl;fs; jl;Lg;ghlhf ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. jhdpa cw;gj;jp nra;gth;fs; jhq;fs; cw;gj;jp nra;jtw;wpypUe;J xU Fwpg;gpl;l ghfj;ij murhq;fj;jpw;F mjdhy; eph;zapf;fg;gl;l tpiyf;Nf jUk;gb eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;. mth;fspd; Njitfs; nfhQ;rKk; fzf;fpnyLj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLtjpy;iy. eph;zak; nra;j tpiy mth;fs; nra;j nrytpw;fhtJ tu Ntz;Lk; vd;gJk; ftdpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. ,jw;F Mjhuk; vd;dntdpy;> FUN~it tpl Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpy; Fiwtpy;yhj xUth; fk;A+dpr ghh;l;bapd; kj;jpa fkp;bapy; brk;gh; 9> 1963 md;W ];lhypd; gw;wpAk; NkhNyhNlhth gw;wpAk; Ngrpa Ngr;rhFk;. jq;fs; nrhe;j ehl;bNyNa kf;fs; gl;bdpahy; nrj;J kbe;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ ,e;jg; Gz;zpathd;fs;> ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;F Kd;Gk; gpd;Gk;> czT jhdpaq;fis Vw;Wkjp nra;J nfhz;bUe;jdh;.

cz;ikjhd; Njhoh;fNs! 1947k; tUlthf;fpy; ehl;bd; gy ghfq;fspy; kf;fs; gl;bdpahy; nrj;J kbe;J nfhz;bUe;j NghJ> cjhuzkhf Fh;];f; gpuNjrj;jpy;> ,th;fs; ek;khy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l czT jhdpaq;fis ntspahl;fSf;F tpw;Wf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;.

murhq;fk; nfhs;Kjy; nra;j jhdpaq;fspd; eph;zapf;fg;gl;l tpiy mitfis cw;gj;jp nra;tjw;F MFk; nryit tpl kpfTk; FiwT vd;W mjpfhug;G+h;tkhfNt xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;bUe;jJ. fle;j ehw;gjhz;L fhykhfNt ,e;j xLf;FKiwapyhd kdpjhgpkhdkw;w nfhs;iffs; nray;gLj;jg;gl;L tUfpd;wd. 1962k;Mz;L [_d; 1k; Njjp murhq;fk; jd;Dila Fw;wj;ij xg;Gf;nfhz;L jhdpaq;fspd; tpiyia $l;baJ. vy;yh tifahd ,iwr;rpf;Fk; 28% ruhrhp cah;Tk;> fhy;eilapd; %yk; cUthf;fg;gl;l kw;w jahhpg;Gf;fSf;F 35% cah;j;jg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; jw;NghJk; gy;NtW tifahd Efh; nghUl;fspd; nfhs;Kjy; tpiy mtw;wpd; cw;gj;jpf;Fk; MFk; tpiyia tpl Fiwj;Nj nfhs;Kjy; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd vd urpa nghUshjhu epGzh;fs; $Wfpd;wdh;. cjhuzkhf xU Ftpz;lhy; khl;biwr;rpia ngw MFk; nryT 88.5 &gpy;fshFk;. mNj Neuj;jpy; mjd; nfhs; Kjy; tpiyNah 83.9 &gpy;fshFk;. mNj Nghd;W> xU Ftpz;lhy; fOfpd; ,iwr;rp ngw MFk; nryT 133.5 &gpy;fs; Mdhy; mjd; nfhs; Kjy; tpiyNah 124.2 &gpy;fNs. ,itfs; xU rpy cjhuzq;fNs MFk;. nkhj;jkhf vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> KO tptrhaf; nfhs;ifAk; mlf;FKiwAk; Ruz;liyANk mbg;gilahff; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

 

njhopyhsh;fSf;F ,iof;fg;;gLk; mePjp

,J ,t;thwpUe;Jk;> fk;A+dpr ehl;by; cs;s njhopyhspf;Nfh mtidg; Nghy; Ntiy nra;Ak; Nkw;fj;jpa ehl;by; cs;s njhopyhspf;Fs;s chpikfNsh rYiffNsh ,y;iy. cjhuzj;jpw;F> njhopw;rq;fq;fs; mttDila chpikfs; rYiffs; Mfpatw;wpw;fhf NghuhLtjw;Fg; gjpyhf murhq;fj;jpd; Mirfis G+h;j;jp nra;Ak; epWtdq;fshfNt Mfpd. 1920y; ele;j 9k; ghh;l;b fhq;fpu]py; ,t;thW jPh;khdpf;fg;gl;lJ:

njhopw; rq;fq;fs; Nrhtpaj; murikg;ig vjph;g;gnjd;w Nfs;tpf;Nf ,lkpy;iy. mj;jifa vjph;g;G khh;f;rprj;ijNa vjph;g;gJk; NkYk; Kjyhspj;Jt njhopw; rq;fj;jpw;Nf khwpg; NghtJk; Nghd;wjhFk;.

urpahtpy; njhopw;rq;fj;jpd; gzp njhopyhsh;fspd; Nfhhpf;iffisAk; rpukq;fisAk; Kd; itg;gjhf ,y;yhky; mjpfhu th;f;fj;jpd; iffis tYg;gLj;JtjhfNt cs;sJ. jw;NghJ njhopyhsh;fspd; gpujpepjpfNs njhopyhsh;fSf;F mjpf $yp juf;$lhJ vd thjhbdh. mt;thwhd cah;it Nfl;gth;fs; gpw;Nghf;fhsh;fs; Nguhir gpbj;jth;fs; vd Kj;jpiu Fj;jg;gl;ldh;.

$l;L cld;gbf;ifia GJg;gpf;Fk; fhyk; tUk; Neuj;jpy;> tyJrhhp re;jh;g;gthjpfshYk;> l;Nuhl;];ifl;]; Gul;rp vjph;g;ghsh;fshYk;> jdp egh;fis Mjhpf;Fk; Fyhf;FfshYk; NkYk; ufrpag; gpur;rhuk; nra;gth;fshYk; J}z;b tplg;gl;l ,e;j gpw;Nghf;F FOf;fs;> njhopyhsh; tpNuhjkhd Nguhirkpf;f Nfhhpf;iffis Kd; itf;fj; njhlq;fp tpl;ldh;.

Nkw;Fwpg;gplg;gl;lit ,uz;L nkl;ly; Miyapd; ,U cWg;gpdh;fspd; nrhw;fshFk;. ,J gput;jh 22-10-1929y; ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,t;thwhf rkj;Jtk;> nrSik Mfpait Kjyhspj;Jt Nfhhpf;iffnsd;Wk;> njhopyhsh;fs; mjDila rPh;Fiyf;Fk; tpisTfspypUe;J ghJfhf;fg;gl;Ls;sdh;.; Nthg;Nuh]p l;&jh vd;w njhopw;rq;fg; gj;jphpf;if jd;Dila etk;gh;-brk;gh;> 1923 ,jopy; $Wfpd;wJ:

njhopw;rq;fj;jpYk; njhopyhsh; mjpfhhp mYtyfj;jpYk;> re;jh;g;gthjpfshy; nfhz;L tug;gl;l $yp rPh;jpUj;jf; Nfhhpf;if rkj;Jtj;jpw;fhd vy;yhk; jOtpa gzpapd; njhlf;f Kaw;r;rpahFk;.

kj;jpa njhopw;rq;fk; njhopw;rq;f khehl;bw;F mspj;j jdJ mwpf;ifapy;:

fk;A+dpr ghh;l;bapd; kj;jpa fkpl;bia; Njhoh; ];lhypdpd; jpwikahd eph;thfj;ijAk; ehk; ghuhl;bl Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy; mth;fspd; Neubj; jiyaPl;lhy;jhd; njhopw; rq;fq;fs; gioa Kiwfis mopf;f ,ad;wJ NkYk; rkj;Jtj;ij xJf;fp itj;J tpl;lJ.

jw;NghJ njhopyhsh;fspd; $yp cah;itAk; kw;w trjpfisAk; Nfl;gth;fs; mth;fspd; vjphpfshfp tpl;ldh;. jw;NghNjh> $ypia eph;zapg;gJk; $l mjpfhu th;f;fj;jpd; gzpahfp tpl;lJ. njhopyhsh;fs; mjpy; ve;j tpj fUj;Jk; $wpl ,ayhJ. kj;jpa njhopw;rq;f fTd;]pypd; nrayhsh; [_iy 8> 1933 md;W g;nsdhp nr];]d; Kd;G njhopw; rq;fj;ijg; gw;wp $wpajhtJ.

$yp KiwiaAk; Ntiyapd; juj;ijAk; eph;zaj;jy; Nghd;w nghWg;Gf;fs; Miyapd; mjpfhhpapdplKk; eph;thfj;jpdplk; ,Uf;Fk; NghJjhd; mit jpUg;jpfukhd Kiwapy; epiwNtw;wg;gLk;. Ntiyf;Fj; jFe;j $yp> Ntiyapd; msT> gzk; nfhLj;jy; Nghd;wd gw;wp mjpfhhpiaj; jtpu NtnwtUk; KbT nra;af; $lhJ. $ypia eph;zapg;gjpy; mjpfhhpf;F ,Ug;gijg; Nghd;W njhopw;rq;fq;fSf;Fk; fUj;Jf; $Wk; chpik Ntz;Lk; vd;W Miyapy; cs;s rpy Njhoh;fs; $Wfpd;whh;fs;. Mdhy; ,e;jf; nfhs;if kpfTk; jtwhdJ. Vnddpy; mJ mt;thwpUf;Fkhapd;> mjpfhhpapd; ,lj;ij njhopw;rq;fq;fs; tfpg;gJ Nghd;whfp tpLk;. ,j;jifa Nfhhpf;if> ,lJ rhhp re;jh;g;g thjf; Nfhhpf;ifahFk;. ,jd; tpisthf> jdp eghpd; mjpfhuk; tYtpyf;Fk; NkYk; me;j mjpfhhp jd; flikiar; nra;tjpy; jiyapLtjhfTk; MFk;. MfNt ,Jnty;yhk; epw;f Ntz;Lk;.

Fkhh; kw;Wk; [];b]; MfpNahuhy; ntspaplg;gl;l Nrhtpaj; njhopyhsh; rl;lk;|vd;w Gj;jfk; cWjpahf $Wfpd;wJ. mjhtJ Nrhtpaj; rl;lg;gpufhuk;

jw;NghJ cs;s rl;lq;fshy; mspf;fg;gl;l ghJfhg;igj; jtph;j;J> vjph;fhyj;jpy; nra;ag;gLk; $l;L cld;gbf;ifapy;> rk;gsk; ngWk; Copah;fSf;Nfh my;yJ $yp ngWk; njhopyhsh;fSf;Nfh ve;j chpikANkh my;yJ trjpiaANkh cWjp nra;Ak; ve;j mk;rKk; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;sg;glkhl;lhJ.

 

Ntiy epWj;jk; nra;Ak; chpik kWf;fg;gly;

njhopyhspfSf;F Ntiy epWj;jk; nra;Ak; chpik kWf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Nrhrypr rl;lj;jpd; gpufhuk; Ntiy epWj;jk; vd;gJ xU Fw;wkhFk;. cw;gj;jpia ngUf;Fk; Kaw;r;rpapy; Rzf;fk; fhz;gpg;gJk; Fw;wkhFk;. Ntiyf;F jhkjkhf tUjy; jz;lidf;Fhpa Fw;wkhFk;. njhopyhsp jd;Dila Ntiyia tpLtjw;Fhpa tha;g;gpy;iy. njhopiy khw;wpf;nfhs;tJ kpfTk; rpukkhd fhhpak;. njhopw;rq;fg; gpuepfsplk; ciuahw;wpa FUN~t;> Nrhrypr rp];lj;jpd; fPo; njhopyhsh;fSf;F Ntiy epWj;jk; nra;Ak; chpik mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl KbahJ vd;gij ep&gpf;f Kad;whh;. brk;gh; 27> 1958 gput;jh> Ntiy epWj;jk; nra;gth;fs; 15 Mz;L rpiwthrj; jz;lid ngWth; vd;w rl;lj;ij gpuRhpj;Js;sJ. urpahtpy; khj;jpuky;yhky;> Nrhrypr ehLfs; midj;jpYk; mNj eilKiwjhd; filg;gpbf;fg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ. fpof;F ngh;ypd;> Nghye;J> `q;Nfhp Mfpa ehLfspy; njhopyhsh;fspd; Mh;g;ghl;lq;fs; NghyP];> kw;Wk; uhZtj;jpduhy; mlf;fg;gl;l Kiw kpfTk; nfh^ukhd fij.

jw;nghONjh> xU njhopyhsp mtdpf;fpUf;Fk; chpikfs;> rYiffs; Mfpatw;iw Nfl;Fk; chpikia Jwe;J tpLk; epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;L> cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; g;Nuhf;fpuhkpy; Kidg;Gld; nray;gLk; epiyf;F te;J tpl;lhd;.

 

fl;lhag;gLj;jp Ntiy thq;Fjy;

,e;j Ruz;lfspy; kpfTk; NkhrkhdJ fl;lhag;gLj;jp Ntiy thq;FtjhFk;. ];lhypd; fhyj;jpy; urpahtpy; fl;lhag;gLj;jp Ntiy thq;Fjy; mKypy; ,Ue;J te;jJ vd;gJ jw;NghJ epiyehl;lg;gl;l cz;ikahfp tpl;lJ. fl;lhag;gLj;jp Ntiy thq;Fk; Nfk;g;Gfspy; cs;s ghpjhgfu fijfs; Kjy; If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; MNjhf; fkprdpd; fl;lhag;gLj;jp Ntiy thq;FtJ gw;wpa mwpf;if tiu midj;Jk; mjw;F rhd;W gfh;fpd;wd. NkYk;> urpad; jpl;lf; fkprdpd; mwpf;iffspypUe;Jk; Mjhuq;fs; ngw KbAk;. nkhj;jk; gzpapYs;s njhopyhsh;fspy; 10% Kjy; 14% tiuAs;sth;fs; NghyPrpd; csTj; Jiwahy; ngwg;gl;lth;fs; vd mJ $Wfpd;wJ. Nky; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l If;fpa ehLfspd; mwpf;ifapy; ngUk; Nrhtpaj; fiyf;fsQ;rpaj;jpy; ,Ue;J xU nra;jp vLj;Jf; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

midj;J KidfspYk; Nrhryprk; ngw;w ntw;wpahdJ> mbikj; njhopyhsh;fis Nrhryprj;ij fl;likf;Fk; nghJthd gzpfspy; <LgLj;Jtij rhj;jpakhf;fpAs;sJ.

,e;j rp];lj;jpd; fl;lha Ntiy thq;Fk; Kiw FUN~t; mth;fspd; ];lhypid cyfpw;F NjhYhpj;Jf; fhl;ba rhpj;jpug; Gfo; ngw;w Ngr;rpYk; xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. xNu ehs; ,utpNyNa Mapuf;fzf;fhd gzpahsh;fis irgPhpah ghiytdj;jpw;F ehL flj;jpaJ gw;wp Fwpg;ig ,e;j ciuapy; ehk; fhz;fpd;Nwhk;. kdpjj;jd;ikaw;w R+o;epiyfspy; fl;lhag;gLj;jp Ntiy thq;fg;gl;l mth;fs; cz;ikapy; nrhy;nyhzh Jauj;jpypUe;jdh;. nghJthfr; nrhy;tjhdhy;> urpa vy;yh njhopyhsh;fspd; chpikfisAk; gwpj;Js;sJ> Mdhy; fl;lha Ntiy Nfk;gpy; mbikg;gLj;jg;gl;L gy Mz;Lfs; njhlh;e;J gy kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd njhopyhsh;fs; jq;fspd; ,uj;jj;ij rpe;jpAs;shh;fs; vd;gJ> ep&gpf;fg;gl;l xU ntl;ffukhd mlf;FKiwAk; kdpjg;gLnfhiyAkhFk;.. ,J Nghd;W kdpj rhpj;jpuj;jpy;> vfpg;jpa ghNuhf;fisj; jtpu> Ntnwq;Fk; fhz ,ayhJ.

 

,uj;jf;fpswpg; Gul;rp

Nrhryprk; ntWg;Gzh;r;rpia J}z;btpl;L ,e;j khRgl;l nghUl;fspy; tpahghuk; nra;Js;sJ. mjd; tpisthf> cyf rhpj;jpuj;jpNyNa ve;j kw;w xU $l;L ,af;fKk; jd;Dila fUj;jpaiy epiy ehl;Lk; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; ,e;j ,af;fj;ijg; Nghd;W ntWg;ig> Nfhgf;fdiy> nghwhikiaAk; Nghl;biaAk; ms;spf; nfhl;bajpy;iy. mj;jifa ,af;fk; kdpj ,dj;jpw;F jPa tpisTfisNa Vw;gLj;jpLk;. mJ Kl;Gjh;fspy; khl;bf; nfhs;sf;$Lk;> ,uj;jKk; neUg;Gk;jhd; mjDila gq;fhapUf;FNk jtpu eyKk; nrYikAk; mjDila gq;fhf xU NghJk; ,Uf;fhJ.

elg;gpypUf;Fk; Nkhrkhd epiyapypUe;J khwp ey;y epiyikf;F tu tplhky; jLg;gJ Nrhryprj;jpd; je;jpukhFk;. mitfs; NkYk; NkYk; Nkhrkhf Ntz;Lk; vd;Nw mth;fs; tpUk;Gfpd;wdh;. epiyik kpf kpf Nkhrkhfp Gul;rpf;Fhpa topia vspikg;gLj;Jk;. ghhp]; Gul;rpia tpkh;rpj;J khh;f;]; nrhd;dJ:

Mdhy; ,uz;L ngUe;jtWfs; ntw;wpf;fdpiag; ghjpj;J tpl;lJ. ghl;lhsp kf;fs; gpLq;fpath;fsplkpUe;J gpLq;Fk; nraypy; njhlh;e;J nry;yhky; ghjpapNyNa epd;W tpl;ldh;. ehl;by; cah;e;j ePjpia epiy ehl;LNthk; vd;nwhU mwptw;w Mh;tf; Nfhshwhy; mJ ce;jg;gl;lJ. ,uz;lhtJ jtW vd;dntdpy;> ghl;lhspfs; Njitapy;yhky; gue;j kdJilath;fshfp tpl;ldh;. vjphpfis mopg;gjw;Fg; gjpyhf> xOf;f hPjpahd nry;thf;if mth;fs; kPJ nrYj;jj; Kaw;r;rp nra;J tpl;ldh;.

rPh;jpUj;j Kaw;r;rpfis ntWg;gJjhd; ,e;j rpe;jidg; Nghf;fpd; tpisTfshFk;. rpf;fy;fis NkYk; fLikg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Kaw;;r;rpfs; Nkw;f;nfhs;sg;gl;ld> ,uj;jf;fswpkpf;f Gul;rpf;F top Nfhyg;gl;lJ. Gul;rpf; fhyj;jpd; NghJ eph;g;ge;jk;> td;nfhLik> mlf;FKiw> nfhs;is Mfpaitfs; ehlg;gl;ld> Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd;Dk; $l nfhLik epw;fhky;> vjph;f;fUj;Js;sth;fs; midtUk; ,uf;fkpd;wp mopf;fg;gl;ldh;. ,t;thwhf> mr;rk;> eph;g;ge;jk;> td;nfhLik Mfpaitfs; ,e;j mikg;gpd; mbg;gilahd mq;fq;fSk; vg;nghOJk; cs;s rpwg;GkhFk;. mt;thwhapd;> kdpj ,uj;jk; kpfTk; kypthd nghUl;fs; Mfp tpl;ld. uTbj;jdk; nra;tjpYk; nfhs;isapLtjpYk; kdpjd; xU tifahd re;Njhrk; nfhs;s Muk;gpj;J tpl;lhd;. cyfpy; vq;nfq;fy;yhk; Nrhryprg; Gul;rp ele;Js;sNjh mq;nfy;yhk; kdpj ,uj;jj;ij nfhz;L jd; jhfj;ij jzpj;Js;sJ. xU Kiw mijr; Ritj;J tpl;lhNyh> ,e;j Gul;rpg;gil vg;nghOJNk kdpjh;fis jpd;gth;fshf MFfpd;wdh;. ghl;lhspfspd; rh;thjpfhuj;ij nydpd; 1920y; ,t;thW tiuaWf;fpd;whh;:

rh;thjpfhuj;jpd; mwptpay; G+h;t tpsf;fk; vd;dntdpy;> ve;j tpj $Ljy; FiwTkw;w mstw;w mjpfhuk; nfhLikia mbg;gilahf nfhz;L ,aq;FtjhFk;. mJ vjw;Fk; fl;Lg;gl;ljy;y. ve;j rl;lj;jhYk; mij kl;Lg;gLj;j KbahJ vd;gNj MFk;.

mjdhy;jhd; nydpDila ufrpa Nritg; gphpthd rPfhtpd; jiyth; ngypf;]; n]h;ypd;];f;fp jd;Dila Kjy; ciuapy; kpfTk; ntspg;gilahfNt $wpAs;sjhtJ:

ehd; ve;j tpj Gul;rp ePjpiaAk; Nehf;fp epw;fpd;Nwd; vd;W ePq;fs; ahUk; vz;zhjPh;fs;. ekf;F jw;NghJ ve;j ePjpAk; Njitapy;iy.

td;nfhLikAk;> typikg; gpuNahfKk; ,e;j mstpw;F Gdpjj;Jtj;ij milAk; NghJ> mjd; mjpfhuj;jpw;F ve;j fl;Lg;ghNlh fz;fhzpg;Ngh ,y;yhj NghJ> (mjDila) kdpj ,d mlf;F Kiw nra;tJ fw;gid khj;jpuNk nra;J ghh;f;f ,aYk;. kpfTk; ed;fwpag;gl;l urpa r%f mwptpay; epGzUk; jj;JtthjpAkhd Nguhrphpah; gpbhpk; N]hNuhfpd; gpuQ;R urpag; Gul;rpfis xg;gpl;L vOJtjhtJ:

gpuQ;Rg; Gul;rpapd; NghJ Gul;rp ePjpkd;wq;fspd; cj;jutpd;gb gjpNdohapuk; Ngh; khj;jpuNk rpYitapybf;fg;gl;ldh;> NkYk; Rkhh; Kg;gj;ije;jhapuk; Kjy; ehw;gjhapuk; Ngh; tiu Gul;rp mopr;rhl;baj;jpw;F gypahapdh;. 1918-1922k; Mz;L fhyj;jpy; Nrhrypr Gul;rpapd; rpte;j ,bf;Fg; gypahNdhhpd; vz;zpf;if> kpfTk; gioa fzf;Fg;gbf; $l> MW yl;rkhFk;. tUlj;jpw;F xU yl;rk; NgUf;Fk; mjpfk;. ,jpy; nghJ fyfj;jpy; nfhy;yg;gl;lth;fspd; vz;zpf;ifNah my;yJ kiwKfkhf Gul;rpf;F fhT nfhLf;fg;gl;lth;fspd; vz;zpf;ifNah NruhJ. ,t;thwhf gy;NtW tpjj;jpy; ,of;fg;gl;l caph;fspd; vz;zpf;ifia fzf;fpnyLj;jhy;> Gul;rpg; gPlj;jpd; fPo; fhT nfhLf;fg;gl;lth;fspd; vz;zpf;if xd;wiu Nfhb Kjy; 1.70 Nfhb tiu ,Uf;Fk;. kdpj caph; mjDila kjpg;ig ,oe;J tpl;lJ. kdpjh;fs;> capUlNdNa> ve;j tpj kdr;rhl;rpNah my;yJ ,uf;fNkh ,d;wp fhyhy; eRf;fg;gl;ldh;. gpbf;fhjth;fis mopj;jy; jpelf;Fk;; nray;fshapw;W. nfhiyAk; uj;jf;fswpAk; jpdrhp tptfhuq;fshapw;W.

 

Nrhrypr r%fj;jpd; cl; G+ry;fs;

Gul;rp khj;jpuk; ,uj;jf;fiw gbe;jjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy> Mdhy; nfhLikAk;> mlf;FKiwAk; ,e;j mikg;gpd; Fzq;fshfNt Mfp tpl;ld. ntWg;ngDk; tpijapypUe;J Kisj;J kdpj ,uj;jj;jhy; jz;zPh; gha;r;rp ntsp te;j nrbahdJ> kpfTk; frg;ghd fdpiaNa je;jJ: mjDila ehw;wNkh fhw;W kz;;lyj;ijNa eQ;rhf;fpaJ. xU NghJk; KbTwhj rjpfs;> mlf;F Kiwfs;> Vw;wj;jho;Tfs; Muk;gkhfj; njhlq;fpaJ. nydpd; jd;Dila vjphpfis Kw;wpYk; Jilj;njwpe;jhh;. ];lhypd; xU gb NkNy Ngha;> jd;Dld; fUj;J tpj;jpahrg;gl;lth;fis khj;jpuk; my;yhky;> ez;gh;fisAk; ,y;yhkyhf;fpdhh;. ,e;j mUntWg;ghd Gul;rp jd;Dila nrhe;j gps;isfisNah tpOq;f Muk;gpj;J jw;NghJ mJ Kbtw;wjhf Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. urpah khj;jpuk; ,e;j jPikfshy; ghjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. cl;G+ry;fSk;> ,uj;jf; fswpAk; xt;nthU Nrhrypr ehl;bd; jiy tpjpahfp tpl;lJ. xU rpy vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs; ,ij ntspr;rk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;Lk;.

mrpq;fkhd tir nkhopfisNa rpwg;gk;rkhff; nfhz;l xU Gjpa nkhopNa cz;lhf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j nkhopapd; rpy jdpj;Jtkpf;f nrhw;fs; vd;dntdpy; \rjpfhuh;fs;| \nts;isf; Fl;ilah;fs;| |Ch;tditfs;| \Nga;fs;| \kdpj ,dj;jpd; mOf;Ffs;| \fhl;bf; nfhLg;gth;fs;| \ntspahl;fspd; gpujpepjpfs;| |Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpd; mbtUbfs;| \vjphpfspld; gzk; ngWk; iff;$ypfs;| \nghWf;fpfs;| Nghd;witfshFk;.

,Jjhd; Nrhryprj;jhy; Gof;fj;jpy; nfhz;L tug;gl;l nkhopfshFk;. ,d;wsTk; xt;nthU Nrhrypr ehl;bd; vOj;jhf;fq;fspy; eil Kiwapy; cs;sitfshFk;.

 

nydpd; jkJ fhyj;jpy;:

Nghy;~ptpf;Ffs; my;yhj kw;w Nrhryprj; jiythfis ifJ nra;J nfhiy nra;jhh;.

Mjutw;w njhopyhsh;fis Rl;Lf; nfhy;YkhW cj;jutpl;lhh;. ([dthp 19> 1918)

f;Nuhd;];nll; fyfj;jpd; NghJ> fyff;fhuh;fspd; FLk;gq;fs; gpizf; ifjpfshf itf;fg;gl;ldh;.

ghh;l;bapYs;s vjph;g;G mq;fq;fis Jilj;njwpa Kaw;r;rp nra;jhh;.

nfhiyAld;> vjph; fUj;Js;sth;fis Fsph; eufg; ghiytdkhd irgPhpahtpw;F ehL flj;jp mq;F mbikj; njhopyhsh;fshf mth;fis cgNahfpf;Fk; Kiwia njhlq;fp itj;jJk; ,tNu. ];lhypd; ,e;j mlf;FKiw mikg;ig cr;rj;jpw;Ff; nfhz;L nrd;whh;.

 

];lhypDila fhyj;jpy; ele;jjhtJ:

ghh;l;b fhq;fpu];> mt;thW xd;wpUf;fpd;nwnjd;W fhz;gpg;gjhw;fhf mJ ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> mjDila $l;lq;fs; njhlh;r;rpahf elj;jg;gl;ljpy;iy. gy; NtW $l;lq;fSf;fpilNa ngUk; fhy ,ilntsp ,Ue;jJ. 15k; $l;;lk; ele;J %d;W tUlk; fope;Nj 16k; $l;lk; eilngw;wJ. 17k; $l;lk; ele;J ehd;F tUlk; fopj;Nj 18k; $l;lk; eilngw;wJ. 18k; $l;lk; eilngw;W gjp%d;W tUlq;fs; fopj;Nj 19k; $l;lk; eilngw;wJ.

\rl;l G+h;t tof;Ffs;| vd;nwhU kpfg; ngUk; fz;fhl;rp fhz;gpf;fg;gl;L> ghh;l;bapYs;s; ngUk;ghNyhiu fise;njLf;Fk; gzp eilngw;wJ. Nrhrypr mikg;ig epiyehl;bath;fisNa fyff;fhuh;fs; vd;Wk; Kjyhspj;Jtthjpfspd; $ypfnsd;Wk; Kj;jpiu Fj;jg;gl;L kuz jz;lidf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;ldh;.

nydpd; nghypl;gPNuhtpd; xt;nthU cWg;gpdUk; nfhy;yg;gl;lhh;. mth;fspd; vOth; nydpdpw;Fg; gpwFk; tho;e;jth;fshth;. ];lhypidj; jtpu> mth;fspy; xt;nthUtUk; fhl;bf; nfhLg;gth; vd;Wk; Fw;wthsp vd;W mwptpf;fg;gl;lJ.

gioa Nghy;~ptpf;Ffspy; vtUk; fhl;bf; nfhLj;jy;> ehl;Lf;F JNuhfk; nra;jy; vd;w Fw;wr;rhl;bypUe;J jg;gtpy;iy.

17tJ fhq;fpu]pd; 1966 cWg;gpdh;fspy; 1108 Ngh; (%d;wpy; ,Uth;) ghh;l;bapypUe;J ePf;fg;gl;L mth;fs; nfhy;yg;gl;ldh; my;yJ irgPhpah ghiytdj;jpYs;s fl;lhag;gLj;jp nfhLk; Ntiy thq;Fk; Nfk;GfSf;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;ldh;. mNj $l;lj;jpy; mikf;fg;gl;l nrd;l;uy; fkpl;bapy; cs;s 139 cWg;gpdh;fspy;> 98 Ngh; gpd;dh; ifJ nra;ag;gl;L nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;.

[_d; 1937 fisnaLg;gpd; NghJ> xd;gJ n[duy;fSk; Kg;gjhapuk; ,uhZt mjpfhhpfSk; nfhy;yg;gl;ldh;. mJ Nghd;W csthspfs; vd;Wk; fhl;bf; nfhLg;gth;fs; vd;Wk; mwptpf;fg;gl;lth;fspy;:

1936 kj;jpa Nfgpdl;bypUe;j 11 mikr;rh;fspy; 9 Ngh;.

kj;jpa ,af;f fkpl;bapypUe;j vOthpy; Ith;. 1936 murpayikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpw;F Kd;G me;j fkpl;bjhd; kj;jpa ghuhSkd;wk; Nghy; fUjg;gl;L te;jJ.

fk;A+dp];l; ghh;l;bapd; kj;jpa xUq;fpizg;Gf; FOtpypUe;j 43 Nghpy; 33 Ngh;

Vwf;Fiwa gpuhe;jpa xUq;fpizg;Gf; FOtpd; midj;J nrayhsh;fSk;

1936k; tUlj;jpa murpayikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; Kd; tiuit cUthf;f xg;gilf;fg;gl;l 27 cah; kl;l Nrhrypr jiyth;fspy; 15 Ngh;

Nrhtpaj; uhZtj;jpYs;s 5 khh;~y;fspy; %th;

,uhZt n[duy;fspy; 60 rjtpfpjj;jpdh;

njhopw;rq;fq;fspy; nrayhsh;fspy; 80 rjtpfpjj;jpdh;

15 yl;rk; Kjy; 20 yl;rk; tiuAs;s ghh;l;b nkk;gh;fs; ntspNaw;wg;gl;ldh;.

Kjy; fisnaLg;gpd; NghJ (1921) 585>000 cWg;gpdh;fspy; 75>000 Ngh; ntspNaw;wg;gl;ldh;.

,uz;lhk; fisnaLg;gpd; NghJ (1928) 1>300>000 cWg;gpdh;fspy; 260>000 Ngh; ntspNaw;wg;gl;ldh;. %d;whk; fisnaLg;gpd; NghJ (1934-1939) xt;nthU tUlKk; ,uz;L yl;rk; Ngh; ntspNaw;wg;gl;ldh;. ,t;thwhf 1939k; tUlj;jpy; fk;A+dpr ghh;l;bapd; cWg;gpdh;fspd; vz;zpf;if 250>000 Mf Fiwe;jJ.

,e;j cz;ikfs; jw;NghJ FUN~tpdhy; xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sd. Mdhy; ,e;jf; Fw;wq;fs; midj;Jk; ];lhypdhy; khj;jpuk; epfo;j;jg;gl;ldth? ,j;jifa Nkhrkhd Fw;wq;fSf;F ];lhypid khj;jpuk; nghWg;ghspahf;FtJ rhpahdjhf ekf;Fj; Njhd;wtpy;iy. re;Njj;jpw;fplkpd;wp> mtUila \Ml;rpapd;| NghJ epfo;e;j midj;jpw;Fk; mth; kiwKfkhf nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;batuhthh;. Mdhy; ];lhypid mj;jid rh;thjpfhhpahf Rje;jpukspj;j> me;jr; r%fNk mlf;F KiwiaAk; nfhLikiaAk; jhq;fpf; nfhs;tijj; jtpu NtW top vJTk; tpl;L itf;fhj Nrhryprj;jhy; epiyehl;lg;gl;l Vfhjpgj;jpa> rh;thjpfhu mikg;Ng cz;ikahd Fw;wthspahFk;. ];lhypdpd; kuzpj;jpw;Fg; gpwF rpy khw;wq;fs; Vw;gl;Ls;sd. Mdhy; mbg;gil mikg;G ,d;Dk; mt;thNw cs;sJ. nfhz;L tug;gl;l khw;wq;fs; midj;Jk; ,e;j mikg;gpd; mbg;gilr; rl;lq;fSf;F cl;gl;Nl nfhz;L tug;gl;Ls;sd. gioa mNj mbg;gilapd; kPNj ,e;j mikg;G ,d;Dk; njhlh;e;jpUe;J tUfpd;wJ. MfNt> gpw;fhyj;jpy; epyikfs; rw;W njspthfpa NghjpYK;> mbg;gilahd khw;wj;ij vq;Fk; fhz Kbatpy;iy.

];lhypdpd; kuzj;jpw;F gpwF mjpfhuk; khnyd;nfht;> nghpah kw;Wk; NkhNyhNlht; MfpNahulq;fpa %th; nfhz;l FOtpw;F toq;fg;gl;lJ. FWfpa ehd;F khjj;jpw;Fs;shfNt nghpah xU JNuhfp vd;W mwptpf;fg;gl;L xJf;fp itf;fg;gl;lhh;. gpw;ghL khnyd;NfhtplkpUe;Jk; NkhNyhNlhtplkpUe;Jk; mjpfhuk; gwpf;fg;gl;lJ.

FUN~tpd; fhyj;jpy; epyikfs; fPo;fz;lthW ,Ue;jd.

FUN~tpd; cjtpahsh;fs; FUN~thy; tPo;j;jg;gl;lth;fs;

1952 khnyd;Nfht; nghpah

1955 NkhNyhNlht;> fhfhNdhtpr; khnyd;Nfht;

1957 (Nfhil)[_Nfht; NkhNyhNlht;> fhfhNdhtpr;

1957 (Fsph;) gy;fhdpd; [_Nfht;

1958 FUN~t; (jdpegh; mjpfhuk;) gy;fhdpd;

];lhypidg; gw;wpa FUN~tpd; tpkh;rdq;fSk; 20 kw;Wk; 21tJ fhq;fpu]py; mtUila jpl;lq;fSk; ];lhypd; fhyj;jpy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ Nghd;Nw mikjpahf fPo;g;gbjNyhL Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ld.

FUN~Tk; NkilapypUe;J ,wf;fg;gl;L tpl;lhh;. FUN~t; (jd;Dila Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy;) nra;J nfhz;bUe;j nray;fis cyfpw;F ahh; ntspr;rk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;Lthh; vd;gJ ahUf;Fk; njhpahJ.

ftdpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba kw;nwhU Kf;fpa tprak; vd;dntdpy; rjpfs;> ghpfhr tprhuizfs;> fisnaLg;Gf;fs;> ifJfs; kw;Wk; \Fw;wthspfisAk;| \JNuhfpfisAk;| Rl;Lf; nfhy;Yjy; Mfpaitfs; urpahtpy; khj;jpuk; elf;ftpy;iy. Nrhtpaj; mikg;G epiy ehl;lg;gl;l xt;nthU ehLfspYk; ,J ele;J tUfpd;wJ. xU rpy cjhuzq;fs; thrfUf;F ,ij njspTgLj;Jk;:

fpof;F INuhg;gpa ehLfshd gy;Nfhpah> nrf;Nfh];yhthf;fpah> `q;Nfhp> Nghye;J> my;Ngdpah kw;Wk; Nuhkhdpah Mfpa MW Nrhrypr ehLfspYk; \fisnaLg;Gf;fs;| njhlh;fpd;wd. Nrhryprj;jpd; gypgPlj;jpy; gyp nfhLf;fg;gl;lth;fspy; fPo;f;fz;lth;fs; cl;gLth;:

,uz;L Jizg; gpujkh;fs;

ehl;bd; jiyth; xUth;

ke;jphpfspy;> Vwf;Fiwa midj;J ntspAwTj;Jiw ke;jphpfSk; ePf;fg;gl;Ls;sdh;.

fk;A+dpr ghuhSkd;wj;jpYs;s Kf;fpakhd mjpfhhpfs; nrayhsh;fspy; 1000 Ngh;.

80 yl;rk; ghh;l;b cWg;gpdh;fspy; Rkhh; 25 rjtpfjk; Ngh; mjhtJ 20 Kjy; 25 yl;rk; Ngh; tiu ntspNaw;wg;gl;Ls;sdh;.

fyhr;rhug;Gul;rp vd;w Kf%bapd; ngahpy; irdhtpy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;l ehlfj;jpYk; mjpfhuj;jpw;fhd mNj Nghuhl;lk;jhd; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. RUf;fkhf Nrhryprk; vq;nfy;yhk; cah; mjpfhuj;jpw;F te;Js;sNjh mq;nfy;yhk;> ez;gh;fs;> vjphpfs; vd;W tpj;jpahrkpy;yhky; midthpd; ,uj;jj;ijAk;> ,Jjhd; mjDila rpwg;G Nghd;W mjDila Kd;Ndw;wf; fhyj;jpy; Fbj;Js;sJ. kdpjhgpkhd fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; ghh;j;jhy;> mjw;fhf nfhLf;fg;gl;l kpf mjpf tpiyiag; gw;wpa rpe;jidNa kaph;f; $r;nrwpa itf;fpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,J khj;jpuk;jhd; nfhLikapd; xU mk;rk; vd;wy;y. Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lth;fs; jq;fspd; \Fw;wj;ij| xg;Gf;nfhs;s itg;gjw;fhf nra;ag;gLk; rpj;jputij Kiwfs; kpf kpf mtkhdfukhdJ. mitfspy; rpy FUN~tpd; rhpj;jpug; Gfo; ngw;w Ngr;rpy; tptukhf $wg;gl;Ls;sd. mjpy; xU thf;fpaNk cz;ikia njspthf tpsf;Fk;.

xUth; nra;ahj Fw;wj;ij mtNu xg;Gf; nfhs;tnjd;gJ vt;thWjhd; rhj;jpakhf;fg;gl;lJ? mjw;F xNu xU topjhd; - mJjhd; cly; rpj;jputij. kaf;FKWk; tiu mbj;jYk; rpj;jputij nra;jYk;> fz;zpaj;jpw;F fpQ;rpw;Wk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;shky; mtDila rpe;jidj;j jpwid gwpg;gJk; mth;fspd; topahf ,Ue;J te;Js;sJ. ,e;j Kiwfspy;jhd; xg;Gjy; thq;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ.

mlf;FKiw nfhLik Mfpatw;wpw;F cs;shNdhh; Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;lth;fs; khj;jpuky;y. mth;fspd; re;jjpfs;> cwtpdh;fs; ez;gh;fs; MfpNahUk; mlf;FKiwf;F cs;shf;fg;gl;ldh;. ngw;Nwhh;fs; Fw;wq;fis xg;Gf; nfhs;tjw;fhf mth;fspd; gps;isfs; rpj;jputij nra;ag;gl;ldh;. 1935 khh;r; Vg;uy; rl;lj;jpd; fPo; nghpath;fis rpj;jputij nra;a> jz;bf;f fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;l mNj Kiw 12 taJ rpWth;fSf;Fk; eil Kiwg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. murhq;f nrhj;ij jpULgth;fSf;F kuz jz;lid $l toq;fg;gl;lJ. fphpkpdy; Nf];fspy; khl;l itf;fg;gl;l 12 taJ rpWth;fSf;Fk; nghpath;fSf;F toq;fg;gLk; mNj jz;lid toq;fg;gLtJ mlf;FKiw nfhLik Mfpatw;wpd; rhpj;jpuj;jpNyNa jdpj;jd;ik tha;e;jjhFk;. mnyf;]hd;lh; nfhh;iud; mth;fspd; 13 taJ kfs; igj;jpaf;fhhp Nghd;W ftdpf;f Ms; ,d;wp rhiyfspy; miye;J jphpAk; mstpw;F vy;yh MjuTfspypUe;Jk; jdpikg;gLj;jg;gl;lhs;. \Nrhryprj;jpd; Kjy; Fbkfs;| vd;w ngUik ngw;w nydpDila kidtp $l ,e;j mlf;FKiw nfhLik Mfpatw;wpypUe;J jg;gpltpy;iy. jw;NghNjh> ];lhypdpd; nrhe;j kfs; $l mnkhpf;fhtpy; murpay; Gfyplk; Njl Ntz;bajhapw;W.

cd;id ez;gdhf ehd; nfhz;bUf;ifapy; vjphpfs; NjitNaapy;iyNa.

fphpkpdy;fs; khj;jpuky;y Mdhy; Fw;wj;ijg; gw;wp xd;WNk mwpahjth;fs; $l jz;bf;fg;gLk; Kd; khjphpfis Nrhtpaj; urpah khj;jpuNk Kd; itf;f KbAk;. 1934 [_d; khjr; rl;lj;jpd;gb ,uhZtg; gzpia tpl;L tpl;L ehl;bypUe;J ntspNawpr; nry;gth;fspd; cwtpdh;fs;> kidtp Foe;ijfs; MfpNahh;fspd; chpikfs; gwpf;fg;gLk;. mth;fs; njhiy J}uj;jpypUf;Fk; irgPhpahg; ghiytdj;jpYs;s Nfk;GfSf;F mDg;gg;gLthh;fs;. mtUila Fw;wj;ijg; gw;wp mth;fs; mwpe;jpUe;jhy;> mth;fs; Ie;J tUlj;jpw;F ehL flj;jg;gLthh;fs;. mth;fspd; nrhj;Jf;fs; gwpKjy; nra;ag;gLk;. mth;fs; mtUila Fw;wj;ijg; gw;wp mwpahjpUe;jhh;fshdhy;> irgPhpahg; ghiytdj;jpw;F mth;fs; mDg;gg;gLthh;fs;. (,];nt];lh [_d; 9> 1934). Fw;wj;ijg; gw;wp vijAk; njhpahj mg;ghtpfs; $l jz;bf;fg;gLthh;fs; vd;gJ khj;jpuk; ,jd; mh;j;jky;y> kidtp fztid csT ghh;f;f Ntz;Lk;> gps;isfs; ngw;Nwhh;fis csT ghh;f;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Kiwia cz;lhf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJjhd; ,e;jr; kpUfj;jdkhd rl;lj;jpDila Nehf;fk;. mg;;gb mth;fs; nra;ahtpby; jq;fspd; caph;fisNa mth;fs; fhg;ghw;wpf; nfhs;s KbahNj.

,t;tsT mtek;gpf;ifapd; kPJ epWtg;gl;l> jd;dpNyNa \JNuhfpfs;| $l;lj;ij cUthf;ff; $ba xU MiyiaNa nfhz;l> mlf;F KiwfisAk; nfhLikfisAk; nfhz;Nl elj;jplg;glf;$ba xU mikg;G vt;thWjhd; rhpahdJ vd miof;fg;gl KbAk; vd;gJ Nfs;tpjhd;. NkYk;> murpay; tl;lj;jpy; gykpoe;J Nghdjhy; ,t;thW Vw;gLfpd;wJ vd;gjy;y. khwhf> mikg;G vt;tsTf;nft;tsT gykhfpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wNjh mt;tsTf;ft;tsT fl;Lg;ghLk; mlf;FKiwAk; typjhfpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. 1929k; Mz;L tiu nra;jpg; gj;jphpf;iffs; khw;Wf; fUj;Jf;fisg; gpuRhpf;f KbAk;. nydpDila kidtpapd; Fwpg;Gf;fisf;$l urpahtpy; gpuRhpf;fg;gl;ld. Mdhy; ehL gykpf;fjhf Md gpd;G ,itnay;yhk; epWj;jg;gl;ld. NfhNkhnyd;Nfht; vd;w xU ePjpj;Jiw mjpfhhp xU Kiw $wpajhtJ:

xU ehL tYTs;sjhf khwpf; nfhz;L tUk; NghJ mjd; nfhs;iffSld; fUj;J NtW nfhz;lgth;fSldhd mjd; eltbf;if nkd;ik kpf;fjhf khwpf; nfhz;L tUk; vd;W xt;nthU fhyj;jpYKs;s re;jh;g;gthjpfs; $wpAs;sdh;. ,y;iy. mt;thW xU NghJk; elf;f khl;Nlhk;. xU ehL typikahfTk; mjpf rf;jpAs;sjhfTk; MFk; NghJ> muR> ghh;l;b Mfpaitfs; kf;fSld; nfhs;Sk; cwT tYthf MFk; NghJ> Nrhrypr mikg;ig Fiyg;gth;fSf;F vjpuhf ekf;Fs;s nfhLk; Nfhgk; mjpfkhFk;;. mth;fSf;nfjpuhf fLikahd eltbf;iffis vLg;gJ ePjpahd xd;Nw.

,Jjhd; Nrhrypr rpe;jidg; Nghf;F. mth;fs; tYtw;wth;fshf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> mope;J tplhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhf nfhLikAk;> typikiaAk; gpuNahfpg;gJ. typik ngw;w gpd;G> fUj;J NtWghL nfhz;lth;fs; kPJ mth;fspd; fLq;Nfhgj;ij fhl;LtJ fl;lhakhk;. nfhLq;Nfhd;ik vd;gJ ,e;j mikg;gpd; ,jaKk; ,ay;Gk; KiwAk; MFk;. kdpjid kdpjdhf elj;jhky; kpUfkhfNt mJ elj;Jfpd;wJ. ez;gh;fSk; vjphpfSk; mjDila ntwp nfhz;l ,yf;Ff;F Mshfpd;whh;fs;.

 

mbg;gil kdpj chpikfis uj;J nra;jy;

Nrhrypr mikg;ghy; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s murpay; mikg;gpd; capNuhl;lj;jpy; Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; kf;fshl;rp khz;Gfs; tUe;jf;f mstpy; Fiwe;J fhzg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gij kdpjhgpkhd fz;Nzhl;lj;NjhL Nrhrypr mikg;ig MuhAk; xUth; czh;thh;. jdp egUf;fhd rpe;jidr; Rje;jpuk;> nrhj;Jr; Rje;jpuk;> xU fUj;ij Mjhpg;gjw;Nfh vjph;g;gjw;Nfh cs;s Rje;jpuj;ij mJ mspg;gjw;F Maj;jkhapy;iy. xUth; tpUk;gpa njhopiy nra;tjw;fhd Rje;jpuNkh my;yJ jdf;F nghUj;jkhd Kiwapy; tho;f;iff;Fj; Njitahdij rk;ghjpf;Fk; Rje;jpuNkh ,y;iy. xUq;fpizg;G Rje;jpuNkh ,af;fk; cz;lhf;fpf; nfhs;Sk; Rje;jpuNkh ,y;iy. xU jiyg;gl;rkw;w ePjp ngWtjw;Ff; $l mtdpf;fpUf;Fk; chpik kWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mtd; tpUk;Gk; murhq;fj;ij cUthf;fpf; nfhs;tjw;Nfh my;yJ ,Uf;Fk; murhq;fj;ij khw;Wtjw;Nfh mtDf;F chpikNah re;jh;g;gNkh ,y;iy. Nrhrypr mikg;ghdJ Rje;jpuNkh kf;fshl;rp chpikfNsh mw;w Vfhjpgj;jpa> rh;thjpfhu mikg;ghFk;. ,itfnsy;yhk; Kjyhspj;Jt mikg;gpd; nrhFRfs; vd;W fUjg;gLfpd;wd> Mdhy; ghl;lhspfs; cyfpy; mjw;F xU NghJk; ,lNkapy;iy.

nghUshjhu rPuopTfs; Fog;gq;fs; Mfpatw;iw tpl kdpjdpd; chpikfs; gw;wpa mbg;gil gpur;idfNs kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ vd;gJ cz;ikahFk;. kdpjd; czthy; khj;jpuk; tho;tjpy;iy. mtid kpUfq;fspypUe;J gphpg;gJ mtd; ,ay;G mtdpypUe;J Ntz;Lk; Rje;jpuNkahFk;. mtDf;F tho;f;ifapd; vy;yh trjpfSk; Rfq;fSk; nra;J nfhLj;jhYk;> mtDila Ra khpahij fhag;gLj;jg;gLk; NghJ mtDila Rje;jpuk; gwpf;fg;gLk; NghJ ,e;j trjpfs; vy;yhk; njhy;iyAk; JauKk; kpf;fjhf Mfp tpLfpd;wJ. ftpQh; ,f;ghy; vt;tsT mofhf $wpdhh;:

thdj;Jg; gwitNa! gwg;gjw;fhd cd; chpikia fl;Lg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L caph; tho;tij tpl rhtNj NkyhdJ.

Nrhrypr mikg;gpy; kdpjd; capuw;w ,ae;jpu ghfj;jpd; epiyf;F juk; jho;j;jg;gLfpd;whd;. mtd; ,dpNky; jd;Dila murpay;> fyhr;rhu tpjpapd; v[khdd; ,y;iy> Mdhy; rJuq;f gyifapy; ,Uf;Fk; capuw;w fha; Nghy; mjpfhuj;jpy; cs;sth;fspd; Mfp tpLfpd;whd;. ,J xU rpy jdp egh;fSf;F khj;jpuk; epfOk; tpgj;jy;y> KO kdpj ,dj;jpd; fjpNa ,t;thwhfp tpLfpd;wJ. KO kf;fs; njhifapy; ehd;F rjtpfpjj;jpdUf;Fk; Fiwthf cs;s ghh;l;bapdhplNk mjpfhuk; KOf;f Ftpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. xNu ghh;l;bjhd; jd; gpujpepjpfis Njh;jYf;F mDg;Gfpd;wJ. ,e;j ghpfhr Njh;jypy; $l mth;fis vjph;g;gjw;F vtUf;Fk; Jzptpy;iy. xNu xU gpujpepjp \Nghl;bapLk;| Njh;jy; cyf mjpraq;fspy; xd;Wjhd;. ,e;j Njh;jy; thf;nfLg;G vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. xNU gpujpepjpf;F Xl;lspf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. gphpl;b~; Nrhrypr gpujkh; ml;yp urpa Njh;jy;fis \xNu xU Fjpiu XLk; ge;jak;| vd;gNjhL xg;gpl;Lg; NgrpAs;shh;.

kpfg;ngUk; gug;gsTs;s ,e;j ehl;bw;F gput;jh> ,];nt];jpah vd;w ,U nra;jpg; gj;jphpf;iffNs cs;sd. xd;W ghh;l;bapd; mq;fk; kw;nwhd;W murhq;f MjuTg; gj;jphpf;if. ehl;bd; mjpfhug;G+h;t nra;jpg; gj;jphpf;iffs; midj;Jk; ,];nt];jpahtpd; jiyaq;fj;ijNah my;yJ Kz;zdp fl;LiuiaNah gpuRhpf;fpd;wd> ghh;l;bapd; mq;fg; gj;jphpf;iffs; gput;jhtpDilaij gpuRhpf;fpd;wd. jh]; vd;Dk; xNu xU nra;jp Vn[d;]p mq;Nf cs;sJ. mjpfhuj;jpYs;Nshh; nfhLg;gJjhd; cs; ehl;Lr; nra;jp. ,t;thwhf nra;jpfs; midj;Jk; fLk; fl;Lg;ghl;by; cs;sd> kw;w nra;jpfs; vJTk; mr;rpy; tuhJ. 1932-33y; cf;iudpy; epytpa gQ;rj;jhy; ,UgJ yl;rk; Ngh; khz;ldh;. Mdhy; mJ gw;wpa nra;jp ve;jg; gj;jphpf;ifapYk; ntsp tutpy;iy vd;gJ ,jw;Fj; jFe;j cjhuzkhFk;. jw;NghJ me;j gQ;rk; ntspg;gilahfNt xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ.

ePjpkd;wq;fSk; rl;lq;fSk; jdp eghpd; Rje;jpuj;ij fhg;ghw;Wgtd. Mdhy; ,itfSk; jdpj;J ,aq;f Kbatpy;iy. rl;lk; Nrhrypr mikg;gpd; xU fUtpahf khw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ. ePjpj;Jiw $l Nrhrypr ,yf;FfSf;F mbikahf ,Uf;FkhW Mf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mbg;gil chpikfis mKyhf;Fk; chpik vd;w xd;Nw mq;F ,y;iy. Ik;gjhz;L fhy rhpj;jpuj;jpy;> xNu xU tof;F $l murhq;fj;jpw;nfjpuhf jPh;f;fg;gl;ljpy;iy. ml;lh;dp n[duYk; rl;l epGzUkhd Mz;l;Nu it~pd;];if vd;gth; jdJ Gj;jfj;jpy; $WtjhtJ:

kf;fspd; vjphpfis ,uf;fj;jpd; rhay;$l glhjthW mopj;njhopg;gJjhd; Nrhrypr ePjpkd;wj;jpd; gzpahFk;. vy;yh ePjpkd;wq;fSNk tFg;G Kiwapd; cgfuzq;fNsahFk;. Nrhrypr ePjp vd;gJ njhopyhsh;fspd; iffspYs;s typik> nfhLik vd;Dk; MAjkhFk;. xU Nrhrypr ePjpgjpapd; ,Wjpg; ghh;it rl;lg;G+h;tkhd thjg;gpujpthjq;fspy; khj;jpuk; ,Uf;fhJ. ghh;l;b ghyprpapd; tpUg;gq;fis ntspg;gLj;Jtijj; jtpu rl;lj;jpdhy; NtW ve;j cgNahfKk; ,y;iy vd;gij mtd; vg;nghOJk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

rl;lKk; ghh;l;bapd; eltbf;iffSk; vjpnujpuhf tUk; rkaj;jpy;> xU Nrhrypr ePjpgjp rl;lj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sitfis if tpl;L tpl;L ghh;l;bapd; gf;fk; jPh;g;Gr; nrhy;ypl Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy; ghh;l;bapd; topfhl;Ljy;fs; kpfTk; cah;e;j rl;lj;jjpd; ,lj;jpy; cs;sd.

,J Nghy; rl;lj;ij jd; Nghf;fpw;F ;J jpUFk; NghJ rl;lj;jpd; Ml;rpjhd; elf;fpd;wJ vdf; $Wtjpy; vd;d nghUs; ,Uf;f KbAk;?

 

FLk;g mikg;G Kbtpw;F tUjy;

nghUshjhuj;jpYk; murpaypYk; kdpjid nghL Nghf;fhfTk;> mtkhdg;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpYk; elj;Jk; tifapy; tbtikf;fg;gl;l Nrhrypr mikg;G FLk;g mikg;NghLk; mNj eil Kiwiag; gpd;gw;Wfpd;wJ. vf;fhyj;jpy; ehfhPfj;jpd; njhl;byhf ,Ue;J te;Js;s FLk;g mikg;Gk; vjph;vjpuhd> nghUj;jkw;w eilKiwfspd; ,yf;fhfp cs;sJ. ,e;j mikg;gpy; Gdpjkhd vJTk; ,Uf;f mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. jdpeghpd; jdpj;jd;ikNah> neUq;fpa cwTfNsh my;yJ FLk;g mikg;Gf;fSk; cwTfSk; vjw;Fk; ,lkpy;iy. epiyahdJ vJTk; ,d;wp> fhyj;jpw;Nfw;g khWtjhfapUe;jJ. re;jjpfs; ngw;NwhUf;F nra;Ak; flikfs; vJTk; ,y;iynad;whdJ. muR jhd; tpUk;Gk; tpjj;jpy; gps;isfis cgNahfpj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. r%f tho;tpw;fhf kjq;fshYk; xOf;f epajpfshYk; tpjpf;fg;gl;l fl;Lg;ghLfs; kPwg;gl;ld. jpUkz ge;j KiwfSk; tpthfuj;J KiwfSk; fhyj;jpw;Nfw;g khw;wg;gl;ld. mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l jpUkz ge;jj;jpw;Fk; jLf;fg;gl;l jpUkz ge;jj;jpw;F tpj;jpahrkpy;yhky; Mfp tpl;lJ. Gul;rp Vw;gl;l clNdNa fl;Lg;ghlw;w ghYwtpw;F mDkjp toq;fg;gl;lJ. FLk;g mikg;G ,fo;r;rpf;Fs;shf;fg;gl;lJ. jpUkzj;jpw;F kjj;jhy; mspf;fg;gl;bUe;j Gdpjj;Jtk; Kbtpw;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. tpthfuj;jpw;fhd thapy;fs; ve;j mstpw;F nghpjhf jpwe;J itf;fg;gl;njd;why; xU mQ;ryl;ilapy; mij njhpag;gLj;jpdhNy NghJk; vd;w mstpw;F Mf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. Mdhy; epyik rPuopaj; njhlq;fpaJk;> R+o;epiyfs; fl;Lg;ghl;il kPwj; njhlq;fpaJk;> fl;Lg;ghlw;w ghYwtpd; kPJ fz;fhzpg;G nra;ag;gl;lJ. tpthfuj;J nra;Ak; Kiw fLikahf;fg;gl;lJ. tpthfuj;Jf; fl;lzk; Ik;gJ &gpy;fspypUe;J ,uz;lhapuk; &gpy;fshf cah;j;jg;gl;lJ. (tpthfuj;Jr; rl;lk;> [_iy 1944> 27k; gphpT). jpUkzk; nra;ahky; ,Ug;gth;fs; kPJ thp tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ. fUf;fiyg;G rl;lj;jpw;nfjpuhd Fw;wkhf;fg;gl;lJ. mjpff; Foe;ij ngWk; jha;khh;fSf;F ghpRfs; mspf;fg;gl;ld. RUq;ff; $wpdhy;> ve;j xU Fwpg;gpl;l epiyf;Fk; r%fj;jpy; cz;ikahd khz;GfNsh my;yJ Gdpjj;JtNkh ,y;iy vd;whfp tpl;lJ. re;jh;g;gj;jpw;Nfw;g (murpduhy; jhd;Njhd;wpj;jdkhf cUthf;fg;gl;l rl;lk; r%f tho;f;ifia rPuopj;j gpd;G) rhpapy;iy vd;W fhZk; NghJ kw;nwhd;iw khw;W vd;W r%fk; xU %iyapypUe;J ,d;ndhU %iyf;F FYf;fg;gl;L kpfg;ngUk; rpukj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gl;lJ.

,jd; tpisthf Nkw;fj;jpa ehl;by; vOe;Js;s midj;J tpj jPikfSk; rPuopTfSk; Nrhrypr r%fj;jpYk; vOe;Js;sJ. jpUl;Lk; nghJr; nrhj;Jf;fis mopj;jYk; mq;Nf rh;t rhjhuzk;. tpgr;rhuKk; kw;w ghypay; Fw;wq;fSk; Vuhsk;. yz;ldpYk; epA+ahh;f;fpYk; rh;t rhjhuzkhf Fbg;gJ Nghd;Nw kh];Nfhtpd; njUf;fspy; tpgr;rhuk; rh;t rhjhuzkhfp tpl;lJ. rl;l xOq;if kPWjy; mikjpf;F Fe;jfk; Vw;gLj;jy; Nghd;w gj;J rk;gtq;fs; eilngw;why; mtw;wpy; xd;gJ Ngh; Fb ntwpah;fshy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. 1965k; Mz;L nydpd;fpNuL FbapUg;Gf;fspy; khj;jpuk; Fbj;jpUe;jjhf ,uz;lhapuk; ,isQh;fs; ifJ nra;ag;gl;ldh;. tpLKiwf;F mLj;j ehl;fspy; cw;gj;jp Fwpg;gplj;jf;f tifapy; FiwAkstpw;F Fbg;gof;fk; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. fztd;khh;fs; Fbah;fshf cs;sdh; vd;w thjj;jpd; mbg;gilapNyNa ghjp tpthfuj;Jf;fs; Nfhug;gLfpd;wd. Foe;ijfs; thypgh;fs; kj;jpapy; Fw;wq;fspd; msT mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wd. Nkw;fpy; cUthfp tUtJ Nghd;Nw mq;Fk; ,s taJ Fw;wthspfs; mjpfhpj;J tUfpd;wdh;. mq;Fk; ,s tajpdh; Nfq;Ffshf Nrh;e;J r%f tpNuhjr; nray;fspy; <Lgl;L tUfpd;wdh;. jdpegh; r%fj;jpypUe;J tpyf;fg;gl;L jdpikg;gLj;jg;gl;L tpl;ljhfNt czh;fpd;whh;.

 

Nrhrypr re;jh;g;gthjj;jpd; rpy Kd; khjphpfs;

cz;ik> ePjp> ed;ik> Neh;ik Mfpatw;wpw;F Nrhrypr mikg;gpy; Fwpg;gpl;l mh;j;jk; ,y;iy vd;gJ kpf kpf Nkhrkhd xd;whFk;. re;jh;g;gthjNt tho;f;ifahfp tpl;lJ. epidj;jij mila vijAk; nra;ayhk; vd;whfp tpl;lJ. kw;w ve;j fyhr;rhu mikg;Gk; ,iof;fhj jPq;if ,e;j rhh;G khz;Gfs; kdpjdpw;F cUthf;fpAs;sd. ];lhypdpd; Fw;wq;fis FUN~t; ntspg;gLj;jpapUg;gJ ek;Kila mwpit tsh;f;ftpy;iy khwhf ,e;j mikg;gpd; mbg;gil gytPdk; vDk; jpiwia mJ tpyf;fpAs;sJ. ghiytdj;jpy; cs;s kz; Jfs;fs; mq;Fk; ,q;Fk; khwpf; nfhz;bUg;gijg; Nghd;W ,e;j mikg;gpd; fPo; ey;yit nfl;litfshfTk; nfl;lit ey;yitfshTk; khwpf; nfhz;L tUfpd;wd. ,q;F gif nfhs;tjw;Nfh el;G nfhs;tjw;Nfh ve;j xU epiyahd nfhs;ifAk; ,y;iy. ,q;F thdk; xt;nthU nehbapYk; jd; epwj;ij khw;wpf; nfhz;L tUfpd;wJ. ek;Kila ,e;j thrfj;ij glk; gpbf;Fk; tifapy;:

Kjy; cyf Aj;jj;jpw;Fg; gpwF Aj;j el;lq;fis Njhy;tpAw;w ehl;bypUe;J ngWtij mJ vjph;j;jJ> Mdhy; mt;thwhd Aj;j el;lq;fis nfhLj;Nj Mf Ntz;Lk vd ,uz;lhk; cy Aj;jj;jpw;Fg; gpd; typAWj;jpaJ.

mJ ghrprj;ij fLikahf vjph;j;jJ> mJ Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpd; kpfTk; Nkhrkhd xU cUtk; vd mwptpj;jJ. Mdhy; gpw;ghL `pl;yUld; rkhjhd cld;gbf;if nra;J nfhz;lJ. rpwpa yhgkhd rpy epyj;ijg; ngWtjw;fhf> Nghye;jpd; Nky; `pl;yUf;Fs;s chpikia mq;fPfhpj;jJ. n[h;kdpAldhd el;Gwtpw;Fg; gpwF ghrprj;ijg; gw;wpa midj;J tpkh;rdq;fSk; epWj;jg;gl;lJ khj;jpuky;yhky; `pl;yhpd; n[h;khdpa Njrpa fPjj;ij urpa ,uhZtk; ghbaJ. Mdhy;> tpiutpNyNa xU Fl;bf;fuzk; mbj;jJ urpah n[h;kdpf;F vjpuhf Aj;jk; njhlq;fpaJ. ,e;jf; fl;lj;jpy; Kjyhspj;Jt ehLfNshL Nerf;fuk; ePl;baJ mth;fis rkhjhdg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf 1943y; mfpy cyf fk;A+dpr xUq;fpizg;Gf; FO fiyf;fg;gl;lJ. Aj;jk; Kbe;j ifNahL> ,e;j Aj;jf; $l;lhspfSf;nfjpuhf urpah jpUk;gpaJ.

Nrhryprj; jiyth;fspd; vjpUk; GjpUkhd Nghf;Ffs; cz;ikapy; tpaf;fj;jf;fitfshFk;. ];lhypd; Ml;rpapy; ,Ue;j NghJ ,];nt];jpahtpy; te;j ,UE}W thpfspy; mtUila ngah; gjpNdO Kiw mtiug; Gfoe;J te;jJ ,e;jg; Gfo;g;gh gput;jhtpdhy; gpuRhpf;fg;gl;lJ:

kpfTk; cd;djdkhd ];lhypd; mth;fNs> ePq;fs;jhd; nghJ kf;fspd; jiytuhtPh;

kdpjDf;F chpik nfhLj;jth; ePq;fNs

,e;j ehlil tsk; nfhopf;fr; nra;gtUk; ePq;fNs

E}w;whz;Lfs; gytw;wpd; tho;f;ifapy; Mj;khTk; ePq;fNs

cq;fshy;jhd; Ntdpw;fhyNk moF ngWfpd;wJ

Nfhbf;fzf;fhNzhhpd; ,jaq;fis fjputd; gpufhrpf;fr; nra;tJ Nghd;W

vd; kfpo;tpd; ikaNk ePq;fs;jhd;

Mdhy; jw;NghNjh ];lhypdpd; vYk;Gfs; $l mthpd; fy;yiwapypUe;J Njhz;b vLf;fg;gl;L vtUf;Fk; njhpahj ,lj;jpy; Gijf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. urpahtpd; nfa;]h; kd;dh;fis tpl kpfTk; nfh^ukhdtd; vd ,d;W mwptpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ> mjw;nfjpuhf vtUk; %r;Rf; $l tplj; ijhpakpy;iy.

nghpah vd;gtiu vLj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. mth; ];lhypdpd; cz;ikahd rPlnud;Wk; ek;gpf;iff;Fhpa ez;gh; vd;Wk; nrhy;tjpy; gput;jh xU NghJk; risj;jjpy;iy. 1950 Mk; Mz;L Nrhtpaj; vd;irf;Nshg;gPbah mtiu \Nrhtpaj; fk;A+dp];l; ghh;l;bapd; jiy rpwe;j jiyth;fSs; xUth;| vd mwptpj;jJ. Mdhy; %d;W tUlq;fs; fopj;J urpa thndhypAk; nra;jpg; gj;jphpf;iffSk; mtiu:

,opthdtd;> tpRthkpy;yhjtd;> Nkhrkhd vjphp> ,optpw;Fhpa JNuhfp> re;jh;g;gthjp> Kjyhspj;Jt uh];fs;> Vfhjpgj;jpathjpfspd; iff;$yp vd;nwy;yhk; tpkh;rpj;jJ.

gy;Nfhpahitr; Nrh;e;j Njhoh; Nfh];Nlhtpd; KbTk; Ntwhdjhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mtUila Ik;gjhtJ gpwe;j ehspd; NghJ ghh;l;bapd; kj;jpa fkpl;b mtiu ,t;thW ghuhl;baJ:

Njhoh; Nfh];Nlht; mth;fNs! cq;fspd; Nrit kfj;jhdJ. ePq;fs; ghh;l;bapd; rpw;gpAk; ghh;l;b cWg;gpdh;fSf;F MrhDk; MtPh;fs;. jq;fSila jyikapd; fPo; jq;fspd; nghd; Nghd;w Kd; khjphpahYk;> Mapuf;fzf;fhd cWg;gpdh;fs; fl;rpf;Fj; Njitahd ghpG+uz xOq;Fld; thof; fw;Wf; nfhz;ldh;. khh;f;rp]k;-nydpdp]k; Mfpad Fwpj;j jq;fspd; mwpT MokhdJ. jq;fspd; fz;zpak; cah;e;jJ jq;fspd; tplhKaw;rpapd; Kd; khjphp jiy rpwe;jJ. jq;fspd; ,Uk;G cs;sKk; Raeykw;w tpRthrKk; ghl;lhsp kf;fspd; gpufhrpf;Fk; jd;ikfshFk;. jq;fSila tho;f;ifa nray;jpwk; kpf;fjhfTk;> Nghuhl;lk; kpf;fjhfTk; mitfs;jhd; jq;fspd; tho;it moFgLj;Jfpd;wd. gy;Nfhpahtpd; kpf cd;dj uh[je;jphpAk; mjd; rpw;gpAkhd jhq;fs; ,d;W ghh;l;bahy; tpUk;gg;gLk; kpfg; ngUk; jiyth;fSs; xUth; MtPh;fs;.

,uz;L tUlq;fSf;Fg; gpwF Nfh];Nlht; Fw;wf; $z;by; epd;W nfhz;bUe;jhh; mtUf;F kuz jz;lid tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ. murhq;f gj;jphpf;if mtiug; gw;wp vOjpajhtJ:

Fw;wf;$z;by; epw;fpd;whd; Nfh];Nlht;> fpol;L ,ul;il Ntljhhp> ed;fwpag;gl;l ,lJ rhhp fk;A+dp];l;> Fog;gk; nra;tjpy; if Njh;e;jtd;> gzf;fhuh;fs;> ghrprthjpfs;> NghyP];fs; MfpNahh;fspd; iff;$yp> gphpl;b\; csTj;Jiwapd; gpujpepjp> csthspAk; JNuhfpAkhd ill;Nlh Nghd;wth;fspd; neUq;fpa ez;gd;> ntWf;fj;jf;f Fw;wthsp> G+kpapd; mOf;F Nghd;wtd; jd; Fw;wj;ij vOj;J %yk; ju kWj;jtd;.

vq;Nf nfhs;iffs; kPJk;> mikg;Gf;fs; kPJk;> epWtdq;fs; kPJk; jdp egh;fs; kPJk; fUj;Jfs; ,t;thW fhl;Lj;jdkhf khWfpd;wNjh> vq;Nf epiyahd nfhs;iffNsh my;yJ ePbj;j khz;Gfs; ,y;iyNah> vq;Nf ePjpAk; rkj;JtKk; ,y;iyNah mj;jifa xU mikg;G kdpj ,dj;jpw;F xU mUl;nfhilah my;yJ mJ xU rhgf;Nflh?

kdpjhgpkhd fz;Nzhl;lj;Jld; Nrhryprj;ij Mokhf Muha;r;rp nra;ag;Lk; NghJ mJ kpfTk; kdpjj;jd;ikaw;w mikg;G vd;Wk;> mjpy; clYf;Fj;jhd; Cl;lk; mspf;fg;gLfpd;wNj jtpu Mj;kh tuz;Lk; jLkhwpAk; NghAs;sJ vd;Wk; kdpjd; jdf;chpj;jhd fz;zpak; midj;ijAk; gwpf;fg;gl;Ls;shd; vd;w KbTNk cz;lhFk;. ek;Kila ,e;j ciuahliy Nrhrypr kw;Wk; Nrhryprj;ij rhuhj rpe;jidahsh;fspd; fUj;jpidf; nfhz;L G+h;j;jpahf;fyhk;. ed;F mwpag;gl;l Nrhrypr vOj;jhsh; [hh;[; ngh;dhl;~h mth;fspd; fUj;ij Kjypy; fhzyhk;. urpa Rw;Wg;gazj;jpw;Fg; gpwF jd;Dila fUj;ij mth; ntspapl;Ls;shh;. mJ ve;j tpj tpkh;rdKkpd;wp gput;jhtpdhYk; gpuRhpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

jdp egUf;Fk; muRf;Fk; ,ilNa urpah GJikahd cwit Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ---- urpa Nrhryprj;jpd; ntw;wpf;F nghWg;ghd cz;ik kw;nwhU cz;ikia rhh;e;Js;sJ> mJ xt;nthU urpaDf;Fk; njhpAk;> mJ vd;dntdpy;> mtd; jd;Dila tho;it ehl;bw;F cgNahfukhdjhf Mf;ftpy;iynadpy;> mtd; mij ,oe;Nj Nghthd; vd;gNjahFk;. ufrpag; Gydha;tpypUe;J rpyh; mtid Njhs; gw;wp ,Oj;Jr; nrd;W mtDila tho;tpd; mj;jpahak; KbAk; ,lj;jpw;F nfhz;L nrd;W tpLth;. mtidg; gw;wp ePq;fs; ,dp ftiyg;gl Ntz;lhk; mtd; ,dp jpUk;gpNa tukhl;lhd; vd;W mtDila cwtpdh;fSf;F mwptpf;fg;gLk;.

ngh;dhl;~h jdf;Nf chpa ghzpapy; gy cz;ikfis ntl;l ntspr;rkhf;fp cs;shh;. Nrhrypr mikg;gpd; fPo; ve;j kdpjDk; kdpjdhd kjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. kdpj capUf;F kjpg;gpy;iy. mtDila tho;tpdhy; ehl;bw;Fk; mikg;gpw;Fk; NkYk; ve;jg; gaDk; ,y;iy vDk; gl;rj;jpy;> mJ njhlh;e;J ,Ug;gjw;F ve;jtpj epahaKkpy;iy vd;whfp tpLfpd;wJ. ,J tho;f;ifia nghUshjha fz;Nzhl;lj;Jld; mZFtJ vd;gjd; cz;ikahd glg;gpbg;ghFk;. ,Ug;gpDk;> kw;w cyfhjha mikg;gpy; kdpjd; mg;gbNa tplthtJ gLfpd;whd;. Mdhy; Nrhryprk; cyfhjhaj;ij mjDila jj;Jt vy;iy tiu tphpf;fpd;wJ. mikg;gpw;F cjthj kdpjd; ,Ug;gijf; $l mjdhy; nghWj;Jf; nfhs;s Kbahky; mtid mg;Gwg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd Kiwahd Vw;ghLfisr; nra;fpd;wJ.

Nrhryprk; Fwpj;J thrfh;fs; Kd; ehd; Kd; itf;f tpUk;Gk; kw;nwhU fUj;J irdhitr; Nrh;e;j rpe;jidahsuhd jj;Jtthjp lhf;lh; ypd; A+ lhq;f; mth;fspDilaJ MFk;. Nrhryprj;ijf; Fwpj;j mtuJ Muha;r;rpapidAk; rpe;jidiaAk; ,t;thW $Wfpd;whh; :

vdf;Fs;NsNa> vd;Dila kdr;rhl;rpapd; jdpikapNyNa ehd; xU tprhuiz kd;wk; mikj;J> ve;j tpj jphpGkpd;W cz;ikfis fz;L> ve;jtpj Mjhuq;fisAk; tpl;L tplhky; fz;l gpwF vdf;Fs; ehd; Nfl;fpd;Nwd;: ,Jjhd; kdpjdpd;> kdpj fyhr;rhuj;jpd; Kbth? KO (Nrhrypr) mDgtKk; xd;wpw;Fk; cjthjit vd;w Kbtpw;Nf ehd; tu Ntz;bajpUf;fpd;wJ.... kpfTk; gPw;wpf; nlf;dhy[p Kd;Ndw;wk; ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> xU Foe;ijia fhg;hgw;WtJ> mtSila jhia irgPhpahg; ghiytdj;jpypUe;J nfhz;L te;J mtdplk; Nrh;g;gJ> xU mbikia mtdpd; tpyq;FfspypUe;J tpLtpg;gJ ];Gl;dpf;Ffis tpz;zpy; VTtij tpl kjpg;G kpf;fjhFk;. mbik epiyapYs;s kdpjd; cz;z rhpahd cztpd;wp cioj;J cioj;J gdpg;ghiytdj;jpy; nrj;J tpOjy;: rpiwf;$lj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; ifjp jhd; xU Fw;wKk; nra;ahjtd; vd vOg;Gk; neQ;irg;gpopAk; $f;Fuy;: jd;Dila jhia ghJfhg;G fhtyh;fs; es;sputpy; ,Oj;Jf; nry;tij ghh;j;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; Foe;ij: ,itfnsy;yhk; Nrhtpaj; tpz;zpy; mDg;Gk; ];Gl;dpf;Ffis kpfTk; Kf;fpakhditfshfj; Njhd;Wfpd;wd. ,itfnsy;yhk; ek;Kila Ntiyfs;jhd;> Vndd;why; ,e;j ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;by; mitfis ehk; mDkjpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;Nwhk;.

kdpjh;fis kpUfq;fs; Nghy; elj;jp mth;fspd; gpur;idfis jPh;f;f Nrhryprk; tpUk;Gfpd;wJ. kdpj cs;sk; mJ gy;NtW nghUs; Kd;Ndw;wk; mile;Js;s NghjpYk; mikjpaw;wjhfTk; fpsh;r;rpAw;Wk; cs;sJ. kdpjd; vjpy; kdpjdhf elj;jg;gLfpd;whNdh mjpy;jhd; kdpjdpd; Kd;Ndw;wk; cs;sJ. me;j epiy Fiwf;fg;gl;lhy; vJTNk cjthJ. ,Jjhd; Nrhryprj;jpd; ghpjhg epiyahFk;. (NjitahdJ nghUs;) vy;yhk; ,Ue;Jk; tho;tpy; ntWikiaNa kdpjd; czh;fpd;whd;. mtDila ,jaKk; kdKk; R+dpahfpg; NghfpAs;sJ. mtd; xU epoiyg; Nghd;Nw cs;shd;. mtd; capNuhbUe;Jk; capNuhl;lk; Fiwe;jtdhfTk; mjw;fhf jhfKs;stdhfTk; cs;shd;. Rthrpj;jy; vDk; ,aw;if nray; mtDf;Fs;Ns capNuhl;lj;ij cz;lhf;f ,aytpy;iy> midj;J rf;jpfs; ,Ue;Jk; mtd; ifaW epiyapNyNa cs;shd;. rpy nghUshjhu trjpfSf;Fg; gfukhf KO kdpjj;jd;ikapd; nrhj;Jf;fisNa tpiyahf nfhLf;f itf;fg;gl;L> jhd; ,e;jg; Nguj;jpy; Vkhw;wg;gl;ljhf czh;fpd;whd;. mJ mtDf;F Nghpog;ghFk;. urpa mwpQh; gh];lh;nef; mth;fspd; thh;j;ijfspy; nrhy;tjhdhy;> mtDila czh;Tfs; fPo;fz;lthW czUk; tptrhapapd; czh;itg; Nghd;Ws;sJ:

Gul;rpapd; jpir mtDf;F fhz;gpf;fg;gl;L mtd; vOr;rpA+l;lg;gl;l NghJ> khwpa ,e;jr; R+o;epiyapd; jd; fdTfs; edthFk; vd;W (jtwhf) Ghpe;J nfhz;lhd; - mtd; jd; ciog;igf; nfhz;L fl;Lg;ghbd;wp vy;yh tpjg; nghUshjhuf; flikfspypUe;Jk; tpLgl;L thoyhk; vd;w gioa fdT (edthfpaJ vd;W ek;gpdhd;). Mdhy; me;Njh ghpjhgk;> mtw;wpw;nfy;yhk; khwhf jd;Dila v[khdh;fisNa khw;wpAs;shd; vd;gij czH;e;J tpl;lhd;. nfa;]hpd; mlf;FKiw nfhLq;Nfhd;ik Mfpatw;wpd; ,lj;jpy; mij tpl Rik $ba Jd;gfukhd Gjpa Gul;rp muR vDk; Efj;jbia (Nkf;fhy;) jd; Njhspd; Nky; Rke;J nfhz;lhd;.

Nrhryprj;jpd; ,e;j ghpjhgfukhd epiy kpfTk; njspthfTk; fhz;gth; fz;fspy; fz;zPiu tutiof;Fk; tpjj;jpy; Nghye;J ftpQh; Mjk; it];f; tUzpj;Js;sjhtJ:

ciog;gpdhy; fioj;Jg; Nghd kdpjd; ,q;Nf>

Nghye;jpd; kz;zpd; ike;jh;fshy; ngw Kbahf Nghye;J Mg;gps;fs; ,q;Nf

Fw;wthsp kUj;Jth;fshy; Kiwj;Jg; ghh;f;fg;gLk; Foe;ijfs; ,q;Nf

ngha; nrhy;y eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLk; mg;ghtpf; Foe;ijfs; ,q;Nf

cz;ikia jphpj;Jr; nrhy;y eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLk; rpWkpfs; ,q;Nf

ePjp fpilg;gjw;fhf fhj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; kf;fs; ,q;Nf

ntF ehl;fshf mth;fs; fhj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whh; ,q;Nf

,e;;j kz;zpy; ehq;fs; nfQ;rpf; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;fpd;Nwhk;

kdpjh;fspd; ngauhy; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;fpd;Nwhk;

vq;fspd; fjTfis tpUk;gpa Neuk; G+l;bf; nfhs;Sk; tifapy; G+l;Lf;fis ehq;fs; NjLfpd;Nwhk;

(cyfj;jpd; gf;fk; jpwe;Js;s) [d;dy;fs; cs;s miwfis ehq;fs; tpUk;Gfpd;Nwhk;

,j;J nehWq;Fk; epiyapy; ,y;yhj Rth;fis ehq;fs; Mrpf;fpd;Nwhk;

Mk; (,itnay;yhk;) kdpjh;fisg; Nghd;W vq;fspd; fhyj;ijf; fopg;gjw;fhfNt.

 

rpfg;Gr; Rth;f;fj;ij jhprpj;J tpl;L te;j gpwF gpuQ;R Nrhryprg; ghh;l;bapd; nrayhsh; rhpahfNt Fwpg;gpl;lhh;:

kdpjdpw;F gydspf;fTk; mtDila fz;zpaj;ij mjpfhpf;fTk; Gul;rp Njhy;tpAw;W tpl;lJ vd ehq;fs; czh;e;J tpl;Nlhk;. khwhf mtid xU cgfuzkhf khw;Wtjpy; mJ ntw;wp ngw;Ws;sJ.

Nrhrypr gz;ghl;by; kdpjdpd; tpjp vt;thW ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij Gul;rpf;Fg; gpd; te;j ftpQh; na];n]dpdpd; tho;f;if glk; gpbj;Jf; fhl;Lk;. mth; jd;Dila Kg;gjhtJ tajpy; Gfopd; cr;rpapy; ,Ue;jhh;. mdhy; mtUila ,jak; mikjpaw;Wk; fpsh;r;rpAw;Wk; ,Ue;J. mth; jdf;Fj; jhNd $wpf; nfhs;fpd;whh;:

vd; jiyNa! cd;Dila nfhLikahd Rakhpahij vq;Nf vd;id ,wq;fr; nra;Ak;?

ehd; mtkhdj;jpy; cs;Nsd;! fz;zpaj;ijg; gw;wp vdf;F ftiyapy;iy! ehd; xU nghWf;fp! INah ,jw;fhf Ntz;ba ehd; kpfg; ngUk; Ntjidapy; nte;J khsyhk; NghypUf;fpd;wNj

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