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,Jjhd; cz;ik!

Gjpjhf fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l tpQ;Qhd cz;ikfs; jpUf;Fh;MdpYk; egpnkhopfspYk; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;litfs;


;fly;fs; kw;Wk; ngUq;fly;fs; gw;wpa cz;ikfs;

mnkhpf;fhtpd; nfhNyhulhtpYs;s gTy;lh; efhpy; mike;jpUf;Fk; nfhNyhulhFacts About Seas & Oceans gy;fiyf;fof;fj;jpy; Gtpapay; mwpTfspd; Nguhrphpauhfg; gzpahw;Wk; lhf;lh; tpy;ypak; N` mth;fis jq;fSf;F mwpKfg;gLj;Jfpd;Nwhk;. mth;; Kd;G mnkhpf;fhtpd; GNshhplh khepyj;jpy; kpahkpapYs;s kpahkp gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; cs;s Nuhrd;]pay; gs;spapYs;s fly; kw;Wk; Rw;Wr;R+oy; mwptpaypd; jPd; MfTk; Kd;G gzpahw;wpAs;shh;.  jpUf;Fh;dpYk; `jPjpYk; fhzg;gLk; mwptpay; mj;jhl;rpfs; Fwpj;J ehk; nra;Ak; Muha;r;rp njhlh;ghd xU rpytw;iw ekf;Ff; mth; fhz;gpf;Fk; tifapy; mtUld; xU fly; gazk; nra;Njhk;. flypd; Nkw;gug;G> Nky; flYf;Fk; fPo; flYf;Fk; ,ilapYs;s jLg;G> ngUq;fly; jiu kw;Wk; fly; Gtpapay; Mfpad gw;wp mthplk; gy Nfs;tpfs; Nfl;Nlhk;. gy;NtW tifahd fly;fSf;Fk; kw;Wk; ey;y ePh; ejpfSf;Fk; ,ilNaAs;s fyitePh; jLg;Gf;fs; gw;wpAk; Nguhrphpah; N` mth;fsplk; ehk; Nfl;Nlhk;. ehk; Nfl;l xt;nthd;wpw;Fk; tpgukhd gjpiy md;Gld; mth; toq;fpdhh;.

gy;NtW tpjkhd fly;fSf;fpilNaAs;s jLg;Gf;fisg; nghWj;jtiuapy;> ,e;j ePh;epiyfs; ek; fz;Zf;F xNu khjphpahfj; Njhd;wpdhYk;> mitfs; xNu khjphpahdit my;y khwhf> mitfspd; cg;Gj;jd;ik> rPNjh\;z epyik> mlh;j;jp Mfpatw;wpd; Vw;wj;jho;Tfspy; tpj;jpahrg;gLfpd;wd vd;W mth; tpsf;fpdhh;. ,e;j ];iyby; fhzg;gLk; nts;isf; NfhLfs; ,uz;L fly;fSf;fpilNa ,Uf;Fk; jLg;Gf;fisf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

Globe Indicating Water Temperatures in Farenheit
 Fig. 13.1

xt;nthU jLg;Gk; ,uz;L fly;fis gphpf;fpd;wJ. mf; fly;fs; mitfspd; rPNjh\;z epiyik> cg;Gj;jd;ik> mlh;j;jp> fly; ePh; caphpay;> gpuhz thA fiuAk; jd;ik Mfpatw;wpy; tpj;jpahrg;gLfpd;wd. jhq;fs; fhZk; ,g;glj;ij gy E}w;Wf; fzf;fhd fly; Ma;T ikaq;fis epWtp Muha;e;j gpwF mwptpayhsh;fs; 1942k; Mz;L ,g;glj;ij ngw;whh;fs;.  ,g;glj;jpy; kj;jpa jiuf;flYf;Fk; ml;yhz;bf; ngUq;flYf;Fk; ,ilNaAs;s jLg;ig ehk; fhz;fpd;Nwhk;.

,e;jg; glj;jpd; kj;jpapy; ehk; xU tz;z Kf;Nfhzj;ij fhz;fpd;Nwhk;. (glk; ,g;Gj;jfj;jpy; nfhLf;fg;gltpy;iy.) ,J fpg;uhy;lh; ghiwapd; mbahFk;. ,ay;gpy; rhjhuz kdpjf; fz;fs; mitfis fz;Lzu Kbahtpl;lYk;> ,uz;L ePh; epiyfSf;FkpilNa cs;s tz;z jLg;Gf;fis (,g;glj;jpy;) fhzyhk;. nraw;iff; Nfhs; glf;fiyahYk; njhiy czh;T njhopy; El;gj;jpd; cjtp nfhz;Lk;jhd; ,ij fhz KbAk;. gy; NtW ePh; epiyfspd; jdpg;gl;l c\;zj; jd;ikfis cgNahfpj;J ,e;jg;glj;ij nraw;Nfhshy; vLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; fhuzkhfj;jhd; fly;fs; gy;NtW tz;zq;fshf Njhd;Wfpd;wJ. (,g;Gj;jfj;jpy; jFe;j glq;fs; fhz;gpf;fg;gltpy;iy. cjhuzj;jpw;F ,q;Nf ntsph; Cjh> fU Cjh kw;Wk; fUg;G epwq;fis ehk; fhz;fpd;Nwhk;.  kw;w ePh; epiyfs; gr;;ir epwj;ij fhl;Lfpd;wd.  flypd; Nky;kl;lj;jpYs;s rPNjh\;z tpj;jpahrj;ij gy;NtW epwq;fshy; gpujpgypf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.  MapDk;> ,e;jg; ngUq;fly;fSk; fly;fSk; ek;Kila rhjhuzf; fz;fSf;F ePy epwkhfNt Njhd;Wk; vd;gJ ekf;Fj; njhpAk;.  ,e;j jLg;Gf;fs; mwptpay; Muha;r;rpfspd; %yKk; etPd njhopy; El;gj;jpd; %yKNk fhzTk; czuTk; KbAk;. my;yh`; jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; ekf;Fj; njhptpf;fpd;whd;:

mtNd ,uz;L fly;fisAk; xd;Nwhnlhd;W re;jpf;fr; nra;jhd;. (MapDk;) mtw;wpilNa jLg;G ,Uf;fpd;wJ mij mit kPwkhl;lh. (jpUf;Fh;Md; 55:19-20)

ghuhk;ghhpakhf ,e;j trdj;jpw;F ,uz;L ngUk; tpsf;fq;fs; nfhLf;fg;gLfpd;wd.  fly;fs; re;jpj;J xd;Nwhnlhd;W fyf;fpd;wd vd;gJjhd; ku[ vd;w thh;j;ijapd; Neub mh;j;jk; vd xU fUj;J $Wfpd;wJ. Mdhy; jpUf;Fh;MNdh ,NjhL epd;W tplhky; mitfSf;fpilapy; jLg;G cs;sJ vd;W $Wfpd;wJ ,jd; mh;j;jk; vd;dntdpy; ,e;j jLg;ghdJ fly;fs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W CLUtp tplhkNyh my;yJ xd;Wf;nfhd;W nts;;;;;sj;jhy; %b tplhkNyh jLf;fpd;wJ vd;gNjahFk;.

,uz;L fly;fSk; re;jpf;fpd;wJ vd;W trdk; $Wfpd;wJ. me;j epiyapy; xd;Wf;nfhd;W CLUtp tplhky; ,Uf;Fk; tifapy; vg;gb mq;Nf jLg;G ,Uf;f KbAk; vd;W Kjy; fUj;jpd; Mjuthsh;fs; Nfl;fpd;whh;fs;. fly;fs;; re;jpg;gjpy;iy vd;W KbT nra;J nfhz;L ku[ vd;w thh;j;ijf;F NtW mh;j;jj;ij NjLfpd;whh;fs;. Mdhy; ,e;j tptfhuj;ij jPh;g;gjw;F Njitahd midj;J jftiyAk; etPd tpQ;Qhdk; ekf;Fj; jUfpd;wJ. kj;jpa jiuf;fly; kw;Wk; ml;yhl;bf; ngUq;fly; Mfpatw;iw fhz;gpf;Fk; ,e;jg; glj;jpy; ehk; fhz;gJ Nghd;W fly;fs; xd;Wf;nfhd;W re;jpj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;wd. mq;Nf rha;thd jLg;G xd;W ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> ,e;j jLg;gpd; Clhf xU flypd; ePh; fle;J kw;nwhU flYf;F nry;fpd;wJ. Mdhy; xU flypypUe;J kw;nwhU flYf;F ePh; nry;Yk; NghJ mjDila jdpj;jd;ikfis ,oe;J kw;w flYld; rq;fkhfp tpLfpd;wJ. ,e;j ,uz;L ePh; epiyfSk; fle;J nrd;W rq;fkpf;Fk; xU ,lkhf ,e;j jLg;G nray;gLfpd;wJ vdyhk;. 

etPd ,];yhkpa mwptpay; Muha;r;rpf;F ,J ey;ynjhU vLj;Jf;fhl;L MFk;. jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; jd;dpfuw;w jd;ikia ep&gpg;gjw;F etPd njhopy; El;gj;ij ,J Nghd;W cgNahfpf;f KbAk;. ,e;j trdj;ijg; gw;wpAk; NkYk; gy trdq;fs; gw;wpAk; Nguhrphpah; N` mth;fSld; xU ePz;lnjhU ciuahliy ehk; elj;jpNdhk;. cq;fsplk; 1400 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;G mUsg;gl;l Ntjk; cs;sJ. jw;NghJ cs;s njhopy; El;gq;fSk; tpQ;Qhd fUtpfSk; mg;NghJ ,y;yhjjhy; mf;fhyj;jpy; ve;j kdpjDk; mwpe;jpl ,ayhj ,g; gpugQ;rj;jpd; kpf Ez;zpa ufrpaq;fis ,e;j Ntjk; mwptpf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j Ntjk; gw;wp jq;fspd; fUj;J vd;d vd;W Nguhrphpah; N` mth;fsplk; ehk; Nfl;l NghJ mth;: 

,J Nghd;w jfty;fs; Guhjhd Ntjkhd jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; ,Ug;gJ kpfTk; RthurpakhdJ. Mdhy; mitfs; vq;fpUe;J ngwg;gl;ld vd;gij njhpe;J nfhs;Sk; khh;f;fk; vd;dplkpy;iy. Mdhy; mitfs; mjpy; cs;sd vd;gJjhd; kpfTk; Rthurpakhd tprakhFk;. mijf; (-rpy gj;jpfspd; mh;j;jj;ij) fz;Lgpbf;Fk; gzp ele;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ.

,J xU kdpj %yj;jpypUe;J te;jpUf;f KbAk; vd;gij jhq;fs; jPtPukhf kWf;fpd;wPh;fs;.  mt;thwhapd; me;j jftypd; Mjhu %yk; vJntd;W jhq;fs; fUJfpd;wPh;fs; vd;W mthplk; Nfl;l NghJ mth;:

ed;W> mJ ,iwtdplkpUe;Jjhd; te;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;|

cz;ikapy;> egp K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fspd; J}Jj;Jtj;ij ep&gpg;gjw;fhf my;yh`;tpdhy; mUsg;gl;l nja;t QhdkhFk; ,J. egp (]y;) mth;fs; $wpdhh;fs;:

 

 

xt;nthU egpf;Fk;> kf;fs; mthpd; Nky; ek;gpf;if nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf VjhtJ xd;;;W (-mw;Gjk;) nfhLf;fg;gl;bUg;ghh;. vdf;Nfh (mj;jifa mw;Gjkhf) my;yh`;tplkpUe;J Ntj ntspg;ghL nfhLf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ.  epahaj;jPh;g;G ehspy; vd;idg; gpd;gw;Wgth;fs; kpfTk; mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; ,Ug;ghh;fs; vd ehk; ek;Gfpd;Nwd;.

,e;j Ntj ntspg;ghL mjDila nrhe;j mw;Gjj;ij nfhz;Ls;sJ. kdpj ,dj;jpw;F mj;jhl;rpahf ,Wjp ehs; tiu mJ ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;Fk;.

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