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igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; (my;-Fj;];)

(i]dg; `]d; m\;hp - jp ,];yhk; gpurd;Nl]d; fkpl;b> Fitj; - my; [{k;M - \t;thy; 1421)


  • Kd;Diu

  • tuyhw;Wr; rpW Fwpg;G

  • my; Fj;]; - igj;Jy; Kfj;j];

  • my; `uk; m\;\hP/g;

  • my; k];[pJy; mf;]h

    • Kjy; fpg;yh

    • ,];uh kw;Wk; kp/uh[; epfo;e;j G+kp

    • %d;whtJ Gdpjkpf;f efuk;

  • mUs; nra;ag;gl;l G+kp ghy];jPdk;

    • cyfj;jpd; kpf Kf;fpa ikag; gFjpapy; mjd; miktplk;

    • thdtHfs; ,wq;fpa jsk;

    • ,iwj;J}jHfs; gyH te;Jjpj;j G+kp

    • cyf K];ypk;fspd; nghJ (tf;/g;) nrhj;J

    • ,iwj;J}jHfs; gyH te;Jjpj;j G+kp

    • cyf K];ypk;fspd; nghJ (tf;/g;) nrhj;J

    • [p`hj; kw;Wk; hpghj;

    • `\;H kw;Wk; kd;\;H

    • [p`hjpfspd; kz;ziw

  • my; Fj;]; - K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ

  • ckUila xg;ge;jk;

  • A+j Mf;fpkpg;G

  • gs;spthry; kPJ njhLf;fg;gl;l jhf;Fjy;fs;

  • mikjp xg;ge;jq;fSk;> thf;FWjpfSk;

  • K];ypk;fNs ,Wjp ntw;wpahsHfs;..!

  • tuyhw;Wg; gf;fq;fspy; ..>

 

Kd;Diu

igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; vd;gJ ,d;W New;wy;y> ,e;j cyfk; Njhd;wpa fhyj;jpypUe;Nj ,];yhj;Jld; ,uz;lwf; fye;J tpl;l> mjidg; gpd;gw;Wk; K];ypk;fspd; kdjpy; fye;J tpl;lnjhU ,iwek;gpf;ifapd; ntspg;ghL> ,d;iwf;F mJ K];ypk;fspd; tuyhw;wpd; xU gFjpahf> ,d;iwf;Fk; vd;iwf;Fk; epiyj;J epw;ff; $banjhd;W. ,];yhk; $Wfpd;w J}jHfs; midtUk; ty;y my;yh`;tpdhy; mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;ltHfs; vd;gJk;> K];ypk;fs; midtUk; mtHfspd; kPJ jkJ ,iwek;gpf;ifia G+uzg;gLj;Jfpd;whHfs; vd;gJk;> ,d;Dk; ,g;wh`Pk; (miy) mtHfs; Kjy; %]h (miy) ,d;Dk; <]h (miy) MfpNahH tiu> ,d;Dk; ,];yhj;jpd; ,Wjp egpahf mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;l K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfs; tiuAs;s FHMd; Fwpg;gpLk; mj;jid egpkhHfSk;> ,iwtdhy; mDg;gg;gl;l J}JtHfs; vd;gij xt;nthU K];ypKk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;tNjhL> ,d;Dk; mtHfs; capNuhL tho;e;j fhyj;jpy; mtHfsJ Md;kPfj;Jld; $ba kw;Wk; czHTg;G+Htkhd midj;Jk; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]pld; njhlHGgLj;jg;gl;lit. ,j;jifa Md;kPfj;JlDk;> czHTg;G+Htkhdtw;Wld; xd;Wgl;l igj;Jy; Kfj;ji] vt;thW tpl;Lf; nfhLf;f ,aYk;. ,d;Dk;> Xhpiwf; nfhs;ifiag; giwrhl;lf; $ba jskhfTk; cs;sJ. mJ K];ypk;fsJ Md;kPfk;> ,iwek;gpf;if> czHTfs;> tzf;f topghL ,d;Dk; mtHfsJ rkak; rhHe;j midj;jpYk; mJ jhf;fj;ij tpistpf;ff; $banjhd;whf ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. ,d;Dk; mjpfk; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy; [p`hj; vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba> ,iwtopapy; Nghuhl;lk; vd;gjd; milahsj; jskhfTk; mJ jpfo;fpd;wJ. ,jw;F fle;j fhy kw;Wk; epfo;fhy tuyhW rhl;rpak; $wpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. Fwpg;ghf> ghy];jPdj;jpy; K];ypk;fs; njhlHe;J elj;jp tuf; $ba ,d;jpghoh> Md;kPf kw;Wk; czHr;rpapd; ntspg;ghl;bd; cr;rj;ijg; giwrhw;wf; $bajhf ,Ug;gNjhL> my; Fj;]; vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; K];ypk; cyfpd; gphpf;f KbahjnjhU gFjpahfTk; jpfo;fpd;wJ. vy;yhtpj fUj;JNtWghLfSk; fisag;gl;L> K];ypk;fis Xuzpapy; epWj;jf; $ba gzpiar; nra;af; $ba milahs G+kpahfTk; ,J ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ vd;why; mjpy; kpifapy;iy.

 

tuyhw;Wr; rpW Fwpg;G

n[U]yk; efuhdJ fp.gp.637 ugpa;Ay; MfpH 16 e; Njjp K];ypk;fspd; iffSf;F te;jjd; gpd;dH> ,J tiu ,Ue;J te;j mlf;FKiw Ml;rpfSf;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jw;F Kd; me;jg; gFjpia vfpg;jp aHfSk;> fpNuf;fHfSk;> ngH]paHfSk; gpd;G NuhkHf shYk; khwp khwp Ml;rp nra;J te;jhHfs;. NuhkHfis vHKf; vd;w ,lj;jpy; itj;J NghH nra;J K];ypk;fs; ntw;wp ngw;wTld;> ,e;j mlf;FKiwfs; xU KbTf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;ld. NuhkHfspd; ftHduhf ,Ue;J Ml;rp nra;J te;jtH> Gdpj efiu tpl;L Xbr; nrd;W> K];ypk;fsplk; ruzile;J> mikjp xg;ge;jk; xd;iwr; nra;J nfhz;lhH. ,J NghyNt ,d;Dk; Vida efuq;fSk; K];ypk;fSld; mikjp xg;ge;jq;fs; nra;J nfhz;ld. Mdhy; kw;w efuq;fspd; kf;fs; nra;J nfhz;l mikjp xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fk;> n[U]k; efu kf;fs; nra;J nfhz;l mikjp xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fk; xU tpj;jpahrk; ,Ue;jJ. mjhtJ> K];ypk;fspd; ,uz;lhtJ fyPghthf kjpdh efhpy; Ml;rp nra;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; ckH (uyp) mtHfs; Neubahf te;J ,e;j efhpd; Ml;rpg; nghWg;ig Vw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj> me;j kf;fspd; Ntz;LNfhshf ,Ue;jJ. ,jidawpe;j ckH (uyp) mtHfs;> myp (uyp) mtHfsplk; Ml;rpg; nghWg;ig xg;gilj;J tpl;L> n[U]yk; efH te;J Ml;rpg; nghWg;ig Vw;W me;j kf;fspd; ngUkjpg;igg; ngw;whHfs;. mtHfsJ tUifapd; nghOJ> ,Jtiu Ml;rpg; nghWg;gpy; ,Ue;jtHfs; vy;yhk;> mjpfhuj;ij J\;gpuNahfk; nra;J> me;j kf;fis mlf;FKiwapd; fPo; itj;jpUe;jjw;F khwhf> ckH (uyp) Ml;rpg; nghWg;ig Vw;w md;Nw me;j kf;fs;> ,];yhj;jpd; cd;djj;ijf; fz;L nfhz;lhHfs;.

njhOiff;fhd Neuk; te;j rkaj;jpy;> ckH (uyp) mtHfis fpwp];j;jtHfspd; Nfhapypy; njhOJ nfhs;Sk;gb me;j kf;fs; Ntz;bf; nfhz;l gpd;Gk;> mjpy; njho kWj;Jtpl;lJld;> gpd;G tuf; $ba vd;Dila r%fk; ,J vq;fs; ckH epd;W njhOj ,lk; vd;W thjplhky; ,Uf;fj; jhd; ehd; njho kWf;fpd;Nwd; vd;W $wp md;Nw me;j kf;fspd; kj> kw;Wk; rNfhju ey;ypzf;fj;jpw;F mbj;jskpl;Lf; nfhLj;jhHfs;. NkYk;> mq;F thof;$ba kf;fspd; kj tzf;f topghLfs;> mtHfspd; rpd;dq;fs;> tzf;fj; jsq;fs; Mfpatw;iw vf;fhuzk; nfhz;Lk; > Mf;fpukpf;fNth> mfw;wNth $lhJ vd ckH (uyp) mtHfs; K];ypk;fSf;Ff; fl;lisapl;lhHfs;.

Nkw;fz;l ,e;j cj;juT mq;F tho;e;j fpwp];j;jtHfSf;F kl;Lky;y> A+jHfs; tp\aj;jpYk; ,e;jf; nfhs;ifiaf; filgpbf;FkhW ckH (uyp) mtHfs; fl;lisapl;lhHfs;. ,e;jg; Gz;zpa G+kpapy; tho;e;j ,tHfs;> epk;kjpahf ahH fhyj;jpy; tho;e;jhHfs; vd;why;> mJ fpwp];j;jtHfshd NuhkhdpaHfspd; Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; my;y. khwhf mJ K];ypk;fspd; Ml;rpf;fhyj;jpy; jhd; vd;gJ cz;ikahd tuyhwhFk;. ckH (uyp) mtHfs; Ml;rpg; nghWg;Ngw;w me;jf; fhyj;jpy; A+jHfSk;> fpwp];j;jtHfSk; jq;fSf;Fs; fLikahd gifikiaf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. fhuzk;> fpwp];j;jtHfshd NuhkHfs; A+jHfisg; gLnfhiy nra;jjJ kl;Lky;yhJ> fp.gp. 325 y; me;jg; gFjpia Ml;rp nra;J te;J nfhz;bUe;j Nuhkg; NguurH fhz;];lhd;bd; vd;gtH> A+jHfis n[U]yk; cl;gl;l gFjpfSf;Fs; tuNt $lhJ vd;w xU cj;juitAk; gpwg;gpj;jhH. K];ypk;fs; n[U]yk; efiuf; ifg;gw;wpa gpd;dH jhd;> mtHfs; ,e;jg; Gdpj G+kpf;Fs;NsNa Eioa Kbe;jJ. Mf> ,e;j A+jHfs; vq;nfq;F tho;e;jhHfNsh mq;nfy;yhk; mtkhdg;gLj;jg;gl;lhHfs;. Mdhy;> K];ypk;fspd; Ml;rpapy; jhd; ,tHfs; epk;kjpiag; ngw;whHfs;. fp.gp.1099-1187 tiu rpYit Ajj;jpd; gpd; 88 tUlq;fs; Ml;rp nra;j NuhkHfspd; nfhLq;Nfhs; Ml;rpapd; nghOJ jhd;> n[U]yk; efhpy; tho;e;j fpwp];j;jtHfSk;> A+jHfSk; K];ypk;fspd; Ml;rpapd; cd;djj;ij mwpe;J nfhz;lhHfs;. Vnddpy;> rpYit Aj;jj;jpd; nghOJ> NuhkHfs; n[U]yj;jpy; tho;e;J te;j K];ypk;fis kl;Lk; gLnfhiy nra;atpy;iy. khwhf> fpwp];j;jtHfs;> A+jHfs; vd 70 Mapuk; NgHfisf; nfhd;W jPHj;jhHfs;. vd;iwf;F ]yh`{j;jPd; my; ma;A+gp mtHfs; n[U]yj;ij kPz;Lk; ifg;gw;wpdhHfNsh md;W jhd; ,tHfs; epk;kjpahf tho Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

INuhg;gpaHfshYk;> n[Hkd; eh]pfshYk; Xl Xl tpul;lg;gl;Lg; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;l ,tHfs;> mtHfis vy;yhk; tpl;L tpl;L> ahUila Ml;rpapNy ghJfhg;ghfTk;> epk;kjpahfTk; tho;e;jhHfNsh> mj;jifa K];ypk;fspd; kPJ> NghH njhLj;jpUg;gJ> fhyk; fhykhf ,iwtDf;Fk; ,iwj;J}jHfSf;Fk; nra;J te;j khWghl;il tpl;L ePq;fhJ> kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; ,e;j G+kpapy; mopr;rhl;bak; nra;J tUtijj; jhd; Fwpf;fpd;wJ. ,J> ,iwtdhy; jpl;lkplg;gl;bUf;Fk;> mtHfs; kPJ ,iwtd; tpjpj;jpUf;Fk; mopit Nehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs; vd;gijj; jhd; Fwpf;fpd;wJ.

 

my; Fj;]; - igj;Jy; Kfj;j];

my; Fj;]; my;yJ n[U]yk; vd;gJ goikahd muG efukhFk;. ,jid goikahd muGf; Nfhj;jpuj;jtHfshd Nfdidl;]; vd;gtHfs; ,e;j efuj;ij cUthf;fpdhHfs;> ,d;Dk; ,tHfs; jhd; ghy];jPdj;jpd; Muk;gf; FbfSk; MthHfs;. ,g;nghOJ> A+jHfs; $wpf; nfhz;bUg;gJ Nghy n[U]yk; vd;gJ `Pg;U nkhopapy; cs;sjy;y> khwhf my; aNgh]p vd;w Xhpiwf; Nfhl;ghl;ilg; gpd;gw;wpatdhd Nfidd; kd;dd; my; ahNgh]p vd;gtd; ,l;l ngauhFk;.

,d;Dk; ,e;j efuj;ij 'AtH ]yPk; my;yJ ]hyk;" vd;Wk; miog;gJz;L> AtH vd;gJ CH my;yJ ,lk; vd;gijAk;> ]yPk; vd;gJ me;j kd;didAk; Fwpf;ff;$baJ. mjhtJ ']hyk; efuk;" my;yJ 'mikjpapd; efuk;" vd;wiof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. fhyk; nry;yr; nry;y ,e;jg; ngaH kUtp n[U]yk; vd;wiof;fg;gl;lJ. n[U]yk; vd;w ,e;jg; ngaH gy;NtW fhuzg; ngaHfSlDk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mjhtJ> igj;Jy; Kfj;jp];> my; Fj;]; - mjhtJ Gdpjkpf;f efuk; vd;wiof;fg;gLtJld;> ,ypah vd;Wk; Kd;G miof;fg;gl;L te;jJ.

my; `uk; m\;\hP/g;

K];ypk;fSf;F my; Fj;]; d; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; vd;gJ mJ mUs; nra;ag;gl;l efuk; - ghy];jPdk;> ,jd; fhuzk; vd;dntdpy; my; `uk; m\;\hP/g; vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba Gdpjkpf;f gs;spthry; ,Ug;gNj mjd; fhuzkhFk;. ,jw;F fz;zpakpf;f> Gdpjkpf;fJkhd ,e;jg; gs;spthry; cyf K];ypk;fs; njhOifapd; nghOJ Kd;Ndhf;Fk; jpirahfTk; Kd;G ,Ue;jJ. ,d;Dk; kf;fh kw;Wk; kjPdhtpw;F mLj;jjhf> %d;whtJ Gdpjkpf;f jskhf igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; jpfo;fpd;wJ. ,d;Dk; ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; ,e;j gs;spapy; ,Ue;J jhd; Vida ,iwj;J}jHfSf;F njhOifia Kd;dpd;W elj;jp tpl;L> gpd;G kp/uh[; vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba tpz;Nzw;wg; gazk; nra;jhHfs; vd;gjpypUe;Jk;> my; k];[pJy; mf;]h> my; Fj;];> ghy];jPdg; G+kp vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba ,e;j G+kp ,iwtdhy; mUs;nra;ag;gl;ljhFk;. ,d;Dk; mjd; Nkw;fz;l Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpypUe;J ,J K];ypk;fspd; ,iwek;gpf;ifAld; ve;jsT njhlHGs;s G+kp vd;gJk; tpsq;Fk;.

my; k];[pJy; mf;]h

(my;yh`;) kpfg; ghpRj;jkhdtd;; mtd; jd; mbahiu igj;Jy; `uhkpypUe;J (f/gj;Jy;yh`;tpypUe;J njhiytpypUf;Fk; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]pYs;s) k];[pJy; mf;]htpw;F Xhputpy; mioj;Jr; nrd;whd;; (k];[pJy; mf;]htpd;) Rw;nwy;iyfis ehk; mgptpUj;jp nra;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;; ek;Kila mj;jhl;rpfis mtUf;Ff; fhz;gpg;gjw;fhf (mt;thW mioj;Jr; nrd;Nwhk;); epr;rakhf mtd; (ahtw;iwAk;) nrtpAWNthdhfTk;; ghHg;NghdhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;whd;. (17:1)

my; k];[pJy; mf;]h my;yJ njhiyJ}uj;Jg; gs;spthry; vd;gjd; mHj;jk; ahnjdpy;> Gdpjkpf;f gs;spthryhd kf;fhtpypUe;J njhiytpy; cs;s gs;spthry; vd;gjhFk;. ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; kf;fhtpypUe;J igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; nrd;w - ,];uh vd;w epfo;tpid Ma;T nra;Ak; khHf;f mwpQHfs;> Gdpj kpf;f kf;fh efuj;ijAk;> igj;Jy; Kfj;ji]Ak; ,izf;fpd;w ,e;j epfo;tpd; %yk; ,iwtd; igj;Jy; Kfj;ji]Ak;> kf;fhtpd; Gdpjj;NjhL ,izf;fpd;whd; vd;Nw fUJfpd;wdH. ,e;j tpz;Nzw;w cj;juT ,iwtd; Gwj;jpypUe;J te;jjhFk;> vdNt ,uz;L gs;spfspd; Gdpjj;jd;ikiag; ghJfhf;Fk; nghWg;G K];ypk;fisNa rhUfpd;wJ. ,jid khw;wpaikg;gjw;F ,iwtd; NtW ahUf;Fk; ve;j mjpfhuj;ijAk; toq;fpltpy;iy.

 

k];[pj; mf;]htpd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; gw;wpa rpy Fwpg;Gfs; :

Kjy; fpg;yh

`p[;uj; - ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; kf;fhtpypUe;J kjPdhtpw;F FbNawpa gpd; cs;s Muk;g ehl;fspy; K];ypk;fs; jq;fsJ tzf;fj;jpd; nghOJ Kd;Ndhf;Fk; jpirahf> igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; mike;jpUe;j jpiria Kd;Ndhf;fpj; jhd; njhOJ nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. ,JNt ,iwtdhy; mDg;gg;gl;l midj;J ,iwj;J}jHfSf;Fk;> ,d;Dk; ,Wjpj; J}juhd K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfs; tiuf;FKs;s mdij;Jj; J}jHfSf;Fkhd milahskhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. ,khk; GfhhP mtHfspd; gjpT nra;jpUf;fpd;w egpnkhopapd;gb> ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; mbf;fb thdj;ijNa cw;W Nehf;ff; $batHfshf ,Ue;jhHfs;> njhOifapd; Kd;Ndhf;F jpirahf igj;Jy; Kfj;ji] tpLj;J kf;fhit Nehf;fpj; njhOtjw;fhd ,iwtDila cj;juT te;J tplhjh vd;W jhd; mtHfs; jdJ Kfj;ij thdj;ij Nehf;fp mbf;fb jpUg;gf; $batHfshf ,Ue;jhHfs;. gpd;dH ,iwtd; ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfspd; me;j tpUg;gj;jpw;F gjpyspj;jhd;. mjd; gpd;dH jhd; njhOifapd; nghOJ Kd;Ndhf;Fk; jpirahf kf;fh khw;wg;gl;lJ. ,jid my;yh`; jdJ jpUkiwapy; ,t;thW $Wfpd;whd; :

(egpNa!) ehk; ck; Kfk; mbf;fb thdj;ij Nehf;ff; fhz;fpNwhk;. vdNt ePH tpUk;Gk; fpg;yhtpd; gf;fk; ck;ikj; jplkhf jpUg;gp tpLfpNwhk;; MfNt ePH ,g;nghOJ (kf;fhtpd;) k];[pJy; `uhk; gf;fk; ck; Kfj;ijj; jpUg;gpf; nfhs;Sk;. (K];ypk;fNs!) ,d;Dk; ePq;fs; vq;fpUe;jhYk; (njhOifapd; NghJ) cq;fs; Kfq;fis me;j (fpg;yhtpd;) gf;fNk jpUg;gpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;;. (2:144)

njhOifapd; Kd;Ndhf;F jpirahd igj;Jy; Kf;fj;j]; khw;wg;gl;L tpl;ljd; fhuzkhf mjd; Gdpjj; jd;ikapy; FiwT Vw;gl;L tpl;lJ vd;W mHj;jkhfhJ> khwhf mjd; Gdpj;jJtj;ijg; gw;wp ,iwtd; jpUkiwf; FHMdpy; gy;NtW ,lq;fspy; rpyhfpj;Jf; $Wfpd;whd;. mjid tpl Gjpa fpg;yh thf cUntLj;jpUf;ff; $ba kf;fhtpDld;> igj;Jy; Kfj;j]{k; K];ypk;fspd; Ke;ija fpg;yh vd;w Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; ngw;WtpLfpd;wJ.

,];uh kw;Wk; kp/uh[; epfo;e;j G+kp

,Jtiu ve;jg; gilg;gpdKk; nrd;wile;jpuhj ,iwtdpd; kpf mUfhikia Nehf;fp> ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; ,utpy; kf;fhtpypUe;J igj;Jy; Kfj;j]pw;Fg; gazkhfp> mq;fpUe;J kp/uh[; vd;w tpz;Nzw;wg; gazj;ij Nkw;nfhz;l jskhf k];[pJy; mf;]h jpfo;fpd;wJ. ,e;jr; rk;gtj;ij jpUkiwf; FHMdpd; 17:1 trdk; nka;g;gpj;Jf; $Wfpd;wJ. ,J jhd; my; Fj;]; d; tuyhw;Wr; rpwg;Gkpf;f epfo;thfTk;> jpUg;G KidahfTk; jpfo;tNjhL> K];ypk;fspd; tho;tpYk; ,d;Dk; kdpj tuyhw;wpYk; kpf Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ijg; ngw;Wj; juf; $bajhfTk; ,e;j rk;gtk; jpfo;fpd;wJ.

,J K];ypk;fspd; Md;kPfj;Jld;> mtHfsJ czHTld; guk;giu guk;giuahf njhlHgpid Vw;gLj;jty;yjhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. k];[pJy; mf;]h Tk; mjDld; njhlHGs;s epyq;fSk;> kf;fhtpidg; Nghd;Nw K];ypk;fSf;F Gdpjkpf;fnjhd;whf Mfp tpLfpd;wJ.

%d;whtJ Gdpjkpf;f efuk;

,e;jg; gs;spiar; nrd;W jhprpg;gjw;F ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; K];ypk;fis Cf;fg;gLj;jpdhHfs;. fPo;fz;l %d;W gs;spthry;fisj; jtpu Vida gs;spfSf;Fr; nrd;W mjidj; jhprpg;gjw;F (mq;F njhOif elj;Jk; Nehf;fj;JlDk;) nry;yf; $lhJ. mitahtd : kf;fhtpy; mike;Js;s my; k];[pj; my; `uk;> kjPdhtpy; cs;s ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfspd; gs;spthry; kw;Wk; my; k];[pJy; mf;]h (my; Fj;];). (GfhhP> K];ypk;)

,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; gs;spapy; njhOfpd;w njhOif 500 klq;F ed;ikfisg; ngw;Wj; juf; $baJ.

kf;fhtpy; cs;s my; k];[pJy; `ukpy; njhof; $ba njhOifahdJ kw;w ,lq;fspy; njhOfpd;w njhOif xU yl;rk; njhOiff;F <lhdJ. kjPdhtpy; njhof; $ba njhOifahdJ kw;w ,lq;fspy; njhOfpd;w njhOiff;F Mapuk; klq;F njhOiff;F <lhdJ. ,d;Dk; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; y; njhOfpd;w njhOifahdJ kw;w ,lq;fspy; njhOfpd;w njhOifapd; 500 klq;Ff;F <lhdJ. (`]d; ig`fP)

j[;[hypd; Fog;gk; kpiff;Fk; nghOJ> K];ypk;fs; mtdJ Fog;gj;jpypUe;J jq;fisg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L jQ;rk; milaf; $ba jskhfTk; igj;Jy; Kj;j]; jpfo;fpd;wJ. kf;fh kw;Wk; kjPdhitg; NghyNt j[;[hy; ,e;jg; gs;spapy; Eiotjdpd;Wk; ,iwtd; ghJfhj;jUs;thd;. ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs; : j[;[hiyg; gw;wpf; $Wk; nghOJ> ''mtd; ,e;jg; G+kpapy; ehw;gJ ehl;fs; jq;fp ,Ug;ghd;> f/gh> ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfspd; gs;spthry; kw;Wk; my; k];[pJy; mf;]h ,d;Dk; rpdha; Fd;Wfs; Mfpa ,lq;fisj; jtpu> mtd; G+kpapy; cs;s vy;yh ,lq;fspYk; Eiothd;."" (m`;kj;)

 

mUs; nra;ag;gl;l G+kp ghy];jPdk;

ghy];jPd kz;zpy; mike;Js;s igj;Jy; Kfj;j]pd; ngUikfs; kw;Wk; mjd; Gdpjj; jd;ik gw;wp jpUkiwf; FHMdpYk;> ,d;Dk; Vuhskhd egpnkhopfspYk; rpyhfpj;Jf; $wg;gl;Ls;sd. mwpQH ngUkf;fshd ,g;D fjPH> my; FHJ}gp> ,g;D [t;]pa;ah kw;Wk; gyH ''Rw;nwy;iyfis ehk; mgptpUj;jp nra;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;;"" vd;w trdj;jpw;F tpsf;fkspf;Fk; nghOJ> \hk; vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba ,d;iwa rphpahTk; ghy];jPdg; G+kpAld; cs;slq;Fk; vd;Wk;> mJTk; mUs; nra;ag;gl;l G+kp vd;Wk; tpsf;fkspf;fpd;whHfs;. ,e;j G+kpahdJ Md;kPfk;> cyfhjhak; kw;Wk; mUl;nfhilfs; vd;W midj;J tpj mUl;nfhilfisAk; nfhz;l jskhf> ,iwtdhy; mUl;nra;ag;gl;l G+kpahfj; jpfo;fpd;wJ. ,e;j mUl;nfhilfshdJ ghy];jPdHfSf;F kl;Lk; chpj;jhdjd;W> khwhf ghy];jPdHfs;> muGf;fs;> K];ypk;fs; vd;W ,e;j KO cyf kdpj tHf;fj;jpw;FNk mJ mUl;nfhilahf tpsq;Ffpd;wJ vd;gij jpUkiwf; FHMd; ,t;thW Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

mtw;Ws; rpy mUl;nfhilfs; gpd;tUkhW :

cyfj;jpd; kpf Kf;fpa ikag; gFjpapy; mjd; miktplk;

Nkw;F Mrpahtpw;Fk;> Mg;hpf;fhtpw;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l Nkw;F thryhf ,Ug;gNjhL> ,d;Dk; tlf;F kw;Wk; njw;Fg; gFjpfSf;Fk; ,J thryhf miktNjhL> iey; ejpg; gug;gpypUe;J A+g;ub]; ejp tiuf;Fk; ,J gutp ,Ug;gjd; %yk;> ,aw;if tsq;fisj; jd;dfj;Nj nfhz;Ls;sNjhL> cyfpd; gy ghfq;fspy; thOk; kf;fs; ,e;j tskhd G+kpapy; te;J jq;fp tho tpUk;Gtjd; fhuzkhf> cyfpd; gd;Kfr; rKjhaj;ij ,e;jg; G+kp jd;Ds; Njhw;Wtpj;Js;sjd; fhuzkhf> ,e;jg; G+kpf;F 'Fertile Crescent" vd;wiof;fg;gLtJk; cz;L. ,JNt cyfpy; Njhd;wpa Vuhskhd ,iwj;J}jHfs; ,q;F Njhd;wpapUg;gJk;> mtHfs; ,iwtdJ J}Jr; nra;jpia ,q;fpUe;J gug;gpajw;Fkhd rpy Fwpg;gpl;l fhuzq;fshfr; nrhy;y KbAk;.

 

thdtHfs; ,wq;fpa jsk;

,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs; : \hk; Njr kf;fSf;F xU ew;nra;jp! mJ vd;d nra;jp> ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfNs vd;W mtHfs; (NjhoHfs;) Nfl;lhHfs;. ''my;yh`;tpDila thdtHfs; jq;fsJ ,wf;iffis \hk; Njrj;jpd; kPJ tphpj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;"" vd;whHfs;. (jpHkpjP)

 

,iwj;J}jHfs; gyH te;Jjpj;j G+kp

my;yh`; jdJ J}jHfs; gyiu ,e;jg; G+kpapy; jhd; gpwf;f itj;jhd;> mtHfisj; jdJ J}jHfshfTk; NjHe;njLj;Jf; nfhz;lhd;> ,d;Dk; jd;Dila Ntj trdq;fisAk;> fl;lisfisAk;> Mfkq;fisAk; toq;fp kf;fSf;F mtw;iwg; Nghjpf;fr; nra;jhd; :

K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfs; ,e;jg; Gz;zpa G+kpiaj; jhprpj;jNjhL> mq;F njhOifAk; elj;jpdhHfs;. ,g;wh`Pk; (miy)> Y}j; (miy) MfpNahH ,e;j G+kpf;F ,lk; ngaHe;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. ,d;Dk; Vuhskhd J}jHfs; ,q;F gpwe;jpUfpd;whHfs;> tsHe;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;> kuzpj;jpUf;fpd;whHs;> mlf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;whHfs;. mtHfshtd : ,];`hf; (miy)> ah$g; (miy)> A+R/g; (miy)> jhT+j; (miy)> Riykhd; (miy)> ]fhpa;ah (miy)> a`;ah (miy) kw;Wk; <]h (miy). my; Fj;]; - ,tHfs; midtUk; tho;e;J kuzpj;j ,lk; kl;Lky;y> mtHfs; ,e;jg; G+kpapy; te;J jq;fp> kf;fSf;F ,];yhkpag; gpur;rhug; gzpfisAk; Nkw;nfhz;l jsKkhFk;.

Af KbT ehSf;F Kd;gjhf> <]h (miy) mtHfs; kPz;Lk; ,e;j cyfj;jpw;F tUif jUk; nghOJ> my; k];[pJy; mf;]h tpy; jhd; mtHfsJ tUif ,Uf;Fk; vd;W Vuhskhd `jP];fs; cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

 

cyf K];ypk;fspd; nghJ (tf;/g;) nrhj;J

ghy];jPdg; G+kpia Kjd; Kjyhf jdJ Njhouhd jkPk; ,g;D mt;]; mj;jhhp (,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfsJ NjhoUk; ,d;Dk; ghy];jPdj;ijr; NrHe;j Kjy; K];ypKk; MthH)vd;gtUf;F chpik toq;fpa nghOJ> ghy];jPdk; vd;gJ K];ypk;fSf;Fhpa nrhj;J vd;W mjd; kPjhd chpik Fwpj;J typAWj;jpdhHfs; ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs;. me;jr; nrhj;J jkPk; mj;jhhp mtHfSf;Fk; mtUf;Fk; gpd; mtuJ rNfhjuHfSf;Fk;> mtHfSf;Fg; gpd; mtHfsJ re;jjpapdUf;Fk; mJ chpikahf;fg;gl;L> ,e;j chpikahdJ cyf mopT ehs; tiuf;Fk; njhluf; $baJ.

,];yhkpa tuyhw;iw Muha;e;jhy;> K];ypk; Ml;rpahsHfs; gyH> ghy];jPdj;jpd; gy;NtW gFjpfis tf;/g; nra;jpUg;gjidf; fhz KbAk;. cJkhdpa fpyhgj;jpd; nghOJ> ,t;thW tf;/g; nra;ag;gl;l nrhj;Jf;fs; ahTk; gj;jpuj;jpy; vOjg;gl;L> ,];jhd;Gy; efuj;jpy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;lJ.

,d;Dk; Nkyjpfkhf> ,t;thW tf;/g; nra;ag;gl;l nrhj;Jf;fis fhydp Ml;rp Ghpe;J nfhz;bUe;j gphpl;b\; muRk; mq;fPfhpj;jpUe;jJ> ghy];jPdk; vd;gJ K];ypk;fSf;F chpikg;gl;lJ vd;Wk; me;j muR mq;fPfhuk; nra;jJ.

 

[p`hj; kw;Wk; hpghj;

,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; ghy];jPdg; gFjp kf;fs; Fwpj;Jf; $Wk; nghOJ> '',tHfSk;> ,tHfsJ kidtpaHfSk;> ,tHfsJ Foe;ijfSk;> mbikfSk; (Mz;> ngz;)> ,tHfs; midtUk; my;yh`;tpd; ghijapy; hpghj; nra;af; $batHfs;."" (mj;jguhdP) hpghj; vd;gJ K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd epyq;fis ghJfhg;gJ vd;W nghUs;> ,];yhj;jpw;Fr; nra;ag;gLk; kpfg; ngUk; Nritfspy; ,JTk; xd;W> xUtH K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd G+kpia kPl;gjw;fhd Nghuhl;lj;jpy; ,we;J tpl;lhH vdpy;> kz;ziwapd; Fog;gq;fspy; ,Ue;J mtH ghJfhf;fg;gLtJld;> mtuJ ey;ywq;fs; vd;iwf;F KbT ngwhJ njhlHe;J nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;> vJtiunadpy; cyf KbT ehs; tiuf;F mJ njhlHe;J nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;> ,tuJ fzf;fpy; mJ ey;ywq;fshf; Fwpf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;.

,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs; : ''vd;Dila ck;kj;jpy; xU FOtpdH rj;jpaj;ijf; fhg;ghw;Wtjw;fhf njhlHe;Jk; Nghuhbf; nfhz;Nl ,Ug;ghHfs;> ,d;Dk; (,Wjp) Neuk; tUk; Neuj;jpy; mtHfs; jq;fsJ vjphpfis ntd;nwLf;ff; $batHfshf ,Ug;ghHfs;."" mg;nghOJ xUtH Nfl;lhH : ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfNs..> mtHfis ehq;fs; vq;Nf fhz;gJ? mjw;F> ''mtHfs; igj;Jy; Kj;jp]pYk;> mjidr; Rw;wpYk; (tho;e;J nfhz;L) ,Ug;ghHfs;"" vd;whHfs;. (m`;kj;)

vdNt> khHf;f mwpQHfs; gyH ghy];jPdpaHfs; jq;fsJ epyq;fis kPl;Fk; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; cWjpNahL ,Uf;FkhW mtHfisf; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;fpd;whHfs;. ,e;jg; Nghuhl;lkhdJ my;yh`;tpdplj;jpy; [p`hj; kw;Wk; hpghj; vd;w ,uz;L ew;$ypfis mtHfSf;Fg; ngw;Wj; juf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

 

`\;H kw;Wk; kd;\;H

,Wjp ehspd; milahsq;fspy; xd;whf> vkd; Njrj;jpy; kpfg; nghpa jP cUthfp mJ kf;fis `\;H vd;wiof;ff; $ba G+kpf;Ff; nfhz;L te;J NrHf;Fk;> (`\;H vd;gJ cyfj;jpd; filf;Nfhb) mjhtJ \hk; Njrj;jpy; - ,d;iwa rphpahtpy; nfhz;L te;J NrHf;Fk;. ,e;j mUs; nra;ag;gl;l G+kpapy; ,Ue;J jhd; ,];uh/gPy; vd;w thdtH> ,e;j cyf KbT ehs; Fwpj;Jk;> ,d;ndhU Afj;jpd; Muk;gk; Fwpj;Jk; mjd; milahskhf kpfg; ngUk; rq;Nfhiria vOg;GthH.

 

ik%dh gpd;j; ]hj; (uyp) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs; : ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfNs igj;Jy; Kfj;jp]; gw;wpf; vq;fSf;Ff; $Wq;fNsd; (vd;w nghOJ)> '',iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs;> ,J `\;H kw;Wk; kd;\H (khpj;NjhHfis capH nfhLj;J vOg;gg;gLk; ehs;) - d; G+kpahFk;"" vd;whHfs;. (jguhdP)

 

[p`hjpfspd; kz;ziw

 

 

 

mUs; nra;ag;gl;l ,e;j G+kpapd; xt;nthU kz; Jfspd; kPJk;> ,];yhj;jpw;fhf ,iwtopapy; capH Jwe;j ,iwg; Nghuhspfspd; ,uj;jk; Njha;e;jpUf;fpd;wJ. gy;NtW Nghuhl;lq;fs; ,e;j ghy];jPdg; G+kpapy; ele;jpUf;fpd;wd. `pj;jPd;> Id;[hY}j; vd;w Aj;jq;fs; mf;fh kw;Wk; my; Fj;]; G+kpapy; ele;j nghOJ Mapuf;fzf;fhd K];ypk; Nghuhspfs;> ,e;jg; G+kpia kPl;Fk; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; jq;fsJ ,d;DapHfis ,q;F <e;Js;shHfs;. fle;j 50 Mz;Lfspy; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; A+jHfSf;Fkpilapy; eilngw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; jPuhj Nghuhl;lj;jpy; vz;zw;w K];ypk;fs; jq;fsJ ,d;Dapiu ,e;jg; G+kpf;fhf ,oe;Js;shHfs;. ,uz;lhtJ ,d;jpghohTf;Fg; gpd; mDjpdKk; K];ypk;fs; jq;fsJ ,d;Dapiu ,oe;J tuf; $batHfshf ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. Gdpj kpf;f ,e;jg; G+kpapy; [p`hJk;> ,iwtopapy; capH Jwg;gJk; fpahk ehs; tiuf;Fk; njhluf; $bajhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

 

my; Fj;]; - K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhdJ

 

 

 

 

ehd;F khj njhlH Kw;Wiff;Fg; gpd;dH `p[;hp 16 y; my; Fj;]; K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd G+kpahdJ> '',Wjpj; J}jH"" gw;wp mwpTiltHfs; K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfs; jhd; ,Wjpj; J}jH vd;gij mwpe;J czHe;J> K];ypk;fSld; rkhjhdk; nra;J nfhs;s Kd; te;jhHfs;. ,d;Dk; jq;fsJ Ntj E}ypy; fz;lthW cs;s milahsk; cs;stiuj; jtpu NtW ahhplKk; ,e;j efuj;ij ehq;fs; xg;gilf;f khl;Nlhk; vd;W mtHfs; kWj;J tpl;lhHfs;. me;j milahsq;fs; vd;dntd;gJ Fwpj;J mtHfs; K];ypk;fspd; Kd;dpiyapy; jq;fsJ Ntj E}y;fspypUe;J thrpj;Jf; fhl;ba nghOJ> mt;thW Fwpg;gplg;gLk; milahsq;fs; ahTk; ckH gpd; fj;jhg; (uyp) mtHfisNa Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ vd;W czHe;J nfhz;l K];ypk;fs;> ckH (uyp) mtHfis - md;iwa ,];yhkpa rhk;uh[;aj;jpd; jiyikg; nghWg;ghspia my; Fj;]; efuj;jpw;F tpiue;J tUkhW nra;jp mDg;gpdhHfs;. ckH (uyp) mtHfSk; my; Fj;]; efuj;jpw;F Gwg;gl;L te;J> kpf caHe;j fpwp];jt NghjfHfsJ Kd;dpiyapy; my; Fj;]; efuj;jpy; rhtpia ckH (uyp) mtHfsplk; xg;gilj;jhHfs;.

mt;thW rhtp xg;gilf;fg;gl;l Neuk; njhOif Neukhf ,Ue;jikahy;> fpwp];jtHfspd; rHRf;Fs; epd;W njhOk;gb fpwp];jt ghjphpahHfs; Kd; te;J Ntz;bf; nfhz;l NghJk;> ckH (uyp) mtHfs; mq;F njho kWj;jNjhL> ehis tuf; $ba re;jjpfs; ,J ckH epd;W njhOj ,lk;> vdNt ,J vq;fSf;Fj; jhd; nrhe;jk; vd;W nrhe;jk; nfhz;lhl Muk;gpj;J tpLthHfs;> mjw;F ehd; ,le; ju khl;Nld; vd;W $wp tpl;L> ckH (uyp) mtHfSk; mtuJ NjhoHfSk; rHr;Rf;F ntspNa ,d;ndhU ,lj;jpy; njhOifia epiwNtw;wpdhHfs;.

 

ckUila xg;ge;jk;

caH me;j];jpy; ,Ue;j ghjphpahHfsplk; ckH (uyp) mtHfs; xU rkhjhd xg;ge;jk; xd;iwr; nra;J nfhz;lhHfs;> mjd;gb my; Fj;]; y; cs;s midj;J kf;fSila capUf;Fk; ghJfhg;G mspg;gNjhL> Rje;jpukhd Kiwapy; mtutH tzf;f topghLfis epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;tjw;Fk;> nrhj;Jf;fis ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;Fk;> ,d;Dk; tzf;f topghl;Lj; jsq;fis ghJfhg;gjw;Fk; cWjp nkhop mspf;fg;gl;lJ. ,d;Dk; ,e;j xg;ge;jj;jpy;> me;j efuj;jpy; thof; $ba K];ypk; my;yhjtHfSf;F ,ilNaahd chpikfs; Fwpj;Jk; $wg;gl;bUe;jJ. ckH (uyp) mtHfSila ,e;j xg;ge;jk; Fwpj;J vOJk; tuyhw;W MrphpaHfs;> ''cyf tuyhw;wpy; kpfTk; ePjkhd Kiwapy; nra;J nfhs;sg;gl;lnjhU xg;ge;jk;"" vd;W tHzpf;fpd;whHfs;. ,];yhkpa muRf;F Ke;ija murhd fpwp];jtHfspd; ig]he;jpa Ml;rpahdJ> A+jHfisf; nfhiy nra;jJld;> A+jHfs; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; vy;iyf;Fs; tho mDkjp kWf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. K];ypk;fspd; Ml;rpg; nghWg;gpd; fPo; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; te;j ehs; Kjy; A+jHfs; kPjhd midj;Jj; jilfisAk; ePf;fpdhHfs;. Wailing Wall vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba gFjpahdJ K];ypk;fspd; tf;/g; f;Fr; nrhe;jkhf ,Ue;j NghjpYk; mjid jhprpj;Jr; nry;tjw;F A+jHfSf;F K];ypk;fs; mDkjp toq;fpdhHfs;.

A+jHfSk;> fpwp];jtHfSk; ,];yhkpa Ml;rpia tuNtw;wJld;> ,];yhkpa Ml;rpapd; fPo; kj rfpg;gj; jd;ikAld; $ba Gjpa tho;f;ifia mtHfs; ghy];jPdg; G+kpapy; mDgtpf;f Muk;gpj;jhHfs;. ,tHfs; jq;fsJ khHf;fj;ij G+uz Rje;jpuj;Jld; gpd;gw;wTk;> mtHfsJ r%f eilKiwfspy; mtHfs; nrhe;j eilKiwr; rl;lq;fisg; Ngzpf; nfhs;sTk; KOr; Rje;jpuk; toq;fg;gl;lhHfs;. ,];yhj;jpd; Kjy; E}w;whz;bd; ,Wjpapy; ghy];jPdj;jpy; tho;e;j mNefkhd kf;fs; ,];yhj;ijj; jOtpdhHfs;> kpfTk; Fiwe;j rjtpfpj kf;fNs A+jHfshfTk;> fpwp];jtHfshfTk; ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

 

A+j Mf;fpkpg;G

 

 

 

gd;dhl;Lr; rl;lq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; my; Fj;]; d; fpof;F kw;Wk; Nkw;Fg; gFjpfs; Mf;fpukpg;Gg; gFjpfs; vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. mjd; kPJ ,];NuYf;F ve;jtpj chpikAk; fpilahJ. ,];Nuy; njhlHe;J nra;J tUk; Kaw;rpfs; %ykhf my;Fj;]; efuj;ij mtHfSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd efukhf khw;wpikj;J tplyhk; vd;W fUJfpd;whHfs;> ,jid ahUk; jLj;J epWj;jp tpl KbahJ vd;W mtHfs; fdT nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs;. my; Fj;]; vd;gJ ,];Nuypd; gphpf;f Kbahj gFjp vd;Wk; mtHfsJ jiyefuk; vd;Wk; mwpf;if thrpf;fpd;whHfs;. ,];NuyhdJ muGf;fSf;Fk; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; nrhe;jkhd Vuhskhd epyq;fis mgfhpj;J itj;Js;sJ. ntspehLfspy; ,Ue;J ,];Nuypy; FbNaWk; A+jHfSf;F Gjpa Gjpa FbapUg;Gf;fis> ,e;j efuj;ijr; Rw;wpYk; fl;baikj;Jf; nfhz;L tUfpd;wJ. ,t;thwhd Mf;fpukpg;Gfs; muGf;fis tYf;fl;lhakhf ghy];jPd; G+kpia tpl;L ntspNaw;wj; J}z;Lfpd;wJ. ghy];jPdpaHfis ntspNaw;WtJld;> mt;thW ntspNawhjtHfs; jq;fsJ tPLfis GdHepHkhzk; nra;tjw;F mDkjp toq;f kWg;gJld;> Gjpa tPLfisf; fl;bf; nfhs;tjw;Fk; mDkjp kWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. my; Fj;]; d; kf;fs; njhif rjtpfpjj;ij khw;wp mikf;Fk; nghWl;L> ghy];jPdHfSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd epyq;fis mgfhpj;J> mjpy; A+jHfSf;fhd FbapUg;Gf;fisf; fl;b mjpy; A+jHfs; jq;f itf;fg;gl;l tz;zk; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. vQ;rpapUf;Fk; ,];yhkpa kw;Wk; muG milahsq;fisj; Jilj;njwptjw;fhf efuj;jpy; gy;NtW khw;wq;fis ,];Nuypa muR nra;J tUfpd;wJ. ,];yhkpa tuyhw;Wr; rpd;dq;fs;> gs;spthry;fs; kw;Wk; kz;ziwfs; Nghd;wtw;iw jfHj;J mtw;wpy; Gjpa fl;blq;fisf; fl;Ltjd; %yk; ,e;j khw;wq;fisr; nra;J tUfpd;wJ. muG kw;Wk; ,];Nuypa rpe;jidahsHfspd; fzpg;Gg;gb> my; Fj;]; y; tPw;wpUf;fpd;w k];[pJy; mf;]hitj; jfHj;njwptJ jhd; ,];Nuypa jPtputhjj;jpd; mbg;gil Nehf;fk; vd;W ,];Nuypd; fgl vz;zj;ij NjhYhpf;fpd;whHfs;.

 

gs;spthry; kPJ njhLf;fg;gl;l jhf;Fjy;fs;

fle;j 1967 Kjy; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]pd; kPJ jdpegHfSk;> ,];Nuypa muRk; gy;NtW tpjkhd jhf;Fjy;fisj; njhLj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. mjd; %yk; mjd; epHkhdj;ij jfHg;gjw;Fk;> K];ypk;fis mr;RWj;jp> igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; kw;Wk; my; Fj;]; efuj;jpd; kPjhd chpikia mgfhpj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W jpl;lkpl;L> A+jHfs; nray;gl;L tUfpd;whHfs;. mtw;wpy; rpytw;iw ehk; ,q;Nf RUf;fkhfj; jUfpd;Nwhk;. tphpthd jfty;fSf;F vkJ ,izaj;jpy; ''r%f mtyq;fs;"" gFjpapy; ghy];jPd; vd;w jiyg;gpw;Fr; nrd;W ghHf;fTk;.

1969> Mf];L khjk; 21 k; Njjpad;W M];jpNuypahitr; NrHe;j ikf;Nfy; Nuh`d; vd;gtd; jd;id 'rHr; M/g; fhl;" vd;w mikg;gpidr; NrHe;jtd; vd;W jd;idg; gpufldg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L> igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; gs;spia jP itj;Jf; nfhSj;j Kaw;rp nra;jhd;. tpiykjpf;f Kbahj> Mapuk; Mz;Lfs; goiktha;e;j Njf;F kuj;ijf; nfhz;L ]yh`{j;jPd; ma;A+gp - ,dhy; nra;ag;gl;l kpk;gH ([{k;M Fj;ghtpd; nghOJ ,khk; epd;W ciuahw;Wk; gPlk;) Kw;wpYk; NrjKw;wJ. ,J ];ngapdpy; cs;s mypg;Ngh efuj;jpy; ,Ue;J Ry;jhd; ]yh`{j;jPd; ma;A+gp - ,dhy; igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; gs;spf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

1982> mf;NlhgH khjj;jpy;> igj;Jy; Kfj;ji] jfHf;f Kaw;rp Nkw;nfhz;l fr; vd;w ,af;fj;jpd; cWg;gpdH ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhd;. Nahay; nyHdH vd;w me;j A+jd;> Fg;gj;Jy; ]`;uh vd;wiof;fg;glf; $ba gs;spapd; xU gFjpia ntbFz;L itj;Jj; jfHf;f Kaw;rp nra;j nghOJ> ifJ nra;ag;gl;L ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;lhd;.

1982 Vg;uy; khjj;jpy;> xU ,];Nuypa ,uhZt tPud; k];[pJy; mf;]h gs;spapy; njhOJ nfhz;bUe;j K];ypk;fs; kPJ fz;%br; Rl;ljd; fhuzkhf> gy K];ypk;fs; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;> gyH fhakile;jhHfs;. mtd; Gdpjkpf;f Myaj;ij K];ypk;fsplkpUe;J ifg;gw;wNt ,jidr; nra;Njd; vd;whd;. gpd;dH> mtDf;F MAs; jz;lid toq;fg;gl;L> rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;lhd;.

1983 khHr; 10 k; Njjpad;W> Nka;H fhNd vd;w jPtputhj mikg;igr; NrHe;j 45 egHfs;> k];[pj; my; mf;]h kPJ jhf;Fjy; elj;Jtjw;F jpl;lkpl;lhHfs;. mtHfsJ jpl;lj;ij epiwNtw;Wjtw;F Kd;gjhf Rw;wp tisj;Jf; ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;. fle;j 15 tUlq;fshf ,J Nghd;w vz;zw;w nfhiy ntwpj; jhf;Fjy;fs; epiwNtwhkNyNa jLf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd.

1983 k; Mz;L A+j ug;gpahd a`{jh nfl;]; vd;gtdJ Kaw;rpahy;> Nkw;Fr; Rtw;wpd; gf;fk; Ruq;fk; Njhz;lg;gl;lJ. ,e;jr; Ruq;fkhdJ gioa efuj;jpd; topahfr; nry;fpd;wJ. ,t;thW Njhz;lg;glf; $ba Ruq;fj;jpd; gzpfis K];ypk;fspd; tf;/g; cWg;gpdHfshy; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l gpd;Gk; $l mjidj; jLj;J epWj;j Kbatpy;iy. ,jd; tpisthf k];[pJy; mf;]htpd; fl;Lkhd cWjp gytPdg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ> ,jd; fhuzkhf gs;spapd; m];jpthukhdJ nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhfj; jdJ cWjpia ,oe;J tUfpd;wJ. NkYk;> ,t;thW Njhz;lg;gl;l Ruq;fj;jpd; gFjpfis 1996 y; ghHitahsHfspd; tUiff;fhfj; jpwe;Jk; tplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

A+jHfspd; cz;ikahd Nehf;fk; vd;dntd;why;> k];[pJy; mf;]h itj; jfHj;J tpl;L> mjd; kPJ ''%d;whtJ Nfhapy;"" vd;gjid mtHfs; epHkhzpf;f tpUk;Gfpd;whHfs;. ,jw;fhf mjd; fl;Lkhzj;ijf; nfhQ;rk; nfhQ;rkhfj; jfHf;Fk; gzpfis A+j ,];Nuypa muR rpwpJ rpwpjhf epiwNtw;wp tUfpd;wJ. ,jw;fhf gy tUlq;fis mJ nrytopf;fTk; jahuhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,];Nuypa murpdhYk;> ,d;Dk; cyfpd; ty;yuRfspd; MjuNthLk; K];ypk;fspd; kPJ gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk; mr;RWj;jy;fSld;> ,e;j k];[pJy; mf;]htpd; jfHg;Gg; gzpfSk; njhlHe;J epiwNtw;wg;gl;L> xU Fwpg;gpl;l ehspy; k];[pJy; mf;]hit KOikahfj; jfHj;J tpLtjw;Fz;lhd Kaw;rpfspy; mtHfs; <Lgl;Ls;shHfs;. ,e;j ,tHfsJ Kaw;rpapy; mtHfs; ntw;wp ngWk; ehs; ntFnjhiytpy; ,y;iy vd;Nw mtHfsJ Kaw;rpfspd; Clhf mwpe;J nfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ. mt;thW eilngw;W tpLkhdhy;> K];ypk;fspd; kPJ fl;ltpo;j;J tplg;gLk; muh[fq;fspD}lhf igj;Jy; Kfj;ji]Ak;> mjd; efukhd my; Fj;]; IAk; K];ypk;fs; nrhe;jk; nfhz;lhLk; tha;g;Gf; $l ,dp fhdy; ePuhfp tplf; $ba #o;epiyfSk; cUthfp tpLk;. fle;j fhyq;fspy;> mtHfspd; Md;kPfj; jiytHfs; gyH jq;fis nki]ah my;yJ %]h vd;W mioj;Jf; nfhz;L> jhq;fs; A+jHfisf; fhg;ghw;Wtjw;Fk; my;yJ k];[pJy; mf;]h ,Ue;j ,lj;jpy; Nfhapy; fl;lTk; gpwg;ngLj;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk; vd;Wk; jq;fis me;j Md;kPfj; jiytHfs; ,dq;fhl;bf; nfhz;lhHfs;. ,e;jg; gpur;idia ikakhf itj;J> ,jid 'n[U]yk; ]pd;;l;Nuhk;" vd;Wk; miof;fpd;whHfs;.

A+jHfspd; jq;fspd; ,e;j Kaw;rpapy; ntw;wp ngw;W> gs;spia jfHj;J tpLthHfsh vd;why;> elf;f tha;g;gpUf;fpd;wJ vd;Nw nrhy;yyhk;. k];[pJy; mf;]h ,j;jifa jfHg;G eltbf;iffspy; ,Ue;J ghJfhf;fg;gLk; vd;W K];ypk;fspy; gyH ek;gpf;if itj;jpUf;fpd;wdH. ,j;jifatHfsJ ek;gpf;iff;F ve;j MjhuKk; fpilahJ. ,g;nghOJ ele;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; A+j jhf;Fjy;fs; kw;Wk; K];ypk; ehLfspd; mrke;jg; Nghf;Ffs; ahTk;> k];[pJy; mf;]h jfHg;glf; $ba rhj;jpf; $Wfs; mjpfk; ,Ug;gijj; jhd; vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wd. my;yh`; ,j;jifa ,opTfspypUe;J k];[pJy; mf;]hitAk;> ,d;Dk; KO K];ypk; ck;kj;Jf;fisAk; ghJfhg;ghdhf.

kf;fhtpy; cs;s k];[pJy; `uk; gs;spthriyg; ghJfhg;gJ vt;thW xt;nthU K];ypkpd; kPjhd mbg;gilf; flikahf ,Uf;fpd;wNjh> mijg; NghyNt k];[pJy; mf;]hitg; ghJfhg;gJk; mbg;gilf; flikahFk;. ,jpypUe;J tpyfp ,Ug;gjhdJ> k];[pJy; `uikg; ghJfhg;gjdpd;Wk; tpyfp ,Ug;gjw;Fr; rkkhFk;.

 

mikjp xg;ge;jq;fSk;> thf;FWjpfSk;

,];yhk; vg;nghOJk; mikjpf;F vjpuhf ,Ue;jJ fpilahJ. ,];yhk; vd;whNy mikjp> rhe;jp vd;w nghUisf; Fwpf;ff; $baJ> ,d;Dk; my;Fj;]; vd;gJ mikjp efukhFk;. ,];yhj;jpd; vjphpfs; mikjpia tpUk;GthHfs; vd;W nrhd;dhy;> K];ypk;fs; vd;WNk mjw;Fj; jilf;fy;yhf epd;wjpy;iy. Mdhy;> me;j mikjpahdJ cs;sj;jpd; mbj;jsj;jpypUe;J ntspahff; $ba tpUg;gkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;> ePjkhdjhf ghugl;rkpd;wp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; K];ypk; r%fj;ij tYf;fl;lhakhf mikjp xg;ge;jj;jpw;Fs; jpzpg;gJ> mjd; kPJ gyhj;fhuj;ijAk;> mlf;FKiwiaAk; gpuNahfpg;gJ> mtHfsJ chpikfis tpl;Lf; nfhLf;f my;yJ mw;gzpf;ff; fl;lhag;gLj;Jtjhf mJ ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. mtHfSf;Fhpa chpikfspy; vjidAk; ifitf;fhJ> mjpy; NeHikahf ele;J nfhz;L mjd; kPJ mikjpia tpUk;GtJ gad;jUk;.

KO K];ypk; ck;kj;jpw;Fk; vd;W xU jiyikj;Jtk; ,y;yhj epiyapy;> K];ypk;fs; tpUk;ghj xUtiu Kd;dpWj;jpf; nfhz;L> mthpd; kPJ gyhj;fhuj;ijg; gpuNahfpj;J me;j gyhj;fhuj;jpd; gpd;dzpAld; mikjp xg;ge;jq;fisf; nfhz;L tUtJk;> mjw;Fg; gpd;dzpahf cyf ty;yuRfspd; tw;GWj;jYk; ,Ug;gJ> mikjpf;fhd Kd; Kaw;rpahf ,Uf;fhJ. ,d;iwf;F ,Uf;fpd;w ghy];jPd mjpfhu rig Nkw;fz;l mikjp xg;ge;jj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhYk; $l> me;j mikjp xg;ge;jk; ePjkhdjhf mlf;Fkiwaw;wjhf ,Uf;fhJ. khwhf> mlf;FKiwAk;> mePjpAk;> K];ypk;fsJ chpik Fwpj;j fUj;JNtWghLfSk; jhd; jiyJ}f;fp epw;Fk;. ,t;tifahd xg;ge;jq;fs; me;jg; gpuhe;jpaj;jpy; mikjpia my;yJ epr;rakhd jd;ikiaf; nfhz;L te;J tplhJ. mePjj;jpw;F Nky; mePjk; ePbg;gJk;> mjd; ghjpg;Gfs; Kd;ndg;nghOJk; ,y;yhj msTf;F td;Kiwfs; mjpfhpg;gjw;Nf top mikf;Fk;.

 

K];ypk;fNs ,Wjp ntw;wpahsHfs;..!

jpUkiwf; FHMDk;> ,d;Dk; egpnkhopfSk;> K];ypk;fs; jq;fsJ Nghuhl;lj;jpy; ntw;wp ngw;W Gdpjkpf;f G+kpia kPl;nlLg;ghHfs; vd;W vjpHT $Wfpd;wd. ,jw;fhd mwpFwpfis K];ypk;fs; kj;jpapy; fhz Kbfpd;wJ> K];ypk;fs; ntw;wp ngw;W jq;fsJ miog;Gg; gzpia tpiuT gLj;jf; $batHfshf ,Ug;ghHfs; vd;gij rkPg fhy epfo;Tfs; ew;nra;jp gfHfpd;wd.

cyf mstpy;> gy;NtW tptfhuq;fspy; khw;wq;fs; Vw;gl;L tUfpd;wd> ,e;j cyifg; nghWj;jtiu my;yh`; khw;wj;ij mbf;fb nfhz;L tuf; $batdhf ,Uf;fpd;whd;. mJ mtdJ jpl;lq;fspy; cs;snjhd;whfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,d;iwf;F ,Uf;ff; $ba gytPdq;fs; njhlUk; vd;gjw;fpy;iy. ,e;j cyf mikg;gpd; rl;lq;fs; khwp khwp tuf; $baJ vd;W my;yh`; jd;Dila jpUkiwapy; $Wfpd;whd; : '',e;j cyfj;jpd; tsq;fis gy;NtW rKjhaq;fSf;fpilNa khwp khwp tur; nra;fpd;Nwd;"" vd;W $Wfpd;whd;. gytPdHfs; mjpfhuk; gilj;jtHfshf khwp tpLthHfs;> ,d;Dk; mjpfhuk; gilj;jtHfs; gytPdHfshf khwp tpLthHfs;. ,J my;yh`;tpd; epajp. ,uz;lhtJ rpYit Aj;jj;jpd; nghOJ> njhlHe;J 92 tUlq;fshf K];ypk;fspd; fl;Lg;ghl;bypUe;J tpyfp ,Ue;j igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; kPz;Lk; ifg;gw;wg;gl;lJ> 92 tUlq;fSf;Fg; gpd;G mjid K];ypk;fs; kPl;nlLj;J jq;fsJ fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPo; nfhz;L te;jhHfs;.

K];ypk;fs; vg;nghOJk; ek;gpf;ifapoe;J tplf; $lhJ. ,d;Dk; ,d;iwf;F ,Uf;Fk; epiyia itj;J ruzilAk; Nghf;if vd;iwf;Fk; K];ypk;fs; iff;nfhs;sf; $lhJ. gytPdj;jpd; fhuzkhf K];ypk;fspilNa ek;gpf;ifaPdk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. my;yh`; jdJ jpUkiwapy;> ''(K/kpd;fNs! Nghhpy;) ePq;fs; jsHr;rpaile;J> ijhpakpoe;J rkhjhdj;ijf; NfhuhjPHfs;; (Vndd;why;) ePq;fs; jhk; NkNyhq;FgtHfs;; my;yh`; cq;fSlNdNa ,Uf;fpd;whd; - NkYk;> mtd; cq;fs; (ew;) nra;iffis cq;fSf;F (xU NghJk;) Fiwj;J tplkhl;lhd;."" (vd;W K];ypk;fSf;F my;yh`; ijhpakspf;fpd;whd;) (47:35) ,iwtd; ehbdhy; tpiutpy; xU ]yh`{j;jpd; my; ma;A+gpia ,];yhkpa cyfk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;. mj;jifa ek;gpf;ifahsH xUtH fpilj;J tpl;lhy;> tpiutpy; K];ypk;fs; jhq;fs; ,oe;j ngUikfis kPl;nlLg;ghHfs;> mg;nghOJ fle;j 1187 k; tUlk; mjpf ,uj;j ,og;gPby;yhky; vt;thW igj;Jy; Kfj;j]; ifg;gw;wg;gl;lNjh> mt;thW ifg;gwg;gl;L> mUs; nra;ag;gl;l me;j G+kpapy; mikjpiaAk;> ];jpuj;jd;ikiaAk; K];ypk;fs; nfhz;L tUthHfs;.

,d;iwf;F ,Uf;Fk; epiy khw Ntz;Lnkdpy; K];ypk;fs; ,jw;fhf fLikahf ciof;f Ntz;Lk;. my;yh`; jd;Dila jpUkiwapy;> ''ve;j xU r%jhaj;jtUk;> jk; epiyaiaj; jhNk khw;wpf; nfhs;shj tiuapy;> my;yh`; mtHfis epr;rakhf khw;Wtjpy;iy."" (13:11) ,d;iwf;F ,e;j ck;kj;jpy; ,jw;fhd khw;wq;fs; Vw;fdNt njd;gl Muk;gpj;J tpl;ld. vy;yhg; GfOk; my;yh`;Tf;Nf. fle;j %d;W jhrg;jq;fshf ,];yhkpa cyfpy; Vw;gl;L tUk; khw;wq;fs; ahTk;> ntw;wpf; fdp fpl;lNt ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;gjid cuj;J Koq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,jd; Kf;fpa mwpFwp vJntd;why; ghy];jPd kf;fs; vLj;J elj;jp tUk; '',d;jpghoh"" vd;w Nghul;lkhFk;. ,e;jj; njhlH Nghul;lk; %ykhf K];ypk;fs; jq;fsJ Nghuhl;lj;ij ,iltplhJ vLj;Jr; nry;tNjhL> mjpy; Vw;gLk; f\;lq;fisAk;> rpukq;fisAk; my;yh`;tpw;fhfj; jhq;fpf; nfhs;sf; $batHfshf ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;.

vjpHfhyj;jpy; fpilf;fg; NghFk; ntw;wp Fwpj;J> mfpy cyfq;fisAk; gilj;j ty;y u`;khd; K];ypk;fSf;F ew;nra;jpiaNa toq;fp ,Uf;fpd;whd;. #uh my; ,];uhtpy; ,lk; ngw;Ws;s ,iwtrdq;fs; cz;ikahd kw;Wk; ngha;ahd thf;FWjpfs; gw;wpAk;> ,d;Dk; Gdpj G+kpia ntd;nwLg;gjw;fhd Nghuhl;lq;fs; gw;wpAk; ekf;F vLj;Jiuf;fpd;wd. <]h (miy) mtHfs; epr;rakhf ,e;jg; G+kpf;Fj; jpUk;gp te;J> my;yh`;tpdhy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;glf; $ba rj;jpa khHf;fkhf ,];yhk; xd;Nw ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;gjw;fhd rhl;rpaj;ij toq;FthHfs;. <]h (miy) mtHfspd; tUif vd;gJ> K];ypk;fs;> fpwp];jtHfs; kw;Wk; A+jHfSf;fpilNa eilngwf; $ba njhlHr;rpahd Nghul;lj;jpd; xU gFjpahFk;. me;j Njw;wthsuhfpa <]h (miy) tUthH> rj;jpaj;ijg; gw;wpAk;> my; mf;]h kw;Wk; mUs; nra;ag;gl;l G+kpiag; gw;wpAk;> mjd; kPjhd cz;ikfs; gw;wpAk; cyfpw;F ntspr;rg;gLj;JthH.

 

tuyhw;Wg; gf;fq;fspy; ..>

  • Mjk; (miy) mtHfs;> kf;fhtpy; f/gh Myaj;ij epWtpa 40 Mz;Lfs; fopj;J ,e;jg; gs;spiaf; fl;bdhHfs;. ,d;Dk; rpy mwptpg;Gfspd;gb> ,e;j ,uz;L gs;spfisAk; thdtHfs; fl;bdhHfs; vd;W tUfpd;wJ. ,jdbg;gilapy;> k];[pj; my; mf;]h vd;gJ A+jHfspd; rpwg;G tzf;fj;jskd;W. NkYk;> ,g;wh`Pk; (miy) mtHfSf;F Kd;gpUe;Nj ,e;jg; gs;sp epHkhzpf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ

  • kf;fhtpy; cs;s k];[pJy; `uik ,g;wh`Pk; (miy) mtHfSk; mtuJ kfdhH ,];khaPy; (miy) mtHfSk; kW fl;likg;Gr; nra;j gpd; cs;s 40 Mz;Lfs; fopj;Jj; jhd;> k];[pJy; mf;]hit ,g;wh`Pk; (miy) mtHfSk; mtuJ kfdhH ,];`hf; (miy) mtHfSk; GdHepHkhzk; nra;fpd;whHfs;.

  • ,];`hf; (miy) mtHfsJ kfdhH ahf;$g; (miy) mtHfs; k];[pJy; mf;]hit kPz;Lk; GdHepHkhzk; nra;fpd;whHfs;. ,e;jg; gzpapy; mjw;F mUfhikapy; ,Ue;j ghiwf; Fd;WfSk; ,izf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,e;jg; gs;spia ,iwek;gpf;if nfhz;l midtuJ tzf;f topghl;bw;fhf> mjhtJ `Pg;U Ngrf; $ba my;yJ `Pg;U nkhopiag; Ngrhj midtUf;Fk; jpwe;J tplg;gLfpd;wJ.

  • ahf;$g; (miy) mtHfSk; mtHfsJ topj;Njhd;wy;fSk; vfpg;Jf;Fr; nrd;wjd; gpd;dH> ,g;wh`Pk; (miy) mtHfsJ khHf;fj;ijg; gpd;gw;Wfpd;w `Pg;U nkhop Ngrhj A+Rg; (miy) mtHfs;> k];[pjpd; nghWg;ig Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;whHfs;. mjpy; jdJ tzf;f topghLfisj; njhlHe;J epiwNtw;wpf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;.

  • A+jHfs; ghy];jPdj;jpw;Fj; jpUk;gp te;j gpd;> a`;ah Tf;Fg; gpd; te;jtuhd my; ,] (N[h]{th - Joshua) vd;w ,iwj;J}jH me;jg; ghiwapd; kPJ %]h mtHfspd; $lhuj;ij mikj;J> mjid Nehf;fp njhOJ tUfpd;whH.

  • jhT+j; (miy) mtHfs; ,];Nuy; vd;w rhk;uh[;aj;ij epHkhzpf;fpd;whHfs;. jhT+j; (miy) mtHfs; k];[pJy; mf;]hit GdHepHkhzk; nra;tjw;fhf Ntz;ba jahhpg;Gfisr; nra;fpd;whH> ,Ug;gpDk; mjid epNtw;Wtjw;F Kd;ghf ,we;J tpLfpd;whH. mtUf;Fg; gpd; mtuJ kfdhH Riykhd; (miy) mtHfs; ghy];jPdf; Fbkf;fspd; cjtpAld; k];[pijg; GdH epHkhzk; nra;fpd;whHfs;. Riykhd; (miy) mtHfshy; GdHepHkhzk; nra;ag;gl;l ,e;jg; gs;spahdJ Kd;ndg;nghOJk; cyfk; fz;buhj msTf;F fiyeaj;Jld;> rpwg;Gf; ftdj;Jld; myq;fhpf;fg;gl;lJ. A+jHfs; vg;nghOJk; k];[pJy; mf;]h gs;spia 'Riykhd; Myak;" vd;W chpik nfhz;lhb tUfpd;whHfs;> Mdhy; ,e;jg; gs;spia mtH Kjd; Kjyhf epHkhzpf;ftpy;iy> mtUila gpwg;gpw;F Kd;NdNa fl;lg;gl;L tpl;lJ.

  • fp.K.586 y; ghgpNyhdpa kd;dd; neG[l;ne];]hH vd;gtd; ghy];jPdj;jpd; kPJ gilnaLj;J ,e;jg; gs;spia epH%ykhf;fpdhd;. A+jHfisr; rpiwg;;gpbj;Jf; nfhz;L> ghgpNyhdpw;Fj; jpUk;gpdhd;.

  • A+jHfs; kPz;Lk; ghy];jPdj;jpw;F tu mDkjpf;fg;gLfpd;whHfs;. v];uh vd;gtH ,e;jg; gs;spapy; gy;NtW GdH epHkhzg; gzpfisr; nra;fpd;whH.

  • A+jHfs; a`;ah (miy) mtHfisAk;> [f;fhpa;ah (miy) mtHfisAk; nfhiy nra;fpd;whHfs;> ,d;Dk; <]h (miy) (,NaR) mtHfisAk; nfhiy nra;a Kaw;rp nra;fpwhHfs;. fpwp];jtHfs; k];[pJy; mf;]hit epH%ykhf;Ffpd;whHfs;> A+jHfisg; ghy];jPdj;ij tpl;Lk; tpul;babf;fpd;whHfs;.

  • ckH (uyp) mtHfs; my; Fj;]; efuj;jpd; rhtpiag; ngw;Wf; nfhz;l nghOJ> gs;spiar; Rw;wpYk; A+j kw;Wk; fpwp];jt Nfhapy;fs; fhzg;gltpy;iy vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. me;jg; gs;sp tshfj;ij kf;fs; iftpl;L tpl;L> me;jg; gFjpia Fg;ig $sq;fisf; nfhl;Lk; ,lkhfg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;.

  • ckH (uyp) mtHfs; k];[pJy; mf;]hit Kjd; Kjyhd GdH epHkhzk; nra;j ,];yhkpa Ml;rpj; jiytuhthH. mtH `uk; my; \hP/g; vd;w gFjpf;F mUfpy; ghiwf;F Kd;djhf rpwpa gs;sp xd;iwf; fl;bdhH.

  • cika;ahf; Nfhj;jpuj;ijr; NrHe;j mg;Jy; khypf; gpd; kHthd; vd;gtH> ghiwapd; kPJ ,d;wpUf;Fk; kpfg; nghpa k];[pijf; fl;bdhH> mjd; Fk;ghi] jq;f %yhk; G+rp myq;fhpj;jJld;> mjid my; fpakh vd;w rHr; d; moif xj;jjhf mjid mo$l;bdhH.

  • mtiu mLj;J te;j ,];yhkpa fyPghf;fspy; gyH gy;NtW epHkhzg; gzpfisr; nra;jdH. ,e;j ,U gs;spfSld; fy;tpf; $lq;fisAk;> kUj;JtkidfisAk;> mdhij ,y;yq;fisAk;> gazpfs; jq;Ftjw;nfd Xa;T miwfisAk; ,e;j tshfj;Jld; NrHj;Jf; fl;bdhHfs;.

  • fp.gp.1099 y; rpYit Aj;jf; fhuHfs; k];[pJy; mf;]hitf; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJld;> 70 Mapuk; nghJkf;fisAk; nfhd;nwhopj;jhHfs;. mtHfspy; gyH gs;spapd; tshfj;jpw;Fs; itj;Nj gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ldH. ,d;Dk; Mapuf;fzf;fhd A+jHfs; xd;W $l;lg;gl;L rHr;Rf;Fs; itj;J jPf;fpiuahf;fpf; nfhy;yg;gl;ldH.

  • my; Fj;]; Ry;jhd; ]yh`{j;jPd; ma;A+gp mtHfspd; ngUKaw;rpapy; kPz;Lk; K];ypk;fspd; iffSf;F tUfpd;wJ. k];[pj; kPz;Lk; GJg;gpj;Jf; fl;lg;gLfpd;wJ. ghy];jPdj;ij tpl;L mfjpfshf miye;J jphpe;j A+jHfis ghy];jPd; te;J FbNaw ]yh`{j;jPd; mtHfs; mDkjpf;fpd;whHfs;. ,d;Dk; my; Fj;]; f;Fs; tuTk; mDkjp toq;Ffpd;whHfs;.

  • gpd;dH te;j ,];yhkpa Ml;rpahsHfs; my; Fj;];> k];[pJy; mf;]h kw;Wk; ghiwg; gs;spthry; Mfpatw;wpd; kPJ vg;nghOJk; rpwg;Gf; ftdnkLj;Jr; nray;gLfpd;whHfs;. k];[pjpidg; guhkhpg;gjw;fhfntd;W vuhskhd nghUshjhuj;ijr; nrytpLfpd;whHfs;.

  • 1947 y; If;fpa ehLfs; rig ghy];jPd kz;izg; gphpg;gjw;F mDkjpaspf;fpd;wJ. my; Fj;]; If;fpa ehLfspd; fl;Lg;ghl;bw;Fl;gl;lJ vd;W mwptpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

  • If;fpa ehLfspd; gphptpidr; rl;l %yj;ijAk; kPwp> ,];Nuy; vd;w ehL cjakhtjw;F Kd;dhs;> 1947 y; A+jHfisf; nfhz;lnjhU gilahdJ my; Fj;]; d; Nkw;Fg; gFjpiaf; ifg;gw;Wfpd;wJ.

  • 1948 y; A+jHfSf;nfd;w xU jdp ehlhf ,];Nuy; gpufldg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. Nkw;Ff; fiuahdJ N[hHlhdpw;Fr; nrhe;jkhf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. fh]hg; gFjpfs; vfpg;jpd; fl;Lghl;bw;Fs; tUfpd;wd. my; Fj;]; If;fpa ehLfspd; fl;Lghl;bw;Fhpanjd;Wk;> N[hHlhdpd; epHthfj;jpd; fPo; mJ ,Uf;Fnkd;Wk; Kbthfpd;wJ.

  • 1967 y; muGf;fspd; kPJ xU Aj;jj;ij ,];Nuy; jpzpf;fpd;wJ> my; Fj;]; d; fpof;Fg; gFjpiaAk;> Nkw;Ff; fiuiaAk;> fh]hg; gFjpfisAk;> rphpahTf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd Nfhyd; kiyf; Fd;WfisAk; ,d;Dk; vfpg;jpw;Fr; nrhe;jkhd rpdha; ghiytdq;fisAk; ,];Nuy; jdjhf;fpf; nfhs;fpd;wJ.

 
H 4
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