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K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; Gj;jkj Ntjq;fspy; Kd;dwptpg;Gfs;


ikj;Nuah

  Gj;jhf;fspd; tpRthrKs;s gzpahl;fs;

  Xdap];

  MW jplkhd msitfs;

  Gj;j Ntjk; $Wfpd;wJ

  ikj;Nuahtpd; Fuy;

Gj;jhf;fspd; tpRthrKs;s gzpahl;fs;

mg;nghOJ mUs; nra;ag;gl;lth; rNfhjuh;fis Nehf;fp $wpajhtJ;:- vtnuy;yhk; fle;j ePz;l neba fhyq;fspy; mu`hj; Gj;jh;fshf ,Ue;jhh;fNsh mth;fSf;nfy;yhk; vdf;F Mde;jh ,Ug;gJ Nghy; tpRthrKs;s gzpahl;fs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpd;wdh;. rNfhjuh;fNs> vjph;fhyj;jpy; vtnuy;yhk; mu`hj; Gj;jhf;fshf ,Ug;ghh;fNsh mth;fSf;nfy;yhk; Mde;jh vdf;fpUg;gijg; Nghy; tpRthrkhd gzpahl;fs; ,Ug;ghh;fs;.[101]

mUs; nra;ag;gl;l rj;jpaj;jpd; fhtyuUfpNyNa jhj;jfjh(thfpa mth;) eph;thzj;jpw;Fs; jd;Dila ,Wjp Eioit Vw;gLj;Jk; tiuapy; mtUld; Mde;jh ,Ue;jhd;.[102]

Mde;jh Gj;jhplk; cz;ikapy; kpfTk; tpRthrkhf ,Ue;jhd;. mtDila cz;ikahd tpRthrk; kw;wth;fspypUe;J mtid gphpf;fpd;wJ.  xU Kiw xU ntwp gpbj;j ahid fTjk Gj;jhit neUq;fpa NghJ \vy;yh gpf;Rf;fSk; mtiu tpl;L tpl;L Xb tpl;ldh;.  Mde;jh khj;jpuk; mtuUfpNyNa njhlh;e;J epd;whd;.[103]

,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; mtUf;F Mde;jhitg; Nghy; xU gzpahs; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  mg;gb xU gzpahis RtpNr~q;fspy; ehk; NjLfpNwhk;:-

A+jh]; ,];fhhpNahj;ij ,NaRtpd; gzpahshf fUJfpd;Nwhk; Vnddpy; \A+jh]; ek;Kila ,ul;rfUld; jdpikapYk; nghJ kf;fs; Kd;dpiyapYk; ,Ue;jhd;[104] NkYk; \mtdplk;jhd; gzg; igAk; mjpYs;sitfSk; ,Ue;jd[105] ,Ug;gpDk; A+jh]; ,];fhhpNahj;jpw;F mtDila jiythplk; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba tpRthrk; FiwthfNt ,Ue;jJ:-

gd;dpUthpy; xUtdhd A+jh]; ,];fhhpNahj;J vd;gtd; gpujhd Mrhhpahplj;jpw;Fg; Ngha; ehd; mtiu cq;fSf;Ff; fhl;,f; nfhLf;fpNwd;>  ePq;fs; vdf;F vd;d nfhLf;fpwPh;fs; vd;whd;. mth;fs; mtDf;F Kg;gJ nts;spf;fhirf; nfhLf;f cld;gl;lhh;fs; mJ Kjy; mtd; mtiuf; fhl;bf; nfhLg;gjw;F rkak; ghh;j;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhd;. [106]

A+jh]; ,NaRit fhl;bf; nfhLj;jhd;. MfNt mtd; ,NaRtpd; tpRthrkhd gzpahshf ,Uf;f KbahJ.[107]

xU Ntis gPl;lh; ,NaRtpd; gzpahshf ,Ue;jpUf;ffyhk;. ,NaR jd; tho; ehspd; NghJ gPl;lhpd; Nky; ed; ek;gpf;if itj;jpUe;jhh;.

,NaR mtid Nehf;fp; Nahdhtpd; Fkhudhfpa; rPNkhNd> eP ghf;fpathd;;  khk;rKk; ,uj;jKk; ,ij cdf;F ntspg;gLj;jtpy;iy> guNyhfj;jpypUf;fpw vd; gpjh ,ij cdf;F ntspg;gLj;jpdhh;. NkYk; ehd; cdf;Fr; nrhy;YfpNwd;> eP NgJUtha; ,Uf;fpwha;> ,e;jf; fy;ypd; Nky; vd; rigiaf; fl;LNtd;; ghjhsj;jpd; thry;fs; mij Nkw;nfhs;tjpy;iy.guNyhf uh[;aj;jpd; jpwTNfhy;fis ehd; cdf;F; jUNtd;;  G+Nyhfj;jpNy eP fl;LfpwJ vJNth mJ guNyhfj;jpYk; fl;lg;gl;bUf;Fk;; G+Nyhfj;jpNy eP fl;ltpo;g;gJ vJNth mJ guNyhfj;jpYk; fl;ltpo;f;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; vd;whh;. kj;NjA 16;17-19.

,NaRtpd; NkYs;s jd;Dila tpRthrk; cz;ikahdJ vd;W gPl;lNu nrhy;ypAs;shh;. 

\ckf;fhf vd; [Ptidqk; nfhLg;Ngd; vd;whd; Nahthd; 13;37.

NgJU mtUf;Fg; gpujpAj;jukhf;  ckJ epkpj;jk; vy;yhUk; ,lwyile;jhYk;> ehd; xUf;fhYk; ,lwyilNad; vd;whd;.... mjw;Fg; NgJU; ehk; ck;NkhNl khpf;f Ntz;bajhapUe;jhYk; ck;ik kWjypf;fkhl;Nld; vd;whd;; rP&h;fs; vy;yhUk; mg;gbNa $wpdhh;fs;. kj;NjA 26; 33-35.

\Mz;ltNu> fhtypYk; rhtpYk; ck;ikg; gpd;gw;wptu Maj;jkhapUf;fpNwd; vd;whd;. Yhf;fh 22;33.

ehd; ck;NkhNl khpf;fNtz;bajhapUe;jhYk; ck;ik kWjypf;fkhl;Nld; vd;W cWjpaha;r; nrhd;dhd;; vy;yhUk; mg;gbNa nrhd;dhh;fs;. khh;f; 14;31.

mth;fspd; tpRthrj;jpw;F cz;ikahd Nrhjid tUk; Neuj;jpy; ,NaRtpd; rPlh;fs; midtUNk Njhw;Wtpl;ldh;.  ,NaR vjphpahy; gpbf;fg;gl;l NghJ rPlh;fs; mtiu tpl;L tpl;L Xb tpl;ldh;.

\rP~h;fnsy;NyhUk; mtiu tpl;L Xbg;Nghdhh;fs;\ kj;NjA 26;56,

gPl;lh;> ,NaRtpd; fd;kiyahdtd;> Kw;wpYk; jtwpg;Nghdhd;. mtd; ,NaRitj; Jwe;J tpLfpwhd; gzpg;ngz; Nfs;tp Nfl;Fk;NghNj eLq;Ffpwhd; ,NaRtpd; tho;f;iff; fhyj;jpNyNa euf thapy; mtid ntw;wp nfhs;fpwJ.  mtd; ,NaRit kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; jpl;ltl;lkhf kWjypf;fpwhd;. 

mj;jUzj;jpy; NgJU ntspNa te;J mukid Kw;wj;jpy; cl;fhh;e;jpUe;jhd;.  mg;nghOJ Ntiyf;fhhp xUj;jp mtdplj;jpy; te;J; ePAk; fypNyadhfpa ,NaRNthl $l ,Ue;jha; vd;whs;. mjw;F mtd;; eP nrhy;YfpwJ vdf;Fj; njhpahJ vd;W vy;yhUf;Fk; Kd;ghf kWjypj;jhd;.  mts;> thry; kz;lgj;jpw;Fg; NghdnghOJ NtnwhUj;jp mtidf;fz;L; ,tDk; erNuadhfpa ,NaRNthl$l ,Ue;jhd; vd;W mq;Nf ,Ue;jth;fSf;Fr; nrhd;dhs;. mtNdh me;j kD~id ehd; mwpNad; vd;W Mizapl;L> kWgbAk; kWjypj;jhd;. rw;W Neuj;Jf;Fg;gpd;G mq;Nf epd;wth;fs; NgJUtpdplj;jpy; te;J nka;ahfNt ePAk; mth;fspy; xUtd;; cd; Ngr;R cd;id ntspg;gLj;JfpwJ vd;whh;fs;. mg;nghOJ mtd;; me;j kD~id mwpNad; vd;W nrhy;yp rgpf;fTk; rj;jpak; gz;zTk; njhlq;fpdhd;  kj;NjA 2:69-74

MfNt ,NaRtpd; tho; ehspy; mtUila rPlh;fs; vtUk; Mde;jhitg; Nghd;W jq;fSila jiytUf;F tpRthrkhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ njspT. MfNt ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.

K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fSf;F mth;fspd; tho; ehspy; xU NghJk; mtiu tpl;Lr; nrd;wpuhj md]; vd;w gzpahs; ,Ue;jhh;. md]; mthpd; ngw;Nwhh;fshy; egp (]y;) mth;fSf;F mspf;fg;gl;lhh;.

my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; vq;fs; tPl;nw;F te;jhh;fs;... vd; jhahh; mth;fis Nehf;fp my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fNs cq;fSila rpwpa gzpahs; ,Njh ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;W (vd;id Nehf;fp) $wpdhh;fs; vd;W md]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. thy;A+k; 2. gf;fk; 719.

ehd; mtUf;F vd;Dila vl;lhtJ tajpypUe;J gzp Ghpe;jpUf;fpNwd;. vd;dhy; nghUl;fs; ghobf;fg;gl;l NghjpYk; mth; vd;id xU NghJk; jpl;baNj ,y;iy. ,h;tpq; gf;fk; 232. 

egp(]y;) mth;fs; md];(uyp) mth;fis Nerpj;jhh;fs; mth;fis kf,dd;Wk;[108] ghrj;jpw;Fhpa rpWtd;[109] vd;W mioj;jdh;.md]; egp(]y;) mth;fSf;F Mde;jhitg; Nghy; tpRthrkhf ,Ue;jhh; vd;gjw;F mdi] egp(]y;) mth;fNs ,t;thW  mioj;J mjw;F rhd;W gfh;fpd;whh;fs;.

Xdap];

Xdap]; vd;why; tpRthrKs;s ,isAd; vd;W mh;j;jk;. md]; vd;w thh;j;ijNa tpRthrk; vd;W mh;j;jKs;s Xd]; vd;w thh;j;ijapypUe;J ngwg;gl;ljhFk;. cz;ikahd tpRthrj;jpd; kW mtjhukhfNt md]; mth;fs; jpfo;e;jhh;fs;. mikjpapYk; Aj;jj;jpYk; ghJfhg;gpYk; mgha fl;lj;jpYkhf xt;nthU ,lj;jpYk; egp (]y;) mth;fSila tho;f;ifapd; ,Wjp ehs; tiu mth;fSlNdNa md]; (uyp) mth;fs; xl;bf; nfhz;lhh;fs;.  md]; (uyp) mth;fspd; vjw;Fk; mQ;rhj tpRthrj;ij fhl;Lk; ,uz;Nl ,uz;L rk;gtq;fis ehk; Nfhbl;L fhl;LNthk;.

1 \md]; uyp mth;fs; gjpdhU tajhapUe;j NghJ ele;j c`j;[110] Aj;jj;jpy; egp (]y;) mth;fs; ruhkhhpahd fw;fshy; jhf;fg;gl;L ,uz;L mk;Gfshy;[111] Kfj;jpy; fhag;gLj;jg;gl;L Vwf;Fiwa capiu ,of;Fk; #o;epiyapy; ,Ue;j me;j rkaj;jpYk; egp (]y;) mth;fspd; mUfpNyNa md]; (uyp) ,Ue;jdh;. me;j (Nghh;f;fs) fhl;rpia tphpthf mth;fs; tpthpf;fpd;whh;fs;.

2 - `{idd; Aj;jj;jpd; NghJ egp(]y;) mth;fspd; mUfpNyNa md];(uyp) mth;fs; ,Ue;jhh;fs;. mijg;gw;wpa njspthd tUzizia mth;fs; mspf;fpd;whh;fs;. K];ypk; ,uhZtj;jpy; rkPgj;jpy; kjk; khwpa rpiy tzf;fhuh;fs;[112] Aj;j Milfs; kw;Wk; MAjq;fs; VJkpd;wp[113] ,Ue;jhh;fs;. vjphpapd; ntwpnfhz;l jPBh; jhf;Fjyhy; gPjpAw;w mth;fs; rpjwp Xbdh;. \mth;fs; <l;bfshYk;> fw;fshYk;> mk;GfshYk; jhf;fg;gl;ldh;.  ,jpy; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; %d;W tPuh;fs; mthpd; fhybapNyNa tPu kuzkile;jdh; kw;Wk; gyh; fhakile;jdh;.[114] jd; FLk;gj;jhh; rpyUld;[115] jdpahf[116] tplg;gl;l egp (]y;) mth;fis vjphpfs; #o;e;jdh;[117]. `th]pd; Fyj;ijr; Nrh;e;j vjphpfs; rpwe;j tpy;yhspfshapUe;jdh;. mth;fs; ntl;Lf;fpspg; gilfisg; Nghd;W[118] (fdkhd) mk;Gf; $l;lq;fis va;jdh;. ve;j mk;GfSk; Fwp jtwhj tpy;yhsh;fis[119] K];ypk; ,uhZtk; vjph; nfhs;s Ntz;bajhapw;W. ,e;jr;re;jh;g;gj;jpy; gjpdhNw taJ epuk;gpa md];(uyp) mth;fs; egp(]y;) mth;fspd; mUfpy; ,Ue;jjhdJ egp(]y;) mth;fspd; Nky; mtUf;fpUe;j tpRthrj;jpw;F cWjpahd rhd;whFk; NkYk; ntwp gpbj;j ahid Gj;jh fTjkhit neUq;fpa NghJ Mde;jh fhl;ba mh;g;gzj;jpw;F ,J kpfTk; ,izahdjhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. 

MfNt ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ vd NkYs;sitfspypUe;J njspthf njhpfpd;wJ. rq;fuhr;rhhpNah Ntjkspf;fg;glhjtujhy; mtiu ,jpy; cl;gLj;j mtrpakpy;iy. 

MW jplkhd msitfs;

\jhj;jfjhtpd; Nkdp nfhOe;J tpl;L vhpAk; neUg;G Nghy; Njhd;wpaJ. mth; thh;j;ijapdhy; tpthpf;fKbahj gb mofhapUe;jhh;|

Nkd;ikf;Fhpa Mde;jh mUs; nra;ag;gl;lthplk; $wpajhtJ: mJ vj;jid tpag;ghdJ gpuGNt! mUs; nra;ag;gl;lthpd; Nkdp mj;Jiz njspthdjhfTk; kpQ;Rk;gpufhrKilajhfTk; ,Ug;gJ vt;tsT Mr;rhpakhdJ! ehd; nkUNfw;wg;gl;l xU jq;fr; rl;ilia mtUila Nkdpapy; ,l;l NghJ me;Njh mJ jd;Dila gpufhrj;ij ,oe;jJ Nghyy;yth Njhd;wpaJ!

mUs; nra;ag;gl;lth; $wpajhtJ:- ,uz;L re;jh;g;gq;fspy; jhj;jfjhtpd; Njhw;wk; njspthdjhfTk; kpfTk; gpufhrkhdjhfTk; MFk;. Mde;jh> jhj;jfjh kpf cd;dj KOikahd Qhdk; milAk; ,utpYk; ,Wjpahf mth; kiwAk; ,utpd; NghJk;. mjd; gpwF mthpd; G+Tyfj; Njhw;wj;jpd; (cly;) vJTk; kpQ;rpapUf;fhJ.[120]

Gj;j fTjkhtpd; Nkw;fz;l thf;FfspypUe;J Gj;jiu milahsk; fhZk; MW jplkhd msitfis ehk; ngWfpd;Nwhk; 

1.      Gj;jh; cd;djkhd KOikahd Qhdj;ij ,uT Neuj;jpy; milfpd;whh;.

2.      KOikahd Qhdj;ij mth; ngWk; NghJ kpfTk; gpufhrkhf Njhd;Wfpd;whh;.

3.      Gj;jh; ,aw;ifahd kuzkilfpd;whh;.

4.      mth; ,uT Neuj;jpy; kuzkilfpd;whh;.

5.      mthpd; kuzj;jpw;F Kd;dhy; mth; kpfTk; gpufhrkhfj; Njhd;Wfpd;whh;.

6.      kuzj;jpw;F gpwF mth; ,t;Tyfpy; ,Ug;gjpy;iy.

,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; ,e;j MW jplkhd msitfSk; mth; tpraj;jpy; nghUe;jpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

(1) ,NaR Nahthd; Qhd];ehddhy; Qhd ];ehdk; nra;ag;gl;l gpwF cd;dj Qhdj;ij mile;jhh;.

,NaR Qhd];ehdk; ngw;W [yj;jpypUe;J fiuNawpaTlNd ,Njh> thdk; mtUf;Fj; jpwf;fg;gl;lJ. Njt Mtp Gwhitg; Nghy nwq;fp jk; Nky; tUtijf; fz;lhh;. md;wpAk; thdj;jpypUe;J xU rj;jk; cz;lhfp nth; vd;Dila NerFkhud;. nthpy; gphpakhapUf;fpNwd; vd;W ciuj;jJ. kj; 3:16-7

,J \gfy;[121] NeukhapUe;jJ ,uT Neuky;y.  MfNt ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.

(2)mth; kuzj;jpd; NghJ kpfTk; gpufhrkhdjhfj; Njhd;wpdhh; vd;W ve;j tpjkhd Fwpg;Gf;fSk; RtpNrq;fspy; ,y;iy. mtUila tho;f;ifiaf; $Wk; RtpNr~g; gpujpfs; mtiu Mjhpg;gjpy; kPz;Lk; Njhy;tpailfpd;wd.

(3),NaR ,aw;ifahd kuzkilahky; jd;Dila ,sikf; fhyj;jpNyNa mtUila vjphpfshy; caph; Nghf;fg;gl;lhnud RtpNr~q;fs; $Wfpd;wd. (mth; ikj;Nuahthf ,Ue;jpUe;jhy;) ,J rhj;jpakpy;iy.  Vnddpy; Gj;jh; $WtjhtJ :-

gpf;Rf;fNs> jhj;jfjh capiu td;Kiwapdhy; gwpg;gnjd;gJ rhj;jpakw;wJ. jhj;jfjhf;fs;> gpf;Rf;fNs> rhpahd> ,aw;ifahd topapNyNa ,wf;fpd;wdh;.[122]

,t;thwhf Nfs;tpapYs;s tpsk;guk;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s ,NaRtpd; Gj;jhj;Jtj;ij fzf;fpnyLf;f fpwp];jt Gj;j kj Ntjq;fs; ek;ik mDkjpf;ftpy;iy.

(4) ,NaR ,uT Neuj;jpyy;yhky; gfy; Neuj;jpNyNa nfhy;yg;gl;lhh; vd RtpN~rq;fs; $Wfpd;wd.

mtiur; rpYitapy; miwAk; NghJ %d;whk; kzp NeukhapUe;jJ.[123] mjhtJ fhiy xd;gJ kzp. A+jh;fs; fhiy MW kzpapypUe;Nj kzpf; fzf;if vz;ZfpwjhYk;[124] ,t;thwhf KO rpYit rk;gtKk; MW kzp Neuk; vLj;jjhYk; ek;Kila gpuG %d;W kzpf;F nwe;jhh;.

Nfs;tpapYs;s ,NaRjhd; Gj;jh vDk; thjhl;lj;ij fzf;fpnyLg;gjw;F RtpNr~g;gpujpapd; rpYitf; fij kPz;Lk; FWf;Nf epw;fpwJ. 

(5) ,NaR rpYitapy; miwag;gLtjw;F Ke;jpa ,uTr; rk;gtq;fis ehd;F RtpNr~q;fSk; kpfTk; EZf;fkhfr; rpj;jhpf;fpd;wd. ,e;j ,utpy; mth; \kpfTk; gpufhrkhf|\thh;j;ijfshy; th;zpf;fg;gl Kbahj mstpw;F mofhf| Njhd;wpdhh; vd;w ve;j Fwpg;Gk; ,y;iy. ,t;thwhf Nfs;tpapYs;s  ,NaRtpd; Gj;jhj;Jtj;ij Mjhpg;gjpy; kPz;Lk; RtpN~rq;fs; Njhy;tpAWfpd;wd;.

(6) ,NaR rpYit kuzj;jpw;F gpwF %d;whk; caph;j;njOe;jhh; vd;gJ fpwp];jth;fspd; jPh;f;fkhd nfhs;ifahFk;. ehd;F RtpNr~q;fSk; ,t;tpraj;jpy; xNu khjpahf cs;sd.[125] mtUila caph;j;njOjy; fdty;y edthFk; vd RtpNr~q;fs; $Wfpd;wd.[126] mth;fs; mtiu njhl;lhh;fs;.[127] mth; mth;fSld; cztUe;jpdhh;.[128] ehw;gJ ehssTk; mg;Ngh];jyUf;Fj; jhprdkhfp> NjtDila uh[;aj;Jf;Fhpaitfis mth;fSlNd Ngrp mNefk; njspthd jpU~;lhe;jq;fspdhNy mth;fSf;F ek;ik capNuhbUf;fpwtuhff; fhz;gpj;jhh;.[129]

\... %d;whk; ehspy; caph;j;njOe;J> NfghTf;Fk;> gpd;G gd;dpUtUf;Fk; jhprdkhdhh;. mjd; gpd;G mth; Ie;E}W NgUf;F mjpfkhd rNfhjuUf;Fk; xNu Ntisapy; jhprdkhdhh;. mth;fspy; mNefh; ,e;ehs; tiuf;Fk; ,Uf;fpwhh;fs;> rpyh; khj;jpuk; epj;jpiuaile;jhh;fs;. gpd;G ahf;NfhGf;Fk; mg;Ngh];jynuy;yhUf;Fk; jhprdkhdhh;. vy;NyhUf;Fk; gpd;G mfhyg;gpwtp Nghd;w vdf;Fk; jhprdkhdhh;. 1 nfhhp. 15:46 

fpwp];jth;fspd; kw;nwhU jPh;f;fkhd nfhs;if vd;dntd;why; mNj ,NaR G+kpf;F jpUk;g tUfpd;whh; vd;gjhFk;.  ,J ,NaRtpd; gpd;tUk; thh;j;ijfshy; epWtg;gl;Ls;sJ.

-            nfhq;rf; fhyj;jpNy vd;idf; fhzhjpUg;gPh;fs; kWgbAk; nfhq;rf; fhyj;jpNy vd;idf; fhz;gPh;fs;. Nahthd; 16:16

-            ehd; kWgbAk; cq;fisf; fhz;Ngd;. mg;nghOJ cq;fs; ,Ujak; re;Njhrg;gLk;. Nahthd; 16:22

-            ehd; cq;fis jpf;fw;wth;fshf tpNld;. cq;fsplj;jpy; tUNtd;. Nahthd; 14:18

-            ehd; kWgbAk; te;J cq;fis vd;dplj;jpy; Nrh;j;Jf; nfhs;SNtd;. Nahthd; 14:3

-            ehd; NghNtd; vd;Wk; jpUk;gp cq;fsplj;jpy; tUNtd; vd;Wk; ehd; nrhd;dijf; Nfl;Bh;fNs. Nahthd; 14:28

-            kD~Fkhud; jk;Kila gpjhtpd; kfpik nghUe;jpdtuha;j; jk;Kila J}jNuhLq; $l tUthh;. kj;NjA 16:27

-            kD~Fkhud; ty;yikNahLk; kpFe;j kfpikNahLk; thdj;jpd; Nkfq;fs; Nky; tUfpwij fhz;ghh;fs;. kj;NjA 24:30

Gj;jhf;fs; kuzj;jhy; kiwfpd;wdh;. mth;fs; G+kpapy; njhlh;e;J ,Ug;gjpy;iy vd Gj;j kj Ntjq;fs; $Wfpd;wd. ,NaRjhd; Gj;j ikj;Nuah vd;w thjj;ij Gj;jh;fs; rpe;jpf;f Ntz;Lnkd fpwp];jt cyfk; tpUk;gpdhy; mth;fs; ,NaR rpYitapy; kuzkhfp caph;j;njOe;j fijiaAk; mthpd; ,uz;lhk; tUiff; nfhs;ifiaAk; kWj;jpl Ntz;Lk;. MfNt ,NaR Gj;j ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.

,NaRtpd; fijiag; Nghd;w rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; tpraj;jpYk; ,e;j MW jplkhd msTfs; nghUe;jpltpy;iy. mitfs; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; tpraj;jpy;jhd; kpfTk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;f tifapy; nghUe;jpg; Nghfpd;wd. 

(1) K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; kpf;f cah;e;;j Qhdj;ij ,uT Neuj;jpNyNa mile;jhh;. jpUf;Fh;Md; $Wfpd;wJ:-

njspthd ,t;Ntjj;jpd; kPJ rj;jpakhf. epr;rakhf> ehk; mjid ghf;fpaKs;s ,utpNy ,wf;fpNdhk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 44:2-3 

epr;rakhf ehk; mij(Fh;Mid) fz;zpakpf;f (iyyj;Jy;fj;h;) vd;w ,utpy; ,wf;fpNdhk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 97:1

,e;j ,utpy;jhd; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; jd;Dila Kjy; Ntj ntspg;ghl;il ngw;whh;fs;. my;-fj;h; vd;w thh;j;ij rf;jp fz;zpak;> Nkd;ik kw;Wk; nja;t epajp Mfpatw;iw Fwpf;fpd;wJ.[130]

iyyj;Jy; fj;h; vd;gjd; Neh; mh;j;jk; Nkd;ik nghUe;jpa ,uT my;yJ cah;T kpf;f ,uT mJ mUs; Ghpag;gl;l ,uT vd;W miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

Ngl;[h; Mq;fpy-mugp mfuhjpapd;gb \gpufhrkhd| \xsp nghUe;jpa| \mofhd| Mfpa thh;j;ijfs; mjDila ,izfshFk;.[131]  

(2) K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; \gl;nlhsp tPrpg; gpufhrpf;Fk; Kfk; nfhz;lth;fshf[132] ,Ue;jhh;fs;. \mthpd; Kfj;jpypUe;J #hpa xspf; fw;iw gpufhrpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jJ Nghd;wpUe;jJ.|

\mthpd; Kfj;jpy; xU gpufhrk; my;yJ xspf; fw;iw|\jPh;f;fjhprzj;jpd; mrhjuz Ngnuhsp\[133] ,Ue;jJ. Kjy; [dhjpgjp mG+gf;fh; (uyp) mth;fspd; <ub gh egp(]y;) mth;fis kpfTk; nghUj;jkhf tpthpf;fpd;wJ.

\epytpd; ntspr;rj;jpy; ve;jtpj ,USk; ,y;yhjJ Nghd;Nw es;Ss;sk; nfhz;l K];jghTk; gpufhrkhdtuhapUf;fpd;whh;\[134]

Kd;]ph; gpd; [hPh; mth;fs; mwptpg;gjhtJ ;ehd; my;yh`;Tila J}jhpd; Kfj;jpid ghh;j;Njd;. mJ jq;fk; Nghd;W kpd;dpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.[135]

mG+ ,];`hf; mth;fs; mwptpg;gjhtJ: my;yh`;tpd; J}jhpd; Kfk; thisg; Nghd;W kpd;dpf; nfhz;bUe;jjh vd;W guh mth;fsplk; xUth; tpdtpdhh;. mjw;F mth; ,y;iy mJ re;jpud; Nghy;[136] kpd;dpf;nfhz;bUe;jJ vd;W gjpyspj;jhh;.

cz;ikapy; egp (]y;) mth;fs; midtiuAk; tpl gpufhrkhdth;fshf ,Ue;jhh;fs;. fPo; tUk; ,g;D mg;gh]; (uyp) mth;fspd; thh;j;ijapy; ve;j tpj kpifg;gLj;jiyqk; ehk; fhztpy;iy.

egp(]y;) mth;fs; #hpadpw;FKd;Ngh re;jpuDf;FKd;Ngh mitfspd; xspia jd;Dila(Kf) xspahy; kpQ;rhky; mkh;e;jjpy;iy|[137]

Gj;j Ntjk; $Wfpd;wJ  

\#hpad; gfypy; gpufhrkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. re;jpud; ,utpy; gpufhrkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. Aj;j tPud; jd;Dila ftrj;jpy; gpufhrkhf ,Uf;fpd;whd;. rpe;jidahsh;fs; mth;fspd; jpahdj;jpy; gpufhrpf;fpd;wdh;. Mdhy; vy;yhtw;iwAk; tpl ,uT gfy; Mfpa midj;jpd; gpufhrj;NjhL ,Ug;gth; vOr;rpAw;w> Gdpjkhd> mUs; nra;ag;gl;l Gj;jh;jhd;[138]

nja;tPfg; Ngnuhsp K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; kPJ nts;skhfg; gha;e;j my;-fj;h; ,utpd; NghJ mth; \kpQ;Rk; gpufhrj;Jld; thh;j;ijfshy; tpthpf;f Kbahj mstpw;F mofhf Njhd;wpdhh; vd;gjpy; ve;jtpj Mr;rhpaKkpy;iy.

mtUila ehw;gjhtJ tajpy;jhd; mtUila gpugykhd Ntj ntspg;ghL Nehpl;lJ. K];ypk; vOj;jhsh;fs; mthplkpUe;J mwptpg;gJk; jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; rpy ,lq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUg;gJk; vd;dntdpy;. my;-fj;h; vd;W miof;fg;gLk; me;j ,utpy;jhd; mJ ele;jJ. nts;sk; Nghd;w xspg; gpusak; mth; Nky; tpOe;jJ. jhq;f ,ayhj gpufhrk; nja;tPf xspahy; gpufhrpf;fg;gl;l Qhdj;ij K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; mg;nghOJ czh;e;jhh;fs;.[139]

(3) ,NaRitg; Nghd;wy;yhky; K`k;kJ ,aw;ifahd kuzkile;jhh;

(4) Map~h(uyp) mth;fspd; mwptpg;Gg; gpufhuk; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; ,uT Neuj;jpy; kuzkile;jdh;. mth; kuzkile;jNghJ \tpsf;fpy; vz;nza; ,;y;iy\[140] \mtUila kidtp vz;izia fld;thq;f Ntz;bajpUe;jJ|[141]

(5) K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; kuzkile;j ,utpy; \kpQ;Rk; gpufhrj;Jld; NkYk; \thh;j;ijfshy; th;zpf;fg;gl Kbahj mstpw;F\ mofhfTk; Njhd;wpdhh;fs;. Mde;jh fTjkGj;jhpd; gzpahsuhf ,Ue;jJ Nghd;W khypf; mth;fspd; kfdhh; md];(uyp) mth;fs; egp(]y;) mth;fspd; gzpahsuhf ,Ue;jhh;. ,e;j K`k;kJ Gj;jh ikj;Nuahtpd; Mde;jhthfpa md]; mth;fs; tpthpg;gjhtJ:-

egp (]y;) mth;fs; Neha; tha;g;gl;L kuzkile;j me;j fhyq;fspy; mG+gf;fh; (uyp) mth;fs; njhOifia elj;jp te;jhh;fs;. xU jpq;fl;fpoikapd; NghJ kf;fs; njhOiff;fhf thpirfspy; epd;W nfhz;bUe;j NghJ> egp (]y;) mth;fs; mthpd; miwapd; jpiuia J}f;fpathW epd;w tz;zk; vq;fis ghh;j;jdh;. mthpd; Kfk; jpUkiw (Fh;Mdpd;)gf;fq;fs; Nghd;wpUe;jJ.kf;fs; khh;f;fj;jpy; gpbg;Gs;sth;fshfTk; njhOifapy; cWjpAs;sth;fshfTk; ,Ug;gijf; fz;L Gd;difj;jdh;. mth; ntspNa tug; Nghfpd;whh; vd;W vjph;ghh;j;J kfpo;r;rp kpFjpahy; njhOifapd; NghNj ehq;fs; igj;jpakhf Mfp tpl;Nlhk;. my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; tug; Nghfpd;whh;fs; vd;nwz;zp mG+gf;fh;(uyp) mth;fs; gpd; mzpf;F te;jdh;.,jw;fpilNa njhOifia G+h;j;jp nra;AkhW vq;fSf;F rkpQ;if nra;J nra;J tpl;L jpiuia njhq;f tpl;L tpl;L miwapd; cs;Ns nrd;wdh;. [142]mNj ehspy; mth;fs; nwe;jdh;.

gpufhrk;> moF> fhe;jp Mfpatw;iw ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf xU kdpjhpd; Kfj;ij \jpUkiwf; Fh;Mdpd; gf;fq;fs; Nghd;W|vd;W $WtJ mugpfspd; tof;fk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; Ngnuhsp kpf;fJ vd;W miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.[143] md]; (uyp) mth;fs; kw;nwhU mwptpg;G ,ij njspthf;Ffpd;wJ:- \my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; %d;W ehl;fshf ntspNa tutpy;iy. njhOifia elj;Jk; nghUl;L mG+gf;fh; (uyp) mth;fs; Kd;Ndwpdhh;fs;. my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; jpiuia cah;j;jpdhh;fs;. mth;fspd; Kfk; Njhd;wpa NghJ> vq;fspd; tho; ehspNyNa ehq;fs; mJ tiu fz;buhj mofhd Kfkhf mJ Njhd;wpaJ. $l;Lj; njhOifia elj;JkhW mG+gf;fh; (uyp) mth;fSf;F jq;fspd; ifahy; rkpQ;if nra;J tpl;L jpiuia njhq;f tpl;L tpl;ldh;. mjw;Fg; gpwF mtiu ehq;fs; ghh;f;ftpy;iy.[144]

(6) mlf;fk; nra;ag;gl;l gpwF jd;Dila clYUtpy; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; xU NghJk; ,g;G+kpapy; fhzg;gltpy;iy. MfNt K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah ,NaRNth rq;fuhr;rhhpNah my;y.

ikj;Nuahtpd; jdp moF

    1.          mthpd;(ikj;Nuahtpd;) cly; Rj;j jq;fj;jpdhyhdJk;> gsgsg;ghdJk;> kpd;dpg; gpufhrpg;gjhfTk; ghpRj;jkhdjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;.\[145]

   2.          mJ jPh;f;fkhdJ. Mdhy; ikj;Nuahtpd; Njhw;wk; vt;thwpUf;Fk; vd;W m]q;fh Nfl;lhh;.[146] ikj;Nuahtpd; milahsq;fis> mwpFwpfis> moif thh;j;ijfshy; tpthpf;f KbahJ vd mth; nrhd;dhh;.

   3.          ikj;Nuahtpd; moif thh;j;ijfshy; tpthpf;f KbahJ vd mth; nrhd;dhh;. [147]

INuhg;gpa fpwp];jt nts;iah;fspd; fz;fspy; A+jh;fs; \,Usile;j epwj;ijAilath;fs;. ,NaR A+jh;fspy; xUtuhfNt ,Ue;jhh;. mth; tpjp tpyf;fhf ,y;yhkypUe;jhnyhopa mth; mtUila ,dj;jpd; ,Usile;j epwj;ijNa ngw;wpUe;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,NaRtpd; cUtj;jpy; \A+jh;fs; ve;jtpj mikg;igNah my;yJ fz;Zf;fpdpikiaNah fhztpy;iy|[148] ,NaR mofhdtuy;y vd;W goq;fhyfpwp];jt je;ijah;fs; fUJfpd;wdh;.

[];bd; khh;ilh;> fpnsnkd;]; mnyf;]hd;bhpd];> nlh;Ly;ypad; Nghd;wth;fSk; kw;w goq;fhy je;ijah;fSk; ek;Kila Nrtfhpd; cUtk; xOq;fw;wpUe;jJ vd;Nw $wpAs;sdh;.[149]

,NaR mrhjuzkhd moFilatuhapUe;jhh; vd;gjw;F RtpNr~q;fspy; ve;j tpj MjhuKkpy;iy. MfNt ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ. rq;fuhr;rhhpahTk; ve;j tpj mrhjuz moifAk; ngw;wpUf;ftpy;iy.

K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; kpfTk; mofhdtuhfTk; trPfukhdtuhfTk; ,Ue;jhh;. 

K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; $wpajhf mwptpf;fg;gLitfspy; mth; jd;idg; gw;wp \kdpj ,dj;jpNyNa kpfr; rpwe;j FzKilatuhf kpfTk; moF kpf;ftuhfTk;| $wpajhTk; mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.[150]

Kj;jypg; gpd; mG+ tpj;jh mwptpg;gjhtJ:- my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; nrhd;dhh;fs; (,iwtd;) vd;id kpfTk; rpwe;jtdhf gilj;Js;shd;. Vol. I. P. 543. 

K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; epfuw;w trPfuj;jpd; nkhj;j cUtkhf jpfo;e;jhh;fs;. mth; mrhjuz moifg; ngw;wpUe;jhh; vd mth; fhyj;jpah;fshy; th;zpf;fg;gLfpd;whh;.

    1.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; midtiuAk; tpl NguoF kpf;fth;fshf jpfo;e;jhh;fs; vd md]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. I. P. 529.

   2.          XU ehspuT epynthspapy; my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fis fz;Nld; ehd; mtiuAk; epyitAk; khwp khwp (xg;gpl;L) ghh;j;Jf; nfhz;Nld;.  mth;fs; rpfg;G cilia mzpe;jpUe;jhh;fs;. epyitf; fhl;nyk;> vdJ fUj;Jg; gpufhuk;> mth;fs;jhd; moF gilj;jth;fs; vd KbTf;F te;Njd; vd [hgph; gpd; r%uh(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Ibid. Vol. II. P. 281.

   3.          \... ehd; my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fsplj;jpy; te;Njd; mth;fs; gs;spapy; mkh;e;jpUe;jhh;fs; mtiur; Rw;wp K];ypk;fs; mkh;e;jpUe;jdh; mth;fs; epyitg; Nghd;W gpufhrpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs; vd fmg; gpd; khypf; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  Ibid B. 374.  

   4.          jiyapy; RUs; RUshf KbAlDk; rpfg;G cilAlDk; my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fis tpl kpfTk; mofhdtiu ehd; ghh;j;jNjapy;iy. mthpd; RUs; Kbfs; mthpd; Njhs; Nky; njhq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;. mthpd; neQ;R mfd;wpUf;Fk;. mth; kpfTk; Fl;ilahdtuhfNth my;yJ nebatuhfNth ,y;iy vd guh mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. T. Vol. II. B. P. 551.  

    5.          \... mtiug; Nghd;W xUtiu mtUf;F Kd;Ngh mtUf;F gpd;Ngh ehd; ghh;j;jjpy;iy myp(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.\ Ta. Vol. VI

   6.          \...; mtiug; Nghd;W xUth; mtUf;F Kd;Ngh mtUf;F gpd;Ngh ahUNk ,Ue;jjpy;iy vd [hgph; gpd; mg;Jy;yh`;(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.\ Vol. III. P. 117

    7.          \my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; mofhdtuhapUe;jhh;fs;. mth; vt;tsT mofhdtnud;why; mtiug;  Nghd;W xUtiu mtUf;F Kd;Ngh mtUf;F gpd;Ngh ehd; ghh;j;jjpy;iy mG+`{iuuh(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.\ Vol. VI. PP. 2338-9

    8.          ehd; gpw;gfy; njhOifia my;yh`;tpd; J}jUld; njhONjd;. mjd; gpwF mth;fs; tPl;nw;Fr; nrd;whh;fs;.  ehDk; mth;fSld; nrd;Nwd;. topapy; rpy Foe;ijfs; fhzg;gl;ldh;.  egp (]y;) mth;fs; mth;fspd; fd;dq;fis jl;bf; nfhLj;jhh;fs; gpwF vd;Dila fd;dj;ijAk; jl;bf; nfhLj;jhh;fs;. mtUila if mg;nghOJjhd; thridj; jputpa $ilapypUe;J vLf;fg;gl;lJ Nghy; kzk; kpf;fjhfTk; FSikahdjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ vd [hgph; gpd; r%uh(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. VI. P. 2342

    9.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fspd; clypypUe;J tUk; kzj;ij tpl ,dpikahd f];J}hpiaNah my;yJ NtW ve;j thridj; jputpaj;ijNah ehd; Efh;e;jjpy;iy. my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fspd; cliy tpl kpUJthd   gl;Lj;JzpiaNah my;yJ NtnwJitANkh ehd; njhl;ljpy;iy vd md];(uyp)mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. VI. P. 2342

10.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; ntz;ikahdth;fshapUe;jhh;fs; mth;fspd; tpah;itj; Jsp Kj;Jg; Nghd;W (ntz;ikahapUe;jJ). mth; elf;Fk; NghJ Kd;Gwk; rha;e;jth;fshf tpiug;ghf elg;ghh;fs; (my;yJ ,e;jg; gf;fKk; me;jg; gf;fKk; rha;e;jth;fshf elg;ghh;fs;) vd md]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. VI. P. 2342

11.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; vq;fs; tPl;nw;F te;J J}q;fpdhh;fs;.  mth;fSf;F mjpfkhf tpah;j;jJ.  vd; jhahh; mth;fs; rpW fz;zhb Gl;biaf; nfhz;L te;J (ug;gh; jiyaizapypUe;J) mth;fspd; tpah;itia Jilj;J mjpy; Nrfhpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs;. ,J mth;fis tpopj;njor; nra;jJ. ck;K ]{iyNk vd;d nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wPh;fs; vd;W tpdtpdhh;fs;. ,J cq;fSila tpah;it ,ij ehq;fs; vq;fSila thridj; jputpaj;Jld; fye;J nfhs;fpNwhk;. Vnddpy; ,Jjhd; kpfr; rpwe;j thridj; jputpakhFk; vd $wpdhh;fs; vd md]; gpd; khypf;(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. VI. P. 2342

12.          vy;NyhiuAk; tpl my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fspd; Kfk; kpfTk; mofhdjhf ,Uf;Fk;. mthpd; elj;ijfs; kpfr; rpwe;jditfshf ,Ue;jd. mth;fs; kpfTk; Fs;skhdtuhfNth my;yJ kpfTk; caukhdtuhfNth ,y;iy vd guh gpd; M]pg; mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. VI. P. 2342

13.          mth;fs; (egp ]y;) gpufhrkhd rpfg;G epwKilath;fshapUe;jhh;fs; vd mG+ Jigy; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Ibid. 2343. 

14.          (egp ]y;) mth;fspd; epwk; Kw;wpYk; rpfg;Ngh my;yJ NfhJik epwj;ij Nghd;wNjh my;y vd md]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Ibid. 2343.

15.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; kpfTk; caukhdtNuh my;yJ Fl;ilahdtNuh ,y;iy. mth;fs; vYkpr;iriag; Nghd;W rpfg;Ngh my;yJ NfhJik epwj;ijg; Nghd;wtuhf ,y;iy. mthpd; Nfrk; kpfTk; RUs; RUshfNth my;yJ kpfTk; NeuhdjhfNth ,y;iy ... mth; kuzkhFk; jUthapy; mthpd; jiyapYk; jhbapYk; ,UgJ eiuj;j Kbfs; $l ,y;iy vd md]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Mauta.  P. 422.

16.          ehd; my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fspd; Kfj;ijg; ghh;j;Njd;. mJ jq;fk; Nghy; kpd;dpf; nfhz;bUe;jJ ... vd Kd;]ph; gpd; [hPh; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. M. Vol. III. P. 435. 

17.          jd;Dila Njhoh;fSld; xU Kiw my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; mkh;e;jpUe;j NghJ xU ehl;lugp te;J mg;Jy; Kj;jypg;gpd; kfd; (K`k;kJ ]y;) ahh;? vd tpdtpdhh;. mq;Nf mkh;e;jpUf;Fk; nts;isAk; rpfg;Gk; epwKilath;jhd; vd;W mtUf;Fr; gjpyspf;fg;gl;lJ vd mG+ `{iuuh uyp mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  N. Vol. I. P. 491.

18.          xU Kiw my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; gj;`h (vd;Dkplj;jpw;F) nrd;whh;fs;. #hpa kiwT Neuj;jpy; xS nra;J ,uz;L uf;mj; njhOjhh;fs;. kf;fs; mthpd; ifia jq;fspd; Kfj;jpy; Nja;f;fj; njhlq;fpdh;.  ehDk; mthpd; jpUf;fuj;ij vLj;J vd; Kfj;jpy; Nja;j;Njd; mJ gdpf;fl;bia tpl FspuhdjhfTk; f];J}hpia tpl rpwe;j kzKilajhfTk; ,Ue;jJ vd mG+ `{i[gh (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  Vol. II. P. 130.

19.          mthpd; kidtpfs; kw;Wk; Gjy;tpah;fs; rhl;rpg; gpufhuk;> mthpd; jpUNkdpapypUe;J cd;djkhd eWkzk; mthpd; tho; ehs; KOtJk; fko;e;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. mJ mthpd; kuzj;jpw;F gpwFk; mthpd; clypUe;J mJ te;J nfhz;bUe;jJ vd mth;fs; cWjpglf; $Wfpd;wdh;.  Irvi,g . P. 227. 

20.          ,uT Neuq;fspy; my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fis mth;fSila (jpU Nkdpapd;) ,dpa kzj;ijf; nfhz;L milahsk; fz;L nfhs;s KbAk; vd ,g;uh`pk; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. D.P. 23. 

21.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; xU topapy; nrd;W> mNj topapy; xU topg; Nghf;fUk; nrd;why;> mt;topahf ahh; nrd;wJ vd;gij (egp mth;fspd;) ,dpa jpUNkdpapd; eWkzj;jpd; %yk; (my;yJ mwptpg;ghsh; nrhd;djhtJ) mthpd; tpah;itapd; ,dpa eWkzj;ijf; nfhz;L (mt;topg;Nghf;fh;) mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk; vd [hgph; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. D.P. 23. 

22.          khap]; gpd; khypf; (uyp) mth;fis my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; fy;nywpe;J nfhd;w NghJ (-mjw;F cj;juT gpwg;gpj;J mJ epiwNtw;wg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ) ehDk; vd; je;ijAld; mq;fpUe;Njd;. fw;fs; kio Nghy; mth; Nky; (-khap]; Nky;) nghopag;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;j NghJ ehd; jpfpyile;J NghNdd;.  mjdhy; my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; vd;id neq;NrhL mizj;Jf; nfhz;lhh;fs; mthpd;  f];J}hpiag; Nghd;w (,dpa eWkz) tpah;itahdJ vd; Nky; tope;Njhl Muk;gpj;jJ vd gdp `hhp~; (Fyj;ijr; Nrh;e;j) xU Ml;rpahsh; mwptpf;fpd;whh;.  D.P. 23. 

23.          kfNd! eP my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fis fz;bUe;jhahdhy; mth;fs; cjpj;j #hpaidg; Nghd;W(Njhd;Wtjhf) eP epidj;jpUg;gha; vd mG+ cigjh gpd; K`k;kJ (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  D.P. 24.

24.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fspd; ,U gw;fSf;fpilNa ,ilntsp ,Ue;jJ. mth;fs; NgRk; NghJ ntspr;rk; gw;fSf;fpilNa ntspahtJ Nghy; Njhd;wpaJ vd ,g;D mg;gh]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. D.P. 24.

25.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fisg; Nghd;W kpfTk; tPuKila> kpfTk; jUk rpe;jidqila> kpfTk; JzpTs;s> kpfTk; mofhd> kpfTk; khpahijf;Fhpa xUtiu ehd; fz;lNjapy;iy vd ,g;D ckh;(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Ta. Vol. VI. P. 101.

26.          my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fis tpl mofhd xUtiu ehd; fz;lNjapy;iy vd mG+`{iuuh(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.

K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; xUNghJk; ntWf;fg;glhj ntspg;gilahd monfDk; nfhilahy; Gfo; ngw;wpUe;jhh;fs;. (mijg;gw;wpa mUs;) kWf;fg;gl;lth;fisj; jtpu.[151] K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; kpf;f mofhdth;fshfTk;[152] fz;Zf;Fk; kdjpw;Fk; ,ath;fshfTk; ,Ue;jhh;fs; MfNt mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah vd;gJk; ,NaRNth rq;fuhr;rhhpNah my;yntd;gJk; njspT.

ikj;Nuahtpd; Fuy; 

\... .... .... Nghjprj;t (ikj;Nuahtpd;) <L ,izaw;w Fuy; nkd;ikahdjhfTk;> ghpRj;jkhdjhfTk;> ehfhpfk; kpf;fjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;; mijf; Nfl;gth;fSf;F xU NghJk; mYg;Gj; jl;lhJ.  mijf; Nfl;gth;fSf;F xU NghJk; jpfl;LtJkpy;iy vd mrq;fh gjpyspj;jhh;.[153]

,NaRjhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Ue;jhy; mtUf;F mj;jifa <L ,izaw;w Fuy; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,NaRtpw;F nkd;ikahd> ghpRj;jkhd> ehfhpfkpf;f Fuy; ,Ue;jjhf RtpNr~q;fspy; ve;j tpj rhd;Wkpy;iy. MfNt ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.  rq;fuhr;rhhpahtpw;F mj;jifa Fuy; ,y;iy.

-            ,uTj; (njhOifapd; NghJ) my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; \mj;jpAk; xyptKk;| (vd;w mj;jpahaj;ij) Xjpf; nfhz;bUe;jij ehd; Nfl;Nld;. mtiu tpl kpf ,dpikahd FuYilatiu my;yJ rpwg;ghf Xjf;$batiu ehd; xU NghJk; fz;ljpy;iy vd guh (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. I. P. 107.

-                 xU egpahdth; ,dpikahd Fuypy; jpUkiwia XJtij tpUg;gj;Jld; Nfl;gijg; Nghd;W ,iwtd; NtW vijAk; mj;jid tpUg;gj;Jld; Nfl;gjpy;iy vd my;yh`;tpd; J}]juth;fs; $wpajhf mG+`{iuuh(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  Vol. II. P. 816

-            (Ngrg;gLk; thh;j;ijfis)vz;Zgth;> mth; vz;z tpUk;gpdhy;> vz;z Kbfpd;w mstpw;F my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; NgRthh;fs; vd Map~h(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. II. P. 131.

-                 cq;fisg; Nghd;W my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; mtrukhf Ngr khl;lhh;fs;. Mdhy; mUfpy; ,Ug;gth; mij kddk; nra;J tpLkstpw;F kpfTk; jPh;f;fkhfTk; njspthfTk; NgRthh;fs; vd Map~h (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. II. P. 553

-                 my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; nfl;l Ngr;ir NgRgtuhfNth my;yJ ehfhpkw;w Ngr;ir NgRgtuhfNt my;yJ rgpg;gtuhfNth ,Ue;jpltpy;iy vd md]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  Vol. III. P. 129.

-                 \... ... ... Map~hNt vd;id vg;NghNjDk; Kul;Lj;jdkhf NgRtij fz;bUf;fpd;whah vd;W egp (]y;) mth;fs; vd;dplk; Nfl;L tpl;L> epr;rakhf vtDila Njhoikia kf;fs; mtdpd; nfl;l kw;Wk; J~;gpuNahf Ngr;Rf;fspd; fhuzkhf jtph;f;fpd;wdNuh mtNd vy;yh kdpjh;fisAk; tpl ,iwtdpd; ghh;itapy; kpfTk; Fiwe;j me;j];Js;std; vdf; $wpdhh;fnsd Map~h(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  Ta. Vol. VI. P. 209.  B. and M. quoted. 

-                 my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; mtru ghzpapy; Ngr khl;lhh;fs; NkYk; mth;fs; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw mehfhpfkhd thh;j;ijfis NgrTk; khl;lhh;fs; ehd; cq;fspy; kpfr; rpwe;j elj;ijAilatd; vd;W $Wgth;fshf ,Ue;jdh; vd mg;Jy;yh`; gpd; mkh;(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. II. P.131.

-                 \.. ... ... nrhy; jpwd; vDk; ngUq;flypd; mbj;jsj;ijNa nth;(egpath;fs;) vl;b tpl;lhhh; vd n[khj; nrhd;djhf ,g;D mg;gh];(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  Vol. II. P. 874.

jd;Dila gzpf; fhyk; KOtJk; kpfTk; ehfhpfkhd Ngr;irNa NgRk;gb egp (]y;) mth;fs; ,iwtdhy; cj;jutplg;gl;bUe;jhh;fs;.

(egpNa) ck; ,iwtdpd; ghijapy; (kf;fis) tpNtfj;JlDk;> mofpa cgNjrj;ijf; nfhz;Lk; ePh; miog;gPuhf.  ,d;Dk; mth;fsplj;jpy; kpf mofhd Kiiwapy; jh;f;fpg;gPuhf. jpUf;Fh;Md; 16;125

mthpd; rhjhuz Ngr;Rf;fs; kpfTk; Mo;e;jjhfTk; RUf;fkhdjhfTk; muGfspilNa gpugykhAs;s ePjp nkhopfs; epiwe;jjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. rpy Neuq;fspy; mth; vOr;rpailthh;. mthpd; Ngr;R nrhy; jpwk; kpf;fjhfTk; ,Uf;Fk;. mtUila rq;fPjk; Nghd;w fzPnud;w Fuy; tsk;[154] mthpd; nrhy; jpwid mjpfhpj;jJ. jpUkiwf; Fh;Mid ghpRj;jkhd ,dpikahd Fuypy; XJkhW egp(]y;) mth;fs; ,iwtdhy; fl;lisaplg;gl;bUe;jhh;fs; vd;gjw;F jpUf;Fh;MdpNyNa rhd;W ,Uf;fpd;wJ. 

NkYk; Fh;Midj; njspthfTk; epWj;jp epWj;jpAk; XJtPuhf\ jpUf;Fh;Md; 7:34.

rpy Neuq;fspy; \Fuy;| vd;gJ \nkhop|vd;gjw;F rkkhfTk; fUjg;gLk;. ,NaR jd;Dila Nghjidfis vOjp itj;jhh; vd;gjw;F RtpNr~q;fspy; ve;j tpj MjhuKkpy;iy. mtUila Nghjidfspy; ekf;F fpilg;gJ mtUila nrhe;j thh;j;ijfsy;y. Mdhy; gpuGtpd; Nghjidahf fpwp];jt kjg; gphptpdh;fspy; xU gphptpdh; fUjpaJjhd; ekf;Ff; fpilf;fpd;wJ.[155] mJTk; ,NaR Nghjpj;j kw;Wk; nra;jjpd; kpfr;rpwpa ghfNkahFk;.[156]  ,JTk; ,NaR Ngrpa me;j nkhopapy; fpilf;ftpy;iy. \Gdpj kj;NjA jd;Dila RtpN~rj;ij `Pg;U nkhopapy; vOjpdhh;|168 ,NaRtpd; fhyj;jpy; A+jh;fshy; Ngrg;gl;l nkhop `Pg;U my;y vd;gij mwpQh;fs; mwpth;. mt;thwpUe;Jk; \mry; `Pg;U RtpN~rk; Kw;fhyj;jpNyNa njhiye;Jtpl;lJ|168. \Gdpj khh;f; jd; RtpN~rj;ij fpNuf;f nkhopapy; vOjpdhh;|168 \Gdpj Y]f;fh jd; RtpN~rj;ij fpNuf;f nkhopapy; vOjpdhh;|168 NkYk; Gdpj NahthDila RtpN~rKk; fpNuf;f nkhopapNyNa ,Ue;jJ.[157] ,NaR fpNuf;f nkhopapy; fw;gpj;jhh; vd;gjw;fhd ve;j rhd;Wk; RtpN~rq;fspy; ,y;iy. MfNt ,NaR cgNahfpj;j nkhopapd; ghpRj;jk; kw;Wk; ehfhpfk; gw;wp jPh;g;Gr; nrhy;y ve;j tpj rhj;jpaKk;  ,y;iy.

rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; jd;Dila gilg;Gf;fis rk];fpUjj;jpy; vOjpdhh;. Mdhy; me;j Neuj;jpy; kf;fs; Ngrpa (rk];fpUjky;yhj NtnwhU) nkhopapNyNa mth; Nghjpj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mJ (rk];fpUjk;) Kw;wpYk; ,y;yhkyhfp tpl;lJ. epr;rakhf me;Neuj;jpy; rk];fpUjk; ,e;jpa kf;fspy; Ngr;R nkhopahf ,y;iy. 

khwhf K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; mugp nkhop Ngrpdhh;fs;. me;j Neuj;jpy; kf;fshy; Ngrg;gl;l mugp nkhopapNyNa Nghjpf;fTk; nra;jhh;fs;. mth; jd; tho; ehspNyNa jd; Nghjidfis mugpapy; gjpT nra;ar; nra;jhh;fs;. jpUf;Fh;Md; kpfTk; cd;dj mugp nkhop eilapy; ,wf;fpaUsg;gl;ljhf mJ $Wfpd;wJ.

,J njspthd mugp nkhopahFk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 26:195.

NkYk; ,t;tpjkhfNt ,e;j Fh;Mid mugp nkhopapy; ehk; ,wf;fp itj;Njhk;;  jpUf;Fh;Md; 20:113. 

mstw;w mUshsd; epfuw;w md;GilNahdplj;jpypUe;J ,wf;fpaUsg;gl;lJ muGnkhopapy; mike;j ,f;Fh;MDila trdq;fs; mwpe;JzUk; kf;fSf;F njspthf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. jpUf;Fh;Md; 41:2-3.

`h-kPk;. tpsf;fkhd ,t;Ntjj;jpd; kPJ rj;jpakhf. ePq;fs; mwpe;J nfhs;tjw;fhf ,jid ehk; mugp nkhop Fh;Mdhf epr;rakhf Mf;fp ,Uf;fpNwhk;.epr;rakhf ,J ek;kplj;jpYs;s ck;Ky; fpjhgpy;(jha; E}ypy;) ,Uf;fpwJ. (,JNt Ntjq;fspy;) kpf;f NkyhdJk; Qhdk; kpf;fJkhFk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 43:1-4.

,jw;F Kd;dh; %]htpd; Ntjk; ,khkhfTk; (Neh;top fhl;bahfTk;) u`;kj;jhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. (Fh;;Mdhfpa) ,t;Ntjk; (Ke;ija Ntjq;fis) nka;ahf;Ffpw mugp nkhopapYs;sjhFk;; ,J mepahak; nra;Nthiu mr;r%l;b vr;rhpg;gjw;fhfTk; ed;ik nra;gth;fSf;F ed;khuhakhfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ. 46:12

jpUf;Fh;Md; mugp nkhopapy;jhd; ,wf;fpaUsg;gl;lJ vd;gJ Nkw;fz;l thrfq;fspypUe;J njspthfpd;wJ. mugp vd;why; \ghpRj;jkhdJk; ehfhPfkhdJk; vd;W mh;j;jkhFk;:-

mugp vd;w thh;j;ij mugh vd;w thh;j;ijNahL Nrh;e;jjhFk;. jg;gpy;yhky; Ngrpdhd;. muGd; vd;gJ Ngr;rpy; jtWnra;ahjJk; nrhy;ytUgtw;iw njspthd ntspg;gilahd Rygkhd thh;j;ijfshy; ntspg;gLj;JtjhFk;.[158]

mugpfSila Ngr;R eilapy; kpfTk; rpwe;jij Njh;e;njLj;J NgRgth;fshf Fiw~pfs; jpfo;e;jdh;. mjdhy; mth;fSila Ngr;R eil vy;yhtw;iwAk; tpl kpfTk; jiy rpwe;J tpsq;fpaJ. MfNt jpUf;Fh;Md; me;j eilapNyNa ,wf;fpaUsg;gl;llJ vd fj;jhjh(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[159]

mJ ehfhPfkw;w fhl;Lkpuhz;b eilapy; ,wf;fpaUsg;gltpy;iy vd jpUf;Fh;Md; tpj;jpahrg;gLj;jpf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

epr;rakhf mtUf;Ff; fw;Wf; NghLg;gtd; xU kdpjNd(,iwtdy;yd;) vd;W mth;fs; $Wtij jplkhf ehk; mwpNthk;; vtidr; rhh;e;J mth;fs; $Wfpwhh;fNsh mtDila nkhop(mugpay;yhJ) md;dpa nkhopahFk;;  Mdhy; ,JNth njspthd mugp nkhopahFk;.  jpUf;Fh;Md; 16:103

ehk; ,ij(Fh;Mid) mugpay;yhj NtW nkhopapy; ,wf;fpapUe;jhy;; ,jd; trdq;fs; njspthf tpsf;fg;gl;bUf;ff; $lhjh? (nrhy;) m[kP (md;dpa nkhop); (J}jh;) mugpauh? vd;W Nfl;bUg;ghhh;fs;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 16:103

md;dpa vd;w thh;j;ij m[kP vd;gjd; nkhop ngah;g;ghFk;. ,q;Nf cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s m[kP vd;w nrhy; nghJthf md;dpa my;yJ fhl;Lkpuhz;bj;jdkhd nkhop vd;gijf; Fwpf;fpwJ.[160] m[kP vd;w thh;j;ij m[;kJd; vd;w thh;j;ijNahL njhlh;Gs;sJ. mjd; mh;j;jkhtJ mtdpw;F NgRtjpy; my;yJ nrhy;tjpy; rf;jpaw;w my;yJ jil my;yJ rpukk; ,Ue;jJ ... ... mjhtJ njspT> tpsf;fk;> rpwg;G> J}a;ik Mfpaitfs; mjpy; Fiwthf ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;gjhk;...[161]

mbg;gil nkhopapy; mugp vd;gjw;Fhpa thh;j;ij \mh;gPd;|vd;gjhFk;. mJ ehfhpfk;> ew;gz;G> khpahij vd;w mh;j;jKs;s mh;Nga;d;[162] vd;w thh;j;ijapd; kWtbtNkahFk;. mugp vd;w thh;j;ij my;-mug;|vd;w thh;j;ijapypUe;J te;jjhFk;. mjd; mh;j;jk; efuq;fspy; my;yJ ngUk; gl;lzq;fspy; trpg;gth;fs;[163] vd;gjhFk;.

jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; nkhop eil vspikahdJk; ve;j tpj NfhzYkw;wJk; njspthdJkhFk;. jpUf;Fh;MNd ,ij ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ ;-

,ij ehk; ck;Kila nkhopapy; vspjhf;fpNdhk;| jpUf;Fh;Md; 44:58

,it Fh;MDila-njspthd Ntjj;Jila-mj;jhl;rpfshFk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 27:1

-            jd; mbahh; kPJ ve;j tpjkhd (Kuz;ghL) NfhzYk; ,y;yhjjhf Mf;fp ,t;Ntjj;ij ,wf;fp itj;j me;j my;yh`;Tf;Nf Gfo; midj;Jk; chpj;jhFk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 18:1

-            vj;jifa (FiwAk;) NfhzYk; ,y;yhj mugpf; Fh;Md;. 39:28

mrq;fhtpd; thh;j;ijfs; vijnay;yhk; Ntz;baNjh mitaidj;Jk; ,e;j jpUkiwapy; epiwNtw;wg;gl;Ls;sJ vd jpUf;Fh;Mid gbg;gth; njspthf mwpayhk;;

epr;rakhf ,J kpfTk; fz;zpaKk; rq;ifAk; kpf;f Fh;MdhFk;. ghJfhf;fg;gl;l Vl;ny; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. jpUf;Fh;Md; 56:77

Fh;Md; vd;gjd; mh;j;jNk XJjy; my;yJ thrpj;jy; vd;gJNtahFk;[164]

ehk; ,g;NghJ mrq;fhtpd; thh;j;ijfspy; $wg;gl;bUf;Fk; kw;nwhU tpraj;jpw;F jpUk;GNthk;. egp (]y;) mth;fs; jpUf;Fh;Mid XJtij Nfl;lth;fs; kpfg; ngUk; mstpw;F <h;f;fg;gl;ldh; vd;gjw;F jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; rhd;Wfs; cs;sd. ,jdhy;jhd; epuhfhpg;gth;fs; #dpankd ,ij $wpdhh;fs;. 

,J njspthd #dpaNkjhd; vd;W epuhfhpg;gth;fs;; $Wfpd;wdh;. 2:13. egp(]y;) mth;fs; jpUf;Fh;Mid Xjf; Nfl;lth;fSf;F xU NghJk; rypg;Gj; jl;baNjapy;iy vd;gJ cz;ikahdjhFk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; rhpahd Kiwg;gb Xjg;gLk; NghJ ,d;Wk; ,];yhkpa cyF kfpo;r;rpf; flypy; %o;Ffpd;wJ ,d;Dk; NkYk; NkYk; Nfl;f Ntz;Lnkd;w Mh;tk; cz;lhFfpd;wJ.  cyfpYs;s Ntjq;fspNyNa, jpUf;Fh;Md; khj;jpuk;jhd;, mjd; mry; gpujpapy; kdpjh;fspd; kpfg; ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapduhy; Xjg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;f cz;ikahFk;.  jpUf;Fh;Midg; Nghd;W mjd; mrypy; ve;j NtjKk; ,j;jifa ngUk; vz;zpf;ifapduhy; Xjg;gltpy;iy. egp (]y;) mth;fs; jpUf;Fh;Mid XJtJ kf;fis ngUk; kfpo;r;rpf;Fs;shf;fpaJ vd;gij K];ypk;fSk; K];ypky;yhjth;fSk; mwpe;jpUe;jdh;. jpUf;Fh;Md; vd;gJ xU ftpij nfhj;jhFk; vd;Wk; egp (]y;) mth;fs; xU ftpQuhth; vd;Wk; epuhfhpg;gth;fs; mth;fSf;NfAhpa tpsf;fj;ij ,jw;F nfhLj;jdh;;.  jpUf;Fh;Md; ,ij kWf;fpd;wJ.

(ek;Kila J}juhfpa) mtUf;F ehk; ftpij(,aw;wf;) fw;Wf; nfhLf;ftpy;iy;  mJ mtUf;Fj; NjitahdJk; my;y. ,J ey;YgNjrKk; njspthd Fh;MDNk jtpu Ntwpy;iy. jpUf;Fh;Md; 36:69.

jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; moF kw;Wk; ehfhpfk;kpf;f eiliag; gw;wpAk; egp(]y;) mth;fs; mij Nrh;g;gpj;j tpjk; gw;wpAk; kpfg; ngUk; mwpQh;fs; $wpa fUj;Jf;fis jw;NghJ Nfhbl;L fhl;LtJ rhyg; nghUj;jkhdjhFk;.

kpfTk; fz;zpaKk; ehfhpfKk; kpf;f Fiu~p Fyj;jpd; nkhop eilapy; kpf Neh;j;jpAk; ghpRj;jKk; epiwe;j nkhopapy; cyfshtpa mstpy; jpUf;Fh;Md; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ. kw;w eil kpfTk; mhpjhfNt fyf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.  mJ vy;NyhuhYk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;s gpufhuk; kpfTk; rhpahd mugp nkhopahFk;. NkYk; jPtpu kj ek;gpf;ifAs;sth;fs; ek;GtJ gpufhuk;> mt;Ntjj;jpy; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ gpufhuk;> mJ Nghy; ve;j kdpjhuYk; cUthf;fg;gl KbahjjhFk;. ... ... ... MfNt mJ ,we;jth;fis caph;g;gpg;gijf; fhl;nyk; kpfg; ngUk; epiyahd mw;Gjk; vdTk; ,e;j mw;GjNk mJ ,iwtdplkpUe;J Njhd;wpaJ vd;gij cyF ek;gpl NghJkhdJ vd;Wk; typAWj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

\jd;Dila J}Jj;Jtj;ij cWjp nra;tjw;F K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; ,e;j mw;Gjj;ijNa Kd; itj;jhh;fs;. thf;F td;ikapYk; nrhw; NfhitapYk; kpQ;Rtnjw;nfd;Nw gpuj;jpNahfkhf gbj;j Mapuf;fzf;fhd mNugpah;fis K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; rthy; tpl;L ,f;Fh;Mdpw;F ,izahf xU mj;jpahaj;ij nfhz;L tUk;gb mioj;jhh;fs;.  ,e;j Ntjk; mjd; mofhd eilf;fhf cz;ikapNyNa mjprakhf ghh;f;fg;gl;lJ vd;gij fhl;Lk; tifapy; xNu xU cjhuzj;ij> gy cjhuzq;fspy;> khj;jpuk; fhl;Lfpd;Nwd;.  K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fspd; fhyj;jpy; tho;e;j mNugpahtpd; kpfg; ngUk; rhkhh;j;jparhypfspy; xUtd; vdf; fUjg;gl;l yhgpj; ,g;D uhgpahtpd ftpij xd;W f|ghtpd; thapypy; njhq;f tplg;gl;lJ.  ,t;thW f|ghtpd; thapypy; njhq;f tplg;gLtJ kw;w ftpQh;fs; vtUk; mjDld; Nghl;bapl Kd; tu Kbahj mstpw;Fs;s kpfTk; cah;e;j gilg;gpw;Nf nfhLf;fg;gLk; fz;zpakhFk;. Mdhy;  jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; ,uz;lhtJ mj;jpahak; mjw;F mUfpy; njhq;f tplg;gl;l NghJ mjd; Kjy; thpia thrpj;j yhgpj; (mg;NghJ rpiy tzf;frhypahf ,Ue;jtd;) Mr;rhpaj;jhy; fl;Lz;L Nghdhd;. ,e;j thh;j;ijfs; xU ,iwj; J}jhpd; thapypUe;Nj tu KbAk; vd mwptpj;jtdhf mg;nghONj ,];yhj;ij jOtpdhd;. (gpd;G) ,];yhj;ijAk; egp (]y;) mth;fisAk; Nehf;fp Gidag;gl;l ,fo;r;rp ftpij tirkhhpfSf;F rhpahd kW nkhop nfhLj;J K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fSf;F ,e;j yhgpj;  kpfg; ngUk; njhz;L nra;jhd;. ...

jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; eil nghJthf mofhdJk; ruskhdJkhFk;.  mjpYk; mJ egpj;Jt Fzq;fisAk; Ntj thf;fpaq;fisAk; gpujpgypf;Fk; NghJ kpfr; rpwg;ghf ,Uf;fpwJ. mJ RUf;fkhdJk; ngUk;ghYk; njsptw;wJkhfTk;> fpof;fj;jpa uridf;Nfw;w khjphp mofhd jhs eak; nghUe;jpajhfTk;> kpfTk; cw;rhf%l;Lk; RUf;fkhd nrhw;nwhlUlDk; NkYk; gy ,lq;fspy; Fwpg;ghf ,iwtdpd; khl;rpik kw;Wk; jd;ikfs; tpthpf;fg;gLk; ,lq;fspy; kpfTk; fk;gPukhdjhfTk; mghukhdjhfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ.  ,ij thrfh;fs; gy ,lq;fspy; fhzyhk;. ehd; vt;tsNth Kaw;rp nra;Jk; me;j mrypd; cah;it vd; nkhop ngah;g;gpy; nfhz;L tu Kbatpy;iy vd;gijAk; thrfh;fs; czh;e;jpl Ntz;Lk;.

jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; fhzg;gLk; nfhs;ifia mugpah;fs; tuNtw;gjpy; jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; fhZk; mjd; trdq;fspd; nghUj;jk; yak; Mfpaitfs; Mw;wpa gq;F rpwpjy;y.  mitfs; mjDila thjq;fSf;F kpfTk; gadspf;fpd;wd.  ,t;thwhd thf;F td;ikapy;yhky; rhjhuzkhf (fl;lisfs;) nrhy;yg;gl;bUf;Fkhapd; mitfs; mt;tsT vspjpy; (kf;fis) Ml; nfhz;bUf;f KbahJ.  kpfTk; ftdkhfj; Njh;e;njLf;fg;gl;L fiyeaj;Jld; ,izf;fg;gl;l thh;j;ijfs; Ml;fis gutrg;gLj;jp Mr;rhpag;glr; nra;tjpy; ,iria tpl ve;j tpjj;jpYk; Fiwe;jitay;y.------ kpfTk; rhpahd Kiwapy; jhs eaj;Jld; mike;Js;s thf;fpaj;jhy; kdk; ,sfhjtDf;F fhJ rhpapy;iy vd;W $l nrhy;yp tplyhk;.  ,j;jifa thf;F td;ik kdpjh;fs; kdj;jpy; Vw;gLj;Jk; cw;rhfkhd nray;ghLfs; gw;wp K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; mwpahjtuy;y.  mjd; fhuzkhfNt mth; jd;Dila Nghypahd ntspg;ghLfspy; me;j eilapd; fz;zpaj;ij fhg;gjw;F jd;Dila kpfg;ngUk; jpwikia cgNahfpj;jhh;.  me;j thf;F td;ik Nkd;ikahd ,iwtdplj;jpypUe;J tuf;$bajhf mstpw;F Njhd;Wk; tifapy; mt;thW nra;jhh;. ,iwtNd mjd; Mrphpah; vd;Wk; $wpdhh;. NkYk; gioa Vw;ghLfspy; tUk; jPh;f;fjhprd eilfis gpujpgypf;fTk; mt;thW nra;jhh;. mNj Neuj;jpy; nrhw;nghoptpd; kw;w fiyfisAk; mth; if tpl;L tpltpy;iy.  mjpy; mth; ed;F ntw;wp fz;lhh;.  ve;j mstpw;F mth; Nfl;gthpd; kdq;fis ifg;gw;wpdhnudpy;> mtUila ngUk;ghyhd vjphpfs; mij #dpak; ke;jpuk; Mfpatw;wpd; tpisT vd;Nw fUjpdh;.[165]

jpUf;Fh;Md; kpfTk; MokhfTk; jPtPukhfTk; $Wk; nja;tPf ,ay;G> ,iw rf;jp-mwpT Mfpatw;wpd; jd;ikfs;> gpugQ;rj;jpd; ,iwtd;> mtDila Vfj;Jtk; NkYk; thdk; G+kp Mfpatw;wpd; ,iwtdpd; NkNyNa jk; fhhpaq;fis guQ;rhl;LtJ Nghd;w nfhs;iffnsy;yhk; kpf cah;e;j GfOf;Fhpaitfshf ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gij ehk; xg;Gf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; ... xOf;f Nkk;ghl;nw;fhf kpf;f cd;djkhd Mok; epiwe;j Cf;fk;> Mo;e;j Qhdk; Mfpatw;iw mJ cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.  kpfg;ngUk; rKjhaq;fSk; ntw;wp nfhs;Sk; NguuRfSk; vjd; kPJ fl;lg;gLNkh mj;jifa tpraq;fs; mjpy; cs;sd vd;gij mJ ep&gpj;Js;sJ.[166]

,Ugj;jp ehd;fhk; #uh tiu  ,ir eak; NkNyhq;fpapUg;gijAk; ,aw;ifg; nghUl;fspd; moifAk;> RUf;fkhd kw;Wk; czh;r;rp jJk;Gk; Ngr;Rf;fisAk;> eufk; jz;liz Mfpatw;iwg; gw;wpa vr;rhpf;ifAk; ehk; ftdpf;fhky; ,Uf;f KbahJ.,itfs; ngUk;ghyhd gFjpfspy; kppfTk; ,uj;jpdr;RUf;fkhd thpfspy; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.  vy;yh ,lq;fspYk; me;j ,ir eak; mg;gbNa fhf;fg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ.177

,yf;fpaf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy;> jpUf;Fh;Md; vd;gJ fpof;fpd; kpfg; ngUk; ftpg; gilg;ghFk;. mjDila ngUk;ghyhd ,ir yaj;Jld; $ba trd eil me;jf; fhyj;jpypUe;J cyf kf;fsplk; epytp tUk; uridf;F kpfTk; nghUj;jkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mJ kpfr; rhpahd mugp nkhopiaAilajhfTk; mw;Gjkhd tpsf;fq;fshYk; cd;djkhd cjhuzq;fshYk; epuk;gpAs;sJ vd;gJ midtuhYk; xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ.  rpy ,lq;fspy; njsptpy;yhjjhfTk; rypg;igAk; Vw;g;gLj;jpdhYk; nghJthf mJ tPhpakpf;fJk; gagf;jpia Vw;gLj;JtJkhFk;.   \jpUf;Fh;Mid Kjypy; thrpf;Fk; xUtUf;F mJ Rthua];kw;wjJ Nghy; Njhd;Wtjhy; ntWg;gilfpwhh;. Mdhy; mjw;Fg; gpwF mjDila trPfuj;jhy; ftug;gLfpd;whh;; ,Wjpahf mjDila gy moFfshy; jd;id kpQ;rpa epiyapy; gutrg;gLfpd;whh;| vd;w Gfo; ngw;w mwpQh; Nfhj; mth;fspd; fzpg;ig ehk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;. egp(]y;) mth;fs; ,j; jpUf;Fh;Mid Kd; itj;j NghJ> eh td;ikAk; eil Rj;jKk; tsh;e;jpUe;jd: ftpijAk; nrhw; nghopTk; cah;e;j me;j];jpy; kjpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ vd;gij jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; cah;Tfis kjpg;gpLtjw;F Kd; ehk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. jpUf;Fh;Md;jhd; epiyahd mw;Gjkhf fUjg;gl;lJ. mij jd; gzpia kf;fsplj;jpy; cWjpg;gLj;Jk; Mjhukhf K`k;kJ(]y;) Kd; itj;jhh;fs;.thf;F td;ikapYk; nrhw; NfhitapYk; kpQ;Rtnjw;nfd;Nw gpuj;jpNahfkhf gbj;j Mapuf;fzf;fhd mNugpah;fis K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; rthy; tpl;L ,f;Fh;Mdpw;F ,izahf xU mj;jpahaj;ij nfhz;L tUk;gb mioj;jhh;fs;. jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; eilaoF Cl;Lk; tpag;Gk; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; ,ir Mguzq;fis mjd; eilf;F Cl;b myq;fhpj;jpUg;gjhNdNyAk; trdq;fis jhs eilqlDk; vJif NkhidAlDk; mij Mf;fpapUg;gjhYk; mij thrpf;Fk; mugpah;fis mJ vOr;rpAwr; nra;fpd;wJ. mjDila tpjk; fUj;ijf; ftUfpd;wJ. rpy Neuq;fspy; rhjhuz nkhop eilia tpl;L tpl;L kpf;f Nkd;ik nghUe;jpa trdq;fspd; %yk; epiyj;j mhpahrdj;jpy; mkh;e;jpUf;Fk; gpugQ;rj;jpd; rl;lq;fis nray;gLj;jpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; ,iwtid fhl;Lfpd;whh;. vd;nwd;Wk; epiyj;jpUf;Fk; Rtdj;jpd; ,d;gq;fisg; gw;wp tpthpf;Fk; NghJ mthpd; trdk; ,dpikahdjhfTk; czh;r;rp trg;glj;jf;fjhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.  euf neUg;igg; gw;wp tpthpf;Fk; NghNjh mt;trdq;fs; tPhpakpf;fjhfTk; NtjidNaw;gLj;JtjhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.[167]

mtUf;F Kd; mkh;e;jpUg;gth;fs; jdpg;gl;lth;fshf ,Ue;jhYk; rhp my;yJ nghJthdth;fshf ,Ue;jhYk; rhp mth;fspd; ed; kjpg;ig mth; ngw;whh;. mthpd; fk;gPukhd Njhw;wk;> mthpd; CLUTk; fz;fs;> ePz;l jhb> mthpd; cs;sj;jpd; xt;nthU czh;TfisAk; gpujpgypf;Fk; mthpd; Kfk;> mthpd; ehtpd; ntspg;ghl;nw;F tYT+l;ba mthpd; iriffs; Mfpa midj;Jk; mth;fSf;F kfpo;r;rpA+l;baJ. tof;fkhd tho;f;if eltof;iffspy; mth; jd; ehl;bDila ew;gz;Gfis kpfTk; ftdkhf filg;gpbj;jhh;. gzf;fhuh;fs; kw;Wk; typik kpf;fth;fSld; mth; nfhz;l khpahijkpf;f ftdj;ij kf;fhtpd; Vio kf;fspd; Nky; mth; nfhz;l ghpT kw;Wk; tpeak; fz;zpag;gLj;jpaJ.  mth; elj;ijapy; ,Uf;Fk; ntspg;gilahd jd;ik mtUila vz;zj;jpd; Af;jpia kiwj;jJ. mthpd; khpahijahd> tpeakhd gof;f tof;fq;fs; mthpd; jdpg;gl;l rpNefpjj;jpw;Fk; cyf kf;fspd; NkYs;s fUizf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lhfTk; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.  mtUila Qhgf rf;jp kpfTk; tphpe;jJk; vijAk; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;sf; $ba msTkpUe;jJ.  mthpd; eifr;Rit vspikahdJk; el;G kpf;fjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. mthpd; fw;gid kpfTk; cd;djkhdjhftpUe;jJ.  mthpd; jPh;g;G njspthdjhfTk;> tpiuthdjhfTk;> jPh;thdjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. rpe;jidapYk; nraypYk; mth; ijhpaj;ij ngw;wpUe;jhh;. ntw;wpfSld; mthpd; jpl;lq;fs; gbg;gbahf tphptile;j NghjpYk; mthpd; nja;tPfg; gzpiag; gw;wpa mth; nfhz;bUe;j Kjy; rpe;jidahdJ mjd; cz;ikj; jd;ikf;Fk; kpfTk; cah;e;j Ez;zwptpw;Fk; Kj;jpiuahf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

kpfTk; ghpRj;j nkhop eilia cgNghfpf;Fk; cah;e;j Fyj;jpd; kj;jpapypUe;J mg;Jy;yh`;tpd; kfdhh; Njhd;wpdhh; mthpd; Ngr;R tsk; mthpd; tpNtfkhd mikjpiag; filg;gpbf;Fk; gbf;fj;jpdhy; rhp nra;ag;gl;L tsh;f;fg;gl;lJ.

,e;j rkaj;jpy; K`k;kJ jd;Dila eLj;ju tajpypUe;jhh;. mthpd; cUtk; fk;gPukhdjhf ,Ue;jJ. mthpd; Njhw;wk; khl;rpik nghUe;jpajhf ,Ue;jJ. mthpd; Kfr;rhay; xOq;fhdjhfTk; czh;T G+h;tkhdjfTk; ,Ue;jJ.  mthpd; fz; fUj;jjhfTk; CLUTtjhfTk;. mthpd; %f;F fOfpd; myF Nghy; rha;e;jjhfTk; mthpd; tha; ed;F mikf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; mjpYs;s gw;fs; Kj;Jg; Nghd;wjhfTk; mthpd; fd;dq;fs; rpte;jjhfTk; cly; jpldhdjhfTk; MNuhf;fpaKs;sjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.  mthpd; ,aw;ifahd fUq; Nfrj;jpw;Fk; jhbf;Fk; fiy nky;ypa ,sQ;rptg;G th;zj;ij G+rpapUe;jJ.  mthpd; trPfhpf;Fk; Gd;dif> mthpd; tskhd fzPnud;w Fuy;> mthpd; elj;ijfspd; Neh;j;jpahd fz;zpak; Mfpa midj;Jk; mth; ahh; ahhplnky;yhk;; ciuahw;wpdhNuh mth;fspd; ftdj;ijnay;yhk; ,tUf;F rhjfkhf jpUg;gpaJ.  mtUf;F kpfTk; cd;djkhd jpwikfs; ,Ue;jd mthpd; rpe;jid tpiuthdjhfTk; RWRWg;ghdjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.  mthpd; epidthw;wy; kpfTk; tphpe;jjhfTk; vijAk; kdjpy; Njf;fp itj;Jf; nfhs;sf; $bajhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. mthpd; mwpT czh;r;rp capUs;sjhfTk; ijhpakpf;fjhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.mthpd; jPh;g;G njspthdjhfTk; mth; mr;rkw;w ijhpaKilatuhfTk; ,Ue;jhh;.------jd; tho;f;ifapy; kpfg; ngUk; ,yl;rpaj;ij epiwNtw;Wk; tplh Kaw;rpapy; mthpd; epiy Fiyahik> mthpd; nghWik kw;Wk; tplh Kaw;rp Mfpaitfs; ek; midthpd; Mr;rhpaj;ijAk; ek;ikf; Nfl;fhkNyNa tutiof;Fk;.mthpd; ,aw;ifahd eh td;ik ghpRj;jkhd mugp nkhop eilapd; cgNahfj;jhy; mjpfhpj;J mthpd; trPfukhd nrhw;nghopTf; fiyia moF ngwr; nra;jJ.[168]

mg;Jy;yh`;tpd; kfdhhpd; rpwg;Gf;fs; kw;Wk; ,aw;ifapd; nfhilfs; gw;wp mNugpa vOj;jhsh;fs; ePz;l ngUikAk; md;Gk; epiwe;j jpUg;jpg;gLfpd;wdh;. nghpath;fSf;F mth; nra;j khpahij> vspath;fSld; mth; fhl;ba jhusj;jd;ik>  mfk;ghtk; nfhz;lth;fSld; mthpd; fz;zpakhd nghWik mtUf;F khpahijiaAk; tpag;igAk; GfioAk; <l;baJ.  mthpd; jpwikfs; mthpd; ek;gpf;iff;F my;yJ jiyikf;F kpfr; rhpahfg; nghUe;jpaJ. fy;tp vd;gij mwNt njhpahjtuhf ,Ue;jhYk; ,aw;ifia kpfTk; ftdkhf Muha;e;jhh; mth;.  jd; vjphpfspd; kpfg; ngUk; thjg; gpujp thjj;jpw;Fj; jf;f (gjp;y; nfhLf;Fk; tpjj;jpy;) mth; kdJ tphpaTk; jd; rPlh;fspd; jho;e;j epiyia czh;e;J (mijg; Nghf;F Kfkhf) mthpd; kdk; ,wq;fp tUk; jd;ikAk; nfhz;lJ.  mthpd; rhjhuz Ngr;Rj; jpwd; kdijf; nfhs;is nfhs;Sk; mthpd; Kfj; Njhw;wk;. khpahij tutiof;Fk; mstpw;Fs;s mjpypUe;j fk;gPuj;jpd; jd;ik mjpypUf;Fk; ,df;fkhd ,dpik  Mfpaitfs; md;G khpahijiaAzh;Tfis tutioj;jJ. fw;wth;fisAk; fw;fhjth;fisAk; trPfhpj;j fk;gPukhd mwpthspapd; Njhw;wj;ijAk; nfhilahf nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jhh; mth;.[169] mh;j;jk;  epiwe;j thf;fpaq;fisNa mth; Ngrpdhh;. mjpy; kpff; Fiwthd thh;j;ijfisNah my;yJ kpf mjpfkhd thh;j;ijfisNah mth; cgNahfpf;ftpy;iy.[170]

MfNt K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah vd;gJk; ,NaRNth rq;fuhr;rhhpahNuh Gj;jh ikj;Nuah my;y vd;gJk; njspT.

[101]  S.B.E. Vol XI P. 97

[102]  The Gospel of Buddha by Carus P. 69

[103]   Vol. 19, P. 247

[104] Eadie P. 392

[105]  John 12:6

[106]  Matt. 26: 14-16

[107] Matt 26:50

[108]  Vol. II. P. 24 

[109]  Vol. VI. P. 2330

[110]  M. & T. Quoted. 

[111]  Sale’s Koran P. 60. Foot Note. 

[112]  Rahmat-lil-Alamin Vol. I. P. 162.

[113]  Vol. V. P. 1898.

[114]  Irving P. 182

[115] Ta. Vol. V. P. 61. B.M.T. Quoted

[116]   Sale’s Koran P. 183 Foot Note.

[117]  Vol. V. PP. 1899-2000.

[118]  M. Vol. V. P. 1898. 

[119]  M. Vol. V. P. 1891

[120]  The Gospel of Buddha by Carus P. 214

[121]  John 1:29

[122]  Vinaya Text Part III. by Max Muller PP. 246-7

[123]  Mark 15:25

[124]  The Four Gospels by Right Rev. W.W. How. D.D. 

[125]  Matt. 28:6 ; Mark 16:6 ; Luke 24:6 ; John 20:9.

[126]  Luke 24:39

[127]  Matt. 28:9

[128]  Luke 24:30 ; John 21:12.

[129]  Acts 1:3.

[130] Sale’s Translation of the Koran; P. 586 Foot Note

[131]  Mohammed Ali’s Translation of the Koran.  Foot Note 2777.

[132]  The Life of Mohammed by Muir, P. 510 

[133]  Irving P. 230

[134]  The Ideal Prophet by Mamal-ud-din P. XXXIV.

[135]  M. Vol. II. P.35. 

[136]  T. Vol. II. P. 552

137]  Koelle P. 377. 

[138]  The Gospel of Buddha by Carus, P. 117. Dhammapada quoted. 

[139]  Irving PP. 36-7.

[140]  Maulud by Ghulam Imam Shahid P. 63.

[141]  Mohammed, Buddha, and Christ by M. Dods D.D. P. 94.

[142]  M. Vol. 2. PP. 561-2 

[143] The Koran L. P. 499 ; LXXXV. P. 578

[144]  M. Vol. II P. 562. 

[145]  Si-Yu-Ki Vol II. PP. 46-7. 

[146]  Ibid. Vol. I. P. 229

[147]  Buddhism by Monier William P. 82

[148] The Holy Bible Commentary by Thomas Scott Vol. V. Foot Note on Chapter LIII of Isaiah. 

[149]   Comprehensive Commentary of the Holy Bible by Rev. W. Jenks D.D. and Rev. Joseph A.Warne A.M. Psalms- Malachi,  P. 457 Foot Note.

[150]  Mohammed by S. D. Margolionth P. 82.

[151]  An Apology for Mohammed and the Koran by Davenport PP. 11-12. Gibbon Quoted. 

[152]  The Life of Mohammed by Muir P. 50. 

[153]  Si-Yu-Ki. Vol. I. P. 229

[154]  Irving P. 231.

[155]  Luke 1: 1-4 

[156]  John 21:25, Luke 1:1-4

[157]  The Four Gospels by W.W. How. D.D.

[158]  Arabic English Lexicon by Lane Book. I. P. 1992

[159]  Ibid. P. 1994.

[160]   Sale’s Translation of the Koran P. 268 Foot Note. 

[161]  Arabic English Lexicon by Lane. Book I. P. 1966

[162]  The Holy Qur’an : XLIII.3. 

[163] Arabic English Lexicon by Lane. Book I. P. 1993

[164]  Sale’s Translation of the Koran P. 224 Foot Note 12.

[165]  The Preliminary Discourse to the Koran by Sale. PP. 65-67

[166]  Rodwell’s Preface to the Koran P. 15.

[167]  An Apology for Mohammed and the Koran by John Davenport PP 64-67.

[168]  Gibbon Quoted by Davenport, PP. 11-12. 

[169]  Davenport P. 11. 

[170]  Davenport P. 52. 

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