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FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L KiwfSk;> mjdhy; Vw;gLk; kdepiy> cly;epiy ghjpg;GfSk;


 

,iwtd; jd; gilg;Gfs; mj;jidiaAk; Mz; vd;Wk;> ngz; vd;Wk; ,U NtW ghypay; jd;ik nfhz;ltHfshfg; gilj;Js;shd;. ,iwtdJ gilg;gpd; Nehf;fNk> kdpjDk; Vida [PtuhrpfSk; jkJ re;jjpfisg; ngUf;fp> me;jg; gilg;gpdq;fs; ahTk; ,g; G+Tyfpy; epiy ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk vd;gNjahFk;.

Vnddpy;> kdpjidg; gw;wp ,iwtd; Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ> G+kpapy; gpujpepjpahf kdpjidg; gilj;Js;Nsd; vd;fpwhd;. mj;jifa gpujpepjpapd; tho;T Njf;fkpy;yhky; eilngwNt #hpaDk;> re;jpuDk;> Vida Nfhs;fSk;> mtw;wpD}Nl fhw;Wk;> kioAk;> ntg;gKk; kw;Wk; jhtuq;fisAk; mjd; %yk; czT tiffisAk;> tpyq;fpdq;fisAk;> gwit ,dq;fisAk; ,iwtd; gilj;Js;shd;.

NkYk;> E}`; egp fhyj;jpy; nts;sj;ijf; nfhz;L ,e;jg; G+kpapy; tho;e;j kdpjHfis mopf;f ehba NghJ $l> jd;Dila gpujpepjpahf cz;ikahfr; nray;gl;ltHfisAk;> mtHfspd; tho;T Njf;fkpd;wp eilngwTk;> vy;yh tpyq;fpdq;fspYk;> jhtuq;fspYk; mjdjd; N[hbfis fg;gypy; Vw;wpf; fhg;ghw;wpdhd; ,iwtd;.

mjd; %yk; ,g;G+kpapy; kdpjDk; Vida [PtuhrpfSk;> jkJ re;jjpfisg; ngUf;fp eiy ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj ,iwtdpd; Nehf;fk;. ,jpy; ngz;iz nkd;ahdtshfTk;> Foe;ijg; Ngw;iwr; Rkg;gtshfTk;> jhk; ngw;w Foe;ijfisj; jdpf; ftdj;Jld; jd; md;igg; nghope;J> mJ jUk; rpwpa kw;Wk; nghpa njhe;juTfis frpj;Jg; guhkhpf;Fk; gz;igg; ngw;wtshfTk;> ,iwtd; gilj;Js;shd;. mjw;Nfw;wthNu mtsJ clYk;> kdKk;> ,d;d mikg;GfSk; ,aw;ifahfNt mike;Js;sJ.

NkYk;> MZf;Fhpa Mz;ik> MSik kw;Wk; ngz;Zf;Fhpa ngz;ik>jha;ik Nghd;w gz;Gspy; nraw;ifahf VNjDk; jilia Vw;gLj;Jk; NghJ> Njitapy;yhj rpy gpur;idfis mJ cly; mstpYk; kd epiyapYk; Vw;gLj;jp tpLfpwJ.

,J Nghy fUj;jil kw;Wk; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lr; rhjdq;fspd; gq;Fk;> mjhtJ> FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; fUj;jilr; rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jk; MzpDila me;j MSikia> Mz;ikiag; ghjpf;fpwJ. NkYk; ,e;jg; ghjpg;G jw;fhypf kyl;Lj; jd;ikia Vw;gLj;jf; fhuzkhf mikfpd;wJ. mjhtJ> MZiw mzpe;J xU Mz; jd; kidtpAld; $Lk; NghJ> mtd; vjpHghHf;Fk; me;j KO jpUg;jpia> me;j MZiw jLj;J tpLfpwJ.

,ijNa 1927 y; gphpl;ldpd;> Njrpa FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;L Mizak; ntspapl;l mwpf;if cWjp nra;fpwJ. xU Mz; jd; kidtpaplk KOj; jpUg;jpia mtd; milatpy;iy vdpy;> mtdJ czHr;rpf;F> ,aw;ifahdnjhU tbfhy; fpilf;ftpy;iy vdpy; mq;Nf mtdJ jpUkz ge;jk; vd;w mikg;gpy;> mtdJ vjpHghHg;G nfhs;isaplg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; jpUg;jpaw;w Mz;> jd; czHr;rpf;F rhpahd tbfhy; ehb> gpwkid Nehf;f Ntz;ba> mjhtJ tpgr;rhuk; ehbr; nry;y Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; mtd; jd;idg; ghypay; Neha;fSf;F cl;gLj;jp tpLfpd;whd;.

mJNghy ngz;Zf;F> kUj;Jt Nehf;fpy; fUj;jil rhjdq;fis - kUe;Jfisg; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ mtsJ cly;eyk; Ngzg;gLfpwJ. mJty;yhj Foe;ijg; gpwg;igf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf Ntz;b kl;Lk; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ> mtsJ KO cly; njhFjpAk;> euk;G kz;lyq;fSk; ghjpg;gilfpd;wd. ,jd; %yk; nfhba Neha;fSf;Fk;> kd tpahjpfSf;Fk; mts; Mshf NehpLfpwJ. cz;ikapNyNa mtsJ fztDld; fpilf;f Ntz;ba jhk;gj;a ,d;gj;ijAk; mts; ,oe;J tpLfpd;whs;.

NkYk;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;J; NghJ Foe;ijg; gpwg;G jLf;fg;gLfpwJ. mijaLj;J> MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba jhHkPfg; gz;G> ghrk;> ,aw;ifahd jhk;gj;a mikg;G Nghd;wtw;iw kOq;fbj;J tpLfpwJ. NkYk; cly; RfNk gpujhdk; vd;w kdepiyia ,UthplKk; Njhw;Wtpj;J tpLfpwJ. mJNghyNt> ngz; kfg;NgW va;JtJk;> mjd; %yk; mtsJ jha;ikg; gz;Gfs; G+hpg;gile;J> jha;ik ngWtjd; %yk; mtsJ ngz;ik KOikailtJk;> me;jf; fhyq;fspy; fztDk; kidtpAk; gu];guk; jq;fs; Rfq;fis tsUk; rpRTf;fhf jpahfk; nra;tJk;> Foe;ij gpwe;j gpd;g> mf; Foe;ij kPJ md;G nghoptJk;> jq;fsJ eyd;fis> Rfq;fis me;j Foe;ijfSf;fhfj; jpahfk; nra;tJk; Mfpa kdpjg; gz;Gfis> ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fs; Jilj;njwpe;J tpLfpd;wd. FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jk; MzplKk;> ngz;zplKk; cly; neUf;fk; ,Uf;Fk; msTf;F kd neUf;fk; ,Uf;fhJ vd;gJ Ma;Tfs; $Wk; cz;ikahFk;.

NkYk;> ,d;W eilKiwapy; Gof;fj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fs;> kUe;Jfs; vJthf ,Ug;gpDk; mtw;iwj; njhlHe;J gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ mijg; gad;gLj;Jgthpd; me;jpk fhyj;jpy; kpfg; nghpa euk;gpay; ghjpg;GfSf;F mJ top tFj;J tpLk;. NkYk; kd ,Wf;fk;> vspjpy; Nfhgilj;y;> kd mikjpapd;ik> Fiwe;j ,uj;j mOj;jk;> J}f;fkpd;ik> ,Uja gytPdk;> %isf; NfhshW> Kiwaw;w khjtplha; Nghd;w 28 tpj Neha;fSf;Fk;> NkYk; fUj;jil rhjdq;fis mjpfk; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ> fHg;gg;ig nraypoe;Jk; kw;Wk; Qhgfkpd;ik> typg;G Neha;> ,uj;j xOf;F Nghd;w Neha;fSk; Vw;gl fhuzkhf mike;J tpLk;. NkYk;> ngz;zpd; clypay; njhFjpapy; Vw;gLk; khw;wk; jha;ik milAk; jd;ikiaAk; mtsJ fUg;ig ,og;gNjhL> mg;gbNa fHg;gk; jhpj;jhYk;> gpurt ehspy; mts; fLikahd typiaAk;> RftPdj;ijAk; mila NehpLk;.

xU ngz; jdJ ,sikg; gUtk; fle;J> ngz; vDk; me;j];ij milAk; NghJ mtsJ mj;jid euk;Gj; njhFjpfSk;> ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfSk;> mtisj; jha;ik vDk; gz;Gf;Fj; jahH nra;fpd;wd. ,e;j nray;ghLfs; mts; jhahFk; jFjp nfhz;l fhyk; tiu xU rq;fpypj; njhlH Nghy;> kUj;Jtf; fzf;Fg;gb 28 ehs; nfhz;l xU Row;rpahf nray;ghl;by; ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;.

,e;j ,urhadr; nray;ghl;by;> kdpjd; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw xU nraw;ifahd jilia cz;L gz;Zk; NghJ> mj;jid urhadj; njhFjpfSk; KO khw;wk; miltJld; Njitapy;yhj vjpH tpisTfis Vw;gLj;j fhukhfpwJ. rPuhd Ntfj;jpy; nry;Yk; uapy; jilNaJk; ,y;yhj tiu ghJfhg;ghdJ> ,ilNa 1 Ko ,Uk;Gj; Jz;L FWf;fpl;lhYk;> nkhj;j uapYk; tpgj;Jf;Fs;shtJ Nghyj; jhd;> ,e;j kdpjdpd; euk;Gj; njhFjpAk; ghjpg;gilAk; vd;gJ cz;ik.

NkYk;> kdpjDf;Fj; Njitahd nrf;]; jd;ikia kl;Lk; ,e;j ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfs; Rug;gjpy;iy. khwhf> kdpjDf;F MSikiaAk;> RWRWg;igAk;> trPfuj;ijAk;> moifAk; mit jUfpd;wd. ,e;j ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd;> mtw;wpw;NfAhpa nray;ghLfis KO mstpy; nra;a tplhJ> jilia Vw;gLj;Jk; NghJ> mtw;wpd; gad;ghNl mHj;jkpy;yhj xd;whfp tpLfpwJ.

1. FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;L Kiwfs;

1 jw;fhypf fUj;jil Kiw (Reversible Method)

2 epue;juf; fUj;jil Kiw (Irreversible Method)

jw;fhypf fUj;jil Kiwfs; :

fOTk; Kiw (Douche)

khjtplha; ehisf; fzf;fpl;L clYwT nfhs;Sk; Kiw (Rhythm Method)

clYwtpd; cr;rj;jpy; Mz;Fwpia ntspapy; vLj;J> ngz;zpd; cWg;Gf;F ntspNa tpe;ij ntspNaw;Wjy; (Withdrawal or Coitus Interptus in Arbic "AZL")

ngz;zpd; cWg;gpy; ghAk; tpe;ij mopf;Fk; khj;jpiufs; (Spermicides, Suppositories, Foaming Tablets etc.,)

epNuhj; my;yJ MZiwfs; (Condoms)

ngz;Ziw (Diaphragm)

fHg;gg;igfspy; nghUj;jf; $ba fUj;jil rhjdq;fs; (Intra Uterus Devices (IUD), eg : Loop, Coil etc.,)

GNuhn[];Nlh[d; khj;jpiufs; (Projestogen Pills)

GNuhn[];Nlh[d; Crp kUe;J (Projestogen Injection)

Vida khj;jpiufs; (The Pills)

fOTk; Kiw (Douche)

,J eilKiwapy; ,y;iy.

khjtplha; ehisf; fzf;fpl;L clYwT nfhs;Sk; Kiw (Rhythm Method)

,k;Kiwg;gb khjtplha; Mdjd; gpd; cs;s xU thuKk;> khjtplha; Muk;gpf;F Kd; cs;s xUthuKk; clYwT nfhs;s ghJfhg;ghd fhyq;fshFk;. ,e;j fhyq;fspy;> khjtplha Md gpd; cs;s xU thuj;jpy; rpid Kl;il> tpe;Jld; NrHe;J fUj;jhpg;gjw;F jFjpaw;w epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;. mjhtJ> mg;nghOJ jhd; fU Kl;ilahdJ tsHepiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;. mLj;J> khjtplha;f;F Kd; cs;s xU thuj;jpy; rpid Kl;ilahdJ Kw;wpYk; KjpHtile;J> fUj;jhpg;gjw;Fz;lhd jFjpia ,oe;jpUf;Fk;. vdNt> kUj;Jt Nehf;fpy;> ,e;j fhyq;fspy; clYwT nfhs;Sk; NghJ> fUj;jhpg;gjw;F tha;g;G mjpfk; ,y;iy vd;W nrhy;yyhNk jtpu> fUj;jhpg;gjw;F tha;g;Ng ,y;iy vd;W $wp tpl KbahJ. ,e;j ,U thuq;fSf;Fk; ,e;j ,U thuq;fSf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l ehl;fs; fUj;jhpg;gjw;F mjpfk; tha;g;G cs;s ehl;fshFk;.

,e;j Kiw MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;Fk; ghJfhg;ghdJ. Mdhy; me;j ghJfhg;ghd ehl;fis fzf;fpLtJ vd;gJ ,ayhj xd;W. NkYk; ,e;j Kiwapy;> ,iwtd; tpjpj;jij ahuhYk; khw;w ,ayhJ.

ntspNaw;Wjy; (Withdrawal or Coitus Interptus in Arbic "AZL")

,e;j Kiw ,];yhj;jpy;> ngUkhdhH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfshy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l Kiw vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;f.

,e;j Kiwg;gb> clYwtpd; cr;rj;jpd; nghOJ ntspNaWk; tpe;ij ngz;zpd; gpwg;GWg;gpw;F cs;Ns nrYj;jp tplhky;> ngz;zpd; cWg;gpypUe;J Mz; Fwpia ntspapy; vLj;J> tpe;ij ntspapy; nfhl;b tpLtjhFk;. ,e;j Kiw MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; kpfg; ghJfhg;ghd KiwahFk;.

ngz;zpd; cWg;gpy; ghAk; tpe;ij mopf;Fk; khj;jpiufs; (Spermicides, Suppositories, Foaming Tablets etc.,)

,e;j tif khj;jpiufis clYwTf;F Kd; ngz; cWg;gpd; cs;Ns nrYj;jp tpLk; NghJ> clYwtpd; nghOJ ntspahFk; tpe;ij> ,e;j khj;jpiufspy; fye;Js;s ,urhadg; nghUs;> tpe;jpy; fye;Js;s capuZf;fisf; nfhd;W tpLfpd;wJ. ,jd; %yk; ngz; fUTwhky; jil nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

Mdhy; ,j;jifa khj;jpiufs; ngz; cWg;gpy; eikr;riyAk;> mhpg;igAk;> rpy Neuq;fspy; jPr;Rl;lhy; Vw;gLk; vhpAk; czHitAk; (Burning Sensation) nfhLf;Fk;.

epNuhj; my;yJ MZiwfs; (Condoms)

,J Mz;fs; mzpaf; $baJ. ,J clYwtpd; NghJ> ntspapLk; tpe;ij Mz; cWg;gpy; mzpe;jpUf;Fk; ciw jLj;J jd;Ds; Nrkpj;Jf; nfhs;tjhy;> ngz; fUtWtJ jLf;fg;gLfpwJ.

NkYk;> MZiw mzpe;J clYwT nfhs;tjhy;> MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;fk; fpilf;f Ntz;ba KO jpUg;jpiaj; jil nra;J tpLfpd;wJ. NkYk;> ,tw;iw mjpf mstpy; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ> kdhPjpahf MZk;> ngz;Zk; rpy khWghLfisAk;> top jtwy;fisAk; re;jpf;f NehpLk; vd;gij Kd;dNu tpsf;fpAs;Nshk;.

ngz;Ziw (Diaphragm)

,J ug;guhy; nra;ag;gl;l> nefpYk; jd;ik nfhz;l> jiyf;F mzpAk; njhg;gp Nghd;w mikg;igf; nfhz;lJ. ,ij ngz;zpd; cWg;gpy;> clYwTf;F Kd; mzptpf;ff; $ba fUj;jil rhjdk; MFk;. NkYk;> clYwtpd; NghJ ntspapLk; tpe;ij> ngz; cWg;gpy; mzpe;jpUf;Fk; ,e;j rhjdk; jLj;J> ngz; fUTWtijj; jil nra;fpwJ. Mdhy; clYwTf;Fg;gpd; Fiwe;jJ 6 kzp NeukhtJ mzpe;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> ,ij mzptpf;f kUj;JtH my;yJ eH]; MfpNahUila cjtp mtrpak;.

NkYk;> ,g;nghOJ etPd ngz;Ziw rhjdq;fs; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;L> tpiutpy; kf;fspd; cgNahj;jpw;F tutpUf;fpd;wd.

NkYk; ,Jtiu ghHj;j MW tpjkhd fUj;jil KiwfSk; gad;ghl;by; gy;NtW tpjkhd Kiwfisf; nfhz;lhYk;> fHg;gg;igapy; tpe;J NrHe;J fUj;jhpg;gijj; jil nra;af; $ba Kiwfshd ,tw;iw itj;J Nehf;Fk; NghJ> ehafk; (]y;) mtHfs; mDkjpj;j rk;kjk; je;j eilKiwahd m];y; (3 tJ Kiw) I xj;J ,Uf;fpwJ.

Vnddpy;> m];y; Kiwapy; ngz;zpd; fU Kl;ilAk;> Mzpd; tpe;jZTk; NrHe;J fUj;jhpg;gjw;F Kd;Ng> tpe;jZthdJ ngz;zpd; cWg;Gf;F ntspNa ntspNaw;wg;gLfpwJ.

,Nj Kiwapy; jhd; Nkw;nrhd;d MW KiwfSk; mike;Js;sd. vdNt> Nkw;nrhd;d ,e;j Kiwfs; nray;ghl;by; NtW NtW tpjkhf mike;jpUe;jhYk;> egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) mtHfs; fhl;bj; je;j top Kiwahd m];y; f;F xg;ghf mike;Js;sJ vdyhk;.

fHg;gg;igfspy; nghUj;jf; $ba fUj;jil rhjdq;fs; (Intra Uterus Devices (IUD), eg : Loop, Coil etc.,)

fUg;igapy; nghWj;jf; $ba ,e;j rhjdq;fs; fUj;jhpg;gij jil nra;fpd;wd. ngz; Kl;ilAk;> Mz; tpe;Jk; NrHe;j gpd; fUj;jhpg;gijAk;> fHg;gg;igapy; epiy nfhs;tijAk; jil nra;fpwJ. NkYk;> ,e;j rhjdq;fspypUe;J ntspahfpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; ,uhrhadk; (Chemical Compound) tpe;jZit nraypof;fr; nra;fpwJ.

rpyNtisfspy; ,ijAk; kPwp fHg;gk; Vw;gl;L tpLtJz;L. ,t;thW fHg;gk; Vw;gLk; NghJ> fUthdJ fUtiwf;F ntspNa tsu Muk;gpf;fpd;wJ. ,jw;F ECTOPIC (at a site outside of womb) PREGNANCY vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;thW Vw;gLk; fHg;gq;fs;> 4-6 khjq;fspy; fUr;rpijT cz;lhtjw;F mjpfkhd re;jHg;gq;fs; cz;L. fU cz;lhfhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhfNt mzpag;gl;l rhjdq;fs; mjd; Ntiyia rhptur; nra;ahky;> fUitAk; cz;lhf;fp> fUr;rpijitAk; Vw;gLj;Jkhdhy;> mjd; gad;ghL vd;d vd;gJ xU Nfs;tpf; Fwpahdnjhd;W!*

* Abortion, Birth Control & Surrogate Parenting. By Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim (Quoted from South African Family Medical Advisor, Cape Town, The Readers Digest Association of South Africa (pty) Limited., 1983, 254)

NkYk;> ,e;jf; fhg;gH b vd;w fUj;jilr; rhjdkhdJ vd;w rpW cNyhff; Fr;rpAld; nfhz;lJ. NkYk;> ,e;j rhjdk; fHg;gg;igapy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> fHg;gg;igapy; ,Uf;Fk; jputj;Jld; ,ize;J fhg;gH jputj;ij nkJthf ntspNaw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;. ,jdhy; fHg;gg;igapy; fhg;gH jputk; #o;e;jpUf;Fk; NghJ> clYwtpd; NghJ ntspNaWk; tpe;jpy; cs;s mZf;fis ,e;j fhg;gHjputk; mopj;J tpLfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,J xU cNyhff; Fr;rpahy; nra;ag;gl;bUg;gjhy;> fHg;gg;igapy; Gz; Vw;gLj;jp Jiwfis cz;lhf;f epiwa re;jHg;gq;fs; cz;L. ,jdhy;> fHg;gg;igapypUe;J ,uj;jk; ntspNawp> ,uj;j xOf;F Vw;gl mjpfk; tha;g;G cz;L.

vdNt> ,j;jifa fUj;jilr; rhjdq;fs;> ngz;Zf;F ve;jtpj jPq;ifAk; tpistpf;fhJ vd mWjpapl;Lr; nrhy;y KbahJ. ,jd; gad;fs; mjpfk; ,Ue;jhYk;> Fiwthd vjpHtpisT $l kpFe;j Mgj;jhdnjhd;whfNt cs;sJ. NkYk;> ,r;rhjdq;fs; mzpe;Jk;> fHg;gk; jhpg;gJ vd;gJ 2 - 3 rjtPjk; jhd; ,Uf;Fk; vdyhk;. mJ 1 rjtPjk; ,Ue;jhYk; $l> ghjpg;G vd tUk; NghJ> mJ ngz;Zf;F kpFe;j Mgj;ij juty;yjhfty;yth mike;J tpLfpwJ. 4-6 khjq;fspy; fHg;gk; fiyAk; NghJ> mts; kpFe;j rpukj;jpw;Fk;> mjpfkhd ,uj;j xOf;F> ,Jkl;Lky;y mtsJ capUf;Nf $l mJ Mgj;jhf Kbayhk;.

NkYk;> fhg;gH b Vw;gLj;Jk; Gz;> ,dp mts; jha;ik miltij epue;jukhfj; jLf;ff; $ba xd;whf my;yth mike;J tpLk;.

vdNt> ,itAk; ,];yhk; vjpHghHf;Fk; me;j jFjpia vl;ltpy;iy vd;Nw nrhy;yyhk;.

GNuhn[];Nlh[d; khj;jpiufs; (Projestogen Pills) kw;Wk; GNuhn[];Nlh[d; Crp kUe;J (Projestogen Injection)

,d;W fUj;jilf;fhf mjpf mstpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLtJ> ,e;j khj;jpiufisj; jhd;. Mdhy; ,e;j khj;jpiufs; kw;Wk; Crpfspd; gpd;tpisTfis mjpfk; NgH mwpa tha;g;gpy;iy. NkYk;> ,d;W eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; fUj;jil khj;jpiufSk; CrpfSk; 100 rjtPjk; fUj;jilf;F cj;juthjk; ju ,ayhj fhuzj;jhy; mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;jpAk;> mtw;iwAk; kPwp fU cz;lhfp tpl;lhy;> Vw;gl;l fHg;gj;ijf;fiyg;gjw;F> kUj;Jtkidfis ehl Ntz;ba mtrpak; Vw;gLfpwJ. mJ mtrpaj;jpYk; mtrpaKk;> mtruKk; $l. mt;thW fUf;fiyg;G nra;atpy;iy vdpy;> gpwf;Fk; Foe;ij CdKlDk;> mjpf FiwghLfSlDk; gpwf;ff; $ba tha;g;G mjpfk; cz;L.

fUj;jil khj;jpiu nray;gLk; Kiw :

taJ te;j ngz;zpDila khjtplha;f; fhykhd 28 (+ or - 2) ehs; Row;rpapy;> khjtplha; Vw;gl;l 14 tJ ehs; jha;ik mila mjpfk; tha;g;Gs;s ehl;fshFk;. ,e;j khjtplha;r; Row;rpapd; NghJ gpl;A+l;hp (Anterior Pitutory) vd;w ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpapypUe;J ntspahFk; FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) vd;w `hHNkhd;> ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;gpd; xU ghfkhd fpuh/gpad; ghypf;fpy; (Graffian Follicle) - I KjpHtilar; nra;fpwJ. NkYk; gpl;A+l;hp (Anterior Pitutory) vd;w ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpapypUe;J ntsptUk; ,d;Dk; xU `hHNkhdhd LH (Leutenizing Hormone) vd;w `hHNkhd; fU cz;lhFk; Neuj;jpy;> ,e;j fpuh/gpad; /ghypf;fpiy (Graffian Follicle) j; J}z;b> fU tsHr;rp my;yJ rpidg; gpbj;jiy tpiuthf;FfpwJ. NkYk; Fallopian Tube y; ,Uf;Fk; fUKl;ilia tpe;jZthdJ mile;J> fUf;nfhs;fpwJ. fUf;nfhz;l Kl;ilahdJ> gpd; vd;w epiyia mile;J> fUTw;w ehspypUe;J 21-23 tJ ehs; fUg;igapy; epiy nfhs;fpwJ. ,e;j epiy nfhs;Sk; gb epiy 35k; ehs; Kbtilfpd;wJ.

Nkw;fz;l fU tsHepiyfisj; jil nra;tNj fUj;jil khj;jpiufs; gq;fhFk;. ,e;j fUj;jil khj;jpiufspy; vd;w ,U Ntjpg; nghUs;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. ,it fUj;jhpg;igj; jil nra;af; $ba kUe;JfshFk;.

,e;j khj;jpiufs; ,Utpj epiyfspy; fUj;jhpg;igj; jil nra;fpd;wd.mitahtd :

Combination Method

Sequential Method

Combination Method d; gb ,e;j khj;jpiufs;> FSH, (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) `hHNkhd; Rug;ig mjpfg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;> ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;gpy; xd;whd fpuh/gpad; ghypf;fpy; (Graffian Follicle) I KjpHtilar; nra;Ak; mNjNtisapy;> rpidg; gpbg;gjw;F Ntz;b rpid Kl;iliaj; J}z;Lk; LH (Leutinizing Hormone) d; Rug;ig kl;Lg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;> rpid Kl;il KjpHtilAk; nraiy Jhpjg;gLj;jpAk; tpe;Jk;> ngz;zpd; fU Kl;ilAk; ,ize;J fUj;jhpg;gjw;Fj; Njitahd jFjpia fU Kl;il ngwhjjhy;> fUj;jhpg;G epfo;tJ jilgLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; fUj;jil epfo;fpwJ.

mLj;J> Sequential Method gb> v];l;Nuh[d; (Estrogen) MdJ> FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) `hHNkhDila Rug;ig kl;Lg;gLj;JfpwJ. mNjNtisapy; LH (Leutinizing Hormone) `hHNkhDila Rug;ig mjpfg;gLj;JfpwJ. FSH `hHNkhDila Rug;G Fiwtjdhy; ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;gpy; xd;whd> Graffian Follicle d; tsHr;rp FiwfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; rpid Kl;ilapy; KjpH tsHr;rp jilgLtjhy;> fUj;jil epfo;fpwJ.

NkYk; ,e;j khj;jpiufspd; Kf;fpa gq;F vd;dntdpy;> gpl;A+l;hp (Anterior Pitutary) vd;w ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpapypUe;J> ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jpf;F ,dtpUj;jp cWg;Gfisj; jahH nra;af; $ba FSH kw;Wk; LH `hHNkhDila Rug;Gfspy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;JtNj. ,tw;iwj; njhlHe;J xU ngz; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; NghJ> mts; fPo;f;fhZk; Neha;fSf;F Mshf Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gLfpwJ. NkYk;>, e;j fUj;jil khj;jpiufisg; gad;gLj;jpAk;> fUj;jhpj;J tpl;lhy;> mf; fUit tsu tpLtij tpl mopj;J tpLtNj NkyhdJ vd;gNj kUj;JtHfspd; VNfhgpj;j fUj;jhFk;. Vnddpy;>mg;gbg; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijfs;> Cdj;Jld; gpwf;f mjpfk; tha;g;Gs;sJ vd;gJ jhd; mjd; fhuzkhFk;.

NkYk;> ,e;j fUj;jil khj;jpiufs;> cgNahfpf;Fk; ngz;Zf;F fPo;f;fhZk; Neha;fSld; nkhj;jk; 28 k; mjpfkhd Neha;fis Vw;gLj;Jtjhff; fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.

,ja Neha;fs;

kd ,Wf;fk;

<uy; Neha;fs;

ngz; ,d cWg;gpypUe;J mjpfk; ,uj;jk; ntspNaWjy;

typg;G Neha;fs;

xw;iwj; jiytyp

clypy; GNuhl;Bd; mstpy; khWghL Vw;gLjy;

the;jp

rpWePH mjpfk; gphpjy;

Kiwaw;w khjtplha;

NkYk; ghY}l;Lk; jha;khHfs;> ,k; khj;jpiufis cgNahfpf;Fk; NghJ> ghy; Rug;gpDila msT FiwtJld;> cl;nfhs;Sk; khj;jpiufspy; fye;Js;s v];l;Nuh[d;> kw;Wk; GNuh[];bNuh[d; Mfpa Ntjpg; nghUs;fs; rpwpjsT ghYld; fye;J Ruf;ff; $ba epiyAk; cUthfyhk;. ,jd; %yk; ghy; mUe;Jk; Foe;ijf;Fg; gpd; tpisTfs; cz;lhf tha;g;Gs;sJ.

2. epue;ju fUj;jil Kiwfs; :

epue;ju fUj;jil Kiwfs; gw;wp ,dpf; fhz;Nghk;.

Mz; :

th]f;lkp (Vasectamy)

ngz; :

Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy; (Tubal Ligation)

fHg;gg;igia ePf;Fjy; (Hysterectomy)

Nyg;uh];Nfhgpf; (Laprascopy)

 

th]f;lkp : (Mz;)

Mzpd; ,d tpUj;jpf;F Njitahd tpe;jZf;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; cWg;Gf;fSf;F tpjH (Testis) vd;W ngaH ,e;j tpjuhdJ> Mzpd; kHk cWg;gpw;Ff; fPNo gyhf; nfhl;il tbtpy; ,Uf;Fk; ,e;j tpjUf;Fk;> Mzpd; kHk cWg;gpw;Fk; ,ilNa th]; bgud;]; vd;w Foha; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j th]; bgud;]; (Vas Deferens) jhd; tpe;jZit tpjhpypUe;J> Mzpd; kHk cWg;gpw;F vLj;Jr; nry;Yk; Fohahfr; nray;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Vas Deferens Fohiaj; Jz;bj;J tpLtjd; %yk;> Mzpd; tpjhpypUe;J flj;jg;gLk; tpe;jZ jilgLtjd; %yk; Mz; epue;ju kyl;Lj; jd;ikia mila KbfpwJ.

Mdhy;> ,d;W Jz;bf;fg;gl;l me;j th];bgud;]; (Vas Deferens) Fohia kPz;Lk; ,izj;J epue;ju kyl;Lj; jd;ikia Nghf;Ftjpy; xU rpy kUj;JtHfs; ntw;wp fz;Ls;shHfs;.

NkYk;> th]f;lkp nra;J nfhs;tjhy;> cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk; tpe;jZthdJ> flj;jg;gl top ,y;yhky; nfl;bahfp> (SPERM GRANULOMA) vd;w Nehia cz;lhFk;.

ngz; :

Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy;

ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;Gf;fspy; xd;whd /ngy;Nyhgpd; Fohia Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy; my;yJ Jz;bj;jy; %ykhf> ngz;zpd; fUKl;il cw;gj;jpia jil nra;ag;gLfpwJ my;yJ cw;gj;jpia epue;jukhf ,y;yhkyhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

ngz;zpd; khjtplha; Kbe;jTld; fUg;igapypUe;J cw;gj;jpahFk; fU Kl;ilfs; ,e;j /ngNyhgpad; Foha; topahf fHg;gg; igf;F flj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F ,e;j fUj;jil Kiw %yk;> /ngNyhgpad; Fohia Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ Jz;bj;jy; (,e;j Kiwfs; Foe;ij gpwe;jTld; nra;ag;gLfpwJ) %yk;> tpe;jhdJ ngNyhgpad; Fohia mile;jhYk;> mq;F fU Kl;ilfs; ,y;yhjjhy;> fUj;jhpg;gJ jilgLtjd; %yk; fUj;jil epfo;fpwJ.

rpy Ntisfspy;> Jz;bf;fg;gl;l ,e;j ngNyhgpad; Foha;fs;> mw;Gjkhd Kiwapy; kPz;Lk; ,ize;J fUj;jhpg;gpw;Fj; jahuhfp tpl;l epfo;TfSk; epfo;e;Js;sd vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ngNyhgpd; Foha; ePf;fg;gl;l gpd;G kPz;Lk; fUj;jhpj;jjd; fhuzkhf> rpfpr;ir mspj;j kUj;JtHfs; tof;Ffisr; re;jpg;gJk; cz;L.

fHg;gg;igia ePf;Fjy;

,e;j Kiw %yk; KO fHg;gg; igiaak; ePf;fg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; ,e;j Kiw kpf ePz;l mWit rpfpr;iriaAk;> ,uj;jg; Nghf;F Nghd;w Mgj;jhd epiyfisAk; nfhz;lJ. vdNt> ,jw;F mNefk; ngz;fs; rk;kjpg;gjpy;iy. ,Ue;Jk; ,g;nghOJ kUj;Jt fhuq;fisf

khwhf> fHg;gg;igapy; Gz; my;yJ fl;b Nghd;wtw;wpy; epue;ju Jd;gq;fis milgtHfSf;F kl;LNk ,e;j mWit rpfpr;ir gaDs;sjhFk;.

Mdhy; ,d;W rpy fy; neQ;rk; nfhz;l kUj;JtHfshy;> Nehahspfsplk; gzk; fwf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w xNu Nehf;fj;Jld; ,e;j mWit rpfpr;ir cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. fHg;gg;igapy; Gz;> rpwpJ rpfpr;ir vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; Fzg;gLj;j ,ayf; $ba Neha;fisAk;> ,e;j rpy kUj;JtHfs;> ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;iz mWit rpfpr;irf;F cl;gLj;jp> gzk; gz;zpf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. NkYk;> ,e;j mWit rpfpr;ir KjpNahHfSf;F nra;jhy; xusT ghjpg;Ng vw;gLk;. Mdhy; ,sk; ngz;fSf;Fr; nra;Ak; NghJ> mtdJ> ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; gad;ghl;by; jil Vw;gLj;Jtjhy;> mts; epue;ju euk;gpay; Neha;fSf;Fk;> mjpfkhd cly; cghijfSf;Fk; cl;gl Ntz;b tUk;.

Nyg;uh];Nfhgp (Laprascopy)

,e;j Kiwg;gb> /ngNyhg;gpad; FohahdJ rf;jp tha;e;j fjpHfshy; Rlg;gl;L> fU Kl;il nry;Yk;ghijahdJ %lg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Kiw kpf vspjhd Kiw vdyhk;. fU Kl;ilapd; cw;gj;jpapYk;> mtw;iw ntspNaw;WtjpYk; ghij jilgLtjhYk;> ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; gq;fpy; kiwKfkhdnjhU jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd vdyhk;.

NkNy ehk; fz;l MZf;Fhpa th]f;lkp> ngz;Zf;Fhpa Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy;> fHg;gg;igapy; ePf;Fjy;> Nyg;uh];Nfhgpf; Kiwfs; Mfpa midj;Jk; VNjDk; xU tifapy;> cly;$wpy; ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; nray;ghl;by;> VNjDk; xU jilia> jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;JgitfshfNt cs;sd vdyhk;.

ve;jtpj gpd;tpisTfs; kw;Wk; ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; nray;ghl;by; jil ,y;yhky;> fUj;jil rhjdq;fSk; mjd; kUe;JfSk; gq;fhw;Wtjpy;iy.

vdNt> fUj;jil nra;J nfhs;Sk; MZk;> ngz;Zk; VNjDk; xU tifapy; ghjpg;giltJ epjHrdk;.

,];yhk; toq;Fk; kUe;jpay; nfhs;if

K];ypk; vd;gtd; Rj;jkhdtdhfTk;> Neha; nehbaw;wtdhfTk;> jplfhj;jpuKs;stdhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,];yhk; tpUk;GfpwJ. ,jw;fhf> mtd; cl;nfhs;Sk; kUe;Jfs; vg;gbg;gl;litahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vdTk; tiuaiw nra;J fhl;bAs;sJ.

mjhtJ> xU kdpjd; jd; cly; eyj;Jf;fhf cl;nfhs;s Ntz;ba kUe;jpd; mbg;gil Fzhjpraq;fs; vt;thW ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkdpy;>

mtdJ cly;eyj;ij mJ ghJfhj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

Neha;fis Vw;gLj;Jk; fpUkpfspypUe;J ghJfhj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

mk; kUe;Jfs; gpd; tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jhky mtidg; ghJfhj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

(By Imam Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyah Al Tibb al Nabawi)

,jw;fhf> ,khk; ,g;Dy; ifa;apk; my; [t;]pa;ah mtHfs; %d;W FHMd; trdq;fis vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf jUfpd;whHfs;.

mjhtJ> ukshd; khjj;jpy; Nehd;G Nehw;f flikahdtH> Neha; tha;g;gl;bUe;jhNyh my;yJ gazj;jpypUe;jhNyh mtH NehapypUe;J epthuzk; ngw;wTlNdh my;yJ gazj;jpypUe;J jpUk;gpaTlNdh tpLgl;l Nehd;Gfis mtd; gpd;tUk; ehl;fspy; G+Hj;jp nra;J nfhs;sl;Lk; (2:185)

,e;j trdk; %yk;> Nehd;G Nehw;gJ flik vd;wpUe;jhYk;> mtuJ cly;eyj;ijAk;> typikiaAk; fhf;Fk; nghUl;L. mtH Nehd;G Nehw;gjpypUe;J ,iwtd; tpjptpyf;F my;yJ rYif mspj;Js;shd;. vdNt> Nehd;G Nehw;wpUg;gtH NkYk; eyptilahkYk;> gazj;jpy; ,Ug;gtH grpapd; kpFjpahy; cly; njk;gpoe;J> NrhHTf;F Ml;glhkYk; ,Uf;f ,e;j tpjptpyf;F cjtp nra;tjhy;> mq;Nf mtuJ cly; eyk; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

,uz;lhtjhf>

`[; fphpiafspy; jiy Kb ePf;FtJ xd;whFk;.

cq;fspy; vtH NehahspahfNth my;yJ mtuJ jiyapy; (mtUf;F) njhe;jutspf;ff; $baNjh ,Ue;jhy; (me;epiyapy; jiy Nuhkj;ij fise;J tpbd;) mjw;F (%d;W) Nehd;Gfs; Nehw;wy; my;yJ (MW ViofSf;F czT) jHkk; nra;jy; my;yJ `j;A (XH ML) nfhLj;jy; (VjhtJ xd;W) ghpfhukhFk;. (2:196)

Mf> jiyKb ePf;FtJ vd;gJ ,iwtdhYk;> mtdJ J}jH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfshYk;> eilKiwg;gLj;j Vtg;gl;l xd;whf ,Ue;jhYk;> Neha; tha;g;gl;bUg;gtUf;Fk;> jiyapy; Gz;> nghLF Nghd;witfs; ,Ue;jhy;> Kbia kopf;Fk; NghJ> Vw;gLk; jPq;fpypUe;J mtUf;F ghJfhg;G mspf;fTk; ,iwtdhy; rYif mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; %yk;> jPq;Ffs;> Neha;fs; NkYk; Vw;glhky; guthky; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

%d;whtjhf>

xUtH Neha; tha;g;gl;bUg;gpd;> jz;zPH nfhz;L xSr; nra;tjd; %yk; mtuJ Neha;> NkYk; mjpfhpf;Fk; vdpy;> mtH jak;kk; nra;J nfhs;sl;Lk;.

ePH vd;gJ xU Rj;jkhd nghUs;. mJ jhDk; Rj;jkhdJ> mijf; nfhz;L xUtH xSr; nra;Ak; NghJ> xSr; nra;gtUk; Rj;jkhfpwhH. Mdhy; Rj;jg;gLj;jf; $ba ePiu Nehahsp gad;gLj;Jk;NghJ> vjpH tpistpd; fhuzkhff NkYk; mtH eyptilaf; $Lk;. Nkw;fz;l gpd; tpisTfspypUe;J kdpjidg; ghJfhf;fNt mj;jifa epiyapy; cs;stHfis> kz;izf; nfhz;L jak;kk; nra;J> jk;ikr; Rj;jg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sk;gb ,iwtd; rYif mspj;Js;shd;. Mf> ePhpd; %yk; Vw;gLk; gpd;tpisTfspypUe;J mtdj cly;eyk; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

njhOif vd;gJ ,iwtdhy;> K];ypk;fs; kPJ fl;lhaf; flikahf;fg;gl;l xd;W. mj;jifa njhOiff;F Kd; xUtH jz;zPH nfhz;L xSr; nra;J nfhs;tJ flikahFk;.

Mdhy; Rj;jg;gLj;jf; $ba jz;zPuhdJ> Nehahspf;F NkYk; Nehia mjpfhpj;JtpLk; vDk; epyik ,Ug;gpd;> me;j Nehahsp kz; nfhz;L jak;kk; nra;J nfhs;s ,iwtdhYk;> ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfshYk; mDkjpaspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; %yk; me;j Nehahsp> NkYk; ghjpf;fg;gLtjpypUe;J jtpHe;J nfhs;fpd;whd;.

,jd; %yk; jd;Dila gpujpepjpahfpa ,e;j kdpj r%fj;jpd; kPJ ,iwtd; nfhz;Ls;s fUizia mwpe;J nfhs;tNjhL> jd;id tzq;Fk; jd; mbahd;> vg;nghOJk; MNuhf;fpaj;Jld;> Neha; kw;Wk; mjd; tpisTfspypUe;J ghJfhg;Gg; ngw;wtdhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd ,iwtd; tpUk;Gtij mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

Mdhy;> kdpjdhy; fUj;jilf;fhff; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l rhjdq;fs;> kUe;Jfs;> ,];yhk; tpUk;Gk; kUe;Jfspd; mbg;gilf; nfhs;if my;yJ gz;GfspypUe;Jk; khWgl;bUg;gij ehk; ,jw;F Kd; mtw;wpd; jPq;Ffis ehk; tpsf;fpatw;wpypUe;J mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.

vdNt> kdpjDf;F ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fs; r%f mstpYk;> cly;ey tifapYk; ed;ikia mspf;ftpy;iy. khwhf> jPikfs; jhd; mjpfk; cs;sd.

NkYk;> ,tw;wpy; gad;fSk; cz;Nl vdyhk;. kUj;Jt Nehf;fpy;> fUj;jil nra;tjdhy; nra;ag;gLk; egUk; cly; eyk; Ngzg;gLk; vdpy; ,t;thW nra;tij ,];yhk; mDkjpf;fpwJ.

vt;thnudpy;> K];ypk;fSf;F gd;wpapd; ,iwr;rpia cz;gij ,iwtd; jLj;jpUf;fpd;whd;.

Mdhy; fLikahd gQ;rk; my;yJ cz;z cztpy;yhky; capH NghFk; epiy my;yJ mtw;iw cz;jd %yk; capH gpioj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;w epiy ,Ug;gpDk; my;yJ epHg;ge;jk; fhuzkhf cz;z Nehpl;lhy; jtW ,y;iy> ,iwtd; mjidf; Fw;wk; gpbf;f khl;lhd; vd;W jpUkiw $Wfpd;wJ.

vdNt> fPo;f;fz;l tpjpg;gb> capH gpiog;gjw;fhfNth> NkYk; Neha; guthky; jL;ggjw;fhfNth FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL nra;J nfhs;tJ ,];yhj;jpdhy; MFkhf;fg;gl;l my;yJ mDkjpf;fg;gl;l xd;W.

Mdhy;> ,d;iwa FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fs;> nghUshjhu Nehf;fpy; my;yth nray;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. vdNt> ,iwtd; ,tw;iw mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

NkYk;>

egpNa! ,tHfs; kJitAk;> #jhl;lj;ijAk; gw;wpAk; tpdTfpwhHfs;. ePH $Wk;> ,it ,uz;Lk; ghtkhditfshFk;. NkYk; ,tw;wpy; rpy ed;ikfSk; cs;sd. Mdhy; mtw;wpd; ed;ikfisf; fhl;bYk; jPikfs;jhd; mjpfk; cs;sd. (2:219)

vdNt> ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fs; mjd; Jiz rhjdq;fs;> kUe;Jfs;> cyfpay; Nehf;fpy; ed;ik jUgdthf ,Ug;gpDk;> mJ jUk; ed;ikfis tpl jPikfs; jhd; mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd vd;gij Nkw;fz;l Ma;Tfs; %yk; ehk; mwpe;J nfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,iwtd; jd; jpUkiwapy; $Wfpd;whd; :

kdpjHfNs! (cq;fs; ,iwtd;) G+kpapy; cq;fSf;F mDkjpaspj;jtw;wpypUe;J cz;Zq;fs;> gUFq;fs;. (2:168)

vdNt> ,iwtd; mDkjpaspj;jtw;wpypUe;J cz;gJk;> gUFtJk; cly;eyj;Jf;F vt;thW cfe;jNjh mJNghyj;jhd; Vida fhhpaq;fSk; ,iwtd; mDkjpaspf;fhj eilKiwfs; mj;jidAk; r%f kw;Wk; kdpj ,d mopTf;fj; jhd; kdpjid ,l;Lr; nry;Yk; vd;gJ cWjp. (,iwtd; ek;ikg; ghJfhg;ghdhf!)

fUf;fiyg;G my;yJ fUr;rpijT (ABORTION)

fUf;fiyg;G my;yJ fUr;rpijT vd;gJ kpfg; goikahdnjhU KiwahFk;. mghH\d; vdr; nrhy;yg;gLk; ,e;jf; fUf;fiyg;G Kiw ,uz;L tifahFk;.

D and C (Dilatation and Curretage)

Vacuum Aspiration Method MfpadthFk;.

,e;j Kiwfs; 20 thu fhy msTk;> mjw;Fk; Fiwe;j fhy msTs;s fUitf; fiyf;f Nkw;fz;l Kiwfs; gpd;gw;wg;gLfpd;wd.

Fwpg;gpl;l fhy msitj; jhz;b tpl;l fHg;gj;ijf; fiyf;f fUg;igiar; Rw;wpAs;s Amniotic Fluid I ntspNaw;wp> mjw;Fg; gjpyhf cg;GePH fiuriyr; nrYj;Jtjd; %yk;> Fiwg;gpurtk; Vw;gl;L (Miscarriage) fUthdJ gpz;lkhf ntspj;js;sg;gLfpwJ.

Nkw;fz;l mghH\d; (D and C (Dilatation and Curretage),Vacuum Aspiration Amniotic Fluid Removal) Mfpa Kiwfs; %yk;> mghH\d; nra;ag;gLk; nghOJ> ngz;Zf;F mjpf ,uj;j xOf;F kw;Wk; rpWePuf ghjpg;GfSk; mjpfk; Vw;gl tha;g;Gs;sJ. NkYk; mjpf ,uj;jg; Nghf;F> mg;ngz;zpd; capiug; Nghf;Fk; fhuzpahff; $l mikayhk;.

NkYk;> jpUl;Lj;jdkhfr; nra;J nfhs;sg;gLk; Bd; V[; mghH\d;fs;> rhpahd guhkhpg;G ,d;wp> mg;ngz;Zf;F Neha;f;fpUkpfs; njhw;wTk;> NkYk; fUg; gpz;lk; ntspj;js;sg;gl;lgpd;> rhpahd mstpy; ,uj;jk; ntspNawp Rj;jg;gLj;jg;glhky; rhpahff; ftdpf;fg;glhky; tplg;gLkhdhy;> gpd;dhspy; mJNt> mtsJ jha;ikiag; gwpf;Fk; fhuzpahff; $l mikayhk;.

NkYk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; kw;Wk; mjd; rhjdq;fSk;> khj;jpiufSk; CrpfSk; fUf;fiyg;gpd; (mghH\d;) msitf; Fiwj;Js;sjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; vq;nfy;yhk; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lk; filgpbf;fg;gLfpwNjh NkYk;> mjd; rhjdq;fSk;> khj;jpiufSk; jhuskhf;fg;gl;Ls;sNjh mq;nfy;yhk; fUf;fiyg;gpd; msTk; mjpfkhfj; jhd; cs;sJ.

Vnddpy;> fUj;jhpf;fhky; jLg;gjw;fhfg; gad;gLk> Kd;jLg;G khj;jpiufspd;jd;ik gw;wp jfty; (Pamphlet Information List) rPl;by;> gpd;tpisTfs; (Contra-indications) gFjpapy;> Kjy; jftNy fHg;gk; jhpf;f tha;g;Gs;sJ vd;gNjahFk;. vdNt> fHg;gk; jhpf;fhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhf ,tHfs; gad;gLj;Jk; khj;jpiufisAk; kPwp fHg;gk; jhpj;J tpLk; NghJ> mghH\d; nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;baJ fl;lhakhfpwJ.

NkYk;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; 8 rj ngz;fs; jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;Dk; 20-25 rj ngz;fs; jpUkzj;jpw;Fg; gpd;Dk; fUf;fiyg;G nra;J nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

[g;ghid vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> 1950 y; 21.5 rjkhfTk;> 1955 y; 25 rjkhftk;> fUf;fiyg;gpd; tpfpjk; $baJ. Prof. Sauvy mtHfsJ $w;Wg;gb 1.7 kpy;ypad; Foe;ij gpwe;Js;s mNj Neuj;jpy; 1.2 kpy;ypad; fUf;fiyg;Gk; ele;Js;sJ.

NkYk; vd;w jpdg; gj;jphpf;ifapd; Ma;tpd;gb> fUj;jiliag; gad;gLj;Jk; FLk;gq;fspy; jhd; mjpf mghH\d;fs; eilngWfpwJ. fUj;jiliag; gad;gLj;jhj FLk;gq;fis tpl 6 klq;f mjpfk; mghH\d;fs;> fUj;jilia my;yJ FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwiag; gad;gLj;Jk; FLk;gq;fspy; jhd; epfo;fpd;wJ.

gphpl;ldpy; ,e;j tpfpjk; 8.27 klq;F mjpfk; cs;sJ.

Bd; V[; fUf;fiyg;gpy; ,e;jpa epiy

,e;jpahtpy; ,g;nghOJ Bd; V[; ngz;fSf;F ,uT lhd;]; ghHl;bfs;> Nll;bq;]; vy;yhk; ehfhPfj;jpd; ntspg;ghlhfj; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;Js;sd. ,e;jpahtpy; jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;Ng fUj;jhpf;Fk; 14 taJg; ngz;fspd; vz;zpf;if> efuq;fspy; mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wd. ,uz;L khjf; fUitf; fiyj;Jf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ> ,e;j ehfhPf kq;iffsplj;jpy; jpNal;lhpy; rpdpkhitg; ghHj;J tpl;Lj; jpUk;GtJ Nghy fhiyapy; mghH\d; nra;J tpl;L khiyapy; te;J tpLfpd;whHfs;.

by;ypapy; 1991 y; 278 Mf ,Ue;j Bd; V[; mghH\d; fle;j 1994 y; 676 Mff; $baJ. ekJ jkpo;ehl;ilAk; ,J tpl;L itf;ftpy;iy. 1994 y; nrd;idapy; kl;Lk; 16>000 mghH\d;fs; ele;jjpy; 20 rjtPjk; jpUkzkhfhj Bd; V[; ngz;fs;.

gk;ghapy; cs;s gHy; nrd;lH vd;w fpspdpf;fpy; Mz;bw;F 25>000 fUf;fiyg;Gr; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. ,jpy; 15 rjtPjk; jpUkzkhfhj Bd;V[; ngz;fs;.

mirl; vd;w Mq;fpyg; gj;jphpf;if elj;jpa Ma;tpy; fHg;g gaj;jhy; nrf;i]j; jtpHf;ftpy;iy. fHg;gkhdhy; ,Uf;fNt ,Uf;fpwJ mghH\d; vd;W me;jg; ngz;fs; $wpajhf> mirl; d; Ma;T $WfpwJ.

kpfr; rq;flkhf epiyapy; mghH\d; xU vspa jPHthfj; Njhd;wpdhYk;> cly; hPjpahfTk; czHTg; G+HtkhfTk; mJ gy jOk;Gfis Vw;gLj;jp tpLfpwJ.

nrd;id kfg;NgW epGzuhd lhf;lH ehuhaz nul;b> Bd; V[; Mz;> ngz;fsplk;> nrf;]; cwT itj;Jf; nfhs;shNj vdr; nrhy;y ehk; ahH? (gpd;Nd> vg;gb gzk; rk;ghjpg;gJ?! ,j;jifa Nf];fis ek;gpj;jhNd Vuhskhd fpspdpf;FfSk;> kUe;Jf; filfSk; gpiog;G elj;Jfpd;wd. M-H) Mdhy;> mjw;Fg; gjpyhf cly; cwT> fUj;jil gw;wp nrd;]; fy;tp mspf;fyhk; vd;fpwhH.

jkJ FLk;g tho;f;iff; fy;tpj; jpl;lj;jpd; xU gFjpahf> Nkhp ];lhg;]; vd;fpw FLk;g ey fpspdpf;Ffs;> jw;fhypf fUj;jil khj;jpiufs;> fhz;lk;fs; (epNuhj;) gad;gLj;Jk; tpjk; Fwpj;J tpsf;Ffpd;wd. (,e;jpah LNl - Vg;uy; 6-20> 1995)

vd;d mhpa Nrit?! fhz;Nlhk;fs; (epNuhj;) fUj;jil khj;jpiufs; Nghd;wtw;iw cgNahfpj;Jk; Bd;V[; my;yJ jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fs; fHg;gk; jhpg;gJ mjpfhpj;J tUtJ vijf; Fwpf;fpwJ vdpy;> ,e;jpahtk; jdJ jtwhd nfhs;ifapdhy; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lk; kw;Wk;mjd; rhjdq;fshy; rPuopit vjpHNehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lKk;> mJ rhHe;j khj;jpiufSk;> fhz;Nlhk;fs; (epNuhj;) Nghd;witfs; khHf;nfl;by; jhuhskhff; fpilg;gjhy;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;bw;fhf ,itfs; gad;gLtij tpl tpgr;rhuk; ngUftk;> Bd;V[; fHg;gq;fs; mjpfhpf;fTk; jhd; gad;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd vd;gJ cz;ikahFk;.

,e;jpa muR> ,dpNkYk; ,e;j tptfhuj;jpy; tpopg;GzHT fhl;ltpy;iy vdpy;> mnkhpf;fh> gphpl;ld; Nghd;w tsHe;j ehLfspd; thpirapy; ,e;jpahTk; kpd ,dr; rPuoptpy; Kd;dzpapy; epw;Fk; vd;gJ epr;rakhfp tpLk;.

1 jtwhd rpj;jhe;jk;

,jw;F Kd; cs;s jiyg;Gfspy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lKk; mJ rhHe;j kUe;JfSk; Vw;gLj;jpa rKjha khw;wk;> rKjha mopT Nghdw;tw;iw mjw;Fhpa fhuzq;fSld; ghHj;Njhk;. NkYk;> khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfshy; nrhy;yg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;> kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf czTg; gw;whf;FiwAk;> ,lg; gw;whf;FiwAk; Vw;gLk; vd;gd Nghd;w jtwhd rpj;jhe;jq;fs; gw;wp ,dp ehk; fhzg;NghFk; mj;jpahaq;fs; %yk; njspthf;FNthk;.

mwptpay; Kiwg;gb Muha;e;j mj;jid Ma;TfSk;> mjd; ntspg;ghlhf mikAk; jPHT my;yJ Nfhl;ghL (THEORY) fs; Nghd;witfs; kdpj ,dj;Jf;F ed;ik gaf;Fk; vd;Nwh> kdpjid kdpjdhf xOf;f tpOkq;fis Ngzr; nra;gtdhf cUthf;fp tpLk; vd;Nwh $w ,ayhJ. 17 k; E}w;whz;by; tho;e;j khy;j;j]; vd;W nrhy;yf; $ba mwpQd;? jd; tPl;L miwapy; cl;fhHe;J nfhz;L> fz;iz %bf; nfhz;L Nghl;l fzf;if kl;Lk; itj;Jf; nfhz;L> ,e;j mwptpay; kdpjd;> X! vd XykpLfpd;whd;. mtd; jd;idr; Rw;wpAs;s Nguz;lj;ijAk;> jd;idr; Rw;wp tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; Vida [PtuhrpfisAk;> gilj;J mj;jidf;Fk; xU epajpia toq;fp> guhkhpj;J tUk; Vf ,iwNahdhfpa ty;y my;yh`;tpd; Mw;wiy mtdJ Czf; fz; fzpf;fj; jtwp tpl;lJ. New;W jhd; xU ,y;yhikapypUe;J my;yJ G+[;aj;jpypUe;J Njhd;wpaijAk;> jd;Dila ,t;tsT nghpa cUtj;ij mw;g tpe;jpypUe;J ntspahf;fp ,Ug;gijAk; kdpjd; ftdpf;fj; jtwp tpl;lhd;.

kdpjdpd; vz;zpf;if ,Nj epiyapy; tsHe;J nfhz;Nl Nghdhy;> ,dp kdpjd; tho ,g;G+kpapy; ,lk; ,Ug;gJ vd;w jtwhd thjj;ij vOg;Gfpd;whd;. mtd; vOg;Gk; thjk; jtwhdJ!

NkYk;> gy;fpg; ngUFk; kf;fs; njhifahy; nghUshjhug; ghjpg;G Vw;gLfpwJ vd;fpwhd;. ,g;gbr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Nl Kjyhspj;JtKk;> fk;A+dp]Kk; mtdplk; Njitaw;w EfHnghUs; Miria cz;lhf;fp> mtdplk; Njitaw;w gzr;RikiaAk; my;yJ nghUshjhug; gw;whf;FiwiaAk; mjpfg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Nl tUtijAk;> NkYk; ,e;jr; Rikfs; ahTk; ,tdJ EfHnghUs; Mirahy; tpise;jJ vd ,tid ,e;j ,af;fq;fs; rpe;jpf;ff; $l tpLtjpy;iy. khwhf> ,e;jr; Rikfs; mjpfg;gbahd Foe;ijg; Ngw;why; te;jJ vdr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Nl> cz;ik epiyia ,e;j mwpQHfs; njhpe;Jk; kiwg;gJ Vd;?

NkYk;> mjpfg;gbahd kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;jhy; czTg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;fpwhd;. ,e;j thjk; vt;tsT jtwhdJ!! ,j;jid Nguz;lj;ijAk; gilj;J ghpghypf;Fk; me;j Vf ,iwNahdhfpa my;yh`;tpd; ty;yikapy; my;yth ,e;j mw;g kdpjd; re;Njfk; nfhz;L tpl;lhd;. kdpjdJ fzf;F jtwhdJ!! cyfpay; Nehf;Ff; nfhz;lJ. kdpjd; jhd; nfhz;Ls;s gFj;jwpitf; nfhz;L XusNt tpra Qhdq;fis vl;l KbAk; ,e;j miuFiw tpra QhdKs;s kdpjd; NghLk; fzf;F jtwhdJ. ,iwtd; NghLk; fzf;fpd; Kd; kdpjd; mw;gj;jpYk; mw;gk;. ,iwtdpd; mUl;nfhil ,g; Nguz;lk; KOtJk; gutpAs;sJ. mjd; %yk; kdpjd; cl;gl midj;J [PtuhrpfSk; gad;ngWfpd;wd. kdpjd; jtpu midj;J [PtuhrpfSk; mjw;nfd jtwhJ ed;wp nrYj;Jgitahf cs;sd. vdNt> mit epk;kjpNahL ehis vd;d? vg;gb? vd;w Rik ,y;yhJ tho;fpd;wd. Mdhy; kdpjd; ed;wp kwe;jtdhfTk;> Vf ,iwtdJ newpKiwfspdpd;Wk; gpwo;e;jtdhfTk;> jd;Dila gpbthjj;jhy;> mfk;ghtj;jhy; rPuopitj; jhNd Njbf; nfhz;lhd;. mj;jifa rPuopTfspy; xd;W jhd; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lk;.

FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj;jpl;lk;> ntWk; nghUshjhu kUj;Jt epiyfspy; kl;Lk; kdpjDf;F ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy. mjpYk; Nkyhd kdpj ehfhPfj;jpy; xOf;ff; fl;Lkhdj;jpy; my;yth ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jp cs;sJ.

,dp> ,e;j mwpQHfs; $Wk;> tho;thjhug; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;gJ gw;wp ghHg;Nghk;.

m) tho;thjhug; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLkh?

kdpjd; trpf;Fk; ,e;j G+kpapd; trpg;gplkhdJ my;yJ nfhs;sthdJ Fwpg;gpl;l mstpy; jhd; cs;sJ. NkYk;> mjpy; cs;s tsq;fSk; Fwpg;gpll msNt cs;sd. NkYk;> tsHe;J tUk; kf;fs; njhifapd; ngUf;fk;> ,e;j Fwpg;gpl;l msNt cs;s tsq;fis gq;F NghLk; NghJ> gw;whf;Fiw vd;gJ jtpHf;f ,ayhj xd;whf Mfp tpLk; vd;fpd;wdH ,e;j mwpQH? ngUkf;fs;. ,jd; %yk; xt;nthU kdpjDk; rpy> gy nrsfhpaq;fisr; re;jpf;f NehpLk;. ,t;thwhd Kiwapy; kdpjd; ghjpf;fg;gLtijj; jLf;f Ntz;Lnkdpy;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;JtJ mtrpak; vd;fpd;wdH.

,iwtd; $Wfpd;whd; :

epr;rakhf ehk; xt;nthU nghUisAk; (epHzapf;fg;gl;l) mstpd;gbNa gilj;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. (my;FHMd; 54:49)

,t;TyifAk;> mjpy; cs;s [Ptuhrpfs; mj;jidiaAk; gilj;Jg; ghpghypj;J tUk; Vf ,iwtd; jd; gzilgFSf;F vd;d vd;d Ntz;Lk;> mit ve;j mstpy; Njit vd;gd Nghd;w tho;thjhu trjpfis ,e;j cyfk; epiyngw;wpUf;Fk; ehs; tiuAk ;mtw;Wf;fhd Vw;ghl;ilr; nra;Nj itj;jpUf;fpd;whd;. me;j Vf Nghf ,iwtd; jhd; ,e;j KOg; Nguz;lj;jpd; #j;jpujhp. mtdJ jpl;lq;fs; nray;ghLfs;> midj;Jk; mZtpd; mZtsT $l Fiwaw;wit. mtdJ mUl;nfhilfis mwpahJ> mjpy; nghjpe;Js;s NgUz;ikfis ftdpahky;> jd; kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; tho;thdhfpy;> e\;lk; milag; NghtJ kdpjNdad;wp NtW ahH?

,iwtd; fzf;fw;w caphpdq;fis ,e;j G+kpapy; gut tpl;Ls;shd;. mtw;wpy; VjhtJ xU caphpia my;yJ rpy caphpdq;fis kl;Lk;> mtw;wpd; caphpdg; ngUf;fj;jpy; ve;j mopitAk; Vw;gLj;jhJ cw;gj;jp nra;a tpl;Nlhkhdhy; kl;Lk; NghJk;> ,e;j G+kp KOtJk; me;j Fwpg;gpl;l caphp my;yJ mjd; ,dk; kl;LNk ,ej G+kp KOtJk; epiwe;jpUf;Fk;.

cjhuzkhf> jhtu ,dj;jpy; SISYMBRIUM SOPHIA vd;w jhtuj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. ,jd; xt;nthU fpis ,dKk; 3/4 kpy;ypad; tpijfisf; nfhz;lJ. ,e;j ,dj;jpd;> xU fpis ,dj;jpd; tpijia kl;Lk; Kiwg;gpf;fr; nra;Nthkhdhy;> %d;W tUlj;jpy; ,g;G+kp KOtJk; ,e;j jhtuk; kl;LNk epiwe;jpUf;Fk;.

el;rj;jpu kPd; (STAR FISH) xU jlitf;F ,U E}W kpy;ypad; Kl;ilfis ,LfpwJ. mNj vz;zpf;ifapy; mj;jid Kl;ilfSk; FQ;Rfshfg; nghhpe;jnjdpy;> mjdJ %d;whtJ my;yJ ehd;fhtJ jiyKiwapy; fly;KOg;gug;Gk; el;rj;jpu kPd; kl;LNk epiwe;jpUf;Fk;.

kdpjd; xU Kiw ntspNaw;Wk; tpe;J (SEMEN) d; %yk; 300-400 kpy;ypad; ngz;fisf; fUj;jhpf;fr; nra;a KbAk;. ,g;G+kp KOtJk; kdpjHfshf epuk;g gy E}W kpy;ypad; Mz;fs; Njitapy;iy. khwhf xU Mz; NghJk;. xU rpy tUlq;fspNyNa ,g;G+kpia kdpjHfspd; $l;lq;fshf epug;gp tplyhk;.

NkYk;> gwit ,dq;fs;> kw;Wk; tpyq;fpdq;fs; Nghd;w caphpdq;fs; Fiwe;j fhy mstpy; epiwe;j re;jjpfisg; ngUf;ff; $bait. Mdhy;> mtw;wpd; cw;gj;jpapd; msT xU fl;Lf; Nfhg;Gf;Fs; jhd; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mitfs; gy;fpg; ngUFtij itj;J> kdpjd; fzf;fpl;lhNdahdhy;> mitfSk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lj;ij Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w KbTf;F tu Ntz;b tUk;?!!

,j;jidiaAk; xUq;Nf fl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUg;gtd; Vf ,iwtd; md;Nwh!! me;j Vf ,iwtdhfpa my;yh`;tpd; gilg;ghw;wiy fz; nfhz;L ghHf;f kWf;fpd;whd;. mtdJ rlthjk; mtdJ fz;iz kiwj;J tpl;lJ. kdpjd; jd; gFj;jwpit itj;J> Fwpg;gpl;l msNt rpe;jid kw;Wk; jpwdha;T nra;a ,aYk;. mtdhy; ,ayhjij vd;WNk mtd; xg;Gf; nfhs;tjpy;iy. mtid kPwpr; nry;Yk; eilKiwfSf;F ,iwtdJ topfhl;Ljiy ehLtjpy;iy. ,iwtd; jd;Dila gilg;gpdq;fSf;F vJ Njit> vg;nghOJ Njit> vd;d Njit vd;gdtw;iw mtd; ed;fwpe;jtd;. gy bhpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifapd; msTf;F kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp vl;bdhy; $l midj;Jf;Fk; czT Gfl;lf; $ba u`;khd; my;yth mtd;!! mtd; jd; gpujpepjpahfpa ,e;j kdpjid G+kpapy; epiy ngw;wpUf;fr; nra;a Ntz;ba fhynky;yhk;> ,e;j kdpj ,dj;Jf;Fk;> kw;w Vida gilg;GfSf;Fk; Njitahd mj;jidiaAk; epiy ngw;wpUf;fr; nra;thd;.

,dp nghUshjhuKk;> tho;thjhuKk; kf;fs; njhif tsu tsu vt;thW tsHe;Nj te;Js;sj vd;gijf; fhz;Nghk;.

M) cyf kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpAk;> czT cw;gj;jpAk;>

jdpegH tUkhdKk;

Mz;L - kf;fs; njhif (Nfhbapy;)

1650 - 50

1850 - 100

1930 - 200

1975 - 400

1995 - 573

fp.gp. 1650 Kjy; 1995 giu cs;s 345 tUlq;fspy; kf;fs; njhifahdJ mghpjkhf tsHe;Js;sJ. mJTk; 1930 1995 f;F ,ilg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; cs;s 60 Mz;Lfspy; 373 Nfhbahf kf;fs; njhif tsHe;Js;sJ.

,e;j msT caHe;Js;s kf;fs; njhifapdhy; kl;Lk;> cyfpy; tho;thjhuk; fpilf;fhky; cz;z czT ,y;yhky;> ,Uf;f ,lk; ,y;yhky; kf;fs; nrj;J kbe;jjhfNth my;yJ ,l neUf;fbapd; fhuzkhf mnrsfhpaq;fis mile;jjhfNth ek;khy; mwpa Kbatpy;iy. NkYk; ,t;tsT nghpa kf;fs; njhiff;F trpg;gplk; je;Jk;> czT je;Jk; ,d;Dk; kdpjd; FbapUf;f Vfg;gl;l epyk; fhypahfTk;> tUfpd;w ehl;fspy; czTg; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;lhYk;> epk;kjpahfr; rhg;gplf; $ba msTf;F czT jhdpaf; ifapUg;G ngUk;ghYk; midj;J ehLfsplKk; cs;sNj. ,e;jf; ifapUg;G Nghf> Vio ehLfSf;F czTfisj; jhdk; nra;af; $ba ehLfs; cs;sJ.

1995 y; ,e;jpuh fhq;fpu]; Ml;rpapd; nghOJ> epjp mikr;rH kd;Nkhfd;rpq; $wpa tptuq;fisf; ftdpf;f.

jw;Nghija czTg; nghUs; ifapUg;G 3 Nfhb ld;fs;. 2 Nfhb ld;fs; ,Ue;jhNy NghJk; NkYk; 66 Mapuk; Nfhb me;epar; nrythzp ifapUg;G cs;sJ. fLk;; twl;rpNa te;jhYk;> tpiyia fl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUf;f KbAk;. (jfty; : ,e;jpahLNl khHr; 21 - Vg;uy; 5> 1995)

NkYk; ekJ ,e;jpag; gpujkH 1997 nfd;a tp[aj;jpd; nghOJ> gpujkH F[;uhy; mtHfs; nfd;ahTf;F 1000 ld; czTg; nghUl;fis> twl;rp epthuz cjtpahfr; jUtjhf mwptpj;jhH. ,j;jifa mstpy; xU ehL ghjpg;gilAk; NghJ> kw;w ehLfs; jkJ ifapUg;gpy; cs;s czTg; nghUl;fisf; nfhz;L cjtp tUtJ ,d;iwa cyfpy; mjpfk; ele;J tUk; epfo;TfshFk;.

NkYk;> ,d;iwa ,e;jpa kf;fs; njhif 100 Nfhbf;Fk; mjpfk;. ,e;j 100 Nfhbf;Fk; mjpfkhd kf;fSk; cz;gjw;F Ntz;ba cztpd; ,Ug;G Nghfj; jhNd> kPjpia nfd;ah Nghd;w twl;rpapy; ghjpg;gpw;Fs;shFk; ehLfSf;F cjtpahfTk; > ,d;Dk; Vida ehLfSf;F czTg; nghUl;fis Vw;Wkjp nra;Jk;> ehL me;epar; nrythzpia <l;bf; nfhs;fpwJ.mjhtJ> fle;j 1994 y; nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F ,e;jpah Vw;Wkjp nra;j mhprpapd; msT vd;dntdpy;> 2>78>000 ld;fshFk;. (mug; epA+]; - rdp> Mf];L 16-1997)

NkNy ehk; Fwpg;gpl;l nrsjp mNugpah Nghf ,d;Dk; Vuhskhd ehLfSf;F ,e;jpa Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; czTg; nghUl;fspd; msitr; NrHj;jhy;> ekJ Njitf;F mjpfkhfNt czT cw;gj;jp Mtij mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

fle;j 1898 y; gphpl;ldpd;> gphpl;b\; mNrh]paidr; NrHe;j jiytH> rH tpy;ypak;]; f;&f;]; vd;gtH xU fUj;ij ntspapl;lhH. mjhtJ> gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; nfhif ,Nj mstpy; tsHe;J nfhz;Nl ,Ue;jhy;> ,d;Dk; 30 Mz;Lfspy;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g ek;kplk; NfhJik cw;gj;jp ,Uf;fhJ. ,jdhy; gphpl;ld; kpfg; ngUk; czTg; gw;whf;Fiwiar; re;jpf;Fk; vd;whH. rH tpy;ypak;]; f;&f;]; mtHfs; $wpagb> gphpl;ld; czTg; gw;whf;Fiwiar; re;jpj;jjh?

1934-38 y; 0.94 nkl;hpf; ld;/Vf;fH Mf ,Ue;j gphpl;ldpd; NfhJik cw;gj;jp 1956 y; 1.26 nkl;hpf; ld; /Vf;fH Mff; $baJ.

1995 y; gphpl;ldpd; nkhj;j NfhJik cw;gj;jp 14>300>000 nkl;hpf; ld; Mf caHe;jJ.

NkYk;> czT cw;gj;jpapd; msthdJ> tsHe;J tUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g caHe;J nfhz;Nl jhd; te;jNj xopa> tsHe;J tpl;l kf;fs; njhif fhuzkhf ahUk; gl;bdp fplf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ ,d;iwa epjHrd cz;ikahFk;.

fp.gp. 1780 y; gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; njhif 8 kpy;ypad;.

1815 y; --- 18.5 kpy;ypad;

1911 y; --- 45.2 kpy;ypad;

1996 y; --- 65 kpy;ypad;

Mf> rH tpy;ypak; f;&f;]; mwpf;if ntspapl;l 1898 Kjy; 1997 tiu rhpahf xU E}w;whz;L fle;J tpl;l epiyapy;> gphpl;ldpd; czT cw;gj;jp mjpfhpj;J> kf;fs; midtUk; czTg; gw;whf;Fiw ,y;yhky; tho;tJ> Nkw;fz;l khy;j;j]; rhHGthj mwpQHfspd; $w;iw ngha;ahf;Ffpwjy;yth?

,Nj rk fhyj;jpy; mnkhpf;fhtpYk; mHn[z;bdhtpYk; kpj kpQ;rpa NfhJik cw;gj;jpapd; fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l tpiyr; rhpitf; fl;Lg;gLj;j> me;j muRfs; kpj kpQ;rpa NfhJikia ld; fzf;fpy; flypy; nfhl;bAk;> vhpj;Jk; mopj;jdNu> mij cyfk; kwe;J tpl;ljh? jtwhdnjhU rpj;jhe;jf; nfhs;iffisf; ifapy; J}f;fp itj;Jf; nfhz;L> rpW gps;isfspd; mOifia mlf;f G+r;rhz;b tUtjhff; fw;gidahff; $WNthNk> mijg; Nghy; ,e;j mwpQH? ngUkf;fs; ngaH njhpahj CUf;F top nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

NkYk; 1950 y; ,e;jpahtpd; kf;fs; njhif 361.1 kpy;ypad; MFk;. 1997 y; 965 kpy;ypad; Mff; $bAs;sJ. NkYk;> 2002 gpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifia tpl mjpfk; Mfp tpl;lJ.

,jpy; tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPNo fdprkhd msT> mjhtJ 65 rjtPj kf;fs; tho;e;jhYk;> ,ejpah czT cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwitf; fz;Ls;sJ. mNj Nghy jdp egH tUkhdKk;> Mz;Lf;F Mz;L $bf; nfhz;Nl jhd; tUfpd;wJ.

vt;thnudpy;> ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j czT cw;gj;jp 1950 y; 50.8 kpy;ypad; ld;. 1995-96 y; 185 kpy;ypad; ld;dhf czT cw;gj;jp caHe;Js;sJ vijf; fhl;Lfpd;wnjdpy;> kf;fs; njhif cau cau cw;gj;jpAk; caHe;J nfhz;L jhd; te;Js;sJ.

Mdhy; ,e;j cw;gj;jp rhpahd mstpy; gq;fplg;glhkYk;*> ghJfhf;fg;glhkYk;> cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; msTf;F Vw;g jhdpa gjdply; trjpapy;yhikAk;** Mfpa fhuzq;fshy; czTg; nghUs; tPzbf;fg;gLtjhy; jhd; ghjpg;Gk; e\;lKk; Vw;gLfpwNj xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijf; filgpbj;jjhy; my;y. (*, ** tpiuakhFk; cw;gj;jp vDk; jiyg;gpy; fhz;f (ghfk; 2 y; 6)

,e;jpaHfspd; tUl tUkhdk; &ghapy;..

juk; tUkhd kjpg;G ,e;jpa &ghapy;

1985 - 1986 1992 - 1993

fPo;j;jl;L &.9000/-fPNo 18>000/-fPNo

jho;eLj;jl;L 9000/- - 18>000/- 18>000/- - 36>000/-

eLj;juk; 18>001/- - 30>000/- 36>001/- - 56>000

caHeLj;juk; 30>001/- - 42>000/- 56>001/- - 78>000/-

Nky;juk; 42>000 NkNy 78>000 NkNy

- Mjhuk; : ,e;jpa LNl> Vg;uy; 6-20 - 1995.

kf;fs; njhif $ba mNj mstpy; ruhrhp ,e;jpadpd; tUl tUkhdKk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. vdNt ,tHfs; fz;L gag;gLk; tho;thjhuk; ghjpf;fg;Lk; vDk; gpuikAk; jtW vd;gJk; ep&gzkhfpwJ.

NkYk;> khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfs; $Wk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ jhd; ehl;by; tho;thjhuKk;> ehl;by; nghUshjhuKk;> njhopy; tsHr;rpAk; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

vt;thnwdpy;> ,d;iwa Foe;ij jhd; ehisa EfHNthH. ,d;iwa njhopy; tsHr;rpAk;> njhopw;rhiyfSk;> ,d;iwa kf;fspd; Njitfis epiwNtw;Wk; msT cs;sd vd itj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. mjhtJ 100 Nfhb kf;fspd; EfH nghUs; kw;Wk; czTj; Njitia epiwT nra;Ak; nghUl;L mike;Js;sd. Nkw;gb 100 Nfhb kf;fs; njhifia> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; 100 my;yJ 150 Mz;Lfspy; Fiwf;fpNwhk; vdpy;> Fiwe;J tpl;l kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g cw;gj;jpiaAk; Fiwf;f NehpLk;. cw;gj;jp FiwAk; NghJ> njhopw;rhiyfisAk;> cw;gj;jpahsHfisAk;> njhopyhsHfisAk; Fiwf;f NehpLk;. ,jd; %yk; ehl;bd; njhopy; tsKk;> re;ijg; nghUshjhuKk; ntFthfg; ghjpf;fg;gLk;. mj;Jld; Ntiy ,y;yhj; jpz;lhl;lKk; Vw;gLk;. ,jd; %yk; ehl;bd; nghUshjhuKk; r%f epiyAk; ntFthfg; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

NkYk;> ,uz;L cyfg; NghHfSf;Fg; gpd;dhy;> gpuhd;];> gphpl;ld;> n[Hkdp Nghd;w ehLfspy; Vw;gl;l kf;fs; njhiff; FiwT> Fwpg;ghf mjpf Mz;fs; ,we;jjd; fhuzkhf> gpwg;G tpfpjk; ntFthff; Fiwe;J NghdJ.

,e;j gpwg;G tpfpjj;ijAk;> ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhifiaAk; rhp nra;tjw;fhf> ntspehl;L kf;fis FbNaw;Wtjw;F> jk; FbNaw;wr; rl;l tpjpfspy; Vfg;gl;l khWghLfisr; nra;J> Rje;jpukhd FbNaw;wj;jpw;F top nra;jJ. Mdhy;> ,d;W mt;thW FbNawpa gy;NtW kf;fspd; ,dk;> ehL> nkhop> epwk;> fyhr;rhuk; fhuzkhf> ,e;jf; FbNawpa kf;fs; nrhe;j ehl;L kf;fSld; NtWgl;L epw;fpwhHfs;. ,e;j NtWghlhdJ> ,e;j muRfSf;F ngUk; jiytypahf cs;sJ. Vnddpy;> FbNawpa kf;fs; kPJ> cs;ehl;L kf;fs; mjpfkhd jhf;Fjy;fspy; <LgLfpwhHfs;. NkYk> Ntiy tha;g;G Nghd;wtw;wpy; cs; ehl;L kf;fSf;Fk;> ntspehl;by; ,Ue;J FbNawpa kf;fSf;Fk; Vw;gLk; Nghl;bahdJ> cs;ehl;L kf;fs; muRf;F vjpuhfTk;> ntspehl;ltHfsi ntspNaw;wf; NfhhpAk; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <LgLk; #oy; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jdhy; nghUshjhug; ghjpg;Gk;> ehl;bd; ];jpuj; jd;ikapy; gpur;idiaAk;> ghjpg;igAk; Vw;gLj;jp tUfpwJ vdyhk;.

,Nj Neuj;jpy; kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf cw;gj;jp ngUf Ntz;ba epHg;ge;jk;> kdpjid tpiuthd cw;gj;jpf;F mtidj; J}z;LfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; Ntiy tha;g;G> njhopy; tsHr;rp ngUFtNjhL> ehl;bd; nghUshjhuKk; caUk; mNjNtisapy;. ehl;bd; ghJfhg;Gk; gyg;gLj;jg;gLk;.

New;W tiu ek; ehl;by; xU khL xU ehisf;F 10 ypl;lH ghy; fue;jhy; Mr;rhpak;. Mdhy; ,d;W xU ehisf;F 40 ypl;lH fuf;Fk; fyg;G ,d khLfs; te;J tpl;ld. NkYk;> M];jpNuypah> nld;khHf;> `hye;J Nghd;w ehLfspd; khLfs; xU ehisf;F 90 ypl;lH ghy; fwf;Fk; jpwDilait. Nkw;gb ehLfspypUe;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;j khLfSf;F> mNj rPNjh\;z epiyia nraw;ifahf cUthf;fp> nrsjp mNugpahg; ghy; gz;izfspy;> mNj 90 ypl;lUf;Fk; Fiwtpy;yhj ghiy cw;gj;jp nra;fpwhHfs;. mNj Nghy Nkw;gb ehLfspd; khLfs; <Dk; fd;whdJ> 8 khjj;jpNyNa rpidf;Fj; jahuhfp tpLfpd;wJ. mNj Nghy jpdk; xd;Wf;F ek;ehl;Lg; gz;izfspd; Nfhopfs; xU Kl;il jhd; ,Lk;. ,d;W xU ehisf;F ,uz;L Kl;il ,Lk; Nfhopfs; te;J tpl;ld.

mNjNghy> 1 fpNyh fj;jhpf;fha; gwpf;f 10 nehbfspy; fha; gwpf;f Ntz;ba epiy Ngha;> ,d;W xU nehbapNYNa 10 fpNyh fj;jhpf;fha; gwpf;Fk; msTf;F cyfj;jpy; njhopy; El;gk; tsHe;Js;sJ.

Kd;G ney; mWtil nra;a 6 khjk; fhj;jpUe;jJ Nghf> ,d;W 90 ehl;fspy; mWtil nra;af; $ba ,dq;fis kdpjd; fz;Lgpbj;Js;shd;.

vdNt> kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf> mtw;iwr; rkhspf;f Ntz;bajd; nghUl;L vOe;j ce;Jjy;fs; kdpjid Gjpa Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfis nra;aj; J}z;baJ. mjw;F Vw;whw; Nghy;> Genetic Engineering Nghd;w GJg;GJ mwptpay; Jiwfs; Vw;gl;L> tptrhaj; JiwapYk;> fhy;eilj; JiwapYk; tpaj;jF khw;wq;fisr; nra;J tUfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ve;ne;j ehLfs; kf;fs; njhifia mjpfkhfg; ngw;Ws;sNjh> me;j ehLfs; ghJfhg;gpYk; jd;dpiwitg; ngw;Ws;sd. mNj Neuj;jpy; Fiwthd kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l [g;ghd;> ijthd;> Fitj;> nrsjp mNugpah Nghd;w ehLfs; jq;fs; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf mnkhpf;fh Nghd;w ehLfspd; uhZt tPuHfisf; $ypf;F mkHj;j Ntz;ba epHg;ge;j epiyapy; cs;sdH. vdNt xU ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhif jhd; me;ehl;bd; ngUQ; nry;tk;. kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf tsq;fSk; ngUFNk xopa> me;ehl;il mopTf;F ,l;Lr; nry;yhJ.

,) jdp egH tUkhdf; fzpg;G - Gjpa Kiw

rHtNjr ehza epjp mikg;gpd; fzf;fPl;bd;gb cs;ehl;Lg; gz kjpg;gpd; mbg;gilapy; thq;Fk; rf;jpia Kf;fpakhd fhuzpahff; nfhz;L kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; nkhj;j cs; ehl;L cw;gj;jp kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. ,g;Gjpa fzf;fPl;bd;gb ,e;jpahtpy; ruhrhp jdpegH tUkhdk; 1>250 lhyuhf caHe;Js;sJ. Kd;dH ,J 1150 lhyuhf ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; ,f; fzf;fPl;L Kiwia tsUk; ehLfs; mq;fPfhpg;gjpy;iy. Vnddpy;> mitfSf;F cyf tq;fpapd; rpwg;Gf; fld; cjtp fpilf;fhJ. xU ehl;bd; ruhrhp tUkhdk; 765 lhyUf;F Nky; ,Ue;jhy; cyf tq;fp epjp cjtp mspf;fhJ vd;gNj ,jd; fhuzkhFk;.

<) fy;tp ,y;yh Foe;ijfSk;> Njrj;jpd; tsHr;rpAk;?

NkYk; ,e;jpahitg; nghUj;jtiu 30 Nfhbg; NgH fy;tp ,y;yhjtHfshf cs;sdH. ,tHfspy; ngUk;ghNyhH Foe;ijj; njhopyhsHfshf tho;itj; njhlq;fpatHfs;. cyfj; njhopyhsH eyf; fofk;> NtW rpy nghJ ey mikg;GfSld; ,ize;J elj;jpa Ma;tpy;> fy;tp fw;w xUtH 50 Mz;Lfspy; 12 yl;rk; &gha; rk;ghjpf;f tha;g;G cs;sJ. fy;tp ,y;yhjtH vj;jid Mz;Lfs; cioj;jhYk; ,e;j tUkhdj;ij vl;l KbahJ. (,e;jpad; vf;];gpu]; 01.07.1997 jkpopy; rhiy ,se;jpiuad; - rkurk; Mf];L 16-31-1997) vd;gJ njspthfj; njhpate;Js;sJ. ,e;jpahtpy; RkhH 2 Nfhbf; Foe;ijfs; gs;spf; fy;tp ,y;yhjjhy;> gilg;ghw;wYf;fhd kd tsHr;rpia ,oe;J tpLfpd;whHfs;. Fiwe;j $yp NtiyfSf;Fk;> ,tHfs; gad; jUtjhy;> ,e;ehl;bd; murpay;thjpfSk;> Miy mjpgHfSk; me;jf; Foe;ijfspd; koiy ehl;fspy; fy;tp ngWtjpypUe;J jLg;gjd; %yk;> ,e;jpa ehl;bd; njhopyhsHfspd; jpwidj; jLg;gNjhL> jdp egH tUkhdj;ijAk; mtHfs; ghjpg;gilar; nra;J tpLfpd;whHfs;.

,e;j jdpegH tUkhd ghjpg;ghdJ Njrj;jpd; nkhj;j tUthiag; ghjpf;ff; $bajhf cs;sJ. ,J Nghd;w epiyfspy;> fz; Kd; midtUf;Fk; njhpe;J elf;Fk; ,j;jifa mepahaq;fis muRk;> murpay;thjpfSk; jq;fs; yhg Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf kl;LNk mt;tg;nghOJ Fuy; nfhLf;fpwhHfs;.

ehl;bd; jdpegH tUkhdk; caHtjhy;> FLk;g tUkhdk; caUk; mNjNtisapy;> nghUshjhu Nehf;Fld;> nghUshjhug; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;L tpLk; vDk; gaj;jpy; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij filgpbf;f Ntz;ba mtrpaKk; ,y;yhky; Mfp tpLk;.

Vnddpy; ,d;W nghUshjhug; gw;whf;Fiw jhd; FLk;gj;jpy; Foe;ijfspd; vz;zpf;ifia kl;Lg;gLj;jj; J}z;Lk; KO Kjw; fhuzpahf mike;Js;sJ vd;gJ midtuhYk; xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl;l cz;ikahFk;. vdNt> kf;fis fy;tp fw;w rKjhakhf cUthf;Ftjd; %yk; ehl;bd; nghUshjhuk; caUNk xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; cauhJ vd;gJ ,d;W ep&gzkhfp tUk; cz;ikahFk;.

brk;gH> 02> 1997 y; ntspahd ,e;jpah LNl gj;jphpf;ifapy; gf;fk; 46 y; ntspahdnjhU nra;jpapy;> jkpo;ehL jpiug;glj; Jiw khztHfs; vLj;j> ntd;j l;hPk; fk;]; l;& vd;w lhf;Fnkz;l;hp jpiug;glj;jpy;> gbg;gwptpy;yhj hpf;\h njhopyhspf;F thpirahff; Foe;ijfs;. mtdJ kfs; gs;spf;Fr; nry;y Ntz;ba tajpy;> $yp Ntiyf;Fr; nry;y NehpLfpwJ. jd; je;ij xU Foe;ijNahL epWj;jpapUe;jhy; FLk;gk; vg;gb ,Ue;jpUf;Fk; vd me;j 10 taj rpWkp epidg;gjhf me;jg; glj;jpy; nrhy;yp ,Uf;fpwhHfshk;.

,e;jpar; rl;lg;gb> midj;J FbkfDf;Fk; fy;tp fw;f chpikaspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. me;jf; fy;tpf;fhf Ntz;b ,e;j ehL ve;j mstpy; nryT nra;Js;sJ. rpiyfSf;Fk;> tpohf;fSf;Fk;> ntl;b ge;jhf;fSf;Fk; kl;Lk; gzk; ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy;> Muk;gf; fy;tp trpjpia ehl;by; tp];jhpf;f kl;Lk; gzk; ,y;iy. ,d;W vj;jid gs;spf; $lq;fs; fl;blk; ,y;yhkYk;> MrphpaHfs; ,y;yhkYk; ele;j nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. fzf;fpy;yhjit.

NkYk;> ,j;jifa Foe;ijfis nfhj;jbikfshfg; gad;gLj;jTk;> $yp Ntiyf;F mkHj;jTk; rl;lk; jil nra;jpUe;Jk;> ,d;W Foe;ijj; njhopyhsHfs; ehl;by; ngUff; fhuzk; vd;d? mj;jifa Foe;ijj; njhopyhsHfisg; gad;gLj;Jk; murpay; KjiyfisAk;> gzf;fhu KjyhspfisAk; ,e;j Njrk; vd; nra;jJ? me;jf; Foe;ijapd; fy;tp kWg;Gf;F ahH fhuzk;? Vd;? me;jj; jfg;gd; Nky; kl;Lk; KOg; gopiar; Rkj;JfpwPHfs;. Chpy; ve;jj; jfg;gDk; gps;is ngwhtpl;lhy; cq;fSf;F (murpay;thjpfSf;F) jhd; ey;yJ. fy;tpf;F vd xJf;Fk; gzj;ij rpiyfSf;Fk;> rpdpkhf; $j;jhbfSf;Fk; thwp ,iwf;fyhNk!

mJ Nghfl;Lk;> xU Foe;ijAld; kl;Lk; thOk; Mapuf;fzf;fhd njhopyhsHfs; epiy kl;Lk; vd;d thOfpwjhk;. me;j xU Foe;ijapd; fy;tpj; Njitf;F ,e;j muR vd;d nra;Js;sJ. GOj;Jg; Nghd rj;JzTk;> cOj;Jg; Nghd ghy; khTk; jhdh? ,d;W vq;F jpUk;gpDk; fy;tp vd;gJ filr; ruf;fhf fhz;ntz;l; Kjy; gy;fiyf;fofk; Kjy; gutp tpl;lNj> ,e;j epiyapy; xNu xU Foe;ij ngw;w fPo; epiy kf;fs; vd;d jd; Foe;ijia fhz;ntz;byh gbf;fg; Nghl;L tpl;lhd;?

ePq;fs; nra;tnjy;yhk;> me;jg; gpQ;rpd; kdjpNy eQ;irf; fyg;gJ jhd;. jd;Dld; gpwe;J tpl;l jd; jq;if> jk;gpfshy; jhNd ekf;F ,e;jr; rpukk; vd;w cstpay; jhf;fj;jhy;> me;jg; gpQ;Rf; Foe;ij jd; jk;gp jq;iffisNa vjphpfshf epidf;f itf;fj; jhd; ,J Nghd;w glq;fs; gad;gLNk xopa> mjdhy; vOk; gpur;idia vs; KidasTk; jPHf;fg; gad;glhJ.

Nky;kl;lj;Jf;F Ntz;Lnkd;why; tjtjntd;w ,Uf;Fk; Foe;ijfs; mehfhPfkhfj; Njhd;wyhk;. Mdhy; fPo;epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; kf;fSf;f mJ jhd; nghf;fp\Nk. Vd; vdpy; ,e;j Nky;kl;l kf;fshy; Vw;gl;l epHthff; NfL> Kiwaw;w Ml;rp Nghd;tw;why; tpiythrp caHT. EfHnghUs; thp Vw;wk; Nghd;wtw;wpdhy; mtdJ nghUshjhur; Rikiag; gd;klq;fhf;fpf; nfhz;L tUfpwJ. ,tw;iw vyyhk; mtd; <L nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why;> mjpff; Foe;ijfSk;> mjd; %yk; tUkhdKk; fpilf;f mtd; top Njbf; nfhs;fpwhd;. ,tw;iw vy;yhk; jPHf;f> fPo;f;Fbkfdpd; epiy cau Ntz;Lnkd;why;> MSk; tHf;fk; Kjypy; rPuila Ntz;Lk;. Mzp NtNu gOjile;J epw;Fk; NghJ> fpisfisf; Nfhgpj;Jg; gad; ,y;iy..! jpiug;glf; fy;Y}hp ez;gHfNs!!!

NkYk; r%fj;jpd; fPo; kl;lkhdJ mjpf gps;isfisf; nfhz;ljhf cs;sJ vd;gJ mtHfisg; nghUj;jtiu xU rhjfkhd tprak; jhd;. Vnddpy;> jd; epyj;jpd; gad;ghLfSf;fhd $yp Ntiyfs; kw;Wk; jd; njhopy;fSf;fhd $yp NtiyfSf;F gpwiu $ypf;F mkHj;Jk; NghJ Vw;gLk; nghUshjhu e\;lj;jpypUe;J ghJfhf;f> jd; gps;isfis mjw;Fg; gad;gLj;jp> nghUshjhu tpiuaj;jpypUe;J mtd; jd;idg; ghJfhj;Jf nfhs;fpwhd;. mjdhy;> mjpff; Foe;ijfis mtd; Rikahff; fUJtjpy;iy. ,j;jifa epiyapy;> muR me;j fPo; kl;lf; Fbkfd; Nky; fUiz nfhz;L> mtdJ gps;isfSf;F rhpahd Kiwapy; ,ytrf; fy;tp toq;Fkhdhy;> fPo;f;Fb kfdpd; nghUshjhuk;..> jd; fy;tp fw;w Foe;ij %yk; cau tha;ag;gpUf;fpwJ. ,j;jifa fPo;f;Fb kfdpd; nghshjhu tsHr;rp jhd; ehl;bd; cz;ikahd nghUshjhu tsHr;rpahf mikAk;. Vnddpy;> ehl;bd; 60 rjtPjk; NgH ehl;bd; ruhrhp tUkhdj;Jf;Fk; fPo;epiyapy; cs;stHfs;.

2. ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;?

FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk; khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfspd; mLj;j thjk;> kf;fs; njhif tsu tsu ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;..? Vnddpy;> G+kp vd;gJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l msT nfhz;l tho;tplkhFk;. mjhtJ> G+kpapd; nkhj;jg; gug;gsT 57>168>000 rJu iky;fs;. ,jpy; 1995 d; fzf;Fg;gb kf;fs; njhif 573 NfhbahFk;.

Nkw;gb cs;s G+kpapd; gug;gsNthL> kf;fs; njhifiaAk; fzf;fpl;lhy; 9-10 Vf;fH gug;gstpy; xU kdpjd; trpf;fpd;whd;. mjhtJ xU rJu iky; gug;gstpw;F 100f;Fk; rw;W mjpfkhd NgH trpf;fpwhHfs;. fpl;lj;jl;l 6-7 fhy;ge;J ikjhdq;fs; msTs;s ,lj;jpy; xU kdpjd; trpf;fpd;whd;. xU fhy;ge;J ikjhdk; vd;gJ xd;wiu Vf;fH gug;gsT nfhz;ljhFk;.

rpy E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd;dhy; kdpjd; FbirapYk;> khb tPly;yhj tPl;bYk; trpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhd;. Mdhy; ,d;Nwh> tpQ;Qhd tsHr;rpAk;> njhopy; El;gKk; tsHr;rp mile;J tUk; epiyapy;> kdpjd; ,d;W mLf;F khbfspy; trpf;f Muk;gpj;J cs;shd;. ,jd; %yk; ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw vt;tsT Vw;gl;lhYk;> mtw;iw vy;yhk; rkhspf;Fk; msTf;F ,d;iwa njhopy; El;gk; Kd;Ndwp cs;sJ.

,d;iwa Kd;Ndwpa ehLfspy; Kjd;ikahd mnkhpf;fhtpd; epA+ahHf; efhpy; 1 rJu iky; gug;gstpw;F 22>000 NgH ve;j mnrsfhpaq;fSk; ,y;yhky;> cyfpd; Kjy; ju trjpfNshL tho;fpd;whHfs;.

NkYk; rPdhtpd; nkhj;jg; gug;gstpy; 10 rjtPjk; epyk; kl;LNk cgNahfj;jpy; cs;sJ. Nkw;F Mg;hpf;fhtpy; 62 rjtPj tptrha epyq;fs; tptrhak; nra;ag;glhky; jhpR epyq;fshf cs;sd. mjhtJ> 1>150>000>000 Vf;fH epyq;fs; jhpR epyq;fs;. gpNurpy; jdJ nkhj;j tpis epyj;jpy; (2>000>000>000 Vf;fH) 2.25 rjtPjj;ij kl;LNk tptrhaj;jpw;fhfg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ. NkYk; gpNurpy; jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 29.21 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; tptrhaj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ.

[g;ghd; jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 13.97 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; tptrhaj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ. fdlh jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 8 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; tptrhaj;jpw;fhfg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ.

tptrhak; nra;jJ Nghf> vQ;rpAs;s ,lq;fs; fhLfshfTk;> ghiy epyq;fshfTk;> kiyfs; kw;Wk; jhpR epyq;fshfTk; fplf;fpd;wd. ,t;tsT ,lq;fs; Nghf kPjKs;s ,lq;fspy;> mjhtJ kf;fs; jw;nghOJ FbapUf;Fk; gFjp Nghf> kf;fs; FbapUf;fj; jFjpahd ,lq;fs; ,d;Dk; epia cs;sd. NkYk; gy mLf;Fkhbf; FbapUg;G trjpahdJ> kf;fs; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; gug;gsitf; Fiwj;Js;sJ vdyhk;. NkYk;> NkNy cs;s jfty; %yk;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhif %yk;> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;gJ ntWk; G+r;rhz;b fhl;Lk; NtiyNaad;wp NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;f KbAk;?!

,dp rpy ehLfspy; cs;s [d neUf;fbiag; ghHg;Nghk;.

vz;

ehL

[dneUf;fb

(xU rJu fp.kP.fspy;)

1

mnkhpf;fh

57.67

2

M];jphpah

214.71

3

fphP];

109.3

4

gphpl;ld;

319.17

5

nkf;]pNfh

85.29

6

,e;jpah

695.3 Per/Sq. mile

7

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852.5 Per/Sq. mile

8

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777.41

9

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646.44

10

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3.6

11

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423.24

12

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16.75

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652.52

14

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353.64

15

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314.6 Per/Sq. mile

16

nejHyhe;J (`hye;J)

1>055.2 Per/Sq. mile

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NkYk;> nejHyhe;jpy; xU rJu iky;gug;gstpy; ,t;tsT egHfs; trpj;Jk;> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw vd;w gpur;id ,y;yhky; tho;fpwhHfNs jtpu> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw fhuzkhf ahUk; flypy; tpOe;J jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhs;stpy;iy. khwhf> fliy kf;fs; trpf;Fk; ,lkhfTk;> tpis epykhfTk; khw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs; vd;gJ jhd; cz;ik epiyahFk;.

mjw;Fk; Nkyhf> me;jf; fliyAk;> FbapUf;f jFjpNa ,y;yhj fuL Kulhd ghiw epiwe;j ,lq;fisAk;> Njhz;b gpd; iftplg;gl;l Ruq;fq;fisAk;> rJg;G kw;Wk; ghiy epyq;fisAk;> Gjpa Gjpa tpQ;Qhd njhopy; Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;jp kdpjd; thoTk;> tptrhak; nra;aTk;> jFe;j epyq;fshf khw;wpg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Ls;shHfs;. (jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;l gad;glhj epyq;fs; vd;w jiyg;gpy; fhz;f)

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NkYk;> jkpofj;jpy;> Njrpa kf;fs; njhifapy;> 1 rJu fp.kP. y; 428 NgH tho;fpwhHfs;. kw;Wk; jkpofj;jpy; cs;s Vida khtl;lq;fspy;> kf;fs; njhif neUf;fk; mjpfk; kw;Wk; Fiwthf cs;s khtl;lq;fshtd :

vz;

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[dneUf;fb

(xU rJu fp.kP.fspy;)

1

nrd;id

21>811

55>638>318

2

fd;dpahFkhp

945

1>591>174

3

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588

4>653>593

4

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594

2>138>845

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525

3>449>662

6

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596

2>122.759

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518

2>387>864

8

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371

4>114>323

9

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263

1>074>989

10

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284

1>322>494

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268

1>135>887

,jpy; nrd;idapy; jhd; mjpfgl;r kf;fs; njhifahf 21>811 NgH xU rJu fp.kP.f;Fs; tho;fpwhHfs;. ,Nj msT kf;fs; njhif jhd; mnkhpf;fj; jiyefH epA+ahHf; efhpy; tho;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy;> mJ tsHe;j ehLfspy; Kjd;ikahdJ. Mifahy;> ,t;tsT kf;fSk; ve;jtpj mnrsfhpaq;fisAk; milahky; tho;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; nrd;idiag; nghUj;jtiu kf;fs; gytpj mnrsfhpaq;fSld; tho ahH fhuzk;? kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fkh? fpilahJ. ,jd; KO Kjw; fhuzk; muNr jhd;. vy;yh Kf;fpa njhopyfq;fSk;> njhopw;rhiyfSk;> mYtyfq;fSk; jiyefhpy; ,Ug;gJk;> murpd; rhpahd jpl;lkply; ,y;yhikAk; jhd; ,jd; fhuzkhFk;.

Vnddpy;> ,t;tsT kf;fs; njhifAk; ngUff; fhuzk;> fpuhkq;fspypUe;J kf;fs; Ntiytha;g;Gj; Njb ,lk; ngaHe;jjhYk;> NkYk; fpuhkq;fspy; fy;tp> Ntiytha;g;G> Rfhjhuk; Nghd;w mbg;gil trjpfs; kWf;fg;gLtjhYk; jhd; nrd;id ,t;tsT nghpa kf;fs; njhifiag; ngw;Ws;sNj jtpu> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;il filgpbf;fhky;> risf;fhky; ngw;Wj; js;spajhy; myy vd;gij FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuT mwpT [Ptpfs; rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHg;gJ ey;yJ.

fpuhkq;fspd; mbg;gilj; trjpfs; nra;ag;gLk; vd;gd Nghd;w murpd; jpl;lq;fs;> jpl;lq;fshfNt cs;sdNt jtpu nray;ghL vd;gJ kpff; FiwNt. mg;gbNa fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; mbg;gil trjpfs; nra;ag;glhkYk;> nra;ag;gltpUf;Fk; trjpfSf;F xJf;fg;gLk; epjpfs; KOikahfr; nrytplg;gLfpwjh? vd;why; ,y;iy. fhz;l;uhf;lH Kjy; vk;.vy;.V.> vk;.gp.> tiu nfhs;isabj;jJ Nghf> jpl;lq;fSf;Fg; Ngha;r; NrHtJ vd;dNth> ntWk; 20 rjtPjk; jhd; ,Uf;Fk;. Vnddpy;> NuhL Nghlf; nfhl;lg;gLk; ry;ypf; fw;fs;> NuhL Nghlg;gl;ljhf gzk; ngwg;gl;l gpd; mit NuhLfs; Nghlg;glhkNyNa ms;spr; nry;Yk; mtyk; ek; jkpo;ehl;by; jhd; mjpfk; elf;fpwJ vdyhk;.

,JNghy> MSk; tHf;fKk;> mjpfhu tHf;fKk; nra;fpd;w jtWfs; jhd;> rKjha mtyq;fisj; Njhw;Wtpf;fpd;wd. Nghlg;gLk; jpl;lq;fs; mwpthHe;j KiwapYk; njhiyNehf;Fk; nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpYk;> Nghlg;gLk; jpl;lq;fSf;F xJf;fg;gLk; gzk; KOikahff me;je;jj; jpl;lq;fSf;Fr; nrytplg;gLkhdhy;> ehL ,e;jsT tsHr;rpj; jiliag; ngw;wpUf;fhJ.

NkYk;> ,e;jpa ehl;bd; tsHr;rpf;Ff; FWf;Nf epw;gtHfs; ,e;j ehl;Lg; gbg;ghspfSk;> mjpfhhpfSk;> murpay;thjpfSk; jhd; vd;W nrhd;dhy; gyH tpag;gilayhk;. Mdhy; mJ jhd; cz;ik. gy;NtW cyf epWtdq;fs; ,e;jpahtpd; tsHr;rpg; gzpfSf;Ff; fldhf toq;fpa 1100 Nfhb lhyH (38>000 Nfhb &gha;) gad;gLj;jg;glhky; mg;gbNa Klq;fpf; fplf;fpwJ. mwptpay; gbg;Gk;> Gjpa Gjpa jpl;l eltbf;ifg; gbg;Gk; gbj;jtHfs;> ,e;jpahtpy; cyfj;jpNyNa ,uz;lhtJ ngUe;njhifapduhf ,Uf;fpwhHfs; vd;w Gs;sp tpguk; jug;gLfpwJ. Njb te;J fpilj;j 38>000 Nfhb &ghiag; gad;gLj;jj; njhpahky; mOf;fg;gbag; Nghl;L tpl;L> gioa gQ;rg;ghl;ilNa ghbf; nfhz;L ,Uf;Fk; ek;Kila gbg;ghspfs; gw;wp vd;d jhd; nrhy;tJ? (tzpf kzp> 7-4-97. rkurj;jpy; NguhrphpaH rhiy ,se;jpiuad;. Mf];L 16-31> 1997)

NkYk;> vq;nfy;yhk; njhopy; tsHr;rpAk;> Ntiy tha;g;Gf;fSk; mjpfk; cs;sdNth me;je;j khtl;lq;fspy; jhd; kf;fs; njhif neUf;fk; mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. gpw khtl;lq;fshd ,uhkehjGuk;> GJf;Nfhl;il> rptfq;if Nghd;w twz;l khtl;lq;fspy; kf;fs; njhif Fiwthf ,Ug;gjw;Ff; fhuzk;> njhopy; tsHr;rpAk;> tptrhaKk; kpff; Fiwe;j msNt fhzg;gLtJk;> mjd; %yk; Ntiy tha;g;G ,y;yhj epiyapdhy; jhd;> kf;fs; njhif neUf;fk; Fiwthff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,J Nghd;w twz;l gFjpfspypUe;J Ntiy tha;g;Gj; Njbr; nry;NthHfshy; jhd;> nrd;id Nghd;w efuq;fspy; kf;fs; njhif neUf;fk; mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wNj xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij filgpbf;fhjjhy; my;y.

NkYk; 1971-81 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; jkpo;ehl;by; 17.50 rjkhf ,Ue;j kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp 1981-91 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; 14.94 rjkhff; Fiwe;Js;sJ. fle;j gj;jhz;Lfspy; ,e;jpah KOtJk; kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp tpfpjk; 23.5 rjkhFk;.

nghJthf ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;L tpLk; vd;W FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuT ,af;fq;fs; NghLk; $g;ghLfs; jtwhdit. fz;%bf; nfhz;L fjWtJ Nghyj;jhd;> tutu ekJ ,e;jpa fy;tpahsHfSf;F Rarpe;jid vd;gJ ,y;yhkyhfp tpl;lJ. ntspehlL mwpQd;? vtdhtJ vijg; gw;wpahtJ tha; jpwe;J tpl;lhy; NghJk;> mij Ma;Tf;F cl;gLj;jhky; Vw;Wf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ ek;Kila gof;fkhfp tpl;lJ. ,e;jpah jd;id mbikj; jiyapypUe;J tpLtpj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk;> ek; kf;fs; ,d;Dk; Kjyhspf;F iffl;Lk; Nrtfd; gof;fj;jpypUe;J kPz;ljhfj; njhpatpy;iy.

,e;jpahtpy; 5 rjtPj epyg;gpuGf;fsplkpUe;J cs;s 46 rjtPj epyj;ij> Jz;L epyq;$l ,y;yhj 30 Nfhb kf;fSf;F tpepNahfk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. (tzpf kzp> rkurk; [dthp 1-15> 1997)

,e;jpahtpy; 5 rjtPj epyg;gpuGf;fsplk; ,Uf;Fk; 46 rjtPj epyj;jpd; %yk; 30 Nfhbg; NgH gad; ngwyhk; vdpy;> gad; ngWk; 30 Nfhbg; NgUk;> kPjk; cs;s 65 Nfhbg; NgUf;F tho;thjhuk; czT> ,Ug;gplk; Nghd;w midj;Jj; NjitfisAk; epiwNtw;w KbAk;. vdNt> kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;jhy; ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw vd;w thjk; Kw;whf mbgLfpwJ. NkYk; ,jd; %yk; ,e;jpahtpy; tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPNo thOk; 65 rjtPj kf;fspy; 30 rjtPj kf;fis KOtJk; tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;F NkNy nfhz;L te;J tplyhk;.

NkYk; tsHr;rpj; jpl;lq;fSf;fhf xJf;fg;gLk; epjpfs;> nfhs;isaplg;glhky;> KOg; gzKk; chpa Kiwapy; nrytplg;gLkhdhy;> mij mLj;J> fpuhkg;Gw Nkk;ghl;by; rpwg;Gf; ftdk; nrYj;JNthkhdhy;> NkYk; Gjpa Gjpa njhopy;fis fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; Jtq;Ftjw;Fz;lhd mbg;gil trjpfisr; nra;jy; Nghd;w gzpfisr; nra;Nthkhdhy;> Ntiy tha;g;G gutyhf;fg;gLk; mNj Neuj;jpy;> kf;fs; xNu ,lj;jpy; FOkp nehpry; Vw;gLj;JtijAk; jtpHf;f KbAk;. ,jd; %yk; efuq;fspy; Vw;gLk; ,lg;gw;whf;FiwAk; jtpHf;f KbAk;. ,jd; %yk; FbapUg;G> Nghf;Ftuj;J Nghd;wtw;wpy; nehpriyj; jtpHf;Fk; mNj Ntisapy;> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwahy; VWk; tPl;L thlif Nghd;wtw;iw fl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUf;f KbAk;.

Mf> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;L tpLk; vd ,tHfs; Gyk;GtJ mHj;jkw;w thjkhFk;. efuq;fspy; ,j;jifa ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwfs; Vw;glf; fhuzk;> muRk;> mjpfhu tHf;fKk; jhNd xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij filgpbf;fhjjhy; myy vd;gJ Nkw;fz;l Ma;tpd; %yk; njhpa tUfpd;wJ.

3. jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;l gad;glhj epyq;fs;

(LAND RECLAMATION PROCESS)

LAND RECLAMATION PROCESS vd;gJ vjw;FNk; gad;glhj epyq;fshf ghiy> rJg;G epyq;fs;> iftplg;gl;l Ruq;fq;fs;> Fg;ig nfhl;lg;gLk; gad;glhj ,lq;fs;> ghiwfSk; fw;fSk; epiwe;j epyq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw kdpjd; gad;gLj;Jk; msTf;F rPHjpUj;jp tpis epyq;fshfNth> FbapUg;GfshfNth> G+q;fhf;fshfNth kdpjdpd; cgNahfj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ. Nkw;fz;l ,e;j KiwahdJ NkiyehLfspYk;> nrsjp mNugpah Nghd;w ghiy epyq;fisf; nfhz;l ehLfspYk; mjpfk; gad;gLj;jp> mj;jifa epyq;fspd; %yk; mjpfg; gadile;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs;.

nejHyhe;J (`hye;J) vd;gJ INuhg;gpa ehLfspy; kpfr; rpd;dQ;rpwpa> Fiwe;j gug;gsitf; nfhz;l> fly; kl;lj;jpw;Ff; fPNo cs;s ehlhFk;. ,q;F 1932 y; ZUIDER ZEE vd;w fl;Lkhdj; jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; fliy xl;b 29 fp.kP. (18 iky;) msT cauhkhd jLg;Gr; RtH fl;lg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %yk; fpl;lj;jl;l 200>000 n`f;NlH (500>000 Vf;fH) fliy xl;ba epyk; rhFgbf;F Vw;w tpisepykhf khw;wg;gl;lJ.

mNj Nghy fpof;Fg; gphpl;ldpy;> fliy xl;ba rJg;G epyq;fis Nkk;gLj;jp> Kjypy; cg;G ePiu cwpQ;rp thOk; jhtuq;fis rpy tUld; gapH nra;J kz;zpy; cg;Gr; rj;ij rpwpJ rpwpjhf ,aw;ifahd Kiwapy; Nghf;fp tpl;L> jw;nghOJ mtw;iw ey;y tpisepykhfg; gad;gLj;jp tUfpwJ.

mLj;J> 1930 y; ,j;jhypapd; PONTINE MARSHES jpl;lj;jpy;> Nuhk; efUf;f njd;Nkw;Nf 70 fp.kP. njhiytpy; cs;s rJg;G epyk; rPH nra;ag;gl;L fpl;lj;jl;l 75>000 n`f;NlH (mjhtJ 195>000 Vf;fH) gug;gsT tpisepykhf khw;wg;gl;lJ. Nkw;fz;l jpllq;fs; ehl;Lf;F tpis epyq;fisAk;> FbapUf;fj; Njitahd epyq;fis kl;Lk; jutpy;iy. khwhf> rJg;G ePH Njf;fj;jpy; Vw;gLk; nfhRj; njhy;iy xopj;J kNyhpah Nghd;w Neha;fisAk; fl;Lg;gLj;j cjtpaJ.

NkYk;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; fPo; nfhyuhNlh ejpj; jpl;lj;jpd; (The Lower Colarado River Project) %yk; ghiyg;G+kpahd fypNghHdpahtpd; ,k;gPhpay; gs;sj;jhf;F (Imperial Valley of California) ,d;W cyfpd; mjpf tpisr;riyj; jUk; epykhf khw;wg;gl;L cs;sJ.

NkYk;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; iftplg;gl;l epyr; Ruq;fq;fspy; efhpd; Fg;igfisf; nfhz;L epug;gp mtw;iw kPz;Lk; tpis epykhfNth my;yJ fl;Lkhdg; gzpfSf;Nfh gad;gLj;jg;gLk; msTf;F jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ.

[g;ghid vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> flypy; kpjf;Fk; epyq;fis Vw;gLj;jp mjd; %yk; tptrhag; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;whHfs;.

mLj;J nrsjp mNugpahthdJ> jdJ nkhj;jg; gug;gstpy; 75 rjtPjj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd epyq;fs;> ghiy epyq;fshFk;. ,e;jg; ghiy epyq;fs;> ntspehLfspy; ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;l tptrhaj;jpw;F Vw;w kz; %yk; rPHjpUj;jg;gl;L> ey;y tpis epykhf khw;wg;gl;L tUfpd;wd. NkYk;> kdpjf; fopTfis> Neha;gug;ghj msTf;Fg; gjg;gLj;jp> tptrha cukhfTk;> md;whlk; ntspNaWk; fopT ePHfisr; Nrkpj;J> mtw;iw Rj;jk; nra;J> tptrhaj;jpw;F me;jj; jz;zPiug; gad;gLj;JtJ Nghd;w Gjpa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fis gad;gLj;jpAk;> ,d;W NfhJik cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwitg; ngw;Ws;shHfs;. NkYk;> nrsjp mNugpah jdJ fha;fwpj; Njitapy; 80 rjtPjj;ij jdJ ehl;bNyNa cw;gj;jp nra;J nfhs;fpwJ. NkYk; 20 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; ,wf;Fkjp nra;J nfhs;fpwJ.

NkYk;> ghfp];jhdpd; rpe;Jg; gpuNjrj;jpy; murpd; 138>000 Vf;fH gad;gLj;jg;glhj epyq;fs; epykpy;yhj tptrhapfSf;F 1997 y; Gjpjhfg; nghWg;Ngw;w eth]; n\hPg; murhy; toq;fg;gl;lJ.

Mf> ek; ehl;by; uh[];jhd; Nghd;w khepyq;fspy; cs;s ghiyg;gFjpfspy; ,g;nghOJ jhd;> tptrhaj;jpw;F gad;gLk; tifapy; khw;w Kaw;rpfs; ele;J tUfpd;wd. Gjpjhf fhLfs; tsHg;Gj; jpl;lq;fs;> gRikg; Gul;rp> Njf;Fg; gz;izfs; mikj;jy;> fha;fwpg; gz;izfs; mikj;jy; Nghd;wtw;wpw;fhf gad;glhj epyq;fs; gad;ghl;Lf;Ff; nfhz;L tu rkPg fhykhfj; jhd; Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.

kf;fspd; gad;ghl;by; ,y;yhj epyq;fshd ghiy> rJg;G> ghiwg; G+kpfs; Nghd;wtw;iwr; rPHgLj;jp gad;ghl;Lf;Ff; nfhz;L tUjy; %yk; jhuhskhf ,lg; gw;whf;Fiwiar; rkhspf;Fk; mNjNtisapy;> tpis epyq;fspd; gug;gsTk; mjpfhpg;gNjhL> Ntiy tha;g;Gf;fisAk; ,j;jifa epyq;fs; mjpfg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

NkYk; rJg;G> ghiy> ghiw epyq;fs; ek; ehl;by; Vuhskhf gad;ghl;by; ,y;yhkNyNa ,Uf;fpd;wd. mtw;iw rPHjpUj;jp gad;ghl;Lf;F nfhz;L tUtjd; %yk; kw;w ehLfisg; Nghy ehKk; ek; ,lg; gw;whf;Fiwia mjpfhpj;Jk; ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwia vspjhfj; jPHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

Mf> Nkw;fz;l Ma;Tfs; %yk;> kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;glhJ vd;gijAk;> mg;gbNa ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLtjhf itj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk;> nejHyhe;J> mnkhpfhf> ,j;jhyp> [g;ghd;> gphpl;ld;> nrsjp mNugpah Nghd;w ehLfs; gad;gLj;Jk; njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; mj;jifa ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwia ehKk; jPHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;gij mwpa Kbfpd;wJ. Mf> ,k;KiwAk; khy;j;j]; MjuT thjk; mbgl;Lg; Nghfpd;wJ.

4. czTg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;!?

,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vDk; thjj;ij mLj;J ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L jpl;l MjuT mwpT [Ptp?! fs; $WtJ vd;dntd;why;> kf;fs; njhif $lf; $l czTg; gw;whf;Fiw> Vw;gLk; vd;gNj. ,jdhy; kf;fs; grpapd; fhuzkhf kba Ntz;ba epiy tUk; vd;fpd;wdH. ,e;j thjKk; ngha;ahdJ vd;gij ,iwaUshy; ep&gpg;Nghk;.

rhpahd Ma;T KbTfspd;gb> G+kpapd; nkhj;jg; gug;gstpy 10 rjtPj epyj;jpy; jhd; tptrhak; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. kPjp 90 rjtPj epyq;fs; tptrhak; nra;ag;glhky; tplg;gl;bUf;Fk; fhLfs;> Gy;ntspfs;> kw;Wk; ghiy epyq;fshFk;. ,tw;wpy; 70 rjtPj epyq;fs; gaphpl Vw;w epyq;fshFk;. ,j;jifa epyq;fs;> ,d;Dk; tptrhak; nra;ag;glhkNyN tplg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd.

NkYk;> ,e;j 10 rjtPj epyq;fspy; tpisr;ryhfg; ngwg;gLk; czT jhdpaq;fis rhpahd Kiwg;gb ghJfhj;Jk;> rhpahd tpfpjj;jpy; gq;fPLk; nra;Nthkhdhy;> cyfpy; vtUk; grpNahL ,Uf;f khl;lhHfs;. NkYk;> ,d;W 13.2 kpy;ypaDf;Fk; mjpfkhd rJu fp.kP. fspy; tptrhak; eilngWfpwJ. NkYk; 13.5 kpy;ypad; rJu fp.kP. fis Gjpa tpQ;Qhd njhopy; Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;jp> jhpR epyq;fis mitfis tptrhak; nra;a Vw;w epyq;fshf khw;wg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fSk;> FWfpa fhy rhFgb KiwfSk;> Gjpuhf cUthf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; jpUj;jg;gl;l (Reclamation Land Project) epyq;fspd; %yKk;> ,d;iwa kf;fs; njhifiag; Nghy ,uz;L klq;F msT kf;fs; njhif $bdhYk; gQ;rk; Vw;glhky; rkhspf;f KbAk;. mijNa jhd;> tptrhag; nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jp msTk;>mtw;wpd; Gs;sp tpguq;fSk; ep&gpf;fpd;wd.

ekJ ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j czTg; nghUs; cw;gj;jp 1950 Kjy; 1997 tiu :

1950

50.8 kpy;ypad; ld;

1995-1996

185 kpy;ypad; ld;

1997

20 Nfhb ld; (200 kpy;ypad; ld;)

,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j cs;ehl;Lg; nghUs; cw;gj;jp (Gross Domestic Products)

1950

19 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

1995-1996

281 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

 

,e;jpa kf;fs; njhif

1950

361.1 kpy;ypad;

1997

965 kpy;ypad;

tUk; Mz;Lfspy; vjpHghHf;fg;gLk; kf;fs;njhif

2010

1>172>101>000 (1172 kpy;ypad;)

2025

1>383>115>000 (1383 kpy;ypad;)

,e;jpahtpd; kf;fs; njhif tsHe;J tUfpd;w mNjNtisapy; czT cw;gj;jpAk; tsHe;J nfhz;L jhd; te;jpUf;fpwJ. mNj Nghy Njrj;jpd; cs;ehl;Lg; nghUs; cw;gj;jpAk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. 1950 k; Mz;Lfspy; ve;jsT epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;NjhNkh mNj msT epyj;jpy; jhd; ,d;Wk; tptrhak; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;. mNj Neuj;jpy; mNef tptrha epyq;fis> efhpd; ngUf;fk; fhuzkhf FbapUg;Gfshf mopj;Jk; ,Uf;fpNwhk;. ,e;j epiyapy;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g czT cw;gj;jp nra;jhf Ntz;Lk; vd;w epHg;ge;jj;jpd; fhuzkhf gRikg; Gul;rp fs; Vw;gl;L> me;j epHg;ge;jj;ijr; rkhspf;f Gjpa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L> mjd; %yk; tpisr;rYk; ngUfp tUtij Nkw;fz;l Gs;sp tpguq;fs; %yk; fhzyhk;. khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfs; $WtJ Nghy> ,e;jpahtpd; kf;fs; njhif $lf; $l> gQ;rk; Vw;gltpy;iy> gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gltpy;iy. NkYk; ,e;jpah czTg; nghUs; jl;Lg;ghl;bdhy; ve;j ehl;bYk; ifNae;jpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;ftpy;iy. khwhf> cyf ehLfs; gytw;wpw;F czTg; nghUl;fisAk; cs;ehl;L cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fisAk; tUle;NjhWk; VWKfkhfNt Vw;Wkjp nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

cjhuzkhf> nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F kl;Lk; ,e;jpah Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; nghUl;fspd; kjpg;Gfs; Mz;Lthhpahf>

 

1990-1992

1.80 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

1995-1996

2.39 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

1997

3.40 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

nrsjp mNugpahtpw;fhd ,e;jpahtpd; Kf;fpa Vw;Wkjpg; nghUl;fs; Njapiy> fhgp> mhprp> gy tif krhyhg; nghUl;fs;> njhopw; rhjdq;fs;> tptrhaf; fUtpfs; kw;Wk; vyf;l;uhdpf; nghUl;fs;. NkYk; ,e;j Vw;Wkjpapd; msT Kd;igf; fhl;bYk; 42.29 rjtPj msT ,e;j Mz;L (1997) mjpfkhFk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. Mf> ehk; cjhuzj;jpw;Ff; fhl;Lk; ,e;j xU ehl;bw;F kl;Lk; ,e;j epiy my;y. nghJthf>ek; ,e;jpahtpd; Vw;Wkjp msT ,d;wsTk; mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;L jhd; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

mjhtJ> 1950 y; ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j Vw;Wkjp 1.26 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;. 1995-1996 y; 30.3 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;. ,t;tsT nghpa rhjidia vt;thW epfo;j;j Kbe;jJ vd;gijg; gw;wp> 1997 y; 7 tJ cyf czT jpd tpohtpy; Ngrpa kj;jpa tptrha mikr;rH kp];uh mtHfs; NgRk; NghJ> ,t;thW Fwpg;gpl;lhH. mjhtJ> 1947 y; mjw;F Kd;Dk; ,e;jpah gphpl;ldplkpUe;J czTg; nghUs;fis ,wf;Fkjp nra;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. 1960 f;Fg; gpd;dhy; gRikg; Gul;rp> mjd; gpd;dzpapy; ,Ue;j mnkhpf;f cjtp kw;Wk; mjpf tpisr;riyj; jUk; tpj;Jf;fspd; gad;> rYif mbg;gilapy; tq;fpf;fld; Nghd;wit ,e;jpahit czTj; Njitapy; jd;dpiwT milar; nra;jd.

NkYk;> Kd;dhs; kj;jpa tptrha mikr;rH kp];uh NgRk; nghOJ> ehk; mjpf tpisr;riyj; juf; $ba tpj;Jf;fis gad;glj;jTk;> mjw;fhd Muha;r;rpfisAk; KLf;fp tpl Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;fhd epjpia nghJkf;fsplk; ,Ue;Jk; jdpahH epWtdq;fsplkpUe;Jk; ngWtjw;Fhpa #oiy Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ekJ gRikg; Gul;rpahdJ 30 rjtPj epyq;fspy; jhd; nray;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,ij 70 rjtPjkhf Mf;fpdhy; ,e;jpaHfs; midtUk; grpapd;wp ,Ug;gNjhL> gQ;rj;jhy; thLk; ehLfSf;Fk; ehk; cjt KbAk; vd;w fUji;j ntspapl;Ls;shH. Nkw;fz;l mikr;rhpd; fUj;J> kf;fs; njhif $lf; $l gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;gijj; njhptpf;ftpy;iy. khwhf> 1947 f;Fg; gpd; ekJ kf;fs; njhif $ba mNj tpfpjj;jpNyNa> czT cw;gj;jpAk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. NkYk;> ,Uf;Fk; epyq;fis xOq;fhf ehk; gad;ghl;by; nfhz;L tUNthkhdhy;. Gjpa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;JNthkhdhy; ehk ,d;Dk; mjpff cw;gj;jpiaf; fhzyhk; vd;gijj; jhNd mikr;rhpd; ciuapypUe;J ehk; ngWfpd;w gbg;gpidahff; nfhs;s KbAk;.

rpy ehLfspd; czT cw;gj;jpAk; kf;fs; njhifAk;

[d neUf;fb

rJu fp.kP

rJu iky;

mnkhpf;fh

258>300>000

-

-

53>915>000

7>006>000

18>970>000

 

gphpl;ld;

65>000>000

319.17

 

14>300>000

-

6>700>000

43.23

gpNurpy;

152>000>000

59.28

 

3>077>000

9>503>000

2>214>000

29.21

nkf;]pNfh

90>000>000

85.29

 

4>115>000

354>000

999>000

50.66

,e;jpah

965>000>000

267

695.3

54>522>000

110>945>000

15>254>000

55.07

rPdh

1>165>771>000

-

314.6

96>003>000

187>450>000

-

43.33

[g;ghd;

124>800>000

-

852.5

860>000

12>005>000

3>700>000

13.97

,];Nuy;

-

777.41

-

160>000

-

225>000

27.92

`hye;J

15>193>000

-

1>055.2

916>000

-

-

53.68

gpypg;igd;];

64>600>000

652.52

-

-

9>670>000

65>000

30.7

ghfp];jhd;

122>400>000

423.24

-

14>505>000

4>903>000

750>000

32.32

NkNy cs;s ml;ltizapy; cyfpd; gy tpjkhf jl;g ntg;g epiyfs;> #o;epiyfs; nfhz;l ehLfisAk; mjd; kf;fs; njhifAk;> [dneUf;fbAk;> nghJthf kf;fs; czthf cl;nfhs;Sk;> mhprp> NfhJik> cUisf; fpoq;F Nghd;wtw;wpd; cw;gj;jpAk;> jkJ nkhj;j tpisepyq;fspy; vt;tsT epyj;ij tptrhak; nra;ag; gad;gLj;jp tUfpd;wJ vd;w jftiyAk; ,e;j ml;ltizapy; cs;s ehLfSld;mtw;wpd; kf;fs; njhifNahL> mtw;wpd; cw;gj;jpiaAk; ed;whf xg;gPL nra;J nfhs;sTk;.

,e;j ekJ xg;gPl;L Ma;tpy; mjpf kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l ,e;jpahitAk;> rPdhitAk; vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;.

,e;jpahthdJ jdJ kf;fs; njhifahf 965 kpy;ypaidAk;> rPdhthdJ jdJ kf;fs; njhifahf 1>155 kpy;ypaidAk; ngw;Ws;sJ.

ehLfs;

kf;fs; njhif

NfhJik

mhprp

,e;jpah

965>000>000

54>522>000

110>945>000

rPdh

1>165>771>000

95>003>000

187>450>000

,e;jpahthdJ jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 55.07 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;J tUfpwJ. mNj Nghy rPdhthdJ jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 43.33 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;J tUfpd;wJ.

Nkw;fz;l ,e;j cw;gj;jpfs; ,e;j ,U ehl;L kf;fspd; czTj; Njitia epiwT nra;gitfshf cs;sd. jtpu> Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; msTf;F czTg; nghUs;fs; kpFjkhfNt tpisfpd;wd vd;gij ehk; mwpayhk;. rPdhtpd; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g czT cw;gj;jp mjpfkhf ,Ug;gijAk;> mNj Nghy ehk; Rl;bf fhl;bAs;sgb. me;je;j ehLfspd; kf;fs; njhiff;F vw;g czT cw;gj;jp mike;jpUg;gijAk; fhzyhk;.

NkYk; tptrha cw;gj;jpapy; jiyrpwe;J tpsq;Fk; xU rpy ehLfspy; fle;j Mz;Lfspy; NfhJik cw;gj;jpapy; Vw;gl;Ls;s khw;wj;ijf; fhz;Nghk;.

ehLfs;

nkl;hpf; ld; / Vf;fH

1934-38

nkl;hpf; ld; / Vf;fH

1956

nld;khHf;

1.23

1.63

`hye;J

1.23

1.45

gphpl;ld;

0.94

1.26

vfpg;J

0.81

0.95

[g;ghd;

0.76

0.85

ghfp];jhd;

0.34

0.30

,e;jpah

0.24

3.29

jfty; : ngHj; fz;l;Nuhy;. mGy; m/yh nksJ}jp

,q;Nf ftdpf;f Ntz;baJ ,iwtdJ fUizapdhy; czT cw;gj;jpapd; tpfpjKk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. NkYk; ,e;jpahitg; nghWj;jtiu 1934-38 y; 0.24 nkl;hpf; ld; - Vf;fH ,Ue;j NfhJik cw;gj;jp 1956 y; 3.29 nkl;hpf; ld; - Vf;fH Mf caHe;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

NkYk; ,d;W cyfpNyNa NfhJikia mjpfkhff cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; %d;W ehLfspy; ,e;jpah ,uz;lhk; ,lk; tfpf;fpwJ.

rPdh

95>003>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

,e;jpah

54>522>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

mnkhpf;fh

53>915>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

`hye;J

916>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

mLj;J mhprp cw;gj;jpapYk; ,e;jpah cyf mstpy; ,uz;lhk; ,lk; tfpf;fpwJ.

rPdh

187>450>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

,e;jpah

110>945>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

[g;ghd;

12>005>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

ghfp];jhd;

4>903>000 nkl;hpf;ld;

NkNy cs;s Gs;sp tpguq;fspy;> ,e;j ehLfs; ahTk; Fiwe;j gug;gstpy; mjpfk; kf#y; nra;Ak; ehLfshFk; vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

Mf kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;jpd; mstpy; czTg; nghUs;fspd; cw;gj;jpAk; ,iwaUshy; ngUfpNa te;Js;sijf; fhz Kbfpd;wJ. NkYk; ,e;jpahitg; nghWj;jtiu 965 kpy;ypad; kf;fspd; grpj; Njitiag; Nghf;Fk; msTf;Fk;> mjd; gpd; czTg; nghUs; ,Ug;G kpr;rkhfNt ,Ug;gij ehk; Kd;dNu ghHj;j nra;jpapd; %yk; ehk; kPz;Lk; ,q;nf Qhgfg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ ey;yJ.

mjhtJ> 1995 y; epjpaikr;ruhf ,Ue;j kd;Nkhfd; rpq; $wpajhtJ> ,d;iwa czTg; nghUs; ifapUg;G 3 Nfhb ld;fshFk;. 2 Nfhb ,Ue;jhNy NghJkhdJ. fLikahd twl;rpNa te;jhYk; $l tpiy Vw;wk; tuhky; rkhspf;f KbAk; vd;W nrhd;dij ehk; rpwpJ rpe;jpj;jhy; xU cz;ik GydhFk;. kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpahdJ> czTg; nghUs; gw;whf;Fiwia Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy vd;w cz;ik njhpa tUk;.

NkYk;> 1994 y; nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F mhprp Vw;Wkjp nra;j ehLfisAk; msitAk; fhz;Nghk;.

,e;jpah

2>78>000 ld;fs;

mnkhpf;fh

1>76>000 ld;fs;

jha;yhe;J

1>28>000 ld;fs;

ghfp];jhd;

48>000 ld;fs;

,e;j ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;l mhprpapd; msthdJ> 1985 y; ,Ue;jij tpl 33 rjtPjk; mjpfkhFk;. mug; epA+]; - rdp> Mf];L> 16-1997 gf;fk; - 2.

,e;jpah jdJ nkhj;j cw;gj;jpapy;>mjhtJ 965 kpy;ypad; kf;fspd; grpj; Njit Nghf kPjp cs;s mhprpapy;> nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F kl;Lk; 1994 y; Vw;Wkjp nra;j mhprpapd; msT 2 yl;rj;J 78 Mapuk; ld;fshFk;. mjpYk; 1985 y; ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;l msit tpl 33 rjtPjk; mjpfKkhFk;. ,J jtpu vida ehLfSf;Fk; ,e;jpah Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; msitAk; NrHj;jhy;> ekJ ,d;iwa czTg; nghUs; cw;gj;jpahdJ> ,d;Dk; xU ,e;jpah msT kf;fs; njhiff;Fk; $l ehk; cztspf;fyhk;. mijNa jhNd NkNy ehk; ghHj;j Gs;sp tpguq;fs; njhptpf;fpd;wd. mjhtJ ehd;F ehLfshd ,e;jpah> mnkhpf;fh> jha;yhe;J> ghfp];jhd; Mfpaitfs; NrHe;J nrsjp mNugpah vd;w ehl;bd;> kf;fs; njhifapd; mhprpj; Njitiag; G+Hj;jp nra;fpd;wd. nrsjp mNugpahtpd; NjitahdJ 1985 y; ,Ue;jij tpl 33 rjtPjk; mjpkhdhYk; $l> mtw;iwAk; ,e;j ehLfs; rkhspj;J> Nkw;fz;l mhprpj; Njitia cw;gj;jp nra;J mDg;Gfpd;wd.

RUq;ff; $wpd;. ,e;jpahtpd; ,d;iwa kf;fs; njhif ,uz;L klq;fhf Mtjw;F ,d;Dk; 34.31 tUlq;fs; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapNyNa. ehk; ekJ czT cw;gj;jpiag ngUf;fp> fpl;lj;jl;l 35 tUlj;jpw;F gpd; epfog; NghFk; czTj; Njitf;fhd FwpaPl;lil 1997 ypNyNa rhjpj;J tpl;Nlhk;. vy;yhg; GfOk; ,iwtDf;Nf vd cr;rhpf;f Ntz;ba cjLfs;> KDKDg;Gf; fhl;Lfpd;wd vd;why;> mtHfspd; (mwpT [Ptpfspd;?) mwpahikNaad;wp NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;f KbAk;.

NkYk; 1997 y; Nuhkpy; ele;j If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; czT cr;rp khehl;by; Ngrpa Nghg; mtHfs;> gpd;tUk; fUj;ij ntspapl;lhHfs;.

cyf kf;fSf;Fj; Njitahd msTf;Fk; mjpfkhfNt czTg; nghUfs; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;L tUfpd;wd. rkPgj;jpy; czT cw;gj;jp ,uz;L klq;F mjpfhpj;Js;sd. jpdkzp : 18> mf; 1997.

5. rhjidapYk; Nrhjid + Ntjid

,jw;F Kd; ehk; ghHj;j tpguq;fspd; %yk; ,e;jpah czT cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwT ngw;W tpl;lJ vd;whYk;> cyf tptrha Kd;Ndw;wj;jpd; Gs;sp tpguq;fNshL xg;gPl;L Nehf;Fifapy; ekJ cw;gj;jp kpf kpff; Fiwthf ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gij ehk; kpf NtjidAld; Rl;bf; fhl;l Ntz;b cs;sJ.

mjhtJ> rPdhtpd; nkhj;jg;gug;gstpy; 10 rjtPjk; jhd; cgNahfj;jpy; cs;sJ. me;j 10 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;tjw;F Vw;w epyj;jpy; 43.33 rjtPjj;ij kl;LNk cgNahfpf;fpd;wJ. NkYk;> 1>165 kpy;ypad; kf;fs;> 95>003>000 nkl;hpf; ld; NfhJikiaAk;> ,d;Dk; 187>450>000 nkl;hpf; ld; mhprpiaAk; cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;whHfs;. Mdhy; ,e;jpahthdJ jdJ nkhj;j tpiy epyj;jpy; 55.07 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;Jk; rPdhtpd; cw;gj;jp msTf;F ek;khy; nry;y ,aytpy;iy. ,e;jpahthdJ 54>522>000 nkl;hpf; ld; NfhJikiaAk;> 110>945>000 nkl;hpf;ld; mhprpiaAk; cw;gj;jp nra;J> rPdhit tpl gpd;jq;fpa epiyapNyNa cs;sJ. ,ijNa> 18 mf; 97 y; jpdkzp apy; ntspahd nra;jp ,t;thW cWjp nra;fpd;wJ.

mjhtJ> 102 Nfhb kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l rPdh 49 Nfhb ld; czTg; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ. 96 Nfhb kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l ,e;jpah 20 Nfhb ld; czTg; nghUs;fis cw;gj;jpia ,e;j Mz;L jhd; vl;bAs;sJ. rPdh xU Vf;fUf;F 2 ld; ney; cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ.

NkYk;> `hye;J> nld;khHf;> [g;ghd;> Nghd;w ehLfs; Gjpa Gjpa tpQ;Qhd njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp> Gjpa tpj;Jf;fisAk;> Gjpa tptrhaf; fUtpfisAk; cUthf;fp> mjd; %yk; mjpf tpisr;riyf; fhz;gNjhL> mtw;iwr; Nrfhpg;gjpy; ,ae;jpuq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;mjpf Nrjhuk;> ,og;G Mfpatw;iwj; jLg;gJld;> cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l czTg; nghUl;fis rhpahd tpjj;jpy; etPd mwptpay; njhopy; El;g Kiwfspd;gb ghJfhg;gjd; %yk; epiwe;j tUthiaAk;> czT cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwitAk; mile;Js;sd.

ehLfs;

tptrhaj;jpy; <LgLk; nkhj;j egHfs;

Total Agri. Work Force

tptrhag; nghUs; ,wf;Fkjp mnkhpf;f lhyhpy;

tptrhag; nghUs; Vw;Wkjp kjpg;G mnkhpf;f lhyhpy;

Gyhy; kw;Wk; tptrha czTg; nghUs; ,wf;Fkjp

Food & Animals Imported in American Dollars

Gyhy; kw;Wk; czTg; nghUs; ,wf;Fkjp

Food & Animals Exported in Americal Dollars

tptrhaj;jpy; <LgLk; egHfs; rjtPjj;jpy;

,e;jpah

217>730>000

1>209>700>000

3>173>400>000

896>800>000

1>126>700>000

66.2 %

`hye;J

221>000

17>962>800>000

30>927>500>000

12>168>300>000

21>168>300>000

3.5 %

`hye;J vd;gJ INuhg;gh fz;lj;jpy; cs;s kpfr; rpd;dQ;rpwa ehlhFk;. mjhtJ> 15>193>000 (mjhtJ> 1 NfhbNa 51 yl;rj;J 93 Mapuk;) kf;fs; njhif nfhz;lnjhU ehL. ek; jkpof kf;fs; njhifapy; 4 y; 1 gq;F nfhz;lJ. jkpof kf;fs; njhif 1991 y; 5 NfhbNa 56 yl;rj;J 38 Mapuj;J 318 NgH. 12>850 rJu iky; gug;gsT nfhz;l rpwpa ehL jhd; nejHyhe;J vd;wiof;fg;gLk; ,e;j `hye;J ehL.

Fwpg;ghf ,q;Nf ehk; ftdpf;f Ntz;baJ vd;dntd;why;> ,e;j `hye;jpd; ,wf;Fkjpia ek; ehl;NlhL xg;gplhky;> ,U ehLfspd; Vw;Wkjp msit xg;gpLtJ ehk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l jiyg;gpw;F rhyr; rpwe;jjhFk;. vd;dntdpy;> jkpo;ehl;il tpl kpfr; rpwpanjhU ehlhdJ> tptrhak; kw;Wk; jdJ czTg; nghUs; cw;gj;jpapy; vt;tsT rpwe;J tpsq;Ffpd;wJ vd;why;> 1991 y; `hye;jpd; tptrhag; nghUs; Vw;Wkjp 30>927>500>000 lhyuhf ,Uf;f> ,e;jpahtpd; epiyNah 3>173>400>000 lhyuhf ,Ue;Js;sJ. vd;d ghpjhgk;! mNj Nghy Gyhy; kw;Wk; czTg; nghUs; Vw;Wkjpapy; `hye;J 21>168>300>000 lhyuhff ,Uf;f> ,e;jpahtpd; Vw;WkjpNah ntWk; 1>126>700>000 Mf ,Ue;Js;sJ.

xU rpd;dQ;rpW ehL> tptrha cw;gj;jpapy; ,e;jpahit tpl 10 klq;Ff;F Nky; vt;thW rhjid Ghpa Kbfpd;wJ vd;gijr; rpe;jpf;f Ntz;lhkh? ,j;jifa rhjidia mtHfshy; vt;thW epfo;j;j Kbe;jJ. vy;yhk; njhopy; El;gk;> Gjpa> Gjpa tpQ;Qhdj; njhopy; El;gk;! mj;Jld; fbd ciog;G. ,d;W tiu Muha;r;rpapy; me;j ehL Kd;dzpapy; epw;fpwJ. czTg;nghUs; Vw;Wkjpia mLj;J tpijfisAk; ntspehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjp nra;J> me;epa tUthia <l;bf; Ftpf;fpwJ.

tptrha mikr;rH kp];uh mtHfspd; $w;Wg;gb> ekJ nkhj;j tpis epy;j;jpy; 30 rj epyj;jpy; jhd; gRikg; Gul;rp Vw;gl;Ls;sJ.mtw;iw 70 rjkhff; $l;l Ntz;Lk; vd;gij mikr;rH ,q;F $w tutpy;iy. Vnddpy;> ek; ehl;by; tptrhak; nra;af; $ba epyq;fspy; ePHg;ghrd trjpAs;s epyq;fspy; ePHg;ghrd trjp ngw;Ws;s epyq;fspd; rjtPjk; RkhH 26.3 rjtPjk; jhd;. ,e;j 26.3 rjtPj ePH trjp ngw;Ws;s ,lq;fspy; jhNd gRikg; Gul;rpiaf; fhz KbAk;. kPjk; ,Uf;Fk; 73.7 rjtPj epyj;Jf;Fj; Njitahd ePH trjpf;F vd;d nra;a ,Uf;fpd;nwhk; vd;gijj; jhd; mikr;rH kp];uh mtHfs; $w kwe;J tpl;lhHfs;?! mtuhy; vt;thW $w KbAk;. ,e;jpa murpay;thjpfs; vy;yhk; Njrj;jpy; eyd; fhf;Fk; nfhs;ifthjpfs; my;yth?

K];ypk;fs; kl;Lk; jhNd Njr eydpy; mf;fiw ,y;yhjtHfs;? ntl;fk; nfl;l murpay;thjpfs; ,tHfs;.,tHfs; jq;fis ,d mbg;gilapYk;> [hjp mbg;gilapYk; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ Nghf khepy mstpYk; jq;fisg; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;L tpl;lhHfs;. (2002 mf;NlhgH y; ele;j jkpof> fHehlf fhtphp ejp ePHg; gq;fPL tptfhuk;). vj;jidNah Kiw fHehlfhtpYk;> kj;jpa murpYk; xNu fl;rpfs; Ml;rpf;F te;Js;sd. me;j Neuj;jpy; fhtphp ejpePHg; gq;fPl;L gpur;idia kpf ,yFthff; Kbj;jpUf;fyhk;. Mdhy; ,tHfs; Njr eydpy; mf;fiw nfhz;ltHfs; my;yth? mjdhy; ,d;Dk; ,Ogwp ePbj;Jf; nfhz;Nl NghfpwJ. jkpofj; jQ;irapy; %d;W Nghfk; tpise;j ,lq;fs; ,d;W xU Nghfj;Jf;Nf my;yhl Ntz;bajpUf;fpd;wJ. ,e;jpahtpd; new;fsQ;rpak; ,d;W ,e;jpahtpd; gpr;irg; ghj;jpukhf khw ahH fhuzk;? jq;fis ,d mbg;gilapYk;> [hjp mbg;gilapYk; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ NghjhJ vd;W khepy mbg;gilapy; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;l tf;fpu kdpjHfs; jhNd. ,t;thW jq;fisj; jhq;fNs ,e;jpad; mopj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; epiiapy; ,tHfs; vd;iwf;F> rPdhtpd; 1 Vf;fUf;F %d;W ld; ney; cw;gj;jpAk;> vd;w rhjidf; FwpaPl;il vl;l KbAk;. rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHf;f Ntz;batHfs; vy;yhk; %is kOq;fpaHfshf Mfp tpl;l epiyapy;> jq;fs; ,ayhikiaAk; tf;fpuj;ijAk; ntspf; fhl;l kdkpy;yhky; Njr kf;fisg; ghHj;J> ehk; ,UtH> ekf;F ,UtH> gpd; ehk; ,UtH> ekf;F ,UtH> ,g;nghOJ ehNk Foe;ij ekf;Nfd; Foe;ij vd;W $g;ghL Nghlj; njhlq;fpAs;shHfs;.

murpay;thjpfshYk;> mjpfhtHf;fj;jhYk; ,e;jpahtpd; tsHr;rpg; gzpf;F nrytplg; gl Ntz;ba ejpfs; nfhs;isaplg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gJ Nghjhnjd;W ,e;jpa kf;fspd; fUtiwiaAk; ,tHfs; fhag;gLj;jf; Jzpe;J tpl;lhHfs;! ntl;fk; nfl;l n[d;kq;fs;!!

fq;ifiaf; fhtphpAld; ,ize;J tpl;lhNy NghJk;> ,e;jpah nghd; tpisAk; G+kpahf khwp tpLk;. vd;iwf;Fk; ,e;jpa murpay;thjpfshy; ,e;j rhjidiar; nra;a KbahJ. nra;aTk; khl;lhHfs;!! mj;jifa rhjidia K];ypk;fs; kl;LNk rhjpf;f KbAk;. Vnddpy;> cz;ikahd ,iwf; nfhs;ifiag; gpd;gw;Wk; K];ypk;fsplj;jpy; ,dNtWghL> [hjp NtWghL> khepy NtWghL> nkhop NtWghL Nghd;w vjidAk; fhz KbahJ. ,j;jifa NtWghL fhl;lhj r%fj;ij mikg;gjpd; %yk; kl;LNk ,j;jifa gpur;idfisj; jPHf;f KbAk;.

fle;j 1997 y; Nuhkpy; ele;j I.eh. rigapd; cyf czT khehl;by; Ngrpa Nghg; mtHfs; fPo;f;fz;l fUj;ijj; njhptpj;Js;shHfs;.

njd;fpof;F Mrpa ehLfspd; rpy gFjpfs;> Mg;hpf;fh Mfpa gFjpfspy; czTg; gQ;rk; mjpfk; cs;sJ. czTg; nghUs;fspd; cw;gj;jpia mjpfhpf;f murpay;> nghUshjhu epiyfspy; rhpahd mZFKiw Njit vd;w fUj;ij ntspapl;Ls;shHfs;.

,e;jpahitg; nghUj;jtiu mtH $wpa fUj;Jf;fs rhpahdit. ,e;jpaHfs; ejp ePHg; gq;fPl;by; murpay; tpj;ijfis ntspg;gLj;jhkYk;> tptrha tsHr;rpg; gzpfSf;F xJf;fg;gLk; epjpia KOikahfr; nrytpl;Lk;> rhpahd mstpy; jpl;lkpl;L nray;gLthHfshdhy;> ehKk; `hye;jpd; czHe;jgl;r cw;gj;jpiaf; fhz KbAk;.

NkYk;> %d;whtJ cyf ehLfspy; czT cw;gj;jpia mjpfhpf;f tptrhaj; Jiwapy; mjpf KjyPLfisr; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd I.eh.rigapd; czT kw;Wk; tptrha mikg;gpd; jiyikr; nrayhsH [hf;yP]; bNahg; typAWj;jpAs;shH.

NkYk;> Nuhkpy; mike;jpUf;Fk; I.eh.rigapd; tptrha kw;Wk; czT mikg;gpd; ,e;jpag; gpujpepjp (FAO) gPl;lH Nuh] nef;fH (Peter Rosenegger) NgRk; nghOJ> Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fis tptrhapfSf;Fg; gapw;Wtpf;f mjpf KjyPL nra;jy;> mjw;fhd fl;Lkhd mikg;ig cUthf;Fjy;> czitg; gjg;gLj;Jjy; Nghd;wtw;wpd; %yk;> ehl;bd; czTj; Njitg; gw;whf;Fiwia eptHj;jp nra;a ,aYk; vd mwpTWj;jp cs;shH.

vd;gJ xU ehl;bd; tptrha cw;gj;jpg; nghUspd; msitf; Fwpf;fg; gad;gLk; cyf mstpy; epWtg;gl;Ls;s xU FwpaPL MFk;.

SNU ,e;jf; FwpaPl;bd;gb> [g;ghd; ehlhdJ xU Vf;fUf;F 6-7 SNU czTg; nghUs;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;wJ. ,ijNa xU rJu iky;fSf;Ff; fzf;fpl;lhy;> 4000 SNU czTg;nghUs;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ vdTk; nfhs;syhk;. Mf xU rJu iky; gug;gstpy; tpistpf;fg;gLk; czTg; nghUs; xU rJu iky; gug;gstpy; thOk; 4000 NgUf;F cztspf;f KbAk;. (By Birth Control. Abul Ala Maududi. Noted from STAMP. DUDLEY. OUR DEVELOPING WORLD. p.120.)

,d;W ek; ,e;jpahtpy; xU rJu iky;fSf;F 695.3 egHfs; trpf;fpd;whHfs;. Mf> ,e;jpahTk; [g;ghidg; Nghy 6-7 SNU czTg;nghUl;fis xU Vf;fUf;F tpistpf;Fkhdhy;> ,e;jpahitg; Nghy; 6 klq;F ,e;jpahTf;F cztspf;f KbAk;.

rpy ehLfs; jq;fsJ tpisepyq;fspy; caH njhopy; El;g Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;> vt;thW Kd;Ndw;wk; mile;Js;sd vd;gij fPNo cs;s ml;ltiz ekf;F njspthf;Ffpd;wJ. mjhtJ> ,e;jpahit tpl kpff; Fiwe;j msNt gug;gsitf; nfhz;l [g;ghd; 21 yl;rj;J 20 Mapuk; buhf;lHfisAk;> 12 yl;rj;J 80 Mapuk; mWtil ,ae;jpuq;fisAk; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jtjpy; me;j ehL ve;jsT Kd;dzpapy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ njspthFk;. ,jdhy; jhd; mtHfshy; ,e;jsT rhjidia vl;l Kbfpd;wJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpahNth kpff; Fiwe;j mstpNyNa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp tUtjd; %yk; cw;gj;jpapy; kw;w ehLfis tplg; gpd; jq;fpAs;sJ vdyhk;.

 

ehLfs;

tptrhaj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLk; buhf;lHfs;

mWtil ,ae;jpuq;fs;

ghy;fwf;Fk; ,ae;jpuq;fs;

,e;jpah

988>070

2>950

jfty; ,y;iy

[g;ghd;

2>120>000

1>280>000

157>000

`hye;J

197>000

5>580

39>000

buhf;lHfs; %yk; epyj;ij MokhfTk;> tpiuthfTk; co KbAk;. mJNghy mWtil ,ae;jpuq;fs; %yk;> jhdpaq;fis tPzhf;fhky; Fiwe;j Neuj;jpy; mWtiu nra;J Kbf;f KbAk;. ,jhdy; NeuKk;> gz tpuaKk;> kdpj ciog;Gk; kpQ;Rk; mNj Ntisapy;> cw;gj;jpapd; msT $lf; fpilf;f top gpwf;fpwJ.

Mdhy;> Nkw;fz;l Gs;sp tptuq;fis vy;yhk; jpl;lkpl;Nl ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuTf; $l;lk; kiwj;J tpl;L> jkJ rlthjf; nfhs;ifia kl;Lk; Kd;dpWj;JfpwJ. ,tHfs; midtUk; ,iwtdpd; fUizia mwpahj kilaHfspd; $l;lq;fNs jtpu NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;f KbAk;. khy;j;j];thjpfs;> kf;fs; njhif tsu tsu ,lj;NjitAk;> czTj; NjitAk; mjpfhpf;Fk; vd;W mjd; gpur;idapd; xU gf;fj;ij kl;Lk; tpsf;fpdhHfNs xopa> mjw;Fj; jPhthf ,iwtd; mUsp ,Uf;Fk; czT ,Ug;gplk; mjw;fhd tho;thjhuq;fisAk; mtw;iw miltjw;F kdpjDf;F mUspapUf;Fk; Mw;wiyAk; ,e;j Gul;Lthjf;fhuHfs; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw kwe;J tpl;lhHfs;.

,ijNa> Nfhypd; f;shHf; vd;gtH jkJ POPULATION GROWTH AND LIVING STANDARDS. P. 100 E}ypy; ,t;thW Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH.

khy;j;j]; rhHG thjf; $l;lj;jhHfshd ,tHfs; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; jtwhfg; gpur;rhuk; nra;fpwhHfs;. Vnddpy; ,tHfs; kjq;fSf;F vjpuhd nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;ltHfs;. ,tHfs; nrhy;Yk; thjq;fs; KOtJk; mwptpay; rhHGilajd;W> ntWk; fw;gidf; Nfhl;ghLfNsahFk;. NkYk; mwptpayhsHfs; cz;ikapNyNa mtw;iw mZfp Muha;thHfnsd;why;> ,J xU Gul;Lthjf; nfhs;if vd;gij epr;rak; ,dk; fz;L nfhs;shky; ,Uf;ftpayhJ. khy;j;j]; rhHGthjpfSf;F kf;fs; njhif gw;wpa ve;j mwpTk; mtHfSf;F fpilahJ. NkYk; cyf mstpy; nghUshjhu mbg;gilapy; mike;Js;s kf;fs; njhif g;wpa tpguq;fis kl;Lk; rpwpJ mwpe;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfNs xopa> cz;ikapNyNa kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpapd; mbg;gilapy; cs;s rpwpjsT cz;ikfs; $l mwpahjtHfs;.

Nkw;fz;l tpguq;fSf;Fg; gpd;Dk;> kf;fs; njhif tsh;r;rpapy; ,lg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;> czTg; gQ;rk; Vw;gLk; vd;W nrhd;dhy;> mj;jifa Gul;Lthjk; Vw;Gilajhf ,Uf;Fkh? kdpjd; ,iwtd; jdf;F toq;fpa rpe;jdh rf;jpiag; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j G+kpahdJ kdpjdpd; trpg;gplj;jpw;fhfNt ,iwtdhy; gilf;fg;gl;lJ. vdNt> me;j ,iwtd; tsUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;gNt jdJ mUl;nfhilfis tprhyg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Nl ,Ug;ghd;. vdNt> ek; Kd; jtwhfg; gpur;rhuk; nra;Ak; khy;j;j]; thj mwpT [Ptp?fspd; thjj;ij xJf;fpj; js;StNjhL> mtHfis kdpj ,dj;jpd; JNuhfpfshfTk; nghJ kf;fSf;F ,dk; fhl;l Ntz;baJ cz;ikahsHfspd; flikAkhFk;.

6. tpiuakhFk; cw;gj;jp

,e;j khy;j;j]; rhHGthj FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L gpur;rhufHfs;> kf;fs;njhif ngUfg; ngUf czTg; gw;whf;fiw Vw;gLk; vd;W nrhy;gtHfs; cw;gj;jpahFk; nghUs;fis ghJfhj;J> czTg; gw;whf;Fiwiaj; jPHf;f jpuhzpaw;wtHfshf cs;sdH. jtwhdnjhU thjj;ij epahag;gLj;jj; Jbf;fpwhHfNs xopa> cz;ikapNyNa me;jg; gpur;idapy; ftdKld; mZfp> mijj; jPH;g;gjw;Fz;lhd top Kiwfis Muha ,tHfs; Kd;tutpy;iy vd;gijj; jhd; fPo;f;fz;l nra;jpfs; ep&gpf;fpd;wd.

cjhuzkhf> ek; ,e;jpahtpy; ele;J tUk; gpd;tUk; epfo;Tfis ftdKld; MuhAq;fs;.

fPo;f;fz;l ,e;j epfo;T kfhuh\;buh khepyj;jpy; ele;jnjhU rk;gtkhFk;.

,k;khepyj;jpd; xU ehisa ghy; cw;gj;jp 36 yl;rk; ypl;lHfs;. ,jpy; 29 yl;rk; ypl;lH ghiy kl;LNk gjdpl trjp nfhz;lJ kfhuh\;buhtpd; ghy; gjdpLk epiyak;. kPjp cs;s 7 yl;rk; ghiy gjdpl trjpapy;yhky; xHyp flw;fiuapy; nfhl;b tpLfpd;whHfs;. ,t;thW tPzbf;fg;gLk; ghypd; msT> xU tUlj;jpw;F 2>555 yl;rk; ypl;lHfshFk;. ghk;Ngapy; kl;Lk; xU ehisf;F 59000 ypl;lH ghy; tPzbf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. (rz;Nl tPf;yp> brk;gH 12-18> 1993)

,e;jpaf; Foe;ijfs; rhpahd Cl;lr; rj;jpd;wp> jk; koiy tho;ti eufkhf;fpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy;> tPzbf;fg;gLk; ,e;j ghypd; msT gw;wpAk;> ,t;tsT ghy; cw;gj;jp vt;thW epfo;e;jJ vd;gjAk; ,e;j khy;j;j]; rhHG thj FLk;gf; fl;LghL MjuthsHfs; rpe;jpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

mLj;J>

NghJkhd ghuhkhpg;G ghJfhg;G trjpfs; ,y;yhj fhuz;jhy; xt;nthU Mz;Lk; 23>000 Nfhb &gha; kjpg;Gs;s fha;fwpfs;> goq;fs;> mOfp tPzhfpd;wd. ,J ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j fha;fwp kw;Wk; go cw;gj;jppapy; 50 rjtPjkhFk;. (jpdkzp> 27-5-1997)

,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j ney; cw;gj;jpapy; 10 rjtPjj;ij vypfs; jpd;W mopj;J tpLfpd;wd. (rkurk;> 16-30> [{d; 1997)

jQ;irapy; FWit rhFgbapd; NghJ 350 f;Fk; mjpfkhd ney; nfhs;Kjy; epiyaq;fs; mikf;fg;gl;ld. nfhs;Kjy; nra;ag;gl;l 5 yl;rk; ld; ney;iy ghJfhf;f trjpapy;yhky; rhiy Xuq;fspy; Jzp Nghl;L %lg;gl;Ls;sJ. (jpdkzp 18 mf;NlhgH> 1997)

,e;jpahtpd; ghpjhg epiyia tpsf;f Nkw;fz;l ehd;F nra;jpfisj; jtpu NtW vJTk; Njitapy;iy.

tUlk; xd;Wf;F 2>555 ypl;lH ghYk;> 23>000 Nfhb kjpg;Gs;s fha;fwp kw;Wk; goq;fSk;> ,e;jpa ney; cw;gj;jpapy; 10 rjtPjKk; ghJfhf;f trjpapy;yhky;> yl;rf;fzf;fhd czT jhdpaq;fs; tUle;NjhWk; tPzbf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; mNjNtisapy;> cz;z cztpd;wp khq;nfhl;ilfisj; jpd;W capiu kha;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; rf gpui[ia Ntbf;if ghHj;Jf; nfhz;LkpUf;fpd;w #o;epiy jhd; ,e;jpa Njrj;jpd; ghpjhg epiyahf ,Uf;fpwJ.

NkYk; jQ;irapd; FWit rhFgbf;Fg; gpd;> mf;NlhgH> etk;gH (1997) khjq;fspy; jkpofk; KOtJk; fd kio nga;jJ. ghJfhf;f trjpapy;yhky; rhiy Xuk; mLf;fp itf;fgl;bUe;j ney; %l;ilfspd; fjp vd;dthFk; vd;gij ehk; nrhy;yp tpsq;f Ntz;bajpy;iy.

,t;thW kw;w kw;w khepyq;fspYk; ,JNghy tpzbf;fg;gLk; cw;gj;jpiaf; fzf;fpy; nfhz;lhy;> ,e;jpahtpd; xU Mz;L gl;n[l; msT gzk; tPzbf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gJ GydhFk;.

khy;j;j]; thjpfs; tsUk; kf;fs; njhifg; gpur;idiar; rkhspf;f FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fSf;F nryT nra;tjw;Fg; gjpyhf> ,Uf;Fk; tpis nghUs; cw;gj;jpiag; ghJfhf;f Mtd nra;jhNy NghJkhdJ> vt;tsT kf;fs; njhif ngUfpdhYk; rkhspj;J tplyhk;.

NkYk;> jkpofj;jpy; 1996 brk;gH khjk; Kw;gFjpapy; njhlHr;rpahfg; nga;j kioapdhy; 780 Vhp> Fsq;fs; cilg;ngLj;J tpl;ld. NkYk; 1997 mf;NlhgH> etk;ghpYk; ,Nj epiyik jhd;. ,e;jpahtpd; tpis epyq;fspy; 26.37 rjtPj epyq;fs; jhd; ePHg;ghrd trjpiag; ngw;Ws;sd. ,e;j eppiyapy;> ,aw;ifahff; fpilf;Fk; kio ePiur; Nrkpj;J itj;J> KO tpis epyq;fspYk; ePHg;ghrd trjpia Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLf;f tf;fpy;yhky; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy;> ,tHfs; vd;iwf;F rPdh> [g;ghd; kw;Wk; `hye;J ehLfspd; mjpfg;gl;r cw;gj;jpf; FwpaPLfis vl;bg; gpbg;g KbAk;?! fz;Zf;F vl;ba tiuAk; fhdy; ePNu!!

,t;tsT gpur;idfisAk; vspjhfj; jPHg;gjw;Fz;lhd rhj;jpaf; $Wfs; mj;jidiaAk; xUq;Nf ngw;wpUf;f> ,tw;iw vy;yhk; jPHg;gjw;F nryT nra;tij tpl;L tpl;L> vk; ngz;fspd; fw;gg; igiar; #iwahLtjw;F nryT nra;Ak;> ,e;j khy;j;j]; thjpfs; kdpj eydpy; mf;fiw nfhz;ltHfsh? my;yJ gpur;idapd; cz;ik epiyia Muha;e;J> mjw;Fj; jPHthf tpsq;Fk; ,];yhkpar; rl;lq;fSk; mij tOthJ gpd;gw;wj; Jbf;Fk; K];ypk;fs; kdpj ,dj;jpd; kPJk;> mjd; eydpd; kPJk; mf;fiw nfhz;ltHfsh? vd;gij eLepiyahsHfs; rpe;jpf;fl;Lk;.

7. fz;nfl;l gpd;..!?

,jw;F Kd; cs;s jiyg;Gfspy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; gpd;dzpapy; vOe;j r%f mtyq;fisAk;> khy;j;j]; rhHG thj mwpQHfspd; jtwhf rpj;jhe;jq;fisAk; mjw;Fhpa fhuzq;fSld; ehk; njspthf;fpNdhk;. ,dp tUk; mj;jpahaj;jpy;> ,jw;fhd ,];yhj;jpd; topKiwfs; gw;wp Muha;Nthk;. mjw;F Kd;!!

,e;j FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijg; gw;wp cz;ikapNyNa ,e;j mwpT [Ptpfs; jk; Ra czHNthL Muha;e;jpUg;ghHfshdhy;> ehk; ,t;tsT njspthf;f Ntz;ba mtrpakpUe;jpUf;fhJ. Vnddpy; ve;nje;ej ehLfs; ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij Kd;dpUj;jpaNjh mej ehLfs; vy;yhk; ,e;j jpl;lj;ij vd;Nwh %l;il fl;b itj;J tpl;ld. Vnddpy;> mjdhy; vOe;j gpur;idfs; kw;Wk; Kjyhd; kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk; cyf Nghhpd; mopTfs; vy;yhk; xd;W Nru Njrj;jpd; kf;fs; njhif xNuabahff; Fiwe;J tpl;lij czHe;J> kf;fs; njhif ngUf;fj;jpw;fhf kf;fSf;F gy rYiffisAk; ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; ju Kd; te;jd.

cjhuzkhf> ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; gphpl;ldpd; cs; Jiw nrayH> n`HgHl; khhP]d; (HERBERT MORRISON) vd;gtH fPo;fz;l fUj;ij ntspapl;lhH. mjhtJ ,d;wpUf;Fk; epiyapy;> gphpl;ldpd; xt;nthU FLk;gKk; jdJ kf;fs; njhifapy;> 25 rjtPj msT caHj;j Ntz;Lk;. mg;nghOJ jhd; gphpl;ld; ,d;wpUf;Fk; epiyia jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s KbAk; vd;w gphpl;ld; muRf;F mwpTWj;jpdhH.

NkYk;> mjpff; Foe;ijfs; FLk;gj;jpy; nghUshjhur; Rikia mjpfhpf;Fk; vd;w fUj;J vOe;j nghOJ> xt;nthU FLk;gj;jpd; gps;isfspd; msT tpfpjhr;rhug;gb Cf;fg;gb> thptpyf;F> tPL fl;l cjtp> fy;tp> kUj;Jtk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; rYif Nghd;w cjtpj; jpl;lq;fis NtW mwptpj;jd.

,jw;F xUgb NkNy gpuhd;]; nray;gl;lJ. FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL rhjdq;fs; gw;wp tpsk;guq;fis gpur;rhuk; nra;tJ Fw;wk; vd rl;lk; nfhz;L te;jJ. NkYk; kUj;JtHfs; NeubahfNth my;yJ kiwKfkhfNth $l FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL gw;wp mwpTWj;jNth mjd;gb nray;gLj;jNth ahiuAk; J}z;lf; $lhJ vd;gd Nghd;w rl;lq;fis ,aw;wpd.

n[Hkdpapy; ,Ue;J ntspte;j xU nra;jpg; gj;jphpf;if jdJ ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhif Fiwe;J tUtJ Fwpj;J> ,t;thW jdJ fUj;ij ntspapl;lJ.

,Nj epiyapy; n[Hkdp nrd;W nfhz;bUe;jhy; xU ehs; n[HkdpahdJ> Rj;jkhf Jilj;njwpag;gl;l kyl;Lj; jd;ik nfhz;l ehlhf khwp tpLk;.

mjd; gpd; n[Hkdp murhdJ> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL gw;wpa tpsk;guk;> mJ rhHe;j fy;tp Kiwfs; mj;jidiaAk; rl;lg;gb jil nra;ag;gl;lJ vd mwptpj;jJ. mYtyfk; kw;Wk; njhopw;rhiyfspy; Ntiy nra;tjw;F ngz;fSf;F jil tpjpj;jJ. Foe;ij ,y;yhj; jk;gjpfSf;f mjpf thpAk;> Foe;ij cs;s jk;gjpfSf;F thpr; rYifiaAk; toq;fpaJ. jpUkzkhfhj ,isQHfis jpUkzk; nra;a Cf;Ftpg;gjw;fhf> 1934 y; 10 kpy;ypad; gTz;l; epjpia jpUkzf; fldhf> 6 yl;rk; ,isQHfSf;F toq;fpaJ.

,j;jhypapd; KNrhypdp murhdJ xUgb NkNy Ngha;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lg; gpur;rhuk; mJ rhHe;j midj;Jk; rl;lg;gb jil nra;jJ. NkYk;> mJ gw;wp NgRtJ> nray;gLtJ> mjw;F Mjuthf elg;gJ Nghd;witfis Fw;wkhf mwptpj;jJ. kPwp elg;gtHfSf;F xU tUl rpiwj; jz;lid my;yJ mguhjk; my;yJ ,uz;Lk; vd;w rl;lj;ij ,aw;wpaJ. NkYk;> kUj;JtHfs; $l ,e;jr; rl;lj;jpypUe;J tpjptpyf;F mspf;fg;gltpy;iy.

Mf> ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; jkf;F xj;JtuhJ vd vd;Nwh tPrpnawpe;J tpl;lnjhU nfhiyfhuj; jpl;lj;ij Vd; ,e;j tsUk; ehLfs;> jq;fs; jiyapy; J}f;fp itj;J MLfpd;wd vd;why;> xd;W Nkw;fpypUe;J tUk; thilf; fhw;W $l cd;djkhdJ vd;w nfhs;if. mjhtJ> Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; jq;fs; fhydp ehLfspy; Vw;gLj;jptpl;Lg; Nghd jhf;fq;fs; vd;Wk;> tsUk; ehLfspd; v[khd tpRthrk; vd;W nfhs;syhk;.

mLj;J> ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; Kjyhk; ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; xU cz;ikia czHe;jd. vd;dntdpy;> ve;jsT kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp milfpd;wNjh> me;jsT me;j ehl;bd; rf;jp gw;wp cyf muq;fpy; czug;gLfpd;wJ.

mjhtJ> Kjyhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; 1916 y; gphpl;ld;> Njrpa gpwg;G tpfpjj;ij Muha xU fkp\id epakpj;jJ. ,jpy; gzpahw;wpa gphpl;ldpd;> kUj;Jt Rfhjhu mikr;rfj;jpd; jiyik kUj;Jtuhd> rH [hH[; epA+nkd;> fPo;f;fz;l fUj;ij ntspapl;lhH. mjhtJ. gphpl;ldpd; gpwg;G tpfpjk; ,Nj mstpy; Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl nry;Ykhdhy;> gphpl;ld; ,d;wpUf;Fk; cyf ty;yuR vd;w gl;lj;ij ,oe;J> cyfpd; ehyhe;ju rf;jpahf Mfp tpLk; vd;w vr;rhpf;ifia tpLj;jhH.

Mf> ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;bd; ghjfq;fis ed;whfNt ,e;j NkiyehLfs; czHe;Jk; fzpj;Jk; tpl;ld. Mdhy;> ,tHfs; Muk;gj;jpy; ,j;jpl;lk; gw;wp kf;fsplk; Vw;gLj;jpa kdkhw;wk;> mjD}Nl vOe;j r%f> fyhr;rhu>gz;ghl;L khw;wq;fs;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL vd;w Kiwapy;> Foe;ijg; gpwg;igf; Fiwf;fhky;> r%fj;jpy; Vw;gl;L tpl;l kd khw;wq;fSk;> fyhr;rhu rPHNfLfSk; ,tHfis mwpahkNyNa Foe;ijg; gpwg;igf; Fiwj;J te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

,dp ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa muRfs; vd;d jhd; Kad;whYk;> r%f khw;wj;ijAk;> cz;ikahd kdpj ehfhPfj;jpd; ghy; kf;fis kPl;nlLff;fr; nra;tJk;> mjd; ghy; kf;fspd; ftdj;ij jpUg;GtJ vd;gJk; ,ayhj fhhpak; vd;w KbTf;f te;J tpl;ldH. MfNt> ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg;gpd; kf;fs; gpwg;G tpfpjj;jpy; Vw;gl;l khw;wk; mNj epiyapy; njhluhky;> kPz;Lk; gpwg;G tpfpjk; ghjhsj;ij Nehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,tw;iw kPl;nlLg;gJ Nkw;Fyf ,]q;fshy; ,ayhj xd;whfTk; Mfp tpl;lJ. ,jD}Nl> tsUk; ehLfs; jq;fs; kf;fs; njhifiag; ngUf;fpa tz;zk; cs;sd. NkYk;> nghUshjhuj;jpYk; tsUk; ehLfs; Kd;Ndwpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,e;j epiyapy;> ,d;W %d;whk; cyf ehLfshf> Vio ehLfshf ,Uf;Fk; ,e;jpah Nghd;w ehLfs; ,d;Dk; rpwpJ ehspy; nghUshjuhj;jpy; Kd;Ndwpa ehLfshfTk;> Ms;gyj;jpYk;> ,uhZt gyj;jpYk; kpf caHe;j epiyf;F Ntfkhf tpiue;J nfhz;bUg;gJk;> ty;yuR vDk; jFjpia ,d;Dk; rpy Mz;LfspNyNa mile;J tpLk; vdf; fzpg;Gk; ,e;j Nkw;FyF mwpT [Ptpfshy; czug;gl;L> mjd; ntspg;ghLfs; mq;nfhd;Wk; ,q;nfhd;wkhf ntsp te;J nfhz;bUg;gJk;> cyf murpay; epiyia ed;F Muha;gtHfSf;Fg; GydhFk;.

,d;iwa rHtNjr ehza epjp mikg;gpd; Gjpa fzf;fPl;bd;gb> ,e;jpag; nghUshjhuk; cyfpy; mnkhpf;fh> [g;ghd;> rPdh> n[Hkdp kw;Wk; gpuhd;]; f;F mLj;jgbahf Mwhk; ,lj;jpy; cs;sJ.

,e;j epiyapy; ,e;j tsHe;j ehLfs; jq;fsJ> ty;yuR ehLfs; vd;w gl;lj;ijj; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s kiwKfkhf tsUk; ehLfsplk; nfhs;ifj; jpzpg;G kw;Wk; murpay; epHg;ge;jj;ij Vw;gLj;jp> tsUk; kf;fs; njhifia Fiwf;fr; nra;a mwpTWj;Jfpd;wd. ,jw;F JUg;Gr;rPl;lhf cyf tq;fp iag; Nghd;w epjp mikg;Gfisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd. NkYk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lk; tsUk; ehLfspy; ntw;wpfukhfr; nray;gl ,e;j cyf tq;fp %yk; epjpAjtp nra;fpd;wd.

Nkw;fz;l midj;Jk; ek; murpay;thjpfSf;Fk; njhpAk;. mwpT [PtpfSf;Fk; njhpAk;. Mdhy; njhpe;jpUe;Jk; ,tHfs; ,jd; NfLfis kiwg;gJ vd;gJ v[khd tpRthrkhftd;wp> NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;Fk;!! ,tHfs; tapW tsHf;f vk; ngz;fs; jq;fs; fHg;gg;igiaf; fhag;gLj;j Ntz;Lkh? rpejpf;f Ntz;baJ mwpthspfspd; Ntiy? ,j;jpl;lj;ij xJf;fpj; js;s Ntz;baJ nghJkf;fspd; flik!!

 

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