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K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; Gj;jkj Ntjq;fspy; Kd;dwptpg;Gfs;


ikj;Nuah

ikj;Nuah

rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ

,NaR Gj;j ikj;Nuahth?

ikj;Nuahtpw;F rkkhd mh;j;jKs;s thh;j;ijfs;

ikj;Nuahit milahsq; fhZjy;

kiwnghUshd kw;Wk; gpugykhd nfhs;ifAk; Gj;jhf;fSk;

ikj;Nuah

Gj;j ikj;Nuah Njhd;wp tpl;lhh; vd rpy Gj;jh;fs; fUJfpd;wdh;[9]

1.             irdhtpd; l;Mq; vd;w tkprj;ij Nrh;e;j MwhtJ rf;uth;j;jpapDila jhahh; T+ mth;fSf;F jh-Ad;-fpq; vd;w R{j;uh mspf;fg;gl;lJ. tuf;$ba Gj;jh ikj;Nuah mts;jhd; vd;W nrhy;yg;gl;Ls;sJ.[10]

2.             A+yh kw;Wk; tp[atph;ah Mfpa murh;fs; \Nghjprj;t ikj;Nuah|tpd; mtjhuq;fshf fUjg;gl;ldh;.[11]

3.             ikj;Nuah J!pjh vd;w thdj;ij tpl;L Gwg;gl;L tpl;lhh;. NkYk; 1914k; Mz;L G+kpapy; xU rpWtdhf ,Ue;jhh; vd;W gh;khitr; Nrh;e;j Nyjp ]ahjh vDk; Jwtp Nghjprj;a ikj;Nuahtpd; tUifiag; gw;wp vy;yh ,lq;fspYk; gpufldg;gLj;jp tUfpwhh;.[12]

ikj;NuahtplkpUe;J Ntj Gj;jfq;fis ngw;W tUtjhf fle;j fhyq;fspYk;[13] epfo; fhyj;jpYk;[14] Gj;jh;fs; ebj;J tUfpd;wdh;. Gj;j fTjkhtpd; cUtj;ij nra;tjw;fhf thdj;jpypUe;J mth; nwq;fp tUfpd;whh;[15] vd;W $l mtiug;gw;wp fw;gid nra;J itj;Js;sdh;. 

Nkw;fz;l chpik Nfhuy;fs; ngUk;ghYk; Gj;j kj cyfpd; jPtPu ftdj;ij ftuhjjhy; ehk; mijg;gw;wp tpkh;rpf;f mtrpakpy;iy. jpahNrhgp];Lfisg; Nghd;w Gj;jh;fs; vjph; fhyj;jpy; ikj;Nuah Njhd;Wthh; vd fhj;jpUf;fpd;wdh;. cyfnkq;fpYKs;s Gj;jh;fs; ikj;Nuahtpd; rpiyia epWtpAs;sdh;. rpy Neuq;fspy; mjd; cauk; 70 mbAk;[16] my;yJ mjw;F Nkyhfnty;yhk; cUthf;fpapUf;fpd;whh;fs;. irdhtpYs;s \rphpf;Fk; Gj;j ikj;Nuah|[17]itg; gw;wp INuhg;gpa Rw;Wyhthrpfs; ed;F mwpth;.

rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ:

rpy gpuhkzh;fs; fTjk Gj;jhit tp~;Ztpd; 9tJ mtjhukhf fUJfpd;wdh;[18].  jpNahNrhgp]pl;Lfisr; Nrh;e;j rpy gpuhkzh;fs; rq;fuhr;rhhpia vjph;ghh;f;fg;gl;l ikj;Nuthf fUJfpd;wdh;.

rq;fhuhr;rhhpah mth;fspd; kiw nghUshd NghjidfNs mth;jhd; vy;yh tiffspYk; Gjpa clk;gpYs;s Gj;jh; vd;gij ep&gpf;f NghJkhdjhFk;. ehd; ,g;nghOJ mspj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; jfty;fs; jpngj;jpa NghjidahshplkpUe;J Neubahf ngw;wjy;y Mdhy; ,jd;dpe;jpahtpd; mj;itjpiar; Nrh;e;j xU gpuhkzhplkpUe;J ngw;w jfty;fNs ,it ... Gj;jhtpd; rpy gpw;fhyj;jpa mtjhuq;fs; Nky; Gj;jhpd; Mtp Nkyhbajhf gytpjkhf tpthpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Mdhy; kdpj cUtpy; rq;fuhr;rhhpahhpd; cUtpy;jhd; mth; ,g;G+kpapy; kPz;Lk; mtjhpj;jhh;. mthpd; Ke;ija Nghjidfspy; ,Ue;j rpy ,ilntspfis epug;Gtjw;Fk; mjpYs;s rpy jtWfis rhp nra;tJNk mth; Njhd;wpajpd; ,yl;rpakhFk;. Gj;jh; $l mth; jd; tho;tpd; xt;nthU epkplj;jpYk; jtwpiof;fhky; ,Uf;f KbAk; vd;gJ Nghd;w thjq;fs; kiwnghUSs;s Gj;j kjj;jpy; ,y;iy.[19]

rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.  Vnddpy;> jd; tho; ehspy; xU NghJk; mth; jhd; Gj;j ikj;Nuah vd;W chpik nfhz;lhbajpy;iy.

ehk; njhlh;e;J fhzg; gj;JKOikj;Jtq;fs;[20] mth; tho;tpy; fhzg;gltpy;iy. mJjhd; Kw;wpYk; Qhdk; epiwe;j Gj;jh;| ,lk; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba mtrpakhd xd;W.

mth; Ntjq;fis Gj;jh;fSf;nfjpuhf gad;gLj;jpdhh;.[21] mth; vOJtjhtJ:

m) Ntjq;fs;jhd; kpf cah;e;j MjhukhFk;.[22]

M) mwpitg; ngWtjw;F Ntjq;fisg; Nghd;w Mjhuq;fs; vJTkpy;iy.[23]

Ntjq;fspd; tz;lthsq;fis fTjk Gj;jh; ntspr;rk; Nghl;L fhl;bajhf rpy Nkw;fj;jpa kw;Wk; fpof;fj;jpa kw;Wk; rpy Gj;jkj mwpQh;fSk; fUJfpd;wdh;.

m) ntWik epiwe;j rf;ifNa Ntjq;fs; vd;gitfshFk;. mitfspy; vjhh;j;jNkh> khz;GfNsh my;yJ mbg;gil cz;ikfNsh ,y;iy.[24] efN]dh.

M) etPd fhy Gul;l];lhd;l; ,e;J kjkhfpa Mh;a rkh[pd; epWtdUk; ngUk;ghYk; jahde;j ru];tjp vd;W mwpag;gLgtUkhd gz;bl; %y; rq;fh; Gj;j kjj;ij \Ntjq;fs; kw;Wk; rh];jpuq;fis fLikahf kWf;Fk;| xU kjkhf fUJfpwhh;.[25]

,) gypapLk; rlq;F Kiwia Gj;jh; ,fo;e;jhh;;  Ntjk; fw;Nwhhpd; mwpit Kw;wpYk; Kl;lhs;jdkhdJ vd ,bj;Jiuj;jhh;.[26] Xy;ld;gh;f;.

<) fTjk Gj;jh; Ntjq;fis ,fo;e;Jiuj;jhh;.[27] kr;igy;

rhf;a Kdp mth;fspd; gy thf;Ffs; ,e;j fz;Nzhl;lj;ij Mjhpf;fpd;wd:-

m) Ntjq;fis thrpg;gJ> FUf;fSf;F mh;g;gzq;fis mspg;gJ my;yJ flTs;fSf;F gypapLtJ> #l;bdhNyh my;yJ FsphpdhNyh jd;idNa tijj;Jf; nfhs;tJ NkYk; mJ Nghd;w epiyahd tho;f;ifiag; ngWtjw;fhd gy tifahd ght kPl;rp eltbf;iffs; kdpjid ghpRj;jg;gLj;Jtjpy;iy.[28] mkf;fhd;l; Rj;

M) MfNt gpuhkzh;fspd; %d;W Ntjq;fspYs;s Kg;ghpkhz Qhdnkd;gJ jz;zPuw;w ghiytdnkd;Wk;> ghijaw;w fh,ld;Wk;> mopntd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.[29]

,) Ntjq;fSf;F ve;j tpj kjpg;Gkpy;iy.[30]

<) Ntjq;fis gbg;gnjy;yhk; mwpthsp vd;W ebg;gth;fs; nra;Ak; tPz; Ntiy. mwpthspfis jlk; Gusr; nra;Ak; Vkhw;W tpj;ij: ftdkw;w fz;fis gpbg;gjw;F cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s fhdy; ePh;;  MdhYk; Kd;,dr;rhpf;ifAs;s Gj;jprhyp mjpy; rpf;fhky; jd;id fhj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;whd;.  fhf;ff;$ba ve;j kiwthd rf;jpfSk; Ntjq;fspy; ,y;iy. mitfs; kdpj ,dj;jpw;F vjpuhd JNuhf> Nfhio> tQ;rf rpe;jid nfhz;l(th;fshy; cUthf;fg;gl;l)itfs;. gpuhkzh;fSf;F NjitahdJ mth;fspd; tho;f;if trjp rhjdq;fNs. mjw;fhfNt mth;fs; Ntjq;fis cUthf;fp itj;jpUf;fpwhh;fs;.  rq;fPj eilapYs;s mitfis rpe;jpf;fhky; kddk; nra;tjhy; vspjpy; kwg;gJkpy;iy. vspjpy; tpsq;fhj mitfspd; nra;jpfs; nry;tj;ijAk; mjpfhuj;ijAk; ifg;gw;w fdT fz;L nfhz;bUf;Fk; Kl;lhs;fspd; kdj;ijNaad;wp NtwtiuAk; kaf;Ftjpy;iy. fz; %bj;jdkhd nfhs;iffs;> rl;lq;fs;> mh;j;jkw;w> ,l;Lf;fl;lg;gl;l> tPzhzitfis mth;fspd; mwptw;w %isfs; rpe;jidaw;w fgsPfuk; nra;fpd;wd. ,e;j Nguhirf;fhu ngha;ah;fs; Vkhw;W tpj;ijia gpur;rhuk; nra;fpd;wdh; mth;fs; jpUg;gpj; jpUg;gpr; nrhy;Yk; fijfis Kl;lhs;fs; khj;jpuNk ek;Gfpd;wdh;.[31]G+hpjj;jh [hjfh.

jhd; Gj;j kjj;jt,dd;Nwh Gj;jkjj;ij rPh;jpUj;j te;jth; vd;Nwh jd; tho;ehspy; xU NghJk; rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; ntspg;gLj;jpaNj ,y;iy. Gj;j kjj;jpd; kpff;nfhLk; vjphpfspy; xUtuhfNt mth; jpfo;e;jhh; NkYk; mij ,e;jpahtpypUe;J Juj;Jtjpy; ntw;wpAk; fz;lhh;.[32] ,J Nghd;w NkYk; rpy fhuzq;fis ehk; gpwF nfhLg;Nghk;.

,NaR Gj;j ikj;Nuahth?;

fle;j rpy fhyq;fshf rpy Nkw;fj;jpa kw;Wk; fpof;fj;jpa mwpQh;fs; ,NaRjhd; Gj;j ikj;Nuah vd;W tpsk;guj;jpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wdh;.

    1.          ,e;j vjph;fhyg; Gj;jh;> ,e;j ikj;Nuah vdg;gLgth;> rl;lj;jpDilatuy;yhj Mdhy; md;gpd; Nghjfuhd mth; Njhd;wp tpl;lhh; vd;gij Gj;jh;fs; vg;nghONjDk; njhpe;J nfhs;thh;fsh?.[33] Nkf;]; Ky;yh;

   2.          fpwp];J ikj;Nuah ,d;Dk; tutpUf;fpwhh;.[34]  vl;kz;l;];

   3.          gpd; ehspy; ehk; mth;fis fTjkh vd;Wk; ikj;Nuah vd;Wk; fpwp];J vd;Wk; mwpfpNwhk;.[35] rp. [pduhjh]h.

   4.          ikj;Nuah vdg;gLgtUk; fpwp];J vdg;gLgtUk; xUtNu.[36]  N[h`d;dh.

   5.          khwhf> ikj;Nuag; gpuG fpwp];Jthf Njhd;wpa nghOJ jd; rPlh;fis \ehd; cq;fis Nerpf;fpwJ Nghy ePq;fSk; xUtiu xUth; NerpAq;fs; vd;W $wpdhh;|.[37]

   6.          ikj;Nuag; gpuG gy];jPid 2000 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;G fz;l nghOJ mNj top 

   7.          KiwiaNa gpd;gw;wpdhh;.[38] yPl; gPl;lh;.

   8.          ,dpNky; elf;ftpUf;Fk; ,NaRtpd; ,uz;lhk; tUifapd; NghJ mth;  ikj;Nuahthf ,Ug;ghh; vd;W gpshtl;];fp TWfpwhh;.[39]

me;j fz;Nzhl;lj;ij ehk; tphpthd Kiwapy; epuhfhpg;Nghk;.  Mdhy; ,q;Nf RUf;fkhf:-

-            jhd; Gj;j ikj;Nuah vd;W jd; tho; ehspy; ,NaR xU NghJk; $wpaNjapy;iy vd;W ehd;F RtpNr~q;fis gbf;Fk; vtUk; mwpe;jpLth;.

-            mthpd; Fzeyd;fs; \gj;J KOikj;Jtq;fis| gpujpgypj;jpltpy;iy. ,ij ehk; gpw;ghL tphpthf fhz;Nghk;.

-            ,NaR vjphpfsplj;jpy; fhl;bf;nfhLf;fg;gl;L J}f;fpyplg;gl;L rpYitapy; ,we;jhh; vd;gNj fpwp];Jt kjj;jpd; Kf;fpakhd nfhs;if.  ehd;F RtpNr~q;fSk; ,jpy; xUkpj;j fUj;ij nfhz;Ls;sd.[40]  ,NaRNt $l ,jw;F rhl;rp $WkhWk; nra;ag;gLfpd;whh;.[41] ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuah vd;w gpugygLj;jg;gl;l thjhl;lj;ij Gj;jh;fs; rpe;jpg;gjw;F Kjypy; ,e;j nfhs;ifia fpwp];jth;fs; iftpl Ntz;Lk;.  Vnddpy; fTjk Gj;jh; $wpAs;sjhtJ ;

\gpf;Rf;fNs> xUth; jhj;jFjhtpd; capiu td;Kiwapd; %yk; gwpj;jpLtnjd;gJ rhj;jpakw;w fhhpakhFk;.  gpf;Rf;fNs> jhj;jFjhf;fs; rhpahd ,aw;ifahd kuzj;ijNa jGTfpd;wdh;.[42]

,NaR jd;Dila ,uz;lhk; tUifapd; NghJ ikj;Nuahfthf ,Ug;ghh; vd;w g;shtl;];fpapd; fz;Nzhl;lk; ep&gpf;fg;gl KbahjJ.  ,NaR xU Ntis ,t;Tyfpw;F jpUk;g te;jhy; $l  jhd; ikj;Nuah vd;W thjhl KbahJ. Vnddpy; \mNj ,NaRNt\[43] \fh;j;jh; jhNk... thdj;jpypUe;J nwq;fp tUthh;\[44] \ty;yikAlDk; kpFe;j kfpikAlDk; thdj;J Nkfq;fs; Nky; tuf; $ba[45]

,itfSf;F khwhf Gj;j Kd;dwptpg;G nrhy;tJ vd;dntdpy; ,e;j ikj;Nuah G+kpapy; gpwe;jpl Ntz;Lk;[46] NkYk; N[hrg;> Nkhp my;yhj NtW ngw;Nwhh;fSf;F[47] gpwe;jpl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJjhd;.

\khpj;NjhhpypUe;J vOe;j fpwp];J ,dp kwpg;gjpy;iy vd;W mwpe;jpUf;fpNwhk;; kuzk; ,dp mtiu Mz;L nfhs;tjpy;iy.\[48] Mdhy; Gj;jkj Kd;dwptpg;Ngh Gj;j ikj;Nuah rhpahd fhyj;jpy; kuzkhfNtz;Lnkd;W[49] $Wfpd;wJ.

MfNt ,NaR jd;Dila ,uz;lhk; tUifapd; NghJ Gj;jh ikj;Nuahf tUthh; vd;w g;shtl;];fpapd; $w;iw fpwp];jt kj NtjNkh my;yJ Gj;j kj NtjNkh Mjhpf;ftpy;iy. NkYk; \Ntj thf;Ffs; khw;wg;gl KbahjJ[50]

ikj;Nuahtpw;F rkkhd mh;j;jKs;s thh;j;ijfs;

fTjk Gj;jhpdhy; Kd;dwptpf;fg;gl;l me;j khkdpjhpd; ngah; gy nkhopfspy; gy khjphpahf ,Uf;fpwJ. ghyp nkhopapy; \nkj;ja;ah|vd;gJ mth; ngauhFk;. Rk];fpUjj;jpy; \ikj;Nuah| vd;gjhFk;.  gh;kpapy; \mh;kPjpa;ah[51] vd;gjhFk;. ird nkhopapy; \nka;j;jhypNa[52] my;yJ \kpy;yP G]h[53] my;yJ \kpy;yp Ngh[54] my;yJ \j;&`&P[55] vd;gjhFk;. jpngj;jpa nkhopapy; \g;ahk;];-gh[56] my;yJ \kfpj;nu[h[57] vd;gjhFk;.[g;ghdpa nkhopapy; \kpNuhf;F[58] vd;gjhFk;.

nkj;ja;ahtpw;F rkkhd Mq;fpy thh;j;ij:-

1.                           md;gpd; Nghjfh;[59]   Nkf;]; Ky;yh;

2.                           md;gpd; gpuGthdth;[60] m. jh;kgy;

3.                           NerKs;sth; vd ngaUs;sth;|[61] fhu];

4.                           Nerk; kpf;f Gj;jh;|[62] iu]; Nltpl;];

5.                           ghpG+uz md;G|  my;yJ \cjhuz Fz kpf;f|[63] y. eu]`

6.                           rNfhju thq;irAs;s Gj;jh;| ypy;yp [64]

7.                          rpNefpjk; cs;s|[65] Gj;jh; gT];Nghy;

8.                           md;Gk; ,uf;fKKs;s|[66]  Nkhdpah; tpy;ypak;];

9.                           md;Gk; mUSkpf;f|[67]  v];.gPy;

10.                       ,uf;fkpf;f| my;yJ \mUs; kpf;f FLk;gj;ijr; Nrh;e;j|[68] nfl;b 

11.                         mUs; kpf;fth;|[69] n`h;ngh;l; Ngd];

12.                        mUs; kpf;fth;|[70]  N[h]g; vl;fpd;];

13.                        rpNefpjj;jd;ik rpNefpjkpf;f>jiakpf;f> Nerkpf;f> md;ghd> ,zf;fkhf> ,uf;fkhd> kw;wth;fs; kPJ kpf;f <LghLs;s|[71]  tpy;ypak; ];Ol;.

ikj;Nuahtpw;F rkkhd mugp thh;j;ij u`;kj; vd;gjhFk;.

jiaAs;s> md;Gk; NerKk; kpf;f> rpNefpj> ,uf;fKs;s> fUiz my;yJ mUs; epiwe;j ,J Nghd;w  midj;Jk; u`;kj; vDk; mugp gjj;jpd; mh;j;jq;fshf ntspj;jg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.  vl;th;l; tpy;ypak; NyDila mugp-Mq;fpy mfuhjp u`;kj; vDk; gjj;jpd; rpy mh;j;jq;fis jUfpd;wJ:-

,uf;fk;> gr;rhjhgk;> mUs;> ,sfpa kdKs;s> ed;ik nra;a tpUg;gKs;s> ghpthd> gpio nghWj;jy; kw;Wk; kd;dpj;jy;|

Ngl;[hpd; Mq;fpy-mugp mfuhjp ed;ik kw;Wk; ,iwaUs; vd;w mh;j;jq;fisAk; Nrh;j;J jUfpd;wJ.

mh;-u`;khd;> mh;-u`Pk; vd;w ,uz;L thh;j;ijfSk; u`;kj; vd;w thh;j;ijapypUe;J ngwg;gl;litfNs. ed;ik nra;aj; Njitg;gLk; ,sfpa kdk; vd;gij mJ Fwpf;fpwJ. mjdhy; mJ md;G ,uf;fk; vd;w fUj;ij cs;slf;fpapUf;fpwJ. mh; u`;khd;> mh;-u`Pk; Mfpa ,uz;L thh;j;ijfSk; nghUspd; jPtPuj;ij gy;NtW msTfspy; Fwpf;Fk; ngah;r; nrhy;fNsahFk;. Kjy; thh;j;ij \g|yhd;\ vd;w msitAilaJ. mJ ,uf;fk; vd;w jd;ikapd; kpfg; ngUk; msit Fwpf;fpwJ. kw;nwhd;W |ghapy;\ vd;w msit Fwpj;J me;j thh;j;ij Fwpf;Fk; Fzj;jpd; njhlh;r;rpahd nray; kw;Wk; ntspg;ghl;ilqk; Fwpg;gjhFk;. ,e;j ,uz;L thh;j;ijfSk; egp (]y;) mth;fshy; tpsf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ ... mth; $wpajhf mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhtJ: mh;-u`;khd; vd;gJ ,t;Tyf gilg;Gf;fspy; jd; md;G mUs; Mfpatw;iw ntspg;gLj;Jk;  mstw;w mUshsdhfpa ,iwtd; MFk;.  mh;-u`Pk; vd;gJ mjw;F gpwF Vw;gLk; epiyapd; NghJ> mjhtJ kdpjdpd; (ew;) nray;fSf;F $ypia mspf;Fk; nghOJ  md;G ,uf;fk; Mfpatw;iw ntspg;gLj;Jk; epfuw;w md;Gila ,iwtd; vd;gjhFk;.  ,t;thwhf> mh;-u`;khd; vd;w thh;j;ijapYs;s mUs; vd;w jd;ikahdJ kdpjd; ,t;Tyfpy; Njhd;Wtjw;F Kd;dNkNa mtd; tho;f;iff;Fj; Njitahditfis> mjhtJ mjw;fhd ve;j tpj jFjpAk; mtdplj;jpy; ,y;yhkypUf;Fk; NghNj gilg;gjpy; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. mNj Neuj;jpy; mh;-u`Pk; vd;w jd;ik kdpjd; mjw;Fj; jFjpahditfis nra;Ak; NghJ ntspj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. mjhtJ Kjy; thh;j;ij kpfg; ngUk; mstpw;F md;igAk; jhusj;jd;ikiaqk; ntspg;gLj;JtjhFk; ,uz;lhtJ thh;j;ij tuk;gw;w> njhlh;e;j mUisAk; ,uf;fj;ijAk; ntspg;gLj;JtjhFk;.  Kjy; thh;j;ijapd; mh;j;jk; ,iw ek;gpf;ifahsidqk; ,iw kWg;ghsidqk; cs;slf;Ffpd;w,jd;Wk; ,uz;lhtJ thh;j;ij ,iw ek;gpf;ifahngUk;ghYk; Fwpf;fpd;wJ vd;W mfuhjp ty;Ydh;fs; midtUk; xUkpj;J $Wfpd;wdh;.  mh;-u`;khd; vd;w thh;j;ijfspy; mlq;fpapUf;Fk; midj;Jk; jOtpa md;G> ed;ik Mfpatw;iw Mq;fpyj;jpy; ntspg;gLj;j KaYk; NghJ mk; nkhopapy; mjw;F rhp rkkhd thh;j;ij ,y;yhkNy ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gij ehd; xg;Gf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. MfNt mh;-u`;khd; vd;w thh;j;ijf;F mstw;w mUshsd; vd;w nghUisNa ehd; nfhLf;fpd;Nwd; Vnddpy; ey;yitfis nra;jy; vDk; fUj;J mjpy; kpifj;jpUf;fpd;wJ.[72]  

nkj;jpa;ah vd;gJ nkj;jh vd;w %yj;jpypUe;jhFk;.  nkj;jh Rj;jh vd;gJ jd; tho;f;ifNa Mgj;jpypUf;Fk; NghJ $l jd; Foe;ijia ftdpf;Fk; xU jhiag; Nghy> xt;nthUtUk; jd;dpy; mstw;w rpNefpjj;ij vy;yh kdpjhpd; ghYk; tsh;j;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;|[73]

mstw;w mUshsd; ....> ey;yth;> nfl;lth;> ek;gpf;ifahsh;> epuhfhpg;ghsh; Nghd;w midj;J khe;jUf;Fk; ,iwtd; mspf;Fk; cyfshtpa mUspd; jd;ikia ,t;thh;j;ij ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,J kpf cah;e;j rpe;jidahFk;.[74]

,t;thwhf u`;kj; vd;w thh;j;ij nkj;ja;ah vd;w thh;j;ijapd; mh;j;jj;ij KOikahf ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.  Nry; mth;fs; u`;kj; vd;w thh;j;ijia \mUl; nfhil[75] vd;Nw nkhop ngah;j;Js;shh;.

ikj;Nuahit milahsq; fhZjy;

(1) K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah

,NaR kw;Wk; rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; MfpNahiug; gpd;gw;Wgth;fs; jq;fSila Nghjfh;fis mth;fs; ikj;Nuah vd;W xt;nthUtUk; tpsk;gug;gLj;jpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wdh;. mth;fspd; nrhe;j Nghjfh;fs; jq;fspd; tho;ehspy;; ,J gw;wp VJk; nrhy;yNtapy;iy. K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; ,NaR> rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; Nghd;wy;yhky; jhd;  ikj;Nuahthf (mUshf) mDg;gg;gl;Ls;Nsd; vd;W mtNu gpufldg;gLj;jpAs;shh;. 

ck;ik gilg;Gf;fSf;f mUl; nfhilahfNt md;wp ck;ik ehk; mDg;gtpy;iy.[76]

mbf;fb egp mth;fs; ikj;Nuah(mUl; nfhil) vd;Nw jpUkiw Fh;Mdpy; miof;fg;gLfpd;whh;. 

-            ePh; ck; mjpgjpaplkpUe;J (kdpjh;fSf;F) mUl; nfhilahfNt mDg;gg;gl;Ls;sPh;.[77]

-            (,e;j egpaplk; ahh; vijr; nrhd;dhYk;) mth; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;gtuhfNt ,Uf;fpwhh; vdf;$wp egpiaj; Jd;GWj;JnthUk; mth;fspy; ,Uf;fpwhh;fs;;(egpNa) ePh; $Wk;; \(egp mt;thW) nrtpNaw;gJ cq;fSf;Nf ed;ikahFk;. mth; my;yh`;it ek;Gfpwhh;; %kpd;fisAk; ek;Gfpwhh;;  md;wpAk; cq;fspy; <khd; nfhz;lth;fs; kPJ mth; mUl;nfhilahfTk; ,Uf;fpd;whh;\ jpUf;Fh;Md; 9;61[78]

ciuahbf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; jhd; ikj;Nuahthf mDg;gg;gl;bUg;gjhf gy Kiw ntspg;gLj;jpapUf;fpd;whh;fs;.

mG+ rhyp`; mwptpg;gjhtJ egp (]y;) mth;fs; vq;fSf;F ciuahw;Wk; NghJ \kf;fNs> ehd; cq;fSf;F mDg;gg;gl;Ls;s mUl;nfhil (ikj;Nuah) vd;W $Wk; tof;fKilath;fshf ,Ue;jdh;.[79]

c`j; Aj;j fsj;jpy; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; fw;fshy; jhf;fg;gl;Lk; Kfj;jpy; mk;ghy; fhag;gLj;jg;gl;Lk; Vwf;Fiwa jd; capiuNa ,of;Fk; epiyapy;[80] ,Ue;jhh;fs;. fLikahf ,uj;jk; ntspNawpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; ghpjhgfukhd ,e;jr; re;jh;g;gj;jpy; vjphpfis rgpf;Fk;gb mth;fSila Njhoh;fs; rpyh; mthplk; Ntz;bf; nfhz;ldh;. Mdhy; mth; mth;fSila Ntz;LNfhis kWj;J epuhfhpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; vjphpfSf;fhf gpuhh;j;jid Ghpe;jhh;.

ehd; rgpg;gjw;fhf mDg;gg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; vd; (,iwtd; gf;fk;) miog;gtuhfTk; mUl;nfhil (ikj;Nu)ahfTk; mDg;gg;gl;Ls;Nsd;. ,iwth vd; kf;fis Neh;topg;gLj;jp (mth;fis kd;dpg;ghahf) Vnddpy; mth;fs; vd;id mwpahky; ,Uf;fpd;wdh;.\[81]

K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; vg;nghOJk; md;G nrYj;jf;$ba kdg;ghd;ikAilatuhfNt ,Ue;jhh;. mthpd; Kfk; vg;nghOJk; md;igg; nghoptjhf ,Ue;jJ.[82] jhd; egpahf mtjhpj;jpUg;gJ vj;jifa ed;ik gaf;ff;$baJ NkYk; ,t;Tyfpw;F mth; ,iwtdpd; mUl; nfhil vd;gjw;fhd vj;jifa mj;jhl;rp vd;gij jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; mth; mbf;fb Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;whh;.[83]

kpfj; jPtPukhd> Aj;jg; gphpa> gy nfhLikahd gof;fq;fSs;s ,dj;jpy; cjpj;j K`k;kJ mth;fs; ,uf;fj;jpw;F kpfg; ngUk; khpahij itj;jpUe;jhh; vd;gJ tpag;gpw;Fhpa tprakhFk;. kdpjdpd; ,jaj;jpy; ,uf;fj;ij cz;lhf;fpa ,iwtdpw;F mth; ed;wp nrYj;jpdhh;...vy;yh Fzq;fspYk; ,uf;fj;ijNa ,iwtdhy; tpUk;gg;gl;l cah;e;j Fzkhf mth; fUjpdhh;. jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; xt;nthU mj;jpahaKk; \mstw;w mUshsDk; epfuw;w md;GilNahDkhfpa ,iwtdpd; jpUg;ngauhy; vd;w gpuhh;j;jidNahL njhlq;Ffpd;wJ.[84]

(2) ,jaq;fis msj;jy;

,iwr; nra;jp mspf;fg;gl;L mstw;w mUshspd; gpujpepjpfshf G+kpapy; mDg;gg;gl;Ls;s Nghjfh;fs; midtUk; ,aw;ifapNyNa mUs; epiwe;jth;fshf ,Ue;jhh;fs; vd;Nw K];ypk;fs; ek;Gfpd;wdh;. mth;;fspd; ,jaq;fs; mUspd; kpfg; nghf;fp~q;fshf ,Ue;jd. kw;w ,iwr; nra;jp ngwhjth;fis tpl mth;fs; mjpf mUSilath;fshf ,Ue;jdh;. ,iwtd; jd; Qhdj;jhy; mth;fSf;F jd;Dila gy mstpyhd mUis toq;fpdhd;.  jpUf;Fh;Md; $Wfpd;wJ ;

nth;fs; ,iwj;J}jh;fs;;  mth;fspy; rpyiu kw;wth;fis tpl Nkd;ikg;gLj;jpapf;fpd;Nwhk;.[85]

mth;fSf;fpilNa xg;gpLk;NghJ rpy ,iwj; J}jh;fs; mth;fspy; kw;w rpyiu tpl mjpf mUs; kpf;fth;fshf ,Ue;jdh;. ,iwtdpd; mUshy; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; (mtd; kdpjDf;F mUspapUf;Fk;) mtDila mUspd; kpfg; ngUk; ghfj;ij ngw;wpUe;jdh; vd;W ehk; ek;GfpNwhk;. NtW thh;j;ijfspy; $Wtjhdhy; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fspd; ,jak; kw;w ,iwj;J}jh;fspd; ,jaj;NjhL xg;gpLk; NghJ kpfg; ngUk; mUs; nghf;fp&khf ,Ue;jJ vdyhk;.

,ij vt;thW mwptJ? ,jaj;jpd; tphpit msg;gjw;F ekf;nfhU jpl;lkhd msit Njit. mj;jifa msitia ,NaR jUfpd;whh;.

,jaj;jpy; epiwe;jpUg;gijNa tha; NgRfpd;wJ\[86]

\ehT\ jhd; ,jaj;jpDila cz;ikahd epiyia fhz;gpf;Fk; milahskhFk; vd Rt. Rev. W.W. How D.D., vOJfpd;whh;. 

\cs;NsapUf;Fk; Cw;Wj;jhd; thapd; thh;j;ijfspy; gha;e;NjhLfpd;wJ\[87]

Nkw;fz;l msT Nfhypd; gpufhuk; xU ,iwr; nra;jpaspf;fg;gl;l Nghjfhpd; Nghjidfspy; \mUs;| my;yJ \mUs; kpf;f| vd;gJ xU Kiw te;jpUe;jhy; mthpd; ,jak; xU Gs;sp mstpw;F mUs;kpf;f,jd;W vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;.

,e;j msT Nfhypd; gb ehk; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fspd; ,jaj;jpd; tphpit msg;Nghk;. \mUs;|\mUs;kpf;f| vd;w thh;j;ijfs; jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; khj;jpuk; 409 jlitfs; cgNahfpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

Rkhh; ,uz;liu yl;rk; gf;fq;fspy; gjpag;gl;bUf;Fk; egp(]y;) mth;fspd; `jPJfspy; tUk; ,e;j thh;j;ijapd; vz;zpf;iffis ehk; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw tp;l;L tpLNthk;. mt;thwhapd;> egp (]y;) mth;fspd; ,jak; 409 Gs;spfis tpl mjpf mstpw;F tphpthdJ.

,NaRtpd; ,ja tphptpd; msit mtNu $wpAs;s msT Nfhypd;gbNa ehk; ,g;NghJ msg;Nghk;. ehd;F RtpNrq;fspYk; gjpag;gl;Ls;s gpufhug;gb ,NaRtpd; thapypUe;J \mUs;| \mUs;kpf;f| vd;w thh;j;ijfs; 9 KiwNa te;Js;sJ vd ehk; mwpfpNwhk;. MfNt mthpd; ,jaj;jpd; tphpT 9 Gs;spfs; khj;jpuNkahFk;.

Nkw;fz;l fz;Nzhl;lj;jpd;gb xU eLepiyahdth; ,NaRit tpl K`k;kijNa Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf fUJthh;.

K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fspd; gue;J tphpe;j mUs;kpf;f jd;ik jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; ed;F njspthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ ;-

%/kpd;fNs epr;rakhf cq;fspypUe;Nj xU J}jh; cq;fsplk; te;jpUf;fpd;whh; ePq;fs; Jd;gj;jpw;F cs;shfp tpl;lhy; mJ mtUf;F kpf;f tUj;jj;ij nfhLf;fpd;wJ. md;wp cq;fs;; ed;ikfisNa mth; nghpJk; tpUk;Gfpwhh;. ,d;Dk; Kkpd;fs; kPJ kpf;f fUizAk; fpUigAk; cilatuhf ,Uf;fpd;whh;.[88]

,uf;fKs;sth;| vd;gJ \uT+g;\ vDk; mugp thh;j;ijapd; nkhop ngah;g;ghFk;. \kpfg; ngUk; mUs;\ vd;gNj mjd; nghUs; vd ,khk; Gfhhp[89] mth;fs; tpsf;fpAs;shh;fs;.  uT+g; vd;gJ u`;kj;ij tpl mjpf rpwg;ghd> kpUJthd gphpak; vd;gjhFk; my;yJ mjDila kpfTk; cah;e;j epiy[90] vd;gjhFk;.

rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; ,iwr; nra;jp mspf;fg;glhjtuhjjhy; (Ntjk; mtUf;F nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy) mtiu ehk; fzf;fpnyLf;f Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy.

3 moptw;w ngah;

gy rKjhaj;ijr; Nrh;e;jth;fs; ,];yhj;ij gw;wp vOjpaij ehk; gbf;Fk; NghJ  GJikahd xU tpraj;ij fhz;fpd;Nwhk;. mjhtJ K`k;kJ vd;w thh;j;ij \k`nkj;\  \kN`hkj;\ \nkh`nkj;\ \nk`nkj;\  \kn`k;nkj;\ vd;W gythwhf cr;rhpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

,e;j ,aw;ifahd tpj;jpahrq;fis ekJ jiyg;gpw;F gad;gLj;JNthk;.

1 \k`nkj;| my;yJ \k`hnkj;. ,e;j thh;j;ij kh`h> nkj;jh vd;w ,U thh;j;ijfspd; Nrh;f;ifapdhy; te;jjhfj; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ. kN`h my;yJ k`h vd;w thh;j;ijf;F ghypapYk; rk];fpUjj;jpYk; \kfpik tha;e;j> Gfo;kpf;f|vd;gJjhd; mh;j;jkhFk;. nkj;jh vd;gJ mUs; vd;gjhFk;. MfNt \k`nkj;\|my;yJ \kN`hnkj;\ vd;w KO thh;j;ijapd; mh;j;jk; \Gfo; kpf;f mUl;nfhil| vd;gjhFk;. K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fis jpUf;Fh;Md; \kpfg; ngUk; mUl;nfhil vd miof;fpwJ.

2 \nkh`nkj;|vd;gJ nkh`;> nkj;jh vd;w thh;j;ijfspd; Nrh;tpdhy; te;jjhf Njhd;Wfpd;wJ. nkh`; vd;gJ rk];fpUjj;jpy; gphpak;> ,uf;fk; vd;gJ mh;j;jkhFk;.[91] MfNt nkh`nkj; vd;w KO thh;j;ijapd; mh;j;jk; \gphpaKs;s my;yJ ,uf;fk; epiwe;j mUl;nfhil|vd;gjhFk;. K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; mrhjuzkhd mstpw;F  ,uf;f ,ay;G nfhz;lth; vd mth;fspd; tho;f;ifapy; ele;j rk;gtq;fs; fhz;gpf;fpd;wd.

3 \nk`nkj;|vd;w thh;j;ij \nk`;> \nkj;jh|vd;w thh;j;ijfs; Nrh;f;ifapy; cz;lhdjhfTk; Njhd;Wfpd;wJ. nk`; vd;why; kio vd;gjhFk;. MfNt nk`nkj; vd;w KO thh;j;ijapd; mh;j;jk; \kio Nghd;w mUs;| vd;gjhFk; my;yJ \kio Nghd;W vy;NyhUf;Fk; mUis nghopgth;|vd;gjhFk;. kio vd;gJ gilg;Gf;fSf;F ,iwtdpd; nghJthd mUl;nfhil vd jpUf;Fh;Md; $Wfpd;wJ.

md;wpAk; thdj;jpypUe;J kpf;f ghf;fpaKs;s jz;zPiu (kioia) ehk; ,wf;fp itj;J> mijf; nfhz;L Njhl;lq;fisAk;> mWtil nra;ag;gLk; jhdpaq;fisAk; Kisg;gpf;fpd;Nwhk;. mLf;fLf;fhd ghisfisf; nfhz;l (FiyfisAila) neba NghPr;r kuq;fisAk; (cz;lhf;fpNdhk;). (mtw;wpd; fdpfis) mbahh;fSf;F czthf (mspf;fpNwhk;)> NkYk;> mijf; nfhz;L ,ew;J fple;j Ciu (G+kpia) ehk; cah;g;gpf;fpNwhk;.  ,t;tpjNk> (nwe;jth;fs; caph;g;gpf;fg;ngw;W) ntspNaWjYk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. jpUf;Fh;Md; 50;

,d;Dk; my;yh`; thdj;jpypUe;J kioiag; nghopa itj;J mijf; nfhz;L caphpoe;j G+kpia caph; ngwr; nra;fpd;whd;.  epr;rakhf nrtpNaw;Fk; kf;fSf;F ,jpy; (jf;f mj;jhl;rp ,Uf;fpd;wJ)

my;yh`; thdj;jpypUe;J ePiu ,wf;fp> mjid G+kpapy; Cw;Wf;fspy; Xlr; nra;fpwhd;;  mjd; gpd; mijf; nfhz;L ntt;NtW epwq;fisAila gaph;fis ntspg;gLj;Jfpwhd;.

kio vd;gJ ,iwtdpd; vy;yh gilg;Gf;fSf;Fk; nghJthd Mrph;thjk; kw;Wk; mUshapUg;gJ Nghy; egp (]y;) mth;;fSk; mtd; gilg;Gf;fs; midj;jpw;Fk; mUl;nfhilNa Mthh;fs;.  jpUf;Fh;Md; ,ij Mjhpj;J

\ck;ik kdpj ,dj;jpw;F xU mUl;nfhilahfNtad;wp ehk; mDg;gtpy;iy.\[92]

4 kn`kh my;yJ k`pkh vDk; cah;T> Gfo;[93] vd;w mh;j;jKila thh;;j;;ijAk; nkj;jh vDk; mUs; vd;w thh;j;ijAk; Nrh;e;j k`k;nkj; vd;w ngah; \Gfo;kpf;f mUs;|my;yJ \cah;T kpf;f mUs;|vd;Wk; nghUs;glyhk;.

kiwnghUshd kw;Wk; gpugykhd nfhs;ifAk; Gj;jhf;fSk;

kiwnghUshd nfhs;if my;yJ ntspg;gilahd nfhs;if vd;W ve;j tpj NtWghLk; fhl;lhky; ehd; gpur;rhuk; nra;Js;Nsd;. Mde;jh> cz;ikiag; nghWj;j tiuapy;> (rpytw;iw $wptpl;L) rpytw;iw kiwf;Fk; Nghjfiug;NghYs;sth; my;y jhj;jfjh mth;fs;.[94]

,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Ue;jhy; Nky; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s Fzk; ed;F mtUf;F nghUe;jpapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.  Mdhy; epyik mt;thwy;y:-

\rp~;ah;fs; mthplk; te;J Vd; mth;fsplk; cjhuzq;fspd; %yNk NgRfpd;wPh;fs; vd;W Nfl;ldh;.  mjw;F kWnkhopahf mth; cq;fSf;Nfh guNyhf uh[;aj;jpd; ufrpaq;fs; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sd Mdhy; mth;fSf;Nfh mJ nfhLf;fg;gltp;y;iy. mth;fs; fz;Lk; fhzhjth;fshf Nfl;Lk; Nfl;fhjth;fshf vijAk; Ghpahjth;fshf ,Uf;Fk; nghUl;L mth;fsplk; ehd; cjhuzq;fspd; %yk; NgRfpd;Nwd; vd;W ,NaR $wpdhh;. kj;NjA 13: 10-13

mthpd; Nghjidiaf; Nfl;gth;fspy; ngUk;ghNyhh; guNyhf uh[;aj;jpd; ufrpaq;fis Ghpe;J nfhs;sf; $lhnjd ek;Kila gpuG nghJthf tpUk;gpdhh;.[95]

Fw;wthspahf gpujhd Mrhhpahh; Kd;G ,NaR epWj;jg;gl;lhh;. ,NaRtpd; nfhs;iffisg; gw;wp mth; tpdtpaNghJ-

\ehd; cyfj;jpw;F ntspg;gilahfNt NgrpNdd;.A+jh;fs; vg;nghOJk; te;J Ngha;f; nfhz;bUf;Fk; Myaq;fspYk; Nfhtpy;fspYk; vg;nghOJk; Nghjpj;Njd;. ,ufrpakhf ehd; vijAk; nrhy;ytpy;iy.\

,NaR ,ufrpakhf Nghjpj;jJ vd;dntd ehk; fhzyhk;;-

mth; jdpj;jpUf;fpwNghJ, gd;dpUtNuhLq;$l mtiur; #o;e;jpUe;jth;fs; ,e;j ctikiaf; Fwpj;J mthplk; Nfl;lhh;fs;. mjw;F mth;; NjtDila uh[;aj;jpd; ,ufrpaj;ij mwpAk;gb cq;fSf;F mUsg;gl;lJ Gwk;Ng ,Uf;fpwth;fSf;Nfh ,itfnsy;yhk; ctikfshfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. mth;fs; Fzg;glhjgbf;Fk; ghtq;fs; mth;fSf;F kd;dpf;fg;glhjgbf;Fk;> Nfl;Lk; czuhjgth;fshfTk; ,Uf;Fk;gb ,g;gbr; nrhy;yg;gLfpd;wJ vd;whh;. khh;f; 4: 10-12. 

jd;Dila ,ufrpa nfhs;ifia gpugyg;gLj;j Ntz;lhnkd rp~;ah;fSf;F ,NaR fl;lisapl;lhh;. 

ghpRj;jkhdijfis eha;fSf;Ff; NghlhNjAq;fs;; cq;fs; Kj;Jfisg; gd;wpfs;Kd; NghlhNjAq;fs;;  Nghl;lhy; jq;fs; fhy;fshy; mitfis kpjpj;J> jpUk;gpf;nfhz;L cq;fisg; gPwpg;NghLk;. kj;NjA. 7;6. 

nghJ ,lq;fspy; vg;nghOJk; ctikfspdhNyNa Ngrpdhh;;-

\mNef ctikfspdhNy mth;fSf;F trdj;ijr; nrhd;dhh;. ctifspdhNyad;wp mth;fSf;F xd;Wk; nrhy;ytpy;iy mth; jk;Kila rP~NuhL jdpj;jpUf;Fk; NghJ> mth;fSf;F vy;yhtw;iwAk; tpthpj;Jr; nrhd;dhh;. khh;f; 4:33-34

kiwnghUshd kw;Wk; ntspg;gilahd Nghjidfnsd;W ,NaR tpj;jpahrg;gLj;jpdhh; vd;W Nkw;fz;litfspypUe;J ed;F njhpa tUfpd;wJ. Nfl;gth;fspy; ngUk;ghNyhh cz;ikiag; Ghpe;J nfhs;sf; $lhnjd Ntz;Lnkd;Nw mth; tpUk;gpdhh;. mtUila Nghjidfis> mit kjpg;Gs;sitfNsh my;yJ kjpg;gw;witfNsh>  Nfl;gth;fs; ngUk;ghNyhhplkpUe;J jLj;J itj;jhh;.

Guhjhz fpwp];Jth;fsplk; Vuhskhd ufrpa RtpNr~q;fs;> elgbfs;> kw;Wk; fbjq;fs; Mfpait ,Ue;jd vd;W iggps; Muha;r;rp khzth;fSf;F ed;F njhpAk;.  mitfspy; rpy gFjpfs; ,g;nghOJk; fhzf;fpilf;fpd;wd.

mNghfpiugy; Ntj Gj;jfk; vdg;gLtJ cz;ikapy; vy;NyhhpUila ifapYk; ,Uf;f Kbahj mstpw;F kpfTk; GdpjkhdJk; ,ufrpakhdJkhFk;.[96]

mq;fPfhpf;fg;gl;l Ntj Gj;jfq;fisj; jtpu kw;w Ntj Gj;jfq;fSk; ,Ue;jd vd;gij Y}f;;fhtpd; Fwpg;G njspthfNt fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

\mitfisf; Fwpj;J rhpj;jpuk; vOj mNefk; Ngh; Vw;g;gl;lgbapdhy;| Y}f;fh 1:1

\mNefk; Ngh;. ,J kj;NjAtpDila RtpN~rj;ijNah my;yJ khh;f;fpDila RtpN~rj;ijNah Fwpf;ftpy;iy.[97]

MfNt ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;fKbahJ vd NkYs;sitfspypUe;J njspthf njhpfpd;wJ. rq;fuhr;rhhpNah Ntjkspf;fg;glhjtujhy; mtiu ,jpy; cl;gLj;j mtrpakpy;iy.

Mdhy; ,jw;F Neh; khwhf K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; ,iwtDila fl;lisf;F fPo;g;gbe;jtuhf jd;Dila nfhs;ifaidj;ijAk; kiwnghUSs;s my;yJ ntspg;gilahd vd;W tpj;jpahrk; ghuhky; midtUf;Fk; KOikahf ntspapl;lhh;.

J}jNu ck; ,iwtdplkpUe;J ck; kPJ ,wf;fg;gl;lij (kf;fSf;F) vLj;Jf; $wp tpLk; (,t;thW) ePh; nra;ahtpl;lhy;> mtDila J}ij ePh; epiwNtw;wpatuhf khl;Bh;. my;yh`; ck;ik kdpjh;fsp(d; jPq;fp)ypUe;J fhg;ghw;Wthd;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 5:67.

egp (]y;) mth;fspd; fhyj;jpy; jpUf;Fh;Md; ntspg;gilahfNt Xjg;gl;lJ. ,g;nghOJ Xjg;gLk; mNj KiwapNyNa Xjg;gl;lJ.  jd; nfhs;ifia kiwg;gij tpl;Lk; K];ypk;fis egp (]y;) mth;fs; fLikahf jLj;jpUe;jhh;fs;.

    1.          xUtd; fy;tpia fw;W mij (kw;wth;fsplkpUe;J) kiwg;ghNdahdhy; mtd; kdpjh;fs; caph; nfhLj;J vOg;gg;gLk; ehspy; neUg;gpdhyhd fbthsj;ij nfhz;L fbthskplg;glhky; tukhl;lhd; vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpajhf mG+`{iuuh (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[98]

2.          mwpitg; gw;wp vthplDk; VNjDk; Nfl;fg;gl;L mth; mij kiwj;jhnudpy;> (mtd; kdpjh;fs; caph; nfhLj;J vOg;gg;gLk; ehspy;) neUg;gpdhyhd fbthsj;ijf; nfhz;L fbthskplg;gLthd; vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpajhf mG+`{iuuh (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[99]  

   3.          mwpitg; gw;wp vthplDk; VNjDk; Nfl;fg;gl;L mth; mij kiwj;jhnudpy;> neUg;gpdhyhd fbthsj;ijf; nfhz;L fbthskplg;gLthd; vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpajhf md];(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[100]

4.          xUtUf;Fj; njhpe;j mwpitg; gw;wp vthplDk; VNjDk; Nfl;fg;gl;L mth; mij kiwj;jhnudpy;, neUg;gpdhyhd fbthsj;ij nfhz;L fbthskplg;gLthd; vd egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpajhf mG+`{iuu (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.101

MfNt K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;j ikj;Nuah ,NaR my;y vd;gJ njspT.

[9] Studies in Japanese Buddhism by  Reischaner, P. 264

[10] Chinese Buddhism by J. Edkins, P. 122.

[11] Life of Buddha by Rockhill,PP. 237-8

[12] The Coming World Teacher by P. Parki, P.52

[13]  Si-Yu-Ki by Beal. Vol. I. P. 226

[14]  Buddhism and Buddhist in China by Hodous. P. 38

[15]  Si-Yu-Ki Vol. II. PP. 121-2

[16]  Hodous PP. 120-1

[17]  Ibid PP. 20-1.

[18]  The Essence of Buddhism by L. Narasu. P. 27 Foot Note

[19]  Esoteric Buddhism by A.P. Senett. P. 149.

[20] Warren  PP. 22-37

[21]  Satyarath Prakash by Mool Shankar, PP. 415-16

[22]  Sankara’s Sselected Works, by S. Vankataramanan P. 205

[23]  Ibid. P. 206

[24]  Vol. XXV. P. 18

[25] Satyarath Prakash P. 414.

[26] Buddah P. 172.

[27] Asoka P. 35.

[28]  Buddhism by Rhys Davids. P. 131.

[29]  Vol. XI. P. 185.

[30]  Silavimansa quoted in Early History of the Spread of Buddhism and the Buddhist Schools by N. Dut. P. 13.

[31] Narasud PP. 129-30

[32] Shankaracharya by Sita Nath Datta.

[33] Chips from a German Workshop Vol. I PP. 452-3.

[34] The Buddhist and the Christian Gospels Vol. 2. P. 164.

[35] Buddha and Christ P.8

[36] The Coming Christ P. 106.

[37] The Coming World Teacher, P.23

[38] The Master and the Path. P. 51

[39]  Isis Unveiled, Vol. II P. 156.  Foot Note. 

[40]  Matt. 27:27; Mark 15:37; Luke 23:46; John 21:30.

[41] Luke 23:43.

[42]  Vinay Text by Max Muller Part III. PP. 246-7

[43]  Acts 1:11

[44]  I Thes. 4:16

[45] Matt, 24:30.

[46]  The Life and Teachings of Buddha by A. Dharampal P.82

[47] May and June 1928. P. 280.

[48] Romans 6:9;  Matt 28:20.

[49] Warren P. 485; Maitreya Samiti by Laumann Vol. I. P. 22.

[50] John 10:35.

[51]  The Legend of Gaudama by  Bigandet. Vol. I. P. 11. Foot Note.

[52] Si-Yu-Ki Vol. I. P. XXIX.

[53] Buddisht China by Johnston P. 367.

[54] Edkins P. 208.

[55]  Yuan Chwang Vol. I P. 239 by T. Watters.

[56] Pr. ‘Jampa’ or ‘Champa’  Lamaism by Waddel P. 355.

[57]  The Religion of Tibet and the True Religion by Frauson P. 38. 

[58] Reischauer PP. 264-5.

[59]  Chips from a German Workshop. Vol. I P. 452.

[60] The Life and Teachings of Buddha. P. 83.

[61] The Gospel of Buddha. P. 218 

[62]  Buddhism. P. 180

[63]  Essence of Buddhism. P. 101;105

[64] Buddhism in Christendom P. VII.

[65] Sutta Nipata. P. 205

[66] Buddhism P. 181

[67]  The Chinese Dhammapada P. 69

[68] Gods of Northern Buddhism. P.20; 68

[69]  The Way of Buddha P. 15

[70] Chinese Buddhism. P. 240 

[71] The Pali Dictionary

[72]  Mohammed Ali’s Translation of the Koran, Foot Note 3.

[73]  The Maha Bodhi Society Translation.

[74]  The Muslim Doctrine of God by S.M. Zwemer D.D. PP. 35-6

[75]  The Koran 21. P. 26

[76]   The Koran 21. P. 26.

[77] Ibid. 9. PP. 187-8

[78] Ibid 9. PP. 187-8

[79]  D.P. 6. 

[80]  Sale’s Koran Foot Note P. 60.

[81]  Quoted in RAHMAT – AL- LIL – ALAMINA Vil. I P 114 by Q. Md. Sulaiman

[82]  Mohammed by  S. D. Margoliouth P. 70

[83]  Ibid. P. 52.

[84]  The Story of Mohammed P. 100

[85]  The Koran : 2P. 36.

[86]  Matt 12:34

[87]  Commentary on the New Testament 

[88] The Holy Qur’an 9:128

[89]  Vol 2. P. 229.

[90] Arabic English Lexicon by Lane.

[91]  The Student’s H.E. Dictionary by R.N. Lal. 

[92] 21. P 326

[93]  The Students’ H.E. Dictionary by R.N. Lal

[94]  S.B.E. Vol. XI. P. 36.

[95] Four Gospels by W.W. How D.D. 

[96]  Apocryphal New Testament by M.R. James P. XIV

[97] W.W. How. D.D. The Four Gospels.

[98]  Ta. Vol. IV P. 248, quotess A and T.

[99]  Vol I P. 117

[100]  Ibid. P. 118

[101]  S.B.E. Vol XI P. 97

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