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,Jjhd; cz;ik!

Gjpjhf fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l tpQ;Qhd cz;ikfs; jpUf;Fh;MdpYk; egpnkhopfspYk; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;litfs;


;Nkfq;fs; gw;wp jpUf;Fh;Md;

Clouds

mwptpayhsh;fs; Nkfq;fspd; tiffisg;gw;wp Ma;T nra;Js;sdh;. kio Nkfq;fshdJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l Kiwfspd; gpufhuKk; NkYk; Fwpg;gpl;l fhw;W kw;Wk; Nkfq;fs; tiffNshL njhlh;Gila gy njhlh;r;rpahd gbepiyfspd; gpufhuKk;jhd; cz;lhfp cUf;nfhs;fpd;wd vd;gij fz;Lgpbj;Js;sdh;.

Nkfq;fspy; xU tifahd Nkfk; kiy Nghd;w nghpa NkfkhFk;. (fhz;f glk; 18.1) ,J ,bkpd;dYld; $ba kioNahL rk;ge;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;j kiy Nghd;w Nkfq;fs; vt;thW cUthFfpd;wd mit vt;thW kioiaAk; gdpiaAk; kpd;diyAk; cz;lhf;Ffpd;wd vd;gijg; gw;wp Muha;e;Js;sdh;.  ,e;j kiy Nghd;w Nkfq;fs; kioia nghoptpg;gjw;F fPo;fz;l njhlh; gbepiy khw;wq;fSf;F cs;shfpd;wd:

Nkfq;fs; fhw;wpdhy; js;sg;gLjy;:  Nkfq;fspd; rpW rpW Jz;Lfis fhw;whdJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l gFjpf;F js;Sfpd;wd. mitfis Xhplj;jpy; Ftpar; nra;tjhy; kiy Nghd;w Nkfq;fs; cUthfj; njhlq;Ffpd;wd.

xd;W $Ljy;: ,e;j rpwpa Nkfq;fs; midj;Jk; xd;W $b nghpa Nkfkhf Mfj; njhlq;Ffpd;wd.

mLf;fLf;fhf MFjy;: rpwpa Nkfq;fs; xd;W $b nghpjhFk; NghJ> nghpa Nkfj;jpypUe;J Nky; Nehf;fpa fhw;W kpd;Ndhl;lk; mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.  ngU Nkfj;jpd; Xug;gFjpfis tpl mjd; kj;jpa gFjpapd; mUfpy; ,e;j Nky; Nehf;fpa fhw;W kpd;Ndhl;lk; mjpfkhf cs;sJ. ,e;j Nky; Nehf;fpa fhw;W kpd;Ndhl;lk; Nkfq;fis nrq;Fj;jhf tsur; nra;fpd;wJ.  mjdhy; Nkfq;fs; mLf;fLf;fhf cUthFfpd;wd.  ,e;j Nky; Nehf;fpa tsh;r;rpahdJ Nkfj;iij thdj;jpd; Fsph;e;j gFjpf;F tphpar; nra;a itf;fpd;wJ.  mq;Nf ePh;j;JspfSk; gdpf;fl;bAk; cUthfp mitfs; nghpjhf tsh;e;J nfhz;Nl nry;fpd;wd. Nky; Nehf;fpa fhw;W kpd;Ndhl;lj;jhy; jhq;f Kbahj mstpw;F ,e;j ePh; JspfSk; gdpf;fl;bAk; kpfTk; fdkhf khWk; NghJ mitfs; Nkfj;jpypUe;J kio gdpf;fl;b Nghd;witfshf nghopa Muk;gpf;fpd;wd.

my;yh`; jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; $Wfpd;whd;: (egpNa!) ePH ghHf;ftpy;iyah? epr;rakhf my;yh`; Nkfj;ij nkJthf ,Oj;J> gpd;dH mtw;iw xd;whf ,izar;nra;J> mjd; gpd; mij (xd;wpd; kPJ xd;W NrHj;J) mLf;fLf;Ffshf Mf;Ffpd;whd;. mg;ghy; mjd; eLNtapUe;J kio ntspahtijg; ghHf;fpwPH;. (jpUf;Fh;Md; 24:43)

Cumulonimbus clouds seen from space
 Fig. 18.1
 Cumulonimbus clouds seen from space

Mfha tpkhdq;fs;> nraw;if Nfhs;fs;> fzpg;nghwpfs;>  gY}d;fs; Mfpa Kd;Ndwpa etPd fUtpfspd; cjtpiaf; nfhz;L jw;NghJjhd; thdpiy ty;;;Ydh;fs; Nkfq;fspd; cUthf;fk;> mikg;G> nray;ghLfs; Mfpatw;iw fz;L gpbj;Js;sdh;  NkYk; ,j;jifa fUtpfspd; cjtpahy;jhd; fhw;Wf;fisAk;> mJ nry;Yk; jpiriaAk;> mjpy; cs;s <uj; jd;ikiaAk; mjDila khw;wq;fisAk; thdpy; Vw;gLk; mOj;jq;fspd; khw;wq;fisAk; epiyfisAk; jPh;khdpf;fTk; nra;a Kbe;jJ.  (fhz;f glk; 18.2)

Kd; nrhd;d trdk;> Nkfq;fisAk; kioiaAk; Fwpg;gpl;l gpwF gdpf;fl;biaAk; kpd;diyAk; gw;wpg; NgRfpd;wJ:

,d;Dk; mtd; thdj;jpy; kiyf(isg; Nghd;w Nkf;f $l;lq;f)spypUe;J gdpf;fl;biaAk; ,wf;fp itf;fpd;whd;; mijj; jhd; ehbatHfs; kPJ tpOk;gbr; nra;fpwhd; - jhd; ehbatHfis tpl;Lk; mij tpyf;fpAk; tpLfpwhd; - mjd; kpd;ndhsp ghHitfisg; gwpf;f neUq;FfpwJ.

gdpf;fl;b kio nghopAk; ,e;j kiy Nghd;w Nkfq;fs; jpUf;Fh;md; $wpathW kiyfisg; Nghd;Nw 25>000 Kjy; 30>000 mb tiu (4.7 Kjy; 5.7 iky;fs; tiu) caUfpd;wd vd;W thdpiy ty;Ydh;fs; fz;Lgpbj;Js;sdh;.  jpUf;Fh;Md; $Wfpd;wJ: ,d;Dk; mtd; thdj;jpy; kiyf(isg; Nghd;w Nkff; $l;lq;f)spypUe;J gdpf;fl;biaAk; ,wf;fp itf;fpd;whd;;. (jpUf;Fh;Md; 24:43)

gdpf;fl;biag; gw;wpr; nrhy;Yk; NghJ ,e;j trdk; Vd; mjd; kpd;ndhsp vd;W nrhy;fpd;wJ vd;w Nfs;tp voyhk;.

kpd;diy cUthf;Ftjpy; gdpf;fl;b Kf;fpa gq;F itf;fpd;wJ vd;W ,jw;F mh;j;;jkh? ,ijg;gw;wp ,d;iwa thdpiyapay; vd;w Gj;jfk; vd;d nrhy;fpd;wJ vd;W fhzyhk;. Nkfj;jpd; kpfTk; Fsph;e;j ePh;j;JspfSk; gdpf;fl;bfSk; cs;s Nkfg;gFjpapd; topahf gdpf;fl;bahdJ kpd;Ndhl;lj;ij ngWfpd;wJ. ePh;j;Jspfs; gdpf;fl;bAld; cuhAk; NghJ mitfs; ciue;J Ngha; mjpy; cs;s kiwe;j ntg;gj;ij ntspg;gLj;Jfpd;wd. ,J gdpf;fl;bapd; Nky; Gwj;ij kw;w gdpf;fl;bfis tpl R+lhf;Ffpd;wJ.

gdpf;fl;bahdJ gdpf;fl;biaj; njhLk; NghJ xU Kf;fpa epfo;r;rp Vw;gLfpd;wJ. Fsph;e;j nghUspypUe;J R+lhd nghUis Nehf;fp kpz;zDf;fs; Xlj; njhlq;Ffpd;wd. ,jdhy; gdpf;fl;bahdJ vjph;kiw kpd;Ndhl;lj;ij nfhz;ljhf khWfpd;wJ. gdpf;fl;bj;Jz;Lld; kpfTk; Fsph;e;j ePh;j;Jspfs; cuhAk; NghJk; Neh;kiw kpd;Ndhl;lk; nfhz;l kpf nky;ypa gdp cilAk; NghJk; mNj tpisT Vw;gLfpd;wJ.   ,e;j ,Nyrhd Neh;kiw kpd;Ndhl;lk; ngw;w Jfs;fs; Nky; Nehf;fpa fhw;W kpd;Ndhl;lj;jhy; Nkfj;jpd; cr;rpf;F nfhz;L nry;yg;gLfpd;wd. jw;NghJ vjph;kiw kpd;Ndhl;lj;Jld; tplg;gl;Ls;s gdpf;fl;bahdJ Nkfj;jpd; mbkl;lj;ij Nehf;fp tpOfpd;wJ ,jdhy; Nkfj;jpd; mbg;ghfk; vjph;kiw kpd;Ndhl;lk; ngw;wjhf Mfp tpLfpd;wJ.  ,e;j vjph;kiw kpd;Ndhl;lkq;fs; kpd;dyhf epyj;jpw;Fs; gha;fpd;wd.  kpd;diy cUthf;Ftjpy; gdpf;fl;b kpf Kf;fpa gq;fhw;Wfpd;wJ vd;W ,jpypUe;J ehk; jPh;khdpf;fyhk;.

Lightning
 Fig. 18.2

kpd;dy; gw;wpa ,e;jj; jfty; jw;fhyj;jpy;jhd; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;lJ. 1600k; Mz;Ltiu thdpiyapaypy; mhp];lhl;bypd; fUj;Jf;fNs NkNyhq;fpapUe;jd.  cjhuzj;jpw;F> tpz;zpy; <ukhd> cyh;e;j vd;w ,U tifahd fhw;Wf;fs; ,Ug;gjhf mth; nrhd;dhh;.  mUfpy; ,Uf;Fk; Nkfj;Jld; cyh;e;j fhw;W cuha;tjhy;jhd; ,b Vw;gLfpd;wnjd;Wk; nky;ypa Ntfkw;w neUg;Gld; cyh; fhw;W gw;wp vhptjhy; kpd;dy; Vw;gLfpd;wnjd;Wk; mth; nrhd;dhh;.   ,itfs;jhd; jpUf;Fh;Md; ,wf;fg;gl;l fhyj;jpy;> mjhtJ gjpdhd;F E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd;G> thdpiyapay; gw;wp NkNyhq;fpa fUj;Njhl;lq;fspy; rpyitahFk;.

H 4
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