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,];yhk; XH fz;Nzhl;lk;


,k;khngUk; gpugQ;rj;jpd; jd;ik> mjd; ,ay;G vd;d vdgij vk;khy; mwpa KbAkh ?  mJ epiy ngw;wpUg;gjw;Fwpa ,ufrpak;.vd;dntd;gjw;Fj; jpUg;jpfukhd tpsf;fq;fs; VJk; ,Uf;fpd;wdth ? xU rhjhuz FLk;gj;ij top elj;Jtjw;F nghWg;Gs;s xUtu; Njit vd;gij ehk; mwpNthk;. xU efuhl;rpia rpwe;j epu;thf Kiw ,y;yhky; elj;j KbahJ. xU jiytd; ,y;yhky; xU ehl;il Ml;rp nra;a KbahJ. mNj Nghy; cUthf;FNthd; ahUkpd;wp xd;W jhdhf cUthfTk; KbahJ.vd;gij ehk; mwpfpNwhk;.  ,t;Tyfk; xOq;fhd rPuikg;gpy; vt;tpj gpur;idAkpy;yhky; ,aq;fp tUtij ehk; fhz;fpd;Nwhk; ,t;tpaf;fk; ,t;thW gy;yhapuk; tUlq;fshf eilngw;W tUfpd;wJ. mg;gbahdhy; ,t;Tyfk; mjpYs;s gilg;gpdq;fSk; kdpju;fs; cl;gl jhdhf jw;nrayhfj; Njhd;wpaJ vd;W $w KbAkh ?

,t;Tyfpy; kdpjd; kpfr;rpwa ,lj;ijNa trpf;fpd;whd;.  mtdhy; ahtUk; tpUk;gf;$ba jpl;lq;fisAk;>  mikg;Gf;fisAk; cUthf;fyhk; mt;thwhapd; mtDk; ,t;TyfKk; epr;rakhf xU rPupa xOq;fikg;gpd; fPo; mikag;ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. vkJ ngsjPf tho;f;ifapd; gpd;ddpapy;  xU rPuhd xOq;fikg;G ,Ug;gJ Gydhfpd;wJ. me;j mikg;ig rPuhd Kiwapy; ,af;Ftjw;F gpuj;jpNafkhd xU rf;jp ,Ue;J tUtij ehk; fhzyhk; vdNt ,t;tofpa cyifAk; ,jpy; cs;sitfisAk; rPuhfg; gilj;j gilg;ghsd; xUtd; ,Uf;fj;jhd; Ntz;Lk;. mtNd cyfpy; vy;yh gilg;GfisAk; VNjh xU tpNrl Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf gilj;jpUf;fTk; Ntz;Lk;.  Mo;e;J rpe;jpf;Fk; kdpjd; vtDk; ,tw;iwnay;yhk; gilj;j flTs; xUtd;  ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;gij ,yFtpy; mwpe;J nfhs;thd;. NkYk; mtd; xU rhjhuz kdpjdy;yd;.  Vnddpy; xU kdpjdhy; ,d;ndhU kdpjid gilf;f KbahJ. ,iwtd; xU jhtuNkh my;yJ xU gpuhzpNah my;yd; rpiyNah> tpf;fpufNkh my;yd;  Vnddpy; ,itfspdhy; xd;iw gilf;fNth jhkhf ,aq;fNth KbahJ. vdNt ,it midj;ijAk; gilj;J gupghypg;gtd; xUtd; ,Uf;fNt Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ cWjpahfpd;wJ. NkYk; gilg;ghsd; gilg;Gf;fs; vy;yhtw;iwAk; tpl Kw;wpYk; NtWgl;ltdhfTk; mtw;iw tpl cau;e;jtdhfTk;> J}a;ikahd tdhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

xNu ,iwtdhd my;yh`;itg;gw;wpj; njupe;J nfhs;s gy topfSz;L.  cyfpYs;s Mr;rHakhdJk;> El;gkhdJk;> ftu;r;rp kpf;fJkhd nghUl;fis cw;W Nehf;fpdhy; mjd; gpd;dzpapy; my;yh`;tpd; jj;Jtq;fs; kiwe;jpUg;gij czuyhk;. my;yh`; gilj;j gilg;gpdq;fSs; kdpj tu;f;fKk; xd;whFk;. mtd; kdpju;fis  gilj;jJ Kjy; mtu;fSf;F ey;top fhl;Ltjw;fhf mtu;fs; tho;e;j fhyq;fspy; mtu;fspypUe;Nj rpwe;j mwpthw;wy; kpf;f ,iwj; J}ju;fis mDg;gp itj;jhd; mj;J}ju;fspy; rpyUf;F Ntjf;fl;lisfis mUspdhd;. mtu;fSf;F mUsg;gl;l Ntjq;fspd; Kyk; my;yh`;itg;gw;wpAk; mtDila gz;Gfisg; gw;wpAk; ed;F mwpe;Jf;nfhs;s KbAk;mtdJ J}ju;fspy; ,Wjpahf mDg;gg;gl;ltNu Kfk;kj; egp (]y;) Mthu;fs;. ,iw Ntjk; mUsg;gl;l J}ju;fSs; ,tu;fSk; xUtuhthu;. ,tu;fSf;F my;yh`; ,Wjpahd> G+uzj;Jtk; tha;e;j mw;Gjkhd my;-Fu;Mid mUspdhd;. mt;Ntjj;ijAk; mjpYs;stw;iwAk; mijf; nfhz;L te;j ,Wjpj;J}ju; Kfk;kj;(]y;) mtu;fisAk; KOikahf ek;GtNj ,];yhkhFk;. ,e;j ,];yhk; my;yh`;tpd; jdpj;Jtk;> ,iwik Mfpatw;iw  tpRthrpf;Fk;gb typAWj;JtNjhL> ,t;Tyfpd; cz;ik jd;ikiaAk; mjpy; kdpjdpd; epiyg;ghL vd;d ? vd;gijAk; vLj;Jf;fhl;LfpwJ. ,e;j ek;gpf;if kdpjdplk; kd mikjpia Vw;gLj;Jk; mNj Ntisapy; jtwhd ,iw ek;gpf;ifapypUe;J mtid tpopg;Gwr;nra;J mtd; my;yh`;Tf;F Mw;w Ntz;baew;nray;fs; ahit ? vd;gijAk; vLj;Jf;fhl;LfpwJ. ek;gpf;if vd;gJ ehtpdhy; nkhoptNjhLkl;Lk; epd;W tplhJ nraypYk; fhl;lg;gl Ntz;Lk;. Viddpy; ntWk; ek;gpf;if kl;Lk; vt;tpjg;gaidAk; juhJ.

my;yh`;tpd; xUikg;ghl;by; ek;gpf;iff;nfhz;Ls;s xt;nthUtUk; ,t;Tyfpy; thOk; kdpju;fs; midtiuAk; ve;j tpj Vw;wj;jho;Tkpd;wp xNu FLk;gj;jpduhf Vw;W elf;f Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy;mtu;fs; midtiuAk; ru;t ty;yik nfhz;ltdhd my;yh`; xUtNd gilj;jhd;. mtNdmidtiuAk; gupghypj;J Ngh\pf;fpwhd;. kdpju;fs; midtUk; mtdpd; mbik Mthu;fs;. mtu;fs;jkJ nrhe;j tpUg;gg;gb nraw;gLtij mtd; tpUk;GtJkpy;iy. my;yh`;tpd; kPJ ek;gpf;iff;nfhz;L mtdJ J}ju;fs; fhl;ba topKiwfis Vw;W ele;jtu;fSf;F kl;LNk kWikapy; ew;gad; fpilf;Fk;. Mdhy; my;yh`;Tf;F topgLk; tp\aj;jpy; mtu;fs; mtDf;Fk; jkf;Fkpilapy; vtiuAk;eLtu;fshf Mf;fhky; NeubahfNt jkJ njhlu;Gfis mtDld; itj;Jf;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

,];yhk; xU Gjpa khu;f;fky;y vdpDk; mJ cyfpw;F Kjy; kdpjuhd Mjk; (miy) Kjy; kw;Wk;E}`;> ,g;whfPk;> ,];khaPy;> ,];`hf;> jhT+j;> %]h> <]h (miy) MfpNahUf;Fk;> Vida vy;yh,iwj;J}jh;fSf;Fk; my;yh`;thy; mUsg;gl;l topfhl;Ljypd; njhluhFk;. Mdhy;> Kfk;kj; egp (]y;) mtu;fSf;F mUsg;gl;l ,];yhk; gupG+uzkhdJk;> ,WjpahdJk;> kdpj rKjhaj;jpw;F Njitahd rfy mk;rq;fisAk; cs;slf;fpaJkhFk;.

my;yh`; ,Wjpahf ,wf;fpaUspa Gdpj Ntjkhd my; Fu;Md; ,];yhkpa mbg;gil Nfhl;ghLfisAk;rl;lq;fisAk; mjpfkjpfkhf vLj;Jf;$WfpwJ. NkYk; my; Fu;Md; ,];yhj;jpd; Muk;g rka Nfhl;ghLfs;> xOf;f eil Kiwfs;> kdpjdpd; tuyhW> tzf;f Kiwfs;> mwpT> Qhdk;> kdpj-,iwj;njhlu;Gfs;> kdpjdJ Vida njhlu;Gfs;. kdpj rKjha mwpTg;G+u;tkhd xOf;f eil Kiwfs;> nghUshjhuk;> murpay;> ePjpj;Jiw> rl;lk;> ru;tNjr njhlu;Gfs;> Nghd;w Kf;fpa tplaq;fisAk; mJ cs;slf;fpAs;sJ.

,jw;F mLj;jjhf Kfk;kj; (]y;) mtu;fspd; nrhy;> nray;> mq;fPfhuk; midj;Jk; `jP]; vdg;gLk;. ,e;j `jP];fs; egp (]y;) mtu;fspd; Njhou;fshy; kpf ftdkhfTk;> kpfj; njspthfTk;jdpahfj; njhFf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. NkYk; ,it my; Fu;Mdpd; trdq;fis tpsf;FtjhfTk;> njspthf;FtjhfTk; mike;Js;sd.

,];yhj;jpy; tpRthrk; nfhs;s Ntz;ba mbg;gilf; fhupaq;fs;

Xu; cz;ik K];ypk; gpd; tUk; mbg;;gil mk;rq;fspy; ek;gpf;iff;nfhz;ltdhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

1. tzf;fj;jpw;Fwpatd; my;yh`; xUtd; kl;LNk vd tpRthrk; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

mtd; epiyahdtd;> xg;Gtikaw;wtd;> ty;yik kpf;ftd;> Kbtw;w nka;g;nghUs;. md;G epiwe;jtd;mUspuf;fKilatd;> midj;ijAk; gilj;J gupghypj;J Ngh\pg;gtd;.

2. my;yh`;tpd; mkuh;fs; (kyf;Ffs;) kPJ tpRthrk; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

mtu;fs; xspapdhy; gilf;fg;gl;l J}a;ikahd> caue;j gz;Gfis cila my;yh`;tpd; mbikfs;. ,aw;ifahf mtu;fs; czT> cwf;fk; Nghd;w ve;j NjitfSk; ,y;yhjtu;fs;. mtu;fs; ,uT gfyhf ,iwtid tzq;fpf;nfhz;bUg;gtu;fs;. mtu;fs; Fwpg;gpl;l rpy nray;fspy; mku;j;jg;gl;Ls;s ,iw gzpahsu;fs;. mtu;fs; my;yh`;tpd; fl;lisg;gb kl;LNk nray;gLthu;fs;. mtDf;F xU NghJk; khW nra;a khl;lhu;fs;. ,tu;fspy; mjpf rf;jp kpf;ftuhd [pg;uPy; (miy) %yNk my;yh`; jdJ J}ju;fSf;F ,iw thf;fpaq;fis mUspdhd;.

3. my;yh`;tpdhy; ,wf;fpaUsg;gl;l Ntj E}y;fisAk;> fl;lisfisAk; tpRthrk; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

mtDila J}ju;fs; jhDk; Neh;top ele;J my;yh`;tpd; nghUj;jj;ijg; ngwty;y  Neupag;ghijia mtu;fsJ rKjhaj;jpdUf;F vLj;Jf;fhl;bdhu;fs;. ,tu;fspy; egp ,g;whfPk; > %]h>jhT+j;> <]h (miy) Mfpatu;fSf;F my;yh`; Ntj thf;fpaq;fis mUspdhd;. ,tu;fSf;Fg;gpd;du; gy Mz;Lfs; fopj;J > Kfk;kj; egp (]y;) mtu;fSf;F jpUf;Fu;Md; mUsg;gl;lJ.Kd;Ds;s Ntj thf;fpaq;fspy; nghjpe;Js;s midj;J eyd;fisAk; xd;W Nru;j;J ,WjpahfmUsg;gl;l ,iw NtjNk my;Fu;Md;. my; Fu;Md; my;yhj Vida Ntj E}y;fs; jw;NghJ tof;fope;Jk;> khw;wkile;JNkjhd; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. Mdhy; my; Fu;Md; khj;jpuNk vt;tpj khw;wq;fSkpd;wp G+uzj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhfTk;> ek;gj;jFe;jjhfTk; >capNuhl;lk; cs;sjhfTk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

4. mtDila J}ju;fis> mtu;fSf;fpilapy; vt;tpj Vw;wj;jho;Tkpd;wp tpRthrk; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

my;yh`; kdpju;fspd; Njitf;Fj; jf;fthW gy; NtW ehl;ltUf;Fk; gy; NtW r%fj;jpdUf;Fk;ey; top fhl;lTk;> jPik nra;Nthiu vr;rupf;if nra;aTk; J}ju;fis mDg;gp itj;jhd;. mtu;fs;kdpj rKjhaj;ij vt;thW Neu;topg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;> mtu;fs; jkJ ,ul;rfid vt;thW tzq;fptopgl Ntz;Lk;  vd;gjidf; fw;Wf; nfhLg;gjw;fhf Ntj thf;fpaq;fisAk; ,wf;fp mUspdhd;. ,Wjp Ntjkhd my; Fu;Mdpy; ,tu;fspy; 25 J}ju;fSila ngau;fs; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. Kfk;kj; egp(]y;) mtufs; ,j;J}ju;fspy; ,WjpahdtUk; rpwg;G kpf;ftUkhthu;.

5. ,Wjpj;jPu;g;G ehspd; kPJ tpRthrk; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

vd;Nwh xUehs; ,t;TyfKk; mjpYs;sitfs; midj;Jk; mopf;fg;gLk;. gpd;du; mitfs; ahTk; kPz;Lk; tprhuizf;fhf my;yh`;tpd; Kd;dpiyapy; vOg;gg;gLk;. xt;nthU Mj;khTk;,t;Tyfpy; jhk; nra;j nray;fSf;Nfw;g gpujpgyidg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;. my;yh`;Tf;FnghUj;jkhfTk; ePjpahfTk;> Neu;ikahfTk; ele;jtu;fs; ,d;gq;fs; epiwe;Js;s Rtu;f;fj;ij milthu;fs;. mq;NfNa mtu;fs; Kbtw;w fhyk; tiu epue;jukhf jq;fpapUg;ghu;fs;.my;yh`;Tf;F khw;wkhf ele;jtu;fs; gaq;fukhd neUg;Gk;> nfhba NtjidfSk; epiwe;j eufj;ij milthu;fs; mjpNyNa mtu;fs; Kbtw;w fhyk; epue;jukhf jq;fpapUg;ghu;fs;.

6. ,t;Tyfpy; eilngWk; ed;ik> jPik midj;Jk; my;yh`;tpd; Vw;ghl;bd; gbNa    eilngWfpd;wJ vd;W xt;nthU K];yPKk; ek;gpf;iff; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

cyfpd; vy;yh gilg;gpdq;fSk; mtdJ Mizg;gbAk; tpUg;gj;jpd; gbANk nray;gLfpd;wd . mtdJ fw;gidf;Fk; jpl;lq;fSf;Fk; khw;wkhf vJTk; eil ngw khl;lhJ. vy;yhg; nghUl;fs; kPJk; mtdJ mwpTk;> rf;jpAk; R+o;e;jpUf;fpwJ. QhdKk; mUSk; cilatdhd mtdJ fhupaq;fs;midj;Jk; xU Nehf;fKk; fUj;JKilajhFk;.  ,tw;iw Mokhf rpe;jpf;Fk;NghJ vkJ mwpTk; kd mikjpAk; $bf;nfhz;Nl NghfpwJ. mtdJ nray;fs; jPikahdjhfNth> vk;khy; tpsq;fpf;nfhs;s KbahjjhfNth ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy; mr;nray;fs; ahTk; kdpjdpd; gbg;gpidf;fhf my;yJ Nrhjizf;fhfNt Vw;gLfpwJ vd ek;g Ntz;Lk;.

xt;nthU K];ypKk; filg;gpbf;f Ntz;ba ,];yhj;jpd; Kf;fpaf; flikfs;.

,];yhj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu Nkw;nrhd;d tp\aq;fis ntWkNd ek;GtJ kl;Lk; NghjhJ. Vnddpy; nrayw;w ek;gpf;if gydw;w xd;whFk;. nrayw;w ek;gpf;if vspjpy; khWglf;$baJ ,e;ek;gpf;if nraw;ghl;by; my;yJ ghtidapy; ,y;yhjNghJ capNuhl;lkw;wjhfTk;> nray;jpwd; mw;wjhfTk; MfptpLfpwJ.

,];yhj;jpd; Ie;J flikfs;

1. rhl;rp $wy;. (\`hjijd;)

cz;ikapy; tzq;Ftjw;F jFjp thae;jtd; my;yh`; xUtidj;jtpu NtW ahUkpy;iy vd;Wk; Kfk;kj; egp (]y;) mtu;fs; ,Wjp ehs; tiu kdpj rKjhak; midj;jpw;Fk; my;yh`;tpdhy; mDg;gg;gl;l mtDila ,Wjpj;J}jUk;> mbikAkhthu;fs; vd rhl;rp $wy;. ,jd; %yk; K];ypk;fs; midtUk; my;yh`;tpd; fl;lisfisAk;> Kfk;kj; egp (]y;) mtu;fs; fhl;br;nrd;w top KiwfisAk; jkJ tho;f;if Kiwahf vLj;J elf;ff; flikg;gl;Ls;sdu;.

2. njhOif (m];]yh`;)

xU ehisf;F INtis Fwpj;j Neuj;jpy; my;yh`;Tf;fhf njho Ntz;Lk;. njhOif my;yh`;tpd; kPJs;s ek;gpf;ifia cWjpg;gLj;JtNjhL> cau;e;j xOf;f tho;Tf;F topfhl;LfpwJ. ,J cs;sj;ij J}a;ikg; gLj;JtNjhL khdf;Nflhd fhupaq;fspypUe;Jk;> jPikfspyUe;Jk; kdpjid ghJfhf;fpwJ.

INtisj; njhOiffshtd.

1. /g[;u; njhOif (mjpfhiy)

2. Sfu; njhOif (gfy; Neuk;)

3. m]u; njhOif (khiy Neuk;)

4. kf;upg; njhOif (R+upa kiwtpd; gpd;)

5. ,\h njhOif (,uT Neuk;)

3. ju;kk; (m];]f;fhj;)

]fhj; vd;gJ nghUshjhuk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l xU tzf;fkhFk;. mjd; nghUs; J}a;ikg; gLj;Jjy; vd;gjhFk;. ]fhj; vd;gJ xt;nthUtUk; jhk; rk;ghjpj;j gzj;jpNyh> nghUspNyh Fwpf;fg;gl;l njhifia tpl Nkyjpfkhf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ mtw;wpypUe;J Fwpg;gpl;l xU njhifia my;yJ msit ju;kkhf Fwpg;gpl;ltu;fSf;F toq;FtjhFk;. ,];yhkpa mbg;gilapy; ]fhj; Mo;e;j jj;Jtq;fisAk; kdpjhgpkhd rpwg;gpay;GfisAk; rKjha> murpay;> nghUshjhu Nkk;ghLfSf;F rpwe;j jpl;lkhf tpsq;FfpwJ.

4. Nehd;G (m];]t;k;)

ukohd; khjk; KOtJk; njhluhf Nehd;G itf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjpfhiyapypUe;J R+upa m];j;jkdk; tiu cz;zhkYk;> gUfhkYk; fytpay; njhlu;Gfis jtpu;j;Jk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. Kf;fpakhf ukohd; khjj;jpy; jPa vz;zq;fspyUe;Jk;> jPa nray;fspy; ,Ue;Jk; jd;idg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tNjhL> nghJthf KO tUlj;jpYk; ,e;j ey;y eil Kiwfisg; gpd; gw;w Ntz;Lk; Nehd;G rNfhjuj;Jtj;ijAk;> md;igAk;> ,iw gf;jpiaAk;> nghWikiaAk;> rKjha Neu;ikiaAk;gpwu; eyd; NgZk; jd;ikiaAk;> kd cWjpiaAk; Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

5. `[; (kf;fhTf;F Gdpj ahj;jpiu nry;tJ)

nghUshjhu trjpAk; Njf MNuhf;fpaKk; cs;s xUtu; `[; flikia jkJ tho;ehspy; xU KiwahtJ fl;lhakhf epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk; cyf K];ypk;fs; vy;NyhUk; xd;W $Lk; tUlhe;jpu khehlhd ,jpy; gy;NtW ehl;ltUk;> gy;NtW epwj;jtUk; xd;W $b XUtNuhnlhUtu; mwpKfkhfpf;nfhs;fpd;wdu;. jkJ> nghJ> gpur;ridfisAk; rKjha gpur;ridfisAk; gwpkhwpf;nfhs;fpd;wdu; rKjhaj;jpd; NjitfisAk;. nghJ eyd;fisAk; Nkk;gLj;Jtjw;fhd top Kiwfisg;gw;wp fye;JiuahLfpd;wdu;. Gdpj `[; gazk; ru;tNjr K];ypk;fspd; xw;WikiaAk; rKjha rkj;JtjijAk; xUikg;ghl;ilAk; vLj;Jf;fhl;Lk; xU kfj;jhd nghJf;$l;lkhFk;.

egp (]y;) mtu;fs; $wpAs;shu;fs; 'vy;yhf;Foe;ijfSk; ,];yhj;jpNyNa gpwf;fpd;wdu;. vdpDk; mtu;fspd; ngw;Nwhu;fs; mtu;fis fpwp];jtuhfNth> A+ju;fshfNth> n[huh];bauhfNth khw;wp tpLfpd;wdu;

(Gfhup> K];ypk;)

,];yhk; khu;f;fk; Ie;J mk;rq;fspd; kPJ epWtg;gl;Ls;sJ. mit

1. tzf;fj;jpw;Fj; jFjpahdtd; my;yh`;itad;wp NtW ahUkpy;iy. Kfk;kj; (]y;)mtu;fs; my;yh`;tpd; J}juhthu;fs;. vd;W cWjpahf ek;Gjy;.

2.Iq;fhyj; njhOifia epiy ehl;ly;

3. ]fhj; toq;Fjy;.

4. f/gh vd;Dk; ,iw ,y;yk; nrd;W `[; nra;jy;.

5;. ukohd; khjk; Nehd;G Nehw;gJ.

egp (]y;) mtu;fs; $wpAs;sjhf mg;Jy;yh`; ,g;D cku; (uyp) mwptpj;Js;shu;fs;

(Gfhup> K];ypk;)

H 4
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