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<uhf; vz;nza;f;fhfj; jpl;lkplg;gl;l mnkhpf;ff; nfhs;if


<uhf; Fwpj;j mnkhpf;f ntspAwf; nfhs;if vg;nghOJNk jpl;lkplg;gl;l Kiwapy; tbtikf;fg;gl;L te;jpUf;fpd;wJ. mjd; vz;nza; tsk;> mJ mike;jpUf;Fk; ,uhZt Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j Gtp,ay; mikg;G> tisFlhg; gFjpapy; mjd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; Mfpatw;iw mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L mjw;fhd mnkhpf;f ntspAwTf; nfhs;if tbtikf;fg;gl;L te;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

vz;nza; tsj;jpy; kw;Wk; mjd; cw;gj;jpapy; nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F mLj;j ,lj;jpy; <uhf; ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. <uhd;-<uhf; NghUf;F Ke;ija <uhf;fpy;> mjhtJ 1980 y; cyfpd; ,uz;lhtJ vz;nza; Vw;Wkjp ehlhf <uhf; ,Ue;J te;Js;sJ.

,jpy; <uhf;fpd; kpf Kf;fpakhd vz;nza; ,wf;Fkjpahsuhf mnkhpf;f ,Ue;Js;sJ. If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; fl;Lg;ghLfs; <uhf;fpd; kPJ ,Ue;j epiyapYk;> fle;j 2002 k; Mz;L tiuf;Fk; mnkhpf;ff; fk;ngdpfs; xU ehisf;F 750>000 Nguy;fis ,wf;Fkjp nra;J te;Js;sd.

rkPgj;jpa Gs;sptpguq;fspd; mbg;gilapy;> <uhf;fpd; nkhj;j vz;nza; tsk; 115 gpy;ypad; Nguy;fshf ,Uf;Fk; vd;Wk;> ,J mnkhpf;fh> fdlh> nkf;]pNfh> Nkw;F INuhg;gh> M];jpNuypah> epA+]pyhe;J> rPdh kw;Wk; Mrpah KOtjpYk; cs;s vz;nza; tsj;ij xj;jjhFk;.

<uhf; Ke;ija mjpgH rjhk; cNrid mnkhpf;f ntw;wpfukhf Ml;rpapypUe;J mfw;wpajd; gpd;G> kPz;Lk; vz;nza; cw;gj;jp <uhf;fpy; nfhg;gspf;f Muk;gpj;Js;sJ. mnkhpf;fhtpd; fzpg;Gg;gb> tpiutpy; <uhf; xUehisf;F 600-700>000 Nguy;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; vd;Wk;> ,jpy; mjpfkhf mnkhpf;fhtpw;fhfTk;> ,J jtpHj;J cs;ehl;L Njitf;fhf xUehisf;F 300-400>000 Nguy;fisAk; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk; vd;W njhptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

NghUf;F Ke;ija epytug;gb> xUehisf;F 2.5 Nguy;fis <uhf;fpd; vz;nza; tay;fspypUe;J cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk; vd;W mnkhpf;f mjpfhhpfs; njhptpf;fpd;whHfs;. <uhf;fpd; vz;nza; tUkhdj;jpd; %yk; tuf; $ba njhif> mnkhpf;f kw;Wk; gphpl;ldpd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,aq;Fk; epjpaj;jpy; itf;fg;gLk; vd;Wk; jpl;lkplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

Mirfs; edTfshf

<uhf;fpd; kPjhd mnkhpf;ff; fdTfs; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpe;ija ehs;fspypUe;J Muk;gkhfpd;wJ> mg;nghOJ tisFlhg; gFjpapy; JUf;fpa fpyhgj;jpd; Ml;rpf;F rhT kzp mbf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH i]f;];-gpNfhl; xg;ge;jj;jpy; gphpl;b\; kw;Wk; gpuhd;]; ifnaOj;jpl;ld> kj;jpa fpof;fpw;fhf Gjpa nfhs;iffs; tiuaWf;fg;gl;ld> mjd;gb kj;jpa fpof;if fhydp ehLfshf Ml;rp nra;tJ my;yJ ,tHfspd; fl;Lg;ghl;by; ,aq;Fk; nghk;ik muRfis cUthf;FtJ> ,tw;wpy; VjhtJ xd;wpd; fPo; kj;jpa fpof;F tptfhuq;fis jq;fSf;F rhjfkhf khw;wpf; nfhs;tjpy; jpl;lkpl;L nrayhw;w Muk;gpj;jd.

,tw;wpw;fpilNa rpyNghJ khWghLfs; fhzg;gl;lhYk;> tskhd gFjpfshfpa <uhf;> rphpah> ghy];jPdk;> nygdhd; kw;Wk; N[hHlhid jq;fsJ Nkyhz;ikapd; fPo; tuf; $ba gFjpfshf gphpl;lDk;> gpuhd;]{k; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;ld.

,jpy; nygdhd; kw;Wk; rphpahit gpuhd;]{k; kw;Wk; ghy];jPdk;> N[hHlhd; kw;Wk; <uhf;fpd; njw;Fg; gFjpfshd <uhf;-ghf;jhj; kw;Wk; my; g]uh Mfpait gphpl;lDk; jq;fsJ MSiff;F cl;gl;l gFjpfshf vLj;Jf; nfhz;ld.

vt;thwpUg;gpDk;> Nkh]{y;> Mapuf;fzf;fhd tUlq;fshf <uhf;fpd; xUq;fpize;j gFjpahfj; jpfOk; mjd; tptfhuk; jPHf;fg;glhkNyNa ,Ue;J te;jJ. ,J gpuhd;]pd; fhydp Mjpf;fj;jpw;Fl;gl;l gFjpahf fUjpf; nfhz;lhYk;> Nkh]{y; efuj;ij jq;fsJ Mjpf;fj;jpd; fPo; cs;s gFjpahfNt gphpl;b\hH fUjpr; nray;gl;L te;jhHfs;.

JUf;fp fpyhgj; KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;lTld;> gphpl;b\; gilfs; Nkh]{y; efuj;ijf; ifg;gw;wp jq;fsJ MSifapd; fPo; nfhz;L te;J tpl;ld> Nkh]{y; efuj;jpd; kPJ gphpl;lDk;> gpuhd;]{k; njhlHe;J Nkhjpf; nfhz;L te;j tptfhukhdJ> <uhf;fpd; kPjhd mnkhpf;ff; ftdj;ijj; jpUg;gpaJ.

gphpl;lDk;> gpuhd;]{k; vjpH vjpH Kfhkpy; Nkh]{Yf;fhf Nkhjpf; nfhz;bUf;f> gpd;dH mnkhpf;fhTk; ,e;jf; fsj;jpy; Fjpf;f> Mf Nkh]{ypd; kPJ ,tHfs; mg;nghOJ Nkhjpf; nfhz;ljd; fhuzk; vd;dntdpy; ,d;Dk; Njhz;lg;glhj vz;nza; tsj;jpw;fhfj; jhd; vd;gJ gpd;dH njhpa te;jJ.

Kjy; cyfg; Nghhpy; mnkhpf;fhtpd; gq;F Fiwthf ,Ue;j fhuzj;jhy;> gpd;dH mJ cyfpd; ty;yurhf cUntLj;jJ> cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd;dH kj;jpa fpof;fpy; jdJ nghUshjhu kw;Wk; murpay; Mjpf;fj;ij mJ cWjp nra;tjw;F mjpff; ftdk; nrYj;jpaJ> Mjpf;f rf;jpahf jd;id tsHj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.

,tw;wpw;nfy;yhk; Kf;fpa fhuzk; xd;wpUe;jJ> mJ kj;jpa fpof;fpy; fpilf;ff; $ba mjpfkhd vz;nza; tsNk.

jpwe;j nfhs;if

kj;jpa fpof;fpd; kPjhd gphpl;b\; kw;Wk; gpuhd;]pd; Mjpf;fj;jpidf; fUj;jpf; nfhz;l mnkhpf;fh> <uhf;fpy; gphpl;ldpd; nghk;ik Ml;rpahsuhf cl;fhu itf;fg;gl;l kd;dH ig]yplk;> jpwe;j kdJld;> jhuhs mbg;gilapy; xg;ge;jq;fisr; nra;J nfhs;tjw;F mnkhpf;f fk;ngdpfis mDkjpf;FkhW mthplk; mnkhpf;f Ntz;bf; nfhz;lJ.

,e;j epiyapy;> 1927 y; Nkh]{y; gFjpapy; vz;nza; Jug;gd Ntiyfs; njhlq;fg;gl;L> mjpfkhd vz;nza; tsq;fs; mq;fpUg;gJ fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lJ> mghpjkhd vz;nza; tskhdJ Mjpf;ff; nfhs;ifAila ,e;j ehLfspd; fk;ngdpfSf;fpilNa kPz;Lk; Nghl;bia Muk;gpj;J itj;jJ.

,Ug;gpDk;> <uhf;fpd; vz;nza; tskhdJ Ie;J gq;fhff; $WNghlg;gl;L> gphpl;ld;> gpuhd;];> `hye;J kw;Wk; mnkhpf;fh Mfpa ehLfs; jyh 23.75 rjtPjj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhs;s xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.

<uhf;fpd; vz;nza; tsj;ij jq;fSf;Fs; $WNghl;Lf; nfhz;l ,e;j ehLfs;> vz;nza; tsj;jpypUe;J fpilf;Fk; tUkhdj;ij mDgtpf;Fk; ghf;fpaj;ij <uhf; kf;fSf;F toq;ftpy;iy> ,e;j epiy 1958 tiu ePbj;jJ> `h]pkpa;ahf;fspd; mur ghuk;gHak; ,uhZt Gul;rp %yk; ftpo;f;fg;gl;lJ tiuf;Fk; ,e;j epiyapy; ve;j khw;wKk; ,y;iy.

<uhf;fpa ngl;Nuhypa vz;nza;f; fk;ngdpia gphpl;b\; ngl;Nuhypak;> n\y;> nkhgpy; kw;Wk; ];lhz;lHL Mapy; M/g; epA+n[H]p (vd;]hd;) Mfpait gq;F Nghl;Lf; nfhz;ld. rpy tUlq;fspy; <uhf;fpd; nkhj;j vz;nza; cw;gj;jpia ,e;jf; fk;ngdpfs; jq;fSilajhf;fpf; nfhz;ld.

,Ug;gpDk;> mnkhpf;f vz;nza;f; fk;ngdpfSk; kw;Wk; mnkhpf;f muRk; ,jpy; jpUg;jpailatpy;iy. khwhf> gphpl;lidf; fow;wp tpl;L tpl;L nkhj;j vz;nza; tsj;ijAk; jq;fsJ fl;Lg;ghl;bw;Fs; nfhz;L te;J tpl Ntz;Lk; vd;w Kaw;rpapy; ,wq;fpd.

mnkhpf;f Mjpf;fk; tsHjy;

KjyhtJ cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd;dH> Mrpahtpd; jdJ fhydp ehLfis gphpl;b\; Kbahl;rp ,of;f Muk;gpj;jJ Kjy;> mJ cyf muq;fpy; jdJ Mjpf;fj;jpy; tYtpof;fj; Jtq;fpaJ. mNjNeuj;jpy; mnkhpf;fh cyf muq;fpy; NfhNyhr;rj; Jtq;fpaJ.

gpuhq;f;spd; &\;nty;l; kw;Wk; `hHhp l;&nkd; MfpNahH fhyj;jpy; khngUk; tq;fpfs;> vz;nza; kw;Wk; gy;NtW njhopy;Jiwapd; kPjhd tpUg;gk;> Mfpatw;iwf; nfhz;L cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd;dH cs;s cyf xOq;fpy; jdJ Mjpf;fj;ij epiyepWj;j ,tHfs; jpl;lkpl;L nrayhw;wpdhHfs;.

mtw;wpy; Kjd;ikahdJ> cyf tsq;fis jq;fsJ Mjpf;fj;jpd; fPo; nfhz;L tUtJ> Fwpg;ghf vz;nza; tsq;fis.

,e;j Nehf;fpy; ehk; ek;Kila ftdj;ijr; nrYj;jpdhy;> Vd; <uhd; Ke;ija kd;dH \h tpDila Ml;rpf;F kpfTk; gf;fgykhf mnkhpf;fh ,Ue;jJ> mnkhpf;fhtpd; kpfTk; ek;gpf;iff;Fhpa Ner ehlhf <uhid Mf;fpf; nfhz;lJ vd;gJ tpsq;Fk;.

1950 d; kj;jpapy;> <uhf;fhdJ gphpl;ldpd; nry;thf;fpw;F cl;gl;l ehlhf ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> gphpl;lid tpl mjpfkhd nry;thf;ifAk;> jdJ jhf;fj;ijAk; gjpj;j ehlhf mnkhpf;fh jpfo;e;jJ.

1955 thf;fpy;> ghf;jhj; xg;ge;jj;jpd; mbg;gilapy;> mtw;Wld; Nkyjpfkhf <uhf;> JUf;fp> ghfp];jhd;> <uhd; kw;Wk; gphpl;ld; Mfpait kj;jpa fpof;F kw;Wk; Mrpa ehLfspy; vOr;rp ngw;W tUk; muG vOr;rp kw;Wk; tpLjiy ,af;fq;fis eRf;Ftjw;F $l;lhf xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhz;ld.

1958 Gul;rp

[{iy 1958 thf;fpy;> <uhf;fpy; eilngw;w ,uhZtg; Gul;rpahdJ <uhf;fpd; Kbahl;rpiaf; ftpo;j;jJ> mg;nghOJ ,e;jg; gFjpapd; kPJ jdJ ePz;l fhy Nehf;fj;ij epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L mnkhpf;fh 20 Mapuk; nkiud; JUg;Gf;fis nygdhdpy; ,wf;fpaJ> ,e;jj; jpl;lj;jpw;F ''I];NehtH lhf;l;hpd;"" vd;wiof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

I];Nehthpd; jpl;lg;gb> mnkhpf;fh jdJ kj;jpa fpof;fpd; kPjhd jdJ nry;thf;if cWjp nra;J nfhs;tjw;F clNd NeubahfNth my;yJ Nghhpy; <Lgl;Nlh jdJ Nehf;fq;fis ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;whH.

,d;Dk; I];NehtH epHthfkhdJ> <uhf;fpy; Eioe;J> mjd; Gjpa Ml;rpiaf; ftpo;j;J tpl;L gpd;dH> jdJ nghk;ik muR xd;iw <uhf;fpy; cl;fhu itg;gJ vd;w Kbit vLj;jJ

Mdhy;> rPdh kw;Wk; Nrhtpaj; A+dpad; Mfpait <uhf;fpd; Gul;rpfug; gilf;F MjuT ey;fpajd; fhuzkhfTk; kw;Wk; gy;NtW Njrpa kw;Wk; rHtNjr fhuzpfSk;> ,e;jj; jpl;lj;ij epiwNtw;Wtjw;F Kl;Lf; fl;ilahf mike;jNjhL> mjidf; iftpLtjw;F ,e;jf; fhuzpfs; mnkhpf;fhit epHg;ge;jpj;jd.

,Ug;gpDk;> <uhf;fpd; kPjhd jdJ xUjiyf; fhjiy vd;WNk mnkhpf;fh iftpl;ljpy;iy> me;j ehl;bd; tsq;fspd; kPJ vg;nghOJ xU fz; itj;Jf; nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;bUe;jJ> ,jw;fhfNt <uhf;fpd; tlf;Nf vOr;rp ngw;W te;j FHJfspd; vOr;rpf;F Fiwtpy;yhj xj;Jiog;ig toq;fp te;jJ.

fle;j 1980 fspy; mnkhpf;fhtpd; Ner ehL vd;w epiyapypUe;J <uhd; tpyfpf; nfhz;ljd; gpd;dH> <uhf; Njhs; kPJ mnkhpf;fh if Nghl;Lf; nfhz;lJ> <uhd;-<uhf; Nghhpd; nghOJ <uhf;fpw;F Mjuthf mnkhpf;fh fuj;ij ePl;baJ.

,Ug;gpDk;> ,e;j Njd;epyTf; fhjy; <uhf; Fitj;ij Muk;gpj;j ehSld; mjhtJ 1990 ld; KbTf;F te;jJ> mnkhpf;fh vz;nza; tskpf;f ,e;jg; gFjpapy; jdJ eyd;fisg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L> <uhf;if iftpl;L tpl;L ,J tiu fhjypj;J te;j fhjypapd; kPJ mkpyj;ij Cw;w Muk;gpj;jJ. nkhj;j kj;jpa fpof;Fk; mJehs; Kjy; mnkhpf;fhtpd; fl;Lg;ghl;bw;Fs; tu Muk;gpj;jJ.

 
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