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NkiyehLfspy; ngz;fs; ngw;w Rje;jpuk;


;rkPgj;jpy; ,izar; nra;jp xd;iwg; gbf;f NeHe;jJ. mjpy; ,];yhKk; kw;w kjq;fisg; NghyNt ngz;fis mbikg;gLj;jp itj;jpUf;fpd;wJ vd;W kf;fs; fiy ,yf;fpaf; Foitr; NrHe;j ez;gHfs; tpkHrdk; vOjp ,Ue;jhHfs;.

mtHfsJ tpkHrdj;jpw;Fg; gjpy; $WKfkhfTk;> ,];yhj;jpy; cs;s ngz;fspd; chpikfs; gw;wpAk;> me;j chpikfs; ahTk; mtHfs; Nfl;Lg; ngw;wNjh my;yJ Nghuhbg; ngw;wNjh my;y vd;Wk;> Mdhy; 1400 tUlq;fshf ,d;Dk; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy;> ngz;fis ,d;Dk; Nghfg; nghUshfTk;> filr;ruf;fhfTk;> gz;lkhw;iwg; NghyTk; mtHfis elj;jp tUk; r%fq;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ,];yhk; mtHfis ve;jsT fz;zpakhd ,lj;jpy; itj;Js;sJ vd;gJ Ghpa tUk;. ,];yhk; mtHfs; kPJ tpjpj;Js;s fl;Lg;ghLfs; ahTk;> mtHfspd; ngz;ikf;F ,iae;j kw;Wk; ghJfhg;G vd;w epiyapNy my;yhJ> mtHfs; ngz;fs; vd;w fhuzj;jpw;fhf vd;WNk mtHfis jho;j;jp itj;jjpy;iy kw;Wk; mlf;fp itj;jjpy;iy vd;gij rNfhjuHfs; tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf ,e;jf; fl;Liuiaj; jUfpd;Nwhk;.

nra;jpj;jhs;fspy; ek; ftdj;ijr; nrYj;jpNdhk; vd;why;> cyfg; ngz;fs; jpdk;> ngz;fs; milahs Chtyk;> ngz;fs; chpik Nfl;Lg; Nghuhl;lk;> ngz;fs; Nfhhpf;if jpdk; vd gy;NtW jiyg;Gfspy; cyfg; ngz;fspd; chpikfs;> Nghuhl;lq;fs; gw;wpa nra;jpfis ehk; ghHf;fyhk;.

vd;d ,J mepahak;? ngz;fs; midtUk; KOr; Rje;jpuk; ngw;W tpl;lhHfs;. ngz;fs; ,d;W Rthrpf;fpd;whHfs; vd;why; me;j Rthrf; fhw;wpy; Rje;jpuj;ijf; fye;J tpl;lNj ehq;fs; jhd; vd khHjl;bf; nfhs;Sk; ,d;iwa NkiyehLfspYk; rphp> ,e;jpah Nghd; ehLfspYk; rhp ngz;fs; jpdj;jd;W ngz;fs; kPz;Lk; Nfhhpf;ifg; Nguzp elj;JfpwhHfs; vd;why; mtHfs; ,d;Dk; KOr; Rje;jpuk; ngwtpy;iy vd my;yth fUj Ntz;bAs;sJ. vdNt ,J gw;wpanjhU kPs; ghHitAk;> Fw;wk; rhl;bNa gof;fg;gl;Lg; Nghd ,];yhkpa vjpHthjk; GhpAk; kf;fSf;F tpsq;Fk; tifapYk;> ,d;W NghuhLk; ,e;j ngz;fs; Nghuhl;lj;jpd; fhy msT vd;d vd;gijAk;> mNj Neuj;jpy; Nghuhl;lk; ,d;wpNa 14 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dhy; K];ypk; ngz;fs; Rje;jpuk;> r%f> nghUshjhu epiyfspy; vt;thW mile;jdH vd;gij Qhgf%l;l Ntz;ba mtrpaKk; cz;lhfpwJ.

ngz;fSk; kw;w kjq;fSk;

,];yhj;jpy; ngz;fSf;F ,Uf;fpd;w chpikfs; gw;wpg; NgRtjw;F Kd; ngz;fis kw;w r%fj;jpdH vg;gb elj;jpf; nfhz;bUe;jhHfs; vd;gijj; njspTgLj;JtJ mtrpakhFk;.

fpNuf;fH ngz;fis tpahghug; nghUl;fshfNt fUjpdH. mtHfSf;nfd ve;j chpikAk; fpilahJ. chpikfs; midj;Jk; Mz;fSf;Nf vd;wdH. ,d;Dk; mg;ngz;fSf;Fr; nrhj;Jhpik> nfhLf;fy;> thq;fy;> Nghd;w chpikfs; jLf;fg;gl;bUe;jd. mtHfspy; gpugy;akhd jj;Jt Qhdp rhf;uB]; vd;gtH ngz;fs; ,Ug;gJ cyfpd; tPo;r;rpf;F kpfg; ngUk; %y fhuzkhFk;. NkYk; ngz;fs; tp\kuj;jpw;F xg;ghdtHfs;. mk;kuj;jpd; Gwj;Njhw;wk; mofhf ,Uf;Fk;. vdpDk; mjd; fdpfis rpl;Lf; FUtpfs; jpd;wTlNdNa ,we;J tpLfpd;wd vd;W $wpAs;shH.

NuhkhdpaHfs; ngz;fis capuw;w nghUshfNt fUjp te;Js;sdH. mtHfsplk; ngz;fSf;F ve;j kjpg;Gk; chpikAk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. ngz;fs; capuw;w nghUshff; fUjg;gl;ljhy; jhd; mtHfisf; nfhjpf;fpd;w vz;nziz Cw;wpAk;> J}z;fspy; fl;bAk; Ntjid nra;jhHfs;. ,J kl;Lkpd;wp Fw;wkw;w ngz;fis Fjpiufspd; thy;fspy; fl;b mtHfs; kuzpj;J Nghfpd;w mstpw;F kpf tpiuthf Xl;b tpLthHfs;.

ngz;fs; tp\aj;jpy; ,e;jpaHfspd; fz;Nzhl;lKk; ,t;thW jhd; ,Ue;Js;sJ. mtHfs; ,d;Dk; xU gb mjpfkhf fztd; ,we;J tpl;lhy; mtdpd; rpijAld; kidtpiaAk; vhpj;J tpLgtHfshfTk; ,Ue;jpUf;fpd;wdH.

rPdHfs; ngz;fis ew;ghf;fpaj;ijAk;> nry;tq;fisAk; mopj;J tplf; $ba jz;zPUf;F xg;ghf;fpdH. mtHfs; jk; kidtpaiu capNuhL Gijj;J tpLtjw;Fk; tpw;W tpLtjw;Fk; chpik ngw;wpUe;jdH.

ngz;fs; rhgj;jpw;FhpatHfnsd A+jHfs; fUJfpd;whHfs;. Vnddpy; mts; jhd; Mjk; (miy) mtHfis topnfLj;J kuf; fdpia rhg;gplr; nra;J tpl;lhs;. NkYk; ngz;Zf;F khjtplha; te;J tpl;lhy; mts; mRj;jkhdts;> tPl;ilAk; mts; njhLk; nghUisAk; mRj;jg;gLj;jp tplf; $batd; vdTk; fUJfpwhHfs;. ngz;Zf;F rNfhjuHfspUe;jhy; mts; jd; je;ijapd; nrhj;jpy; rpwpJk; chpik ngw khl;lhs; vdTk; fUJfpwhHfs;.

fpwp];jtHfs; ngz;fis I\j;jhdpd; thryhff; fUJfpwhHfs;. fpwp];jt mwpQHfspy; xUtH ngz; kdpj ,dj;ijr; rhHe;jtsy;y vdf; $wpdhH. ,d;Dk;

Gdpj A+dng/d;Juh vd;gtH $wpdhH : ePq;fs; ngz;fisf; fz;lhy; mtis kdpj ,dj;ijr; rhHe;jts; vdf; fUjp tplhjPHfs;. mJ kl;Lky;y mtis xU capUs;s [Ptdhff; $l fUjhjPHfs;. khwhf ePq;fs; fhz;gJ epr;rakhf I\j;jhdpd; cUtj;ijj; jhd;. ,d;Dk; ePq;fs; nrtpNaw;Fk; mtsJ rg;jk; ghk;gpd; rPw;wk; jhd;.

NkYk; fle;j (19 Mk;) E}w;whz;bd; eLg;gFjp tiu Mq;fpNYNa nghJr;rl;lg;gb ngz;fs; gpu[h chpik nfhLf;fg;glhjtHfshf ,Ue;jdH. ,JNghd;Nw ngz;fSf;nfd vej jdpg;gl;l chpikfSk; fpilahJ. ,d;Dk; mts; mzpAk; Mil cl;gl ve;jg; nghUisAk; nrhe;jg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tjpYk; chpikapy;iy. 1567 Mk; Mz;L ];fhl;yhe;Jg; ghuhSkd;wd; ngz;fSf;F ve;j mjpfhuKk; nfhLf;ff; $lhnjd rl;lk; ,aw;wpaJ. ,t;thNw vl;lhtJ n`d;wpapd; fhyj;jpy; Mq;fpNyag; ghuSkd;wk; ngz;fs; mRj;jkhdtHfs; vd;gjhy; ,d;[Piyg; gbf;ff; $lhnjd rl;lk; ,aw;wpaJ.

gpuQ;Rf;fhuHfs; 586 Mk; Mz;by; ngz;fs; kdpj ,dj;ijr; rhHe;jtHfsh? ,y;iyah? vd Ma;T nra;J KbntLf;f xU rigia mikj;jdH. mr;rig ngz;fs; kdpj ,dj;ijr; rhHe;jtHfs; jhd;. vdpDk; mtHfs; Mz;fSf;Fg; gzptpil nra;tjw;fhfNt gilf;fg;gl;ltHfnsd KbT nra;jJ. 1805 Mk; Mz;L tiu Mq;fpNyahpd; rl;lj;jpy; xU fztd; jdJ kidtpia tpw;gJ $Lnkd;Nw ,Ue;Js;sJ. kidtpapd; tpiy MW ngzp (miu \py;ypq;) vd epHzaKk; nra;ag;gl;lJ. (ngdp> \py;ypq; vd;gJ Mq;fpNya ehzaj;jpd; ngaHfs;).

,];yhj;jpw;F Kd;G tiu mNugpaHfsplj;jpy; ngz;fs; ,ope;j gpwtpfshf ,Ue;jdH. mtSf;F nrhj;JhpikNah> NtW ve;j chpikNah fpilahJ. kl;Lky;y mtHfspy; ngUk;ghNyhH jk; ngz; kf;fis capUld; Gijg;gtHfshf ,Ue;jdH.

,t;tidj;J mepahaq;fisg; ngz;fis tpl;Lk; ePf;fTk;> epr;rakhf Mz;fSk; ngz;fSk; rkkhdtHfs; jhk; vd tpsf;fTk; jhd; ,];yhk; te;jJ. vdNt Mz;fSf;F chpikfspUg;gJ NghyNt ngz;fSf;Fk; chpikfspUf;fpd;wd vd;W $wptpl;lNjhL epy;yhky;> mtw;iwg; gl;baypl;Lk; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

 

ngz;fspd; tpLjiy ,af;fq;fs; tsHe;j tuyhW

gphpl;ld; :

fle;j ,uz;L E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd;G jhd; gphpl;lbdpy; ngz; tpLjiy kw;Wk; chpik Nfhhpg; Nghuhl ngz; tpLjiy ,af;fq;fs; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ld. mt;thW Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l ngz; tpLjiy ,af;fq;fs; ahTk; ngz; vd;gts;> ghypay; epiyapy; mtis xU fPo;j;jukhd ,dkhf vz;zp> r%f> nghUshjhu> murpay; epiyfspy; mtHfis xJf;Ftij vjpHj;Jk;> ,j;jifa epiyfspy; mtHfSf;F ,iof;fg;gLk; r%fg; ghFghL> JNuhfq;fs; Mfpatw;iw vjpHj;Jk;> MZk; ngz;Zk; rkk;> Mizg; NghyNt ngz;Zf;Fk; r%f> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; murpay; epiyfspy; rk me;j];J Ntz;bAk;> ,tw;Wf;fhd rl;lg; ghJfhg;G Ntz;bAk;> ,tw;iw ngz;zpdj;jpw;Fg; ngw;Wj; juTk; jhd; ngz;Zhpik ,af;fq;fs; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ld.

,e;j Nehf;fj;ij kf;fsplk; vLj;Jr; nry;y Kjd; Kjypy; 1792 Mk; Mz;L Nkhp Ty;];Nlhd;f;uhg;l; (Mary Woolstone Crabt) vDk; ngz;kzp> ngz; chpikg; Nghuhl;lk; (Vindication of the Rights of Women) vDk; ntspaPl;il ntspapl;lhH.

mjd; gpd; 1903 Mk; Mz;L jPtpu ngz; murpay; ,af;fk; xd;W> ngz;Zf;F Xl;Lhpik Ntz;Lk; vdf; Nfhhp> vk;kpspd; ghq;fpAH];l; (Emmeline Pankhurst) vd;w ngz;zpd; jiyikapd; fPo;> ngz;fspd; r%fk; kw;Wk; murpay; rq;fk; (Women’s Social and Political Union - WSPU) vd;w ,af;fk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.

vk;kpypd; jiyikapy; WSPU rq;fg; ngz;fs; taJ tpj;jpahrkpd;wpf; fye;J nfhz;lhHfs;. ,t;thW Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <Lgl;l ngz;fs; rpiwapy; milf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. mtHfs; xd;W $Lk; rq;ff; fl;blk; G+l;lg;gl;lJ. ghuhSkd;w Kw;Wifapd; NghJ> ghuhSkd;wg; gbfspy; ,Ue;J cUl;bAk; tplg;gl;lhHfs;.

1914 Mk; Mz;L KjyhtJ cyf kfh Aj;jk; njhlq;fpajhy;> Nghhpd; NghJ ehl;Lf;F cjt Ntz;Lk; vDk; Kbtpd; fPo; Nghuhl;lk; iftplg;gl;L> Aj;jk; rk;ge;jkhd njhopw;rhiyg; gzpfspy; jk; xj;Jiog;igj; je;jhHfs;. ,jd; fhuzkhf murhq;fj;jpd; %yk; jkf;F Vw;gl;l vjpHg;ig kl;Lg;gLj;jp> jkf;F rhjfkhd #oiy cUthf;fpdhHfs;. ,tHfs; njhlH Nghuhl;l Kiwfspdhy; 1918 y; 30 taJf;F Nkw;gl;l ngz;fSf;F Kjd; Kjyhf Xl;Lhpik toq;fg;gl;lJ. 1928 y; Xl;Lg; NghLk; taJ 21 Mff; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.

gphpl;ld; ehL xU ngz;zhy; vyprngj; FLk;gj;jhy; Msg;gl;L tUk; xU ehL vd;gJ midtUk; mwpe;j xd;W. xU ngz; MSk; ehl;bNy xU ngz; Xl;Lhpik ngw;Wf; nfhs;s 2 E}w;whz;Lfs; gpbj;Js;sd. vd;d Ntjidahd tprak;!!!? ,tHfs; jhd; ngz;Zhpik gw;wpg; NgRk; ngz;fspd; fhtyHfs;?!

mnkhpf;fh :

mnkhpf;fhitg; nghWj;jtiu> ngz;fSf;fhd ,af;fk; vd;gJ Kjd; Kjypy; 1848 y; vyprngj; Nfb ];Nld;ld; vd;w ngz;kzpahy; Jtq;fg;gl;lJ. ,q;F 1848 y; $ba khehl;by; ePf;Nuh mbikfs; tpLjiyg; gpufldj;Jld; (mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,d;Wk; ,tHfs; mbikfshfNt elj;jg;gLfpd;whHfs;. epwNtw;Wik> epwntwp nfhz;l nts;is r%fk; ,tHfs; ,d;Dk; mlf;fpahz;L tUfpd;wJ kl;Lky;yhky; gLghjfkhfTk; nfhiy nra;ag;gLfpd;whHfs;).ngz; tpLjiy kw;Wk; ngz;Zhpik rk;ge;jkhd gpufldKk; ntspaplg;gl;lJ.

mjd; gpd; 1850 y; Y}rp ];Nlhd; vDk; ngz;kzpapd; jiyikapd; fPo; Njrpa ngz;fs; chpik khehL xd;W elj;jg;gl;lJ. mjd; gpd; Nkw;fz;l ,uz;L ngz;kzpfspd; mikg;Gk; xd;wpize;J #rd; gp. me;Njhzp vDk; ngz;kzpapd; jiyikapd; fPo; ngz;fspd; Njrgpkhdpfs; rq;fk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;L> 1878 y; ngz;fSf;F Xl;Lg; NghLk; chpik Ntz;Lk; vdf; Nfhhp> mijr; rl;lkhf;f Nfhhpf;if mDg;gpdhHfs;.

mnkhpf;fhtpy; cs;s khepyq;fspy; tpNahkpq; khepyk; jhd; Kjd; Kjyhf 1890 y; ngz;fis Xl;Lg; Nghl mDkjpj;jJ. mnkhpf;f Njrpag; ngz;fspd; Xl;Lhpikf; $l;likg;G vd;w mikg;G 1900 y; NfHhp N[g;Nkd; fhl; vd;w ngz;zpd; jiyikapy; ,jd; nray;ghLfs; KLf;fp tplg;gl;ld. ,e;j mikg;G elj;jpa gy Nghuhl;lq;fs;> $l;lq;fs;> khehLfs; gy gbj;j ngz;fisAk;> caHtHf;fg; ngz;fisAk; ftHe;jJ. mNj Nghy KO Neu murpaypy; <LgLk; ngz;fisAk;> mikg;Gf;fhd epjpfisAk; mjpfhpj;jJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf ngz;fshy; elj;jg;gLk; CHtyq;fsk;> khehLfSk; xt;nthU efhpYk; mjpfkhd mstpy; elf;f Muk;gpj;jd. NkYk; #rd; mtHfshy; nfhz;L tug;gl;l ngz;Zhpik NfhUk; rl;l Kd; tiuT> 19 tJ rl;l tiuT vDk; ngahpy; 1920 y; mnkhpf;fg; ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; nfhz;L tug;gl;L> mnkhpf;fhtpy; ngz;fSk; Xl;Lg; Nghlyhk; vd;w chpikia Kjd; Kjyhf mnkhpf;fg; ngz;fs; ngw;whHfs;. ngz;Zhpik rk;ge;jkhf Kjd;Kjyhf ,aw;wg;gl;l ,e;jr; rl;lk; 1920 Kjy; 1960 tiu gy ngz;Zhpik ,af;fq;fs; Njhd;wf; fhuzkhf mike;jd. ,jpy; Kf;fpakhdJ 1920 y; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l ngz; thf;fhsHfs; rq;fk; (League of Women Voters) kw;Wk; 1935 y; Njhd;wp Njrpa ePf;Nuh ngz;fs; Nguit (National Council of Negro Women) MFk;.

Nkw;fz;l FOf;fs; ngz;Zhpik rk;ge;jkhd gy;NtW tpjkhd Nfhhpf;iffis Kd; itj;Jk;> Mz; ngz; rkj;Jtk; kw;Wk; tpLjiy Ntz;bAk; jk; Nghuhl;lj;ij Muk;gpj;jd. NkYk; MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; rk chpik Ntz;Lk; vd;Dk; Nfhhpf;ifia 1923 y; Njrpag; ngz;fs; rq;fs; Kd; itj;Jg; Nghuhl Muk;gpj;jJ. ,f;Nfhhpf;if 50 tUlq;fshf nrayw;wjhfNt Ml;rpahsHfshy; fplg;gpy; Nghlg;gl;lJ.

Nkw;fz;l ,j;jifa ngz;fspd; Nghuhl;lk; cyf mstpYk; kpfg; nghpa jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpd. 1945 y; ele;j If;fpa ehLfs; rigf; $l;lj;jpy; ngz;Zhpik kw;Wk; Mz; ngz; rkj;Jtk; gw;wp> mjd; Kd;Diuapy; Rl;bf; fhl;lg;gl;lJ. gpd; 1948 y; ngz;fspd; epiyia mwpa xU fkp\d; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. 1952 y; If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; nghJf; FOtpy; ngz;fspd; murpay; chpikfs; gw;wp xU fUj;juq;fKk; elj;jg;gl;lJ.

1960 y; mnkhpf;fhtpy; ngz;zpak; gw;wpg; NgRk; jPtpu mikg;GfSk;> #o;epiyfSk; Njhd;wf; fPo;f;fz;l ngz;zpak; gw;wp Ma;twpf;iffs; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jd.

  • The Second Sex (1953) By Simone De Beauvoir

  • The Feminine Mystique (1963) By Betty Friedan

  • Sexual Politics (1969) By Kate Millett

  • The Female Eunuch (1970) By Gamaine Greer

NkYk; rpWghd;ikapdhpd; chpikfs; kw;Wk; ,dg;ghFghLfSf;F vjpuhd rl;lk; ,aw;Wfpd;w rhjfkhd #oy; cUthdJk; Nkw;fz;l ngz;Zhpik ,af;fq;fs; tiu cw;rhfk; je;Jjtpd. ,jd; %yk; jPtpu ngz;Zhpik ,af;fq;fs; tsHe;J> ,itfs; ngz;fs; murpay; chpik ngWtijf; fhl;bYk; r%f me;j];J ngw Ntz;b njspthd ,yf;fpak; kw;Wk; Njitahd tpsf;fq;fs; %yKk; eilKiwapy; cs;s ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd ek;gpf;iffs;> Nehf;fq;fs; Mfpatw;Wf;nfjpuhd gpur;rhuk; kw;Wk; tpopg;GzHit Vw;gLj;jpd.

,j;jifa ngz; ,af;fq;fspy; Kf;fpakhditfs; rpy :

  • National Organization for Women (NOW) ngz;fs; Njrpa mikg;G - ngl;b /gpiuld;

  • National Women’s Political Caucus – 1971. Njrpa ngz;fSf;fhd murpay; mikg;G

vd;w Nkw;fz;l mikg;G 1971 y; Njrpa mstpy; kpfg; gpugykhd ngz; ,af;fthjpfshd ngy;yh mg;]f; (Bella Abzug)> nrHyp rpNrhk; (Shirley Chisholm) kw;Wk; FNshhpah ];nla;dk; (Gloria Stninem) vd;gtHfs; jiyikapy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ.

mjd;gpd; 1973 y;

  • The Equal Rights Amendment Ratification Coun cil rk chpik rl;l tiuT mky;gLj;Jk; FOkk; vd;w mikg;Gk;> mNj Mz;L 1973 y;

  • Coalition of Labour Union Women ngz; njhopyhsHfs; $l;likg;Gr; rq;fk; Nghd;w mikg;GfshFk;.

National Organization for Women (NOW) vd;w mikg;ghy; gutyhf elj;jg;gl;l Nghuhl;l Kiwfshy;> ngz;fSf;fhd rkchpik rl;l tiuT> vDk; rl;l Kd; tiuit mnkhphf;f mikg;Gr; rl;lj;jpy; nfhz;L te;J mKy;gLj;Jk; tifapy; ,g;gpur;id G+jfukhff; fpsk;gpaJ. gpd; ngz;fSf;fhd rk chpik rl;l tiuT 1971 y; mnkhpf;f khepyq;fsit cWg;gpdHfshYk;> gpd; 1972 y; mnkhpf;f Nky;rig cWg;gpdHfshYk; xg;Gjy; mspf;fg;gl;lJ.

,Ug;gpDk; 1982 [{d; 30 y; ,e;jr; rl;lkhdJ 3 khepyq;fspy; 38 Xl;Lf; gw;whf;Fiw fhuzkhf mKy;gLj;j Kbahky; Njhy;tpiaj; jOtpf; nfhz;lJ. kPz;Lk;> ,r;rl;lj;ij mKy;gLj;j vLj;j Kaw;rpfs; Njhy;tpiaNa fz;ld.

NkNy ePq;fs; fz;litfs; ahTk; ehq;fs; ngz;zpdj;jpd; fhtyHfs; vd khHjl;bf; nfhs;Sk; xU r%fj;jpy; jk; chpikfisg; ngw ngz;fs; Nghuba> Nghuhbf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;w mtyj;ijf; fhl;LfpwJ.

NkYk; 1980 Yk; gpd; 1990 Yk; mjw;Fg; gpd;Gk; ,e;jg; ngz;Zhpik ,af;fq;fs; ngz;fspd; nghUshjhuk;> murpay;> r%fj; jsq;fspy; ngz;fs; Kd;Ndw;wk; fhz Ntz;b jkJ ftdj;ij xUKfg;gLj;jpd. ,e;epiyapy; mtHfsJ Kf;fpa Nehf;fk; MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; rhptpfpj rk;gs mstPL Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhf ,Ue;jJ. ,jpy; mtHfs; XusT ntw;wp fz;lhYk;> ,d;Dk; mtHfs; Mzpd; rk;gs tpfpjj;ijf; fhl;bYk; gpd;dile;jtHfshfNt cs;sdH. Nghuhl;lk; njhlHe;J rpy chpikfisg; ngw;whYk; rpy Neuq;fspy; MZf;F epfuhf ngz; caHtJ kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Nl tUtijAk; ngz;fs; ftdpf;fj; jtwtpy;iy.

xU Gwk; ,tHfs; MZf;F epfuhf cau epidj;jhYk; ,aw;ifahfNt ngz;fspd; clypy; cs;s jftikg;Gfs; mjpf Ntiyg;gS> tPl;Lg; nghWg;Gfs;> Mz;tHf;fj;jpd; cjhrPdk; Mfpait mtHfSf;F ntWg;GzHitNa tsHj;jd.

,tHfs; fle;j ,uz;L E}w;whz;Lfshf ve;j rk chpik Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhfTk;> ngz;Zf;Fk; capH cz;L mtSk; xU kdpjg; gpwtpNa> MZf;Fk; cs;sJ Nghd;w murpay;> vOj;Jhpik> Ngr;Rhpik> nrhj;Jhpik Nghd;w r%f chpikfSk; Ntz;Lk; vd jk; Nghuhl;lj;ij njhlq;fpdhHfNsh mtw;wpy; mtHfs; XusT ntw;wp ngw;whYk;> ,d;W me;jg; Nghuhl;lq;fs; tYtpof;fr; nra;ag;gl;L jpir jpUg;gg;gl;Ls;sd. ngz;fs; miu Fiw Mil mzptJk;> muq;Ffspy; ftHr;rpfukhf tyk; tUtJk; jhd; Rje;jpuk; vd;w Nghij ngz;fSf;F Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. Vw;fdNt vspjpy; czHr;rp trg;glf; $ba ,tHfs;> ,Jjhd; cz;ikahd Rje;jpuk; vd mwptpypfs; Nghy; ele;J tUfpd;wdH. ,tHfs; jk;ikAk; mwpahky; Mz;fspd; tf;fpu ftHr;rp vz;zq;fSf;F ,iuahf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gij mwpahky;> cz;ikahd Rje;jpuj;ij kwe;j Ngijfshf ftHr;rpg; nghk;ikfshf tyk; tUfpd;whHfs;. Fwpg;ghf ,jpy; K];ypk; ngz;fs; jk; moif ntspf;fhl;lhj KO Mil (gHjh) mzptijAk;> r%f jsq;fspy; Mzpd; fhkg; ghHitapYk;> tQ;rf tiyapYk; tpohky; xJq;fp jdpj;Jtkhf tho;tijAk; jhd; K];ypk; ngz;fs; mbikg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;whHfs; vd ,g;Nghypg; ngz;zpathjpfs; $r;rypLtjpypUe;J> kw;w ngz;fs; jhk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l Nghuhl;lj;jpypUe;J jtwp> Mz;fspd; rjptiyapy; tPo;e;J jk; Nehf;fq;fspypUe;J jpir jpUg;gg;gl;Ls;shHfs; vd;gij czuyhk;.

,ij fle;j 30 Mz;Lfshf ngz;fs; Rje;jpuk; kw;Wk; chpikf;fhff; Fuy; nfhLj;J tUk; f;hPH mtHfspd; rkPgj;jpa Ngl;b ep&gpf;fpd;wJ.

1970 y; ,Ue;J ngz; tpLjiyf;fhfg; Nghuhb tUk; n[Hikd; f;hPH (60) vd;w ngz;kzp> rkPgj;jpy; yz;ldpy; (khHr;> 7> 1999) y; ele;j cyfg; ngz;fs; khehl;by; fye;J nfhz;L NgRk; nghOJ> ,d;Wk; ngz;fs; mlf;Fkiwapy; ,Ue;Jk;> Mzhjpf;fj;jpy; ,Ue;Jk; tpLgltpy;iy vd;W $wpdhH.

,d;W FLk;g tho;f;ifapNy ngz;fs;> nfh^ukhd Kiwapy; fztdhy; elj;jg;gLfpwhHfs;. tPl;bNy mtHfis vijANk vjpHj;Jr; nray;glhj Gog; G+r;rpfisg; Nghy elj;jg;gLfpwhHfs;.

ntspapNyh mtHfs; Mz;fspd; F&ukhd ,r;irf;Fk; nghOJ Nghf;fpw;fhfTk;> ftHr;rp fhl;Lk; mbikfshfTk;> filr; ruf;fpNyh ftHr;rp fhl;Lk; Nghijg; nghUl;fshfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;whHfs;.

,tH murpaiyAk; tpl;L itf;ftpy;iy. fle;j NjHjypd; NghJ gphpl;b\; gpujkH Nlhdp gpNsH rpy ngz;fis ghuhSkd;wj;Jf;Ff; nfhz;L te;J> ,lk; epug;Gk; gzp vd;gij tpl> mtuJ nfhs;iffisf; fz; %b Mjhpf;Fk;> vjpHj;Jg; Ngrhj xU Ml;L ke;ijfis cUthf;fp itj;Js;shH vd;W tpkHr;rpj;Js;shH.

,tH rkPgj;jpy; vOjpa Gjpa ntspaPlhd “The Whole Women” vDk; Gj;jfj;jpy; Kjypy; ehq;fs; Jtq;fpa MZf;Fg; ngz; rkk; vDk; nfhs;ifg; Nghuhl;lk; Njhy;tpiaj; jOtpaJ kl;Lky;yhky;> gygLghjf tpisTfisAk; Vw;gLj;jp cs;sJ vdf; $wpAs;shH.

M];jpNuypahtpy; gpwe;j ,tH gphpl;b\; gy;fiyf;fofk; xd;wpy; gzpahw;wp ,Uf;fpwhH. ,tH $wpa fUj;Jf;fs; VNjh muG ehl;by; cl;fhHe;J nfhz;L Ngrtpy;iy. khwhf> ngz; tpLjiyf;fhfTk;> kjq;fspd; mlf;FKiwf;F vjpuhfg; NghuhLk; j];yPkh e];hPd;fSf;fhff; Fuy; nfhLg;gjw;fhfNt ,Uf;fpNwhk; vd khHjl;bf; nfhs;Sk; cyfpd; tsHe;j r%fk; vdf; $wpf; nfhs;Sk; gphpl;ldpy; ,Ue;j Ngrp cs;shH vd;gJ> mtHfspd; ngha; Kf%biaf; fpopg;gJ Nghy; cs;sJ vdyhk;.

 

,];yhj;jpy; ngz;fspd; chpikfs;

INuhg;ghthdJ 17 k; E}w;whz;by; ngz;Zf;Fk; capH cz;lh? vd tpthjk; elj;jpf; nfhz;bUe;j NghJ> mQ;Qhd ,Us; Jilf;f te;j muGyfj;jpy; 1420 Mz;LfSf;F Kd;Ng ngz;Zf;Fk; rk chpikfSk;> nghWg;GfSk; cs;sd vd rl;lkpaw;wpaJ kl;Lky;y> ngz;Zf;F mtHfspd; chpikfis toq;fp> jhk; xU cd;djhkhf r%fk; vdTk; ep&gpj;jJ.

,iwtdpd; jpUkiw top te;j me;j r%fk; jpUkiwapd; fPo;fhZk; trdk; %yk; ngz; vd;gtSk; Mizg; NghyNt chpikfs; ngw;w xU gilg;G vd czHe;J nfhz;lJ.

kdpjHfNs! cq;fs; ,iwtDf;Fg; gae;J ele;J nfhs;Sq;fs;> mtd; cq;fs; ahtiuAk; xNu Mj;khtpypUe;J gilj;jhd;> mthpypUe;Nj mtH kidtpiaAk; gilj;jhd;; gpd;dH ,t;tpUthpypUe;J> mNef Mz;fisAk; ngz;fisAk; (ntspg;gLj;jp cyfpy;) gutr; nra;jhd;; MfNt> my;yh`;Tf;Nf gae;J nfhs;Sq;fs;; mtidf;nfhz;Nl ePq;fs; xUtUf;nfhUtH (jkf;Fhpa chpikfisf;) Nfl;Lf; nfhs;fpwPHfs;; NkYk; (cq;fs;) ,uj;jf; fyg;Gila cwtpdHfisAk; (MjhpAq;fs;) - epr;rakhf my;yh`; cq;fs; kPJ fz;fhzpg;gtdhfNt ,Uf;fpd;whd;. (04:01)

NkYk; vjd; Kyk; cq;fspy; rpyiu NtW rpyiutpl my;yh`; Nkd;ikahf;fpapUf;fpd;whNdh> mjid (milaNtz;Lnkd;W) Nguhir nfhs;shjPHfs;; Mz;fSf;F> mtHfs; rk;ghjpj;j(tw;wpy; chpa) gq;Fz;L; (mt;thNw) ngz;fSf;Fk;> mtHfs; rk;ghjpj;(tw;wpy; chpa) gq;Fz;L; vdNt my;yh`;tplk; mtd; mUisf; NfSq;fs;; epr;rakhf my;yh`; vy;yhg; nghUl;fisAk; ed;F mwpe;jtdhf ,Uf;fpd;whd;. (04:32)

ngw;NwhNuh> neUq;fpa cwtpdHfNsh tpl;Lr; nrd;w (nrhj;)jpy; Mz;fSf;F ghfKz;L; mt;thNw ngw;NwhNuh> neUq;fpa cwtpdNuh tpl;Lr; nrd;w (nrhj;)jpy; ngz;fSf;Fk; ghfKz;L - (mjpypUe;Js;s nrhj;J) Fiwthf ,Ue;jhYk; rhp> mjpfkhf ,Ue;jhYk; rhpNa; (,J my;yh`;tpdhy;) tpjpf;fg;gl;l ghfkhFk;. (04:07)

Nkw;fz;l ,iwtrdq;fs; Mz;fisg; NghyNt ngz;fSk; midj;J rkgq;F ngw;wtHfs; vd;W njspthff; $wp mij eilKiwapYk; nray;gLj;jpf; fhl;bAs;sJ. ,iwtd; ngz;fSf;nfd toq;fpa chpikfis Ml;rpahsHfs; $l mfw;wNth Fiwf;fNth Kad;w NghJ> ,iwar;rk; mr; nray;fspy; <LgLtjpypUe;J mtHfisj; jLj;Jf; nfhz;lJ vd;gJ tuyhw;W cz;ikahFk;.

,];yhk; ngz;Zf;F vOj;Jhpik> fy;tp fw;f chpik> Ngr;Rhpik> nrhj;Jhpik> tpthf kw;Wk; tpthfuj;J chpik (gy kjq;fs; ,e;j chpikiag; ngz;fSf;F ,d;Dk; toq;ftpy;iy) Nghd;w ,d;Dk; Mz; ngw;Ws;s midj;J chpikfisAk; ,];yhk; ngz;fSf;F toq;fp nfsutpj;Js;sJ kl;Lky;yhky;> ngz;zpd; Kg;gUtq;fisr; Rl;bf;fhl;b> Foe;ij> kidtp> jha; Mfpa %d;W epiyfspy; mtSf;Fs;s jdpr; rpwg;Gf;fisAk; njspthfNt Rl;b nray;gLj;jpAk; tUfpwJ.

ngz;Foe;ijfs; ngWtJ rhgf; NfL vd;W fUtpNyNa mtw;iwf; nfhy;Yk; ,e;j ehspNy> ngz; Foe;ijapd; tsHg;gpd; rpwg;G gw;wp 1420 Mz;Lf;F Kd;dNu ,];yhk; vt;tsT nghpa rpfuj;jpy; ngz;zpd; ngUikia itj;Js;sJ vd;why;>

egp (]y;) mtHfs; etpd;whHfs;> ahhplk; ,uz;L ngz; Foe;ijfs; ,Ue;J mtw;iw ey;y Kiwapy; guhkhpj;J fy;tp Gfl;b> xOf;fj;Jld; tsHf;fpwhNuh mtUk;ehDk; nrhHf;fj;jpy; ,t;thW ,Ug;Nghk; vd jk; ,U tpuy;fisAk; rkkhf epWj;jp Rl;bf; fhl;bdhHfs;.

mJNghyNt> cq;fspy; rpwe;jtH ahH vdpy;> cq;fs; kidtpaplk; rpwe;j Kiwapy; ele;J nfhs;fpwhNuh mtNu! vd;W egp (]y;) mtHfs; etpd;whHfs;.

,d;Dk; xUKiw xU kdpjH egp (]y;) mtHfsplk; ,t;thW tpdtpdhHfs; :

vd;Dila Kjy; Nritiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s chpik gilj;jtH ahH vd tpdtpaNghJ> cdJ jha; vd egp (]y;) mtHfs; gjpyspj;jhHfs;. kPz;Lk; mtH tpdtpa NghJk; jha; vd;Wk;> %d;whk; KiwAk; tpdtpa NghJk; jha; vd;Wk;> ehd;fhtJ Kiwahf tpdtpa nghOJ jhd; je;ij vdg; gjpy; $wpdhHfs;.

,t;thW md;Wk; rhp ,d;Wk; rhp tajhdtHfis kjpg;gjpy; ,];yhk; fw;Wf; nfhLj;j msTk;> mNj Nghyg; ngz;fisf; nfsutpg;gjpy; ,];yhk; toq;fpAs;s newpKiwfSk; cyfpd; NtW ve;j kjKk; toq;fhjit.

ngz;fspd; gpurt typapd; NghJ> kUj;Jtkidapy; typapd; jPtpuj;ijf; Fiwf;f kaf;f kUe;J nfhLj;J> gpurtk; ghHg;gJz;L. me;j kaf;f kUe;J nfhLg;gij ,d;Wk; xU r%fk; vjpHj;J tUfpwJ. Vnddpy;> mJ VthSld; gpwe;j> ,iwtd; Vthspd; jtWf;F toq;fpa jz;lidahd gpwtpg; ghtk; vd ,r;r%fk; fUJtJ jhd; fhuzkhFk;. kaf;f kUe;J nfhLj;J me;jj; jz;lidiag; ngWtjpypUe;J mtis tpLtpf;ff; $lhJ vd ,d;Wk; ngz;fs; kPj jpuhj ghtr; Rikia - mjthJ md;W Vths; nra;j ghtj;jpw;F ve;j ghtKk; nra;ahj ,d;iwa ngz;fSk; jz;lidia mDgtpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> mjpypUe;J mtis tpLtpf;ff; $lJ vd ,d;Wk; ngz;fs; kPJ jPuhj ghtr; Rikia Vw;wp tUtJ Nghy ,];yhk; nghWg;gpd;wp ve;j epiyapYk; <Lgltpy;iy.

mtsJ khjtplha;f; fhyj;jpy; mtisj; jPz;lj; jfhj gpwtpahf ,d;Dk; gy;NtW r%fq;fs; mtis elj;jpAk;> mf;fhyj;jpy; mtis thOk; ,lq;fspy; ,Ue;J jdpikg;gLj;jpAk; tUtJ ehk mwpe;jNj.

egp (]y;) mtHfs; gs;spapy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ Map\h (uyp) mtHfis mioj;J Map\hNt! me;j Milia vd;dplk; vLj;Jj; jhUq;fs; vd;W Nfl;lhHfs;. ehd; njhlj; jfhjtshf cs;Nsd;. (mjhtJ khjtplha;g; ngz;zhf cs;Nsd;) vd;W $wpNdd;. khjtplha; cdJ ifapy; ,y;iyNa> vd;W egp (]y;) mtHfs; $wpaJk;> me;j Milia vLj;J egp (]y;) mtHfsplk; nfhLj;Njd;. (mwptpg;gtH : Map]h (uyp) : E}y; : e]aP).

,d;Dk; xU r%fk; fztd; ,we;J tpl;lhy; mtis vhpAk; neUg;gpy; Vw;wp mtis kha;j;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. mtis nkhl;ilabj;J> mtSf;nfd jdp Mil nfhLj;J> Kf;fpakhd epfo;Tfspy; mtis jPz;lj;jfhjtshf r%f gfp\;fhuk; nra;Jk; tUfpwJ.

NkYk;> ,tHfs; kWkzk; vd;why; vd;d vd;gijNa epidj;Jk; ghHf;f jFjpaw;wtHfshf> mr;r%fj;jpy; rpWikg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wdH.

Nkw;fz;l epiyfs; cyfpd kpfg; ngUk; kjq;fspy; eilngwk; epfo;TfshFk;. ,it vy;yhk; 1420 Mz;Lf;F Kd;dNu ,];yhj;jpd; tuthy; Jilj;njwpag;gl;l r%ff; fopTfshFk;.

ngz;zpd; Foe;ijg; gUtj;jpy; ,Ue;J Muk;gpj;J mts; Kjik milAk; tiuAk;> mtsJ ,Wjp ehs; tiuAk; ,];yhk; je;j r%f ghJfhg;G mstpl ,ayhjJ. me;jg; ghJfhg;ig ,];yhk; ,d;Wk; Mjhug;G+Htkhf cWjp nra;Js;sJ.

rpRtijAk;> tujl;rizf; nfhLikahy; ];lt; ntbj;J ngz; rhtJk;> tajhd fhyj;jpy; ftdpg;ghuw;W tplg;gLk; KjpatHfspd; vz;zpf;ifAk; kw;w r%fq;fSld; xg;gpLk; NghJ K];ypk;fsplj;jpy; ,it Fiwthd epfo;TfNs vd Gs;sp tpguq;fs; ep&gpf;fpd;wd.

,d;iwf;F Kjyhspj;Jt rpe;jidapd; jhf;fk; fk;A+dp] rpj;jhe;jj;ijAk;> flTNs ,y;iy vd kWg;NghiuAk; Ml;nfhz;ljd; tpisT> ,d;iwf;F K];ypk; ngz;fs; mzpe;jpUf;Fk; gHjh Kiwiag; ghHj;J> Kjyhspj;Jtk; tpkHrpg;gJ NghyNt ,tHfSk; tpkHrpf;f Muk;gpf;fpd;whHfs;. Kjyhspj;Jtj;jpw;F jd;Dila filr; ruf;if tpw;f ngz;fs; ftHr;rpg; nghUshf khw Ntz;Lk;> mg;gb khwpdhy; me;j jd;Dila ruf;F tpw;gidahFk; vd;gjhy;> ngz;iz mtsJ khdj;ij> mtsJ fz;zpaj;ij fhw;wpy; gwf;f tpl;L tpl;L> jd;Dila gzg; igia epug;gpf; nfhs;fpd;wJ.

,jidj; jtpHf;Fk; xt;nthU ngz;Zk; gj;jhk; gryp vd miof;fg;gLfpd;whs;. filr;ruf;fhf> fhl;rpg; nghUshf khwhf xt;nthU ngz;Zk; tpkHrpf;fg;gLfpd;whs;. me;j tifapy; filr; ruf;fhf khwhJ> ngz;ikapd; nkd;ikia %b kiwj;J> mtHfis fz;zpag;gLj;Jk; me;j gHjh cilAk; ,d;iwf;F tpkHrdj;jpw;Fs;shfpd;wJ. me;j cil mlf;FKiwapd; rpd;dkhfg; ghHf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j tpkHrdg; ghHitg; gOjpy;> fk;A+dp]k; NgRk; rNfhjuHfSk;> flTNs ,y;iy vdg; NgRk; rNfhjuHfSk; tPo;e;J tpl;by; G+r;rpfsha;> fpzw;Wj; jtisfsha;f; fj;JtJ mtHfsJ mwpahikiaj; jhd; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

 

xU kUj;Jt Ma;T mwpf;if ,t;thW $Wfpd;wJ:

MZf;F fhk ,r;irj;J}z;Ljy;fs; mtd; ngz;izg; ghHf;Fk; ghHitapNyNa Muk;gkhfp tpLfpd;wJ. Mdhy; ngz;Zf;Nfh mtisj; njhLk; nghOJ jhd; fhk ,r;ir clypNy J}z;lg;gLfpd;wJ.

ngz; ftHr;rpahdts;. ftHr;rpahf mts; cil mzpe;J nry;Yk; nghOJ> mtsJ mq;fq;fisg; ghHf;Fk; MltDf;F fhk ,r;ir J}z;lg;gLfpd;wJ. r%ff; Fw;wk; mtdJ ghHitapypUe;J Muk;gkhfpd;wJ. me;jf; Fw;wk; epfo mts; cLj;Jk; cilaoF fhuzkhfp tpLfpd;wJ. vdNt> me;j ngz;ikapd; moif> nkd;ikia %b kiwj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs; vd ,];yhk; $wp> MizAk; ngz;izAk; r%ff; Fw;wj;jpy; <Lglhky; ghJfhf;fpd;wJ. fhuzk;..! ,e;jg; G+kp r%ff; Fw;wq;fs; ,y;yhj mikjpahd gpuNjrkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj my;yhky;> mtis %b kiwj;J tPl;by; Klf;fpg; Nghl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjdhy; my;y vd;gij rNfhjuHfs; czHe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. gFj;jwpT vd;gJ fz;Zf;Fk;> GyDf;Fk; vl;LtJ kl;Lky;;y> mjw;F mg;ghYk; cz;L vd;gijAk; czHe;J nray;gLtJ ed;W.

,d;iwf;F ngz;zpak; vd;Wk; Mzhjpf;fk; vd;Wk; jkpOf;Fg; GJg; GJ thHj;ijfis ,e;j etPd? rpe;jdhthjpfs; NjHe;njLj;Jg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;whHfs;.

kdpj tho;tpy; FLk;g mikg;G vd;gJ Kf;fpakhdJk;> ,aw;ifahdJk; $l. Mz; mtdJ nghWg;igAk;> ngz; mtsJ nghWg;igAk; Vw;W> mtutHfSf;F vd xJf;fg;gl;Ls;s ,iwtd; toq;fpAs;s jftikg;GfSf;Fj; jf;fthW jq;fsJ gzpfisr; nra;tjpy; jhd;> ,aw;ifapNyNa Mz;-ngz; vd ,iwtd; tpj;jpahrg;gLj;jpg; gilj;jpUg;gjd; ufrpak; mlq;fpAs;sJ.

,d;iwf;F ,e;j FLk;g mikg;ig; rPHFiyj;j ngUik Nkiyehl;L mehfhPfq;fspd; jhf;fk; vd;why; mJ kpifapy;iy. cyfg; NghHfSf;Fg; gpd; MZk;> ngz;Zk; rkk; vd;w Nfh\q;fs; NkiyehLfspy; vOk;gpajd; fhuzj;ijAk;> mNj Nfh\k; ,d;Dk; ,];yhkpa ehLfspy; Vd; vOk;gtpy;iy> vOg;gg;gltpy;iy vd;w fhuzj;ijAk; Ma;T nra;tJ ey;yJ.

Vnddpy; NkiyehLfspy; tho;e;j md;iwa ngz;fSf;F capH cz;lh? vd;Nw mtHfs; ek;gtpy;iy. xU Nghfg; nghUshfj; jhd; epidj;jhHfs;. vdNt mtHfs; jq;fsJ chpikfis Nghuhbg; ngw Ntz;ba fl;lhak; ,Ue;jJ. ,d;iwf;Fk; ek; ehl;by; njhl;by; jpl;lq;fs; nrhy;tnjd;d? Mzhjpf;fKk; my;y> ngz;zpaKk; my;y. nghUshjhuk; jhd; fhuzkhFk;. kfDf;F rPjdk; kw;Wk; tujl;riz NgRtjpy; Miz tpl ngz;Nz fwhwhf ,Uf;fpd;whs;> mg;gbf; Nfl;gtSk; ngz;jhNd vDk; NghJ> ,J ngz;zhjpf;fk; vd;W nrhy;Nthkh? my;yJ r%fr; rPHNfL vd;W nrhy;Nthkh?

,d;iwf;F ek; ehl;by; ngz;fs; ,af;fk; vd;Wk;> ngz;fspd; chpikg; ghJfhg;Gf; fofq;fs; vd;Wk; ngz;zpak; NgRNthH mjpfhpj;Js;sdH. ,it ahTk; NkiyehLfspd; jhf;fk; vdyhk;. ,e;jpa fyhr;rhuj;jpy; ngz;fs; tPl;Lg; nghWg;Gf;fisAk;> mjDld; Foe;ij tsHg;G> tPl;L epHthfk; vd ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jJ Nghf ,d;iwf;F> Mzhjpf;fj;jpypUe;J tpLgLNthk; thUq;fs; vd;w Fuiyf; Nfl;L kaq;fp> tPl;il tpl;L jq;fsJ nghWg;Gf;fis cjwpj; js;sp tpl;L> Rje;jpuk;! Rje;jpuk; vd ek; Njrg; ngz;fs; tPjpf;F tUtJ> ,e;jpa Njrj;jpd; FLk;g mikg;Gfisr; rPuopj;Js;sJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf tPL mikjpahf ,Ue;j ,lk; vd;gJ khwp> gy;NtW mtyq;fSk;> rpj;utijfSk;> Nghuhl;lq;fSk; eilngwf; $ba fskhf khwp tUfpd;wJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf tPl;by; tsuf; $ba ,sk; gpQ;Rfs;> ,sikapNyNa ntk;gp> gpQ;rpNy gOj;j goq;fshf khwp tUfpd;w mtyk;> ,d;iwf;F tPjpf;F tPjp Fw;wthspfshff; fhl;baspf;Fk; ,e;jpa Nrj;jpd; ,sk; ,uj;jq;fNs> ,jw;fhd rhl;rpaq;fshFk;.

,sk; Fw;wthspfs; mjpfkhfpd;whHfs;. fhuzk; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gltpy;iyah? my;yJ fhuzq;fs; njhpe;Jk; ek; if kPwpr; nrd;W tpl;l ek; jtwhd Nghf;Ffsh? rpe;jpf;f Ntz;baJ ,e;jpa r%fj;jpd; kPJ fl;lhakhFk;.

,j;jifa mtyq;fisj; Jilj;njwpe;J tpl;L> r%ff; fopTfspypUe;J ngz;fisf; fhg;ghw;wp> ngz;zpd; ngUikfisg; Nghw;wpg; ghJfhj;J tUk; ,];yhj;jpd; J}ij mwpe;J nfhs;stJ K];ypk;fSf;F kl;Lky;y> khw;Wkj rNfhju rNfhjhpfSf;Fk; mj;jifa chpik cz;L.

Vnddpy; ,J xd;Nw cq;fisAk; vq;fisAk; gilj;j xNu ,iwtdpd; tho;f;if newpahFk;. mjd; ngaH ,];yhk; vd;gjhFk;.

 

,];yhkpag; ngz;fs; mtrpak; njhpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;ba nghJthd chpikfs;

epr;rakhf ngz;fs; mtrpak; njhpe;J itj;jpUf;f Ntz;ba nghJthd chpikfs; cs;sd. mtw;iw mts; tpUk;Gk; NghJ G+uzkhfr; nra;J nfhs;tijr; r%fk; mq;fPfhpf;fTk; nra;fpd;wJ. ,d;iwf;F K];ypk; ngz;fsplj;jpy; ,Uf;fpd;w mwpahikapd; fhuzkhf> ,];yhk; mtHfSf;F toq;fpaUf;fpd;w chpikfisg; gw;wpf; $l mwpe;jpUf;fhj epiyapy;> gy tpUk;gj;jfhj rk;gtq;fs; epfoTk; mjpy; mtHfis ,of;f Ntz;ba epiyfSk; cUthfp tpLfpd;wd.

,jw;F ,];yhj;jpy; Mzhjpf;fk; vd;W Fw;wk; Rkj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. fhuzk; ,];yhkpar; rl;lq;fis Mz;fSk;> ngz;fSk; mwpahjtHfshf ,Uf;fpd;whHfs; vd;gJk;> jq;fisr; #o;e;Js;s Mzhjpf;f r%fj;jpd; jhf;fq;fspy; K];ypk;fs; jq;fis ,oe;J tpLtjd; fhuzkhfTk; epfo;e;J tpLfpd;w mj;jifa rk;gtq;fs; ,];yhj;jpw;F mtg; ngaiu <l;bj; je;J tpLfpd;wd. vdNt> MNzh my;yJ ngz;Nzh ,];yhk; jdf;F toq;fpapUf;fpd;w chpikfs; gw;wp mwpe;J nfhs;s Kaw;rpf;f Ntz;batJ mtutH kPJs;s flikahFk;.

 

ngz;fSf;fhd chpikfspy; rpy :

nrhe;jkhf;fpf; nfhs;sy; :

tPLfs;> tptrha epyq;fs;> Njhl;lq;fs;> nts;sp> jq;fk; Nghd;w Mguz tiffs;> fhy;eil tiffs; ,tw;wpy; tpUk;gpatw;iw xU ngz; jdf;Fr; nrhe;jkhf;fpf; nfhs;syhk;. mg;ngz; jhahf my;yJ kfshf my;yJ rNfhjhpahf ,Ug;gpDk; rhp.

jpUkzk; :

jpUkzk; nra;tJ> fztidj; NjHT nra;tJ> jdf;F tpUg;gkpy;yhjtid Vw;f kWg;gJ> jdf;F ,ilA+W Vw;gl;lhy; jpUkz xg;ge;jj;ij Kwpj;Jf; nfhs;tJ Nghd;wtw;wpYk; mts; chpik ngWfpwhs;. ,it ngz;fSf;Fhpa chpikfs; vd;gjpy; ,];yhk; kw;w kjq;fis tpl jdpj;Jtkhf tpsq;Ffpd;wJ.

fy;tp fw;Fk; chpik :

jdf;F mtrpakhdtw;iwf; fw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; chpik gilj;jts;. ,iwtidg; gw;wpAk;> ,iwkiwiag; gw;wpAk;> ,iwj;J}jhpd; tho;T> xOf;f khz;Gfs; kw;Wk; ,e;j cyf tho;Tf;Fhpa midj;Jf; fy;tpfisAk;> kdpj rKjhaj;jpw;Fg; gad;glf; $batw;iwAk; fw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;gb ,iwkiw MizAk;>ngz;izAk; typAWj;jpf; $Wfpd;wJ.

my;yh`;itj; jtpu tzf;fj;;jpw;Fj; jFjpahdtd; NtW ahUkpy;iy vd;gij mwpe;J nfhs; (47:19) vd my;yh`;Tk;> fy;tpiaj; NjLtJ Mz;> ngz; midtH kPJk; flikahFk; vd egp (]y;) mtHfSk; fy;tp fw;f Ntz;ba mtrpaj;ij czHj;jpapUg;gjhy;> ,];yhj;jpy; fy;tp fw;gjd; mtrpak; gw;wp ekf;Fj; njspTgLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.

nryT nra;jy; :

jdJ nghUspy; jhd; ehbaijj; jHkk; nra;J nfhs;tjw;Fk;> jdf;Fk; jdJ fztd;> gps;isfs;> jha;> je;ijaHfs; ,tHfspy; jhd; tpUk;gpatHfSf;F tPz;> tpuakpy;yhj msTf;F nryT nra;J nfhs;s chpik ngWfpwhs;. ,t;tp\aj;jy; ,tHfSk; Mz;fisg; Nghd;Nw nryT nra;Ak; chpikiag; ngWfpd;whHfs;.

tpUg;G> ntWg;Gf; nfhs;Sjy; :

mts; ey;y ngz;fis tpUk;gTk;> mtHfisr; re;jpf;fTk; nra;ayhk;. ,d;Dk; mtHfSf;Fj; jghy;fs; mDg;gp mtHfspd; epiyikfisf; Nfl;Lj; njhpe;J nfhs;syhk;. f\;l fhyq;fspy; mtHfSf;F MWjYk; $wpf; nfhs;syhk;. my;yh`;tpw;fhf nfl;l ngz;fis ntWj;J> mtHfis tpl;Lk; xJq;fp tpLtJk; $Lk;. (,q;Nf xd;iwf; ftdpf;f Ntz;Lk;.. me;epa MZk;> me;epag; ngz;Zk; re;jpg;Gfs; elj;JtijNah> xd;W $LtijNah ,];yhk; mDg;gjpy;iy. jpUkzk; Kbf;f mDkjp kWf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;w cwTfs; jtpHj;J kw;w Mz;fSld; ngz;fs; fye;J goFtij mDkjpg;gjpy;iy. ,jd; tpisTfis ,d;iwf;F Nkiy ehLfs; mDgtpj;J tUfpd;wd. xOf;fr; rPHNfl;bw;F ,it jhk; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpd;wd)

kuz rhrdk; :

mtspd; nrhj;jpy; %d;wpy; xd;iw mtsJ [Ptpj fhyj;jpy; kuz rhrdk; vOjpf; nfhs;tjw;Fk; mij vt;tpj Ml;Nrgiz nra;ahky; nray;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; mtSf;F chpikAz;L. Vnddpy; kuz rhrdk; vOJtnjd;gJ nghJthd kdpj chpikfisr; rhHe;jjhFk;. vdNt ,J Mz;fSf;fpUg;gJ Nghd;W ngz;fSf;FkpUf;fpwJ. Vnddpy; my;yh`;tplk; ed;ikiag; ngWtij tpl;L ahiuAk; ahUk; jLf;f KbahJ. vd;whYk; kuz rhrdk; %d;wpy; xU gFjpia tpl mjpfkhfkypg;gJ epge;jidahFk;. ,jpy; Mz;fSk; ngz;fSk; rkNk.

gl;lhil jq;fk; mzpjy; :

gl;ilAk;> jq;fj;ijAk; ngz;fs; mzpe;J nfhs;tJ $Lk;. ,t;tpuz;Lk; Mz;fSf;Fj; jLf;fg;gl;ljhFk;. xU ngz; jdJ fztDf;F Kd;dpiyapy; jhd; tpUk;Gk; tifapYk;> mJ Nghy; jd; fztd; tpUk;Gk; tifapYk; mtDld; Fiwe;j Mil my;yJ Milaw;w epiyapy;  kw;Wk; jiy> fOj;J> khHG Kjypatw;iw jdJ fztDld; jdpj;jpUf;Fk; nghOJ jpwe;J nfhs;s mDkjp mspf;fg;gl;bUf;fpwJ.

myq;fhpj;Jf; nfhs;sy; :

jdJ fztDf;fhf jd;id myq;fhpj;Jf; nfhs;s chpik ngWfpwhs;. vdNt mts; RHkh vd;w fz;zoF ,l;Lf; nfhs;sTk;> fd;dq;fis Nkf;fg; rhjdq;fisapl;L moFgLj;jpf; nfhs;Sjy;> cjl;Lr; rhakpl;Lf; nfhs;Sjy;> kpf mofpa mzpfyd;fis mzpe;J nfhs;sTk; chpik gilj;jtshfpd;whs;. vdpDk; K];ypky;yhj kw;Wk; jtwhd elj;ijAs;s kw;Wk; ebiffisAk; mehr;rhuj;jpy; %o;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;w khly; mofpfisAk; Nghy miwFiw Mil mzptijAk;> mtHfisg; Nghyj; Njhw;wkspg;gJk; $lhJ.

cz;gJ> Fbg;gJ :

ey;y Ritahd ghdq;fis gUfTk; mJNghd;w czTfis cz;zTk; mtSf;F chpikAz;L. cz;gjpYk; Fbg;gjpYk; Mz;fSf;Fk; ngz;fSf;Fk; kj;jpapy; ve;jg; ghFghLk; ,y;iy. ,t;tpuz;by; Mz;fSf;F mDkjpf;fg;gl;l midj;Jk; ngz;fSf;Fk; mDkjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. my;yh`; $Wfpwhd; :

cz;Zq;fs; gUFq;fs;> Mdhy; tPz; tpuak; nra;ahjPHfs;. epr;rakhf tPz; tpuak; nra;gtHfis my;yh`; Nerpg;gjpy;iy. (7:31). ,q;F ,UghyiuAk; Nehf;fpNa ,t;thW $wg;gl;Ls;sJ.

fztd; kPJ kidtpf;Fhpa flikfs;

xU ngz;Zf;F mtsJ fztd; nra;a Ntz;ba rpy Fwpg;gpl;l flikfspUf;fpd;wd. ,f;flikfs; jdJ fztDf;F mts; nra;a Ntz;ba rpy Fwpg;gpl;l flikfSf;Fg; gfukhfp tpLfpd;wd. mit my;yh`;Tf;Fk; mtdJ J}jUf;Fk; khw;wpkpy;yhf; fhhpaq;fspy; fztDf;Ff; fl;Lg;gl;L elg;gJ> mtd; cz;gjw;Fk; gUFtjw;Fk; jahH nra;J nfhLg;gJ> Foe;ijfSf;Fg; ghY}l;LtJ> mtHfis tsHg;gJ> mtdJ nghUisAk; khdj;ijAk; ghJfhg;gJ> jdJ fw;igg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tJ> mDkjpf;fg;gl;l tiffspy; mtDf;fhf jd;id myq;fhpj;Jf; nfhs;tJ> moFgLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ Nghd;witfshFk;. ,it xU ngz; mtsJ fztDf;Fr; nra;a Ntz;ba fllhaf; flikfshFk;.

my;yh`; $Wfpwhd; :

kidtpaH kPJ fztHfSf;F cs;s chpikfisg; NghyNt Kiwg;gb fztHfs; kPJ kidtpaUf;Fk; chpikAz;L. (2:228)

K/kpdhd ngz; ,tw;iw mwpe;J vt;tpj ehzKk; gaKkpd;wp ,t;Thpikfisf; Nfl;Lg; ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf ,tw;iwf; $WfpNwhk;. ,itfspy; rpytw;iw mts; kd;dpj;J tpl;lhyd;wp> fztd; ,itfis KOikahf kidtpf;F toq;FtJ flik. mts; tpl;Lf; nfhLg;gJk; $Lk;.

  • mtd; jdJ trjp> Vo;ik epiyiaf; ftdpj;J mtSf;Fr; nryTf;Ff; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mil> czT> Fbg;G> kUj;Jtk;> jq;Fkplk; ,itfSf;fhf nryit mts; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

  • Mz;> ngz;iz epHtfpf;f Ntz;batdhfapUg;gjhy; mtspd; khdk;> khpahij> cly;> nghUs;> khHf;fk; ,it midj;jpYk; mtisg; ghJfhf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU nghUisg; ghJfhj;J ftdpj;J tUtnjd;gJ mjid epHtfpj;J tUgtdpd; nghWg;gpYs;sjhFk;.

  • mtspd; khHf;f tpraq;fspy; mtrpakhdtw;iw mtSf;Ff; fw;Wf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. mtDf;F ,ayh tpl;lhy; my;yh`;tpd; ,y;yq;fspYk;> fy;tpf; $lq;fspYk; eilngWfpd;w ngz;fSf;Fhpa khHf;ff; $l;lq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W tu mDkjpaspf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; mt;tplq;fs; Fog;gj;ij tpl;Lk; ghJfhg;ghdjhf ,Ug;gNjhL mtDf;Nfh mtSf;Nfh mjpy; ,ilA+W Vw;glhkypUg;gJk; mtrpakhFk;.

  • mtsplk; mofpa Kiwapy; ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. my;yh`; $Wfpwhd; : mtHfNshL ey;yKiwapy; tho;f;if elj;Jq;fs; (4:119)

ey;y Kiwapy; tho;f;if elj;Jq;fs; vd;gjpy; clYwtpy; mtSf;Fhpa chpikiaf; Fiwj;jplhkypUg;gJ> jpl;lkpLtJ> ,opTgLj;jtJ> Nftyg;gLj;JtJ Nghd;wtw;why; mtSf;Fj; njhy;iy nfhLf;fhkypUg;gJ Mfpait mlq;Fk;. ,d;Dk; mts; jdJ cwtpdHfisr; re;jpj;J tUtjhy; Fog;gk; Vw;gLnkd mtd; gag;glhj NghJ mtidj; jLf;fhkypUg;gJk;> mtSf;F Kbahj Ntiyfisr; nra;Ak;gb rpukk; nfhLf;fhkypUg;gJk;> nrhy;ypYk;> nraypYk; mtSld; mofpa Kiwapy; ele;J nfhs;tJk; mjpy; mlq;Fk;.

Vnddpy; egp (]y;) mtHfs; $wpAs;shHfs; : jk; kidtpahplj;jpy; rpwe;jtNu cq;fspy; rpwe;jtH. cq;fspy; ehd; vdJ kidtpahplj;jpy; rpwe;jtshf ,Uf;fpd;Nwd;. NkYk; $wpdhHfs; : ngz;fisf; fz;zpakhf elj;JgtHfNs ey;ytHfs;. mtHfis ,opthf elj;JgtHfs; jhk; nfl;ltHfs;.

gHjh mzpjy;

epr;rakhf ,];yhk; FLk;g mikg;G tPo;e;J rpd;dh gpd;dg;gl;Lg; Nghfhky; mijg; ghJfhg;gjpy; mf;fiw nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,jdhy; mijr; Rw;wp xOf;fq;fs; kw;Wk; ew;Fzq;fshyhd cWjp tha;e;j Ntypia vOg;gpAs;sJ. fhuzk; kdpjHfs; epk;kjpahfTk; rKjhak; J}a;ikahdjhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf. mr;rKjhaj;jpy; fhk czHT J}z;lg;gl KbahJ. fhkk; fpswg;gl KbahJ. ,aw;ifr; #o;epiyiaf; NfLgLj;jpl KbahJ. ,d;Dk; epr;rakhf ,];yhk; Fog;gj;jpy; ghy; ,l;Lr; nry;yf; $ba midj;J thry;fspYk; jpiuia Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. Mz; ngz; ,UghyUk; jk; ghHitfisj; jho;j;jpf; nfhs;Sk;gbAk; VtpAs;sJ.

epr;rakhf my;yh`; ngz;izf; fz;zpag;gLj;Jtjw;fhfTk;> ,optpypUe;J mtspd; khd khpahijiag; ghJfhg;gjw;fhfTk;> Fog;gthjpfs; kw;Wk; jPa vz;zk; cilatHfspd; nfLjpia tpl;Lk; mtisj; J}ug;gLj;Jtjw;fhfTk;> fz;zpaj;jpDila tpiykjpg;ig mwpahjtHfsplkpUe;J mtisg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;jtjw;fhfTk;> tp\g;ghHitfSf;Ff; fhuzkhf Fog;gj;jpd; thriy milj;jpLtjw;fhfTk;> ngz;zpd; fz;zpaj;ijAk; fw;igAk; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhfTNk my;yh`; ngz;fSf;Fg; gHjh mzptij rl;lkhf Mf;fpAs;shd;.

,];yhkpa mwpQHfs; ngz;fs; jq;fspd; ,U Kd; iffisAk; Kfj;ijAk; jtpu cs;s vy;yhg; ghfq;fisAk; %b kiwj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,d;Dk; me;epa Mz;fspd; Kd;dpiyapy; jdJ moifAk;> ftHr;rpiaAk; ntspg;gLj;jf; $lhJ vd Vfkdjhf KbT nra;Js;sdH. Kfj;ijAk; Kd; iffisAk; kiwf;f Ntz;Lkh? vd;gjpy; mwpQHfspilNa fUj;JNtWghL cs;sJ. xt;nthU gphptpdhplj;jpYk; jq;fsJ fUj;jpw;Nfw;g Mjhuq;fSk; cs;sd.

ehk; thOfpd;w ,e;jf; fhyg; gphptpy; Fog;gq;fs; kype;Js;sd. ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd ghypay; J\;gpuNahfq;fs; kpFe;J fhzg;gLfpd;wd. nghJ ,lq;fspy; ngz;fisr; rPz;LtJk; mjpfhpj;jpUf;fpd;wJ. fhuzk; ,iwtopfhl;Ljy;fisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;shj r%fj;jpy; cs;stHfs;> ,iwar;rk; ,y;yhjtHfs; jhd; ,j;jifa ,op nray;fspy; <LgLfpd;whHfs;.

,];yhk; ngz;fs; me;epa MltHfSld; fye;JwthLtijj; jilnra;Js;sJ. ,itaidj;Jk; gz;ghLfs;> rpwg;Gfs;> FLk;gq;fs; Kjypatw;iwg; ghJfhg;gjw;Fk;> Fog;gj;jpd; thry;fisAk; Fog;gij Vw;gLj;jf; $ba topfisAk; milg;gjw;Fk; mtw;iwg; ghJfhg;gjw;Fk; ,];yhk; mf;fiw nfhs;fpwJ. ngz; ntspNa nry;tjhy;> me;epa MltHfSld; fye;J tpLtjhy;> gHjh Kiwia Nkw;nfhs;shkypUg;gjhy; ,r;irfs; J}z;lg;gLfpd;wd> jtWf;fhd fhuz fhhpaq;fis vspjhf;fg;gLtNjhL mtw;iw miltJk; ,Nyrhf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

my;yh`; $Wfpd;whd; :

(egpapd; kidtpaHfNs!) ePq;fs; cq;fspd; tPLfspNyNa jq;fp tpLq;fs;. Kd;dH mwpahikf; fhyj;Jg; ngz;fs; jphpe;jijg; Nghd;W jphpe;J nfhz;bUf;fhjPHfs;. (33:33) egp (]y;) mtHfspd; kidtpahplk; ePq;fs; VjhtJ xd;iwf; Nfl;gjhf ,Ue;jhy; jpiu kiwtpypUe;J Nfl;Lf; nfhs;Sq;fs; (33:53)

Mz;fSk; ngz;fSk; fye;J tpLtij egp (]y;) mtHf;s fz;bg;ghfj; jil nra;Js;shHfs;. ,d;Dk; mg;gb fye;J tpLtjw;Ff; fhuzkhd midj;ijAk; - tzf;f topghLfs; eilngWk; ,lq;fspYk; $l jLj;Js;shHfs;.

xU ngz; rpy re;jHg;gq;fspy; jdJ mtrpaj; Njitfis epiwT nra;j nfhLg;gthpy;yhj NghJ jdJ Njitfis epiwT nra;J nfhs;tjw;Fk; my;yJ jdf;Fk; jdJ FLk;gj;jpdUf;Fk; czitj; Njbf; nfhs;tjw;fhf tpw;gjw;Fk; thq;Ftjw;Fk; my;yJ ,J Nghd;w mtrpaj; NjitfSf;fhf Mz;fspUf;Fk; ,lj;jpw;F Nghf Ntz;ba epHg;ge;jj;jpw;F Mshfp tpLfpwhs;. ,e;jr; rkaj;jpy; mts; khHf;f tuk;Gfisg; Ngzp jdJ myq;fhuj;ij ntspg;gLj;jhky; ,];yhkpa Kiwg;gb jd;id kiwj;Jf; nfhz;L ntspNawp> Mz;fis tpl;Lk; ePq;fp> mtHfSld; fye;jplhjthW nrd;W tUtjpy; Fw;wkpy;iy.

xU ngz; me;epaUld; jdpj;jpUg;gij ,];yhk; jLj;jpUg;gjhdJ> FLk;gj;ijAk; gz;ghl;ilAk; ghJfhg;gjw;F ,];yhk; mikj;Js;s rpwe;j topahFk;. egp (]y;) mtHf; xU ngz; jd;Dila fztd; my;yJ mts; kzk; Kbj;Jf; nfhs;s tpyf;fg;gl;ltd; ,y;yhj NghJ me;epa MZld; mts; jdpj;jpUg;gij fLikahf vr;rhpj;Js;shHfs;. Vnddpy; epr;rakhf i\j;jhd; cs;sq;fisAk; Fzq;fisAk; nfLg;gjw;F kpfTk; Nguhir cs;stdhf ,Uf;fpd;whd;.

,d;Dk; khjtplha; kw;Wk; gpurt ,uj;jj; jPl;L Nghd;w rkaq;fspy; mtis tPl;il tpl;L xJf;fp itf;Fk; gof;fj;ij ,];yhk; mbNahL khw;wp mikj;J> me;j rkaq;fspy; mtHfs; Ngz Ntz;b topKiwfs; vd;d vd;d vd;gij jdpr; rl;lkhfNt ,];yhk; ngz;fSf;Fj; njhFj;Jj; je;Js;sJ vd;gJ kw;w kjq;fspy; ,y;yhj> ,];yhj;jpw;Nf cs;s jdpr;rpwg;ghFk;.

,t;tsitAk; kjk; vd;w epiyapy; epd;W ,];yhk; ,e;j kdpj rKjhaj;jpw;F rl;l jpl;lq;fis tFj;Jj; jutpy;iy. khwhf> mtw;iw xU tho;f;if newpahfj; je;J> ,e;j kdpj rKjhak; ,e;jg; G+kpapy; mikjpahd Kiwapy; tho;tjw;Fk;> ,aq;Ftjw;Fk; toptif nra;J nfhLj;Js;sJ vd;wpUf;Fk; NghJ> kw;w kjq;fisg; NghyNt ,];yhKk; ngz;zbik khHf;fk; vd;W J}w;WNthH> cz;ikapy; jq;fsJ ,jaq;fisr; Rj;jg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L tpkHrdg; ghHitia tPRtJ ey;yJ.

fk;A+dp]Kk;> Kjyhspj;JtKk; ,d;Dk; gpw ,]q;fSk; kdpjHfis xU nghUshjhug; gpuhzpahfNt ghHf;fpd;wd. Mdhy; ,];yhNkh> ,iwtdpd; cd;djg; gilg;ghfNt ghHf;fpwJ.

ď H 4 đ ń
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