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,];yhkpa tuyhw;wpd;

fiyr;nrhw;fs; (mUQ;nrhy; mfuhjp)


mfgh

kf;fh nry;Yk; ghijapy; kpdhtpw;F mUfpYs;s XH ,lj;jpd; ngaH. kjPdhtpy; ,];yhk; guTtjw;F Kd;> kjPdhthrpfspy; rpyH ,e;j ,lj;jpy; ,U fl;lq;fshf egpfs; ehafk;(]y;) mtHfsplk; toq;fpa cWjp nkhopiaNa 'igmj;Jy; mfgh - my; mfgh cWjpg; gpukhzk;; my;yJ mfgh cld;gbf;if" vd;gH.

mfo;g; NghH

`p[;hp 4-Mk; Mz;L (fp.gp. 627) kjPdh efH kPJ a+jHfs; cs;gl midj;J muGf; Fyj;jpdUk; jpuz;L te;J njhLj;j NghH. ,jpy; vjphpfis efUf;Fs; Eioa tplhkypUf;f mfo;(fd;jf;) Njhz;lg;gl;lJ. ,ijNa 'm`;]hg;(gy mzpapdH) NghH" vd;Wk; $WtH.

mj;j`pa;ahj;J

,J xUtif tho;j;Jk; gpuhHj;jidAk; MFk;. ehd;F uf;mj; kw;Wk; %d;W uf;mj; njhOifapd; ,uz;lhtJ uf;mj; ,Ug;gpYk; filrp uf;mj; ,Ug;gpYk; ,uz;L uf;mj; njhOifapd; filrp uf;mj; ,Ug;gpYk; ,ij XJtJ egptopahFk;. 'mj;j`pa;ahj;J ypy;yh`p" vd;gJ 'nrhy;tbtpyhd vy;yhf; fhzpf;iffSk; tzf;fq;fSk; ,iwtDf;Nf chpait!" vd;W nghUs;gLk;. ,jidj; 'j\`;`Pj;' (cWjp nkhop $wy;) vd;Wk; $wg;gLk;

mGy; fhrpk;

,J ,Wjpj;J}jH K`k;kJ egp(]y;) mtHfspd; Fwpg;Gg; ngauhFk;. 'fhrpkpd; je;ij" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;. egp(]y;) ',d;dhhpd; je;ij" vd;W xUtiuf; Fwpg;ghy; czHj;j> mthpd; kfd; my;yJ kfspd; ngaUf;F Kd;G mg+-je;ij vd;Dk; thHj;ijiar; NrHj;J mtiuf; Fwpg;gpLtJ muGfspd; tof;fk;. egp(]y;) mtHfspd; Gjy;tuhd fhrpk; mtHfs; ,uz;L tajpNyNa kuzpj;J tpl;lhHfs;.

mg+ [`;y;

mk;H gpd; `p\hk; vd;gJ ,tdJ ,aw;ngaH. ngUkhdhhpd; Kf;fpa vjphpahd ,td; Fiwf; Fyj;jpy; 'gD} kf;]_k;" fpisj; jiytd; Mthd;. fp. gp.623-y; gj;Ug; Nghhpy; nfhiy nra;ag;gl;L ,we;jhd;.

mky;

muG nkhopapy; 'mky;" vd;gJ nghJthf nraiyf; Fwpf;Fk;. jkpo; K];ypk;fspd; Ngr;R tof;fpy; ew;nraYf;F ,r;nrhy; gad;gLj;jg; gLfpd;wJ.

mr;r Neuj; njhOif

(]yhj;Jy; ft;/g;). NghH %Sk; Kd; vjphpfs; jhf;Fk; mr;rk; ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; xNuNahH ,khkpd; jiyikapd; fPo; giltPuHfs; ,U mzpfshfg; gphpe;J njhOk; flikahd njhOif.

mgprPdpaH

#lhd; ehl;il NrHe;j fWg;gpd kf;fs;.

ma;a+g; (miy)

egp ,g;uh`Pk;(miy) mtHfspd; topj; Njhd;wy;fspy; te;j XH ,iwj;J}jH. egp هR/g;(miy) mtHfSf;Fg; gpd; njd; gy];jPDf;Fk; 'my; mfgh" tisFlhTf;Fk; kj;jpapy; 'mj;tk;" gFjp kf;fSf;F ,iwj;J}juhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhHfs; vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ. nghWikf;Fg; ngaHngw;wtuha; tho;e;jhHfs;.

mH\;

Ml;rp gPlk;> rpk;khrdk;> fl;by;> tPL> KfL Nghd;w gy nghUs;fs; ,jw;F cz;L. ',iwtdpd; Ml;rpg;gPlk; my;yJ rpk;khrdk;" vd;Dk; nghUspy; ,r;nrhy; Msg;gLfpwJ.

mu/gh

Gdpj kf;fhtpw;Ff; fpof;Nf 25 fpNyh kPl;lH njhiytpy; mike;Js;s jpwe;jntsp. kf;fhtpw;F `[; nra;ar; nry;gtHfs; Jy;`[; khjk; xd;gjhk; ehs; ,q;F jq;FtJ fl;lhaf; flikahFk;.

my;yh`;

muG nkhopapy; xNu ,iwtidf; Fwpf;Fk; nrhy;.

my;`k;J ypy;yh`;

'Gfo; midj;Jk; my;yh`;tpw;Nf chpaJ" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;. 'my;`k;J ypy;yh`;" vd;W Muk;gkhFk; #uj;Jy; /ghj;jp`h> K];ypk; nghJkf;fs; tof;fpy; my;`k;J #uh vd;W miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ghHf;f: /ghj;jp`h #uh.

'miy"

''miy`p];]yhk; - mtH kPJ (,iwtdpd;) rhe;jp cz;lhfl;Lk;" vd;gjd; RUf;fk;. ,iwj;J}jHfSf;Fg; gpuhHj;jid nra;Ak; tifapy; mtHfs; ngaHfSld; 'miy" vd;W jkpopy; RUf;fkhfg; Nghlg;gLk;.

mt;jh];

'`th]pd;" Fyj;jhH FbapUe;j gFjpapy; ,Ue;j xU gs;sj;jhf;fpd; ngaH. `{idd; Nghhpy; jg;gpNahba `th]pd; Fyj;jhH kPz;Lk; NghUf;Fj; jahuhdhHfs;. mtHfis xLf;f eil ngw;w NghNu 'mt;jh]; NghH" ,jw;F 'mg+ MkpH gilg;gphpT" vd;w ngaUk; cz;L.

mt;]; - f];u[;

kjPdh efhpypUe;j ,U ngUk; muGf;Fyj;jhH. Kd;G akdpy; trpj;J te;j ,tHfs;> k/hpg; ePH Njf;fj;jpy; fp. gp. 542-570 thf;fpy; cilg;G Vw;gl;l NghJ mq;fpUe;J te;J kjPdhtpy; FbNawpdH. md;rhhpfspy; ,tHfSk; mlq;FtH.

md;rhH

'cjtp GhpgtHfs;"vd;gJ nrhw;nghUshFk;. jk; jhafkhd kf;fhitj; Jwe;J kjPdhtpw;F (`p[;uj;) nrd;w K`k;kJ egp(]y;) mtHfSf;Fk; mtH jk; NjhoHfSf;Fk;> gpw gFjpfspypUe;J kjPdhtpw;F (`p[;uj;) nrd;w K];ypk;fSf;Fk; Mjutspj;J cjtp nra;jikahy; kjPdh thrpfs; 'md;rhH" (cjtp Ghpe;NjhH) vd;wiof;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

m]H

gpw;gfypd; eLg;gFjpapypUe;J #hpad; kiwAk; tiuAs;s Neuj;ij ,J Fwpf;Fk;; ,e;Neuj;jpy; njhog;gLk; njhOif m]H njhOif vd;wiof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,JTk; K];ypk;fs; kPJ flikahd Iq;fhyj; njhOiffspy; xd;whFk;.

Maj;Jy; FH]p

'my;yh`{ yh ,yh` ,y;yh`{ty; `a;Ay; fa;هk;" vd;W Muk;gkhFk; 'jpUf;FH Md; trdk; (2:25) Maj;Jy; FH vd;W miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ',J jpUf;FH Mdpd; trdq;fspNyNa kpfTk; rpwg;Gf;FhpaJ" vd;W egp(]y;) mtHfs; $wpAs;shHfs;.

Mjk; (miy)

Mjk;. Mjp kdpjUk; Mjpapiwj; J}jUk; MthH. Mjk; - `t;th jk;gjpahpypUe;Nj kdpj Fyk; ngUfpw;W.

MJ

akd; ehl;L flw;fiug; gFjpfspy; tho;e;j muGg; goq;FbapdH. ,tHfSf;F mDg;gg;gl;l egpNa `_j;(miy) mtHfs; MthHfs;. ,tHfsJ fhyk; fp.K. 2000 MFk;.

,k;uhd;

md;id kHak; mtHfspd; je;ij.

,y;ah]; (miy)

(vypah - fp. K. - 8 - Mk; E}w;whz;L) egp `h&d;(miy) mtHfspd; topj;Njhd;wypy; te;j XH ,iwj;J}jH. md;iwa \hk; ehl;L kf;fSf;F ,iwj; J}juhf epakpf;fg; gl;lhHfs;.

,d;\h my;yh`;

,jw;F ',iwtd; ehbdhy;......" vd;W nghUs;. tUq;fhyj;jpy; xd;iwr; nra;ag;Nghtjhf thf;fspf;Fk; ,iw ek;gpf;ifahsH ,ijAk; NrHj;Nj Fwpg;gpLtH. (ck;) ,d;\h my;yh`;> Kf;j];H K];ypk; tpiutpy; ntsptUk;.

,iw ek;gpf;ifahsH

(%kpd;) Xhpiwtd;> thdtHfs;> ,iwj;J}jHfs;> ,Wjpj; J}jH K`k;kJ(]y;)> ,iwtdhy; mUsg;gl;l Ke;ija Ntjq;fs;> ,Wjp Ntjk; jpUf;FHMd;> kWik ehs;> tpjp Mfpatw;wpd; kPJ ek;gpf;if nfhz;ltH ,iw ek;gpf;ifahsH MthH.

,iw ek;gpf;ifahsHfspd; md;id

(ck;Ky; %kpdPd;) egp(]y;) mtHfspd; JiztpahH.

,iw ek;gpf;ifahsHfspd; jiytH

(mkPUy; %kpdPd;) ,iwj;J}jUf;Fg; gpd; te;j ,];yhkpa Ml;rpj; jiytH.

,iw kWg;ghsH

(fh/gpH) ,iwek;gpf;ifahsH vd;gjd; vjpHr; nrhy;.

,/jpfh/g;

,iwtDf;fhf iyyj;Jy; fj;H vd;w Mapuk; khjq;fis tplr;rpwe;j ,ghit ehk; ngWtjw;fhf ukshd; khjj;jpy; filrpg; gj;Jehl;fs; gs;spapy; jq;fpapUf;Fk; tzf;f topghL. ,iwj;J}jH topKiwapy; Fwpg;gpl;l fhyk; gs;spthrypy; jq;Fk; xU tif topghL.

,fhkj;

njhOiff;F tUkhW miog;G. (ghq;F) tpLj;j gpwF njhOif eilngwg; NghfpwJ vd;wwptpf;Fk; miog;G.

,j;jh

fzpj;jy;> vz;Zjy; vd;gJ ,jd; nrhw;nghUshFk;.

fztdhy; tpthfuj;Jr; nra;ag;gl;l my;yJ tpthfuj;ijg; ngw;w ngz; %d;W khjtplha;f; fhyj;ijj; jd; fztd; tPl;by; fopg;gJ flikahFk;. ,jw;Nf ',j;jh" vd;W $wg;gLfpd;wJ. ,j;jh ,Uf;Fk; ehl;fspy; mts; ,j;jh ,Uf;Fk; tPl;bypUe;J ntspNaWtJ jil nra;ag;gl;l xd;whFk;. tpthfuj;jpd; fhuzkhf ,j;jh ,Ug;gtis ,j;jh fhyj;jpy; fztDk; tPl;il tpl;L ntspNaw;wf;$lhJ. %d;W Kiw jyhf;(tpthfuj;J) chpik fztDf;F ,Ug;gjhy; me;j jyhf; KjyhtJ jyhf;fhf my;yJ ,uz;lhtJ jyhf;fhf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; ,UtH kdKk; fdpe;J xd;WNrUk; tha;g;G ,jd; %yk; jug;gLfpwJ. ,UtUk; jk; tho;itg; gw;wpr; rpe;jpg;gjw;Fk; xU tha;g;G fpilf;fpwJ. kz cwtpd; Gdpjk;> fztdpd; nghWg;G> kfspH eyk; Mfpatw;iwf; fUj;jpy; nfhz;Nl ,j;jhtpd; ,e;jr; rl;lk; mike;Js;sJ.

,jdhy; %d;whtJ Kiw jyhf;(tpthfuj;J) nra;ag;gLk; NghJ my;yJ fztd; ,we;JtpLk;NghJ ngz;> jd; fUg;ig fhypahf cs;sjh vd;wwpe;J nfhz;L gpwF NtnwhU Mizj; jpUkzk; nra;Jnfhs;sTk; tha;g;G fpilf;fpwJ. ,j;jh ,Ue;J fhj;jpuhky; cldbahfj; jpUkzk; nra;tjhy; Ke;jpa fztdhy; cUthd fUitr; Rke;j epiyapy; NtnwhUtiuf; fztdhfg; ngWk; JHghf;fpaj;jpw;F Mshfhky; jg;gpf;fTk; jhd; Rkf;Fk; Foe;ijapd; je;ij ahH vd;W njhpahj mty epiy Vw;glhky; jw;fhj;Jf; nfhs;sTk; mtSf;F tha;g;G fpilf;fpd;wJ.

fztd; ,we;j ngz;Zf;F ehd;F khjq;fSk; gj;J ehl;fSk; ,j;jhTila fhykhFk; vd;gijf; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. jyhf; nra;ag;gl;l> khjtplha; epd;WNghd ngz;zpd; ,j;jh fhyk;. %d;W khjq;fshFk;. fUTw;wpUf;Fk; ngz;zpd; ,j;jh fhyk; Foe;ijia <d;nwLf;Fk; tiuapyhFk;.

,];uNtyHfs;

,iwj;J}jH a/$g;(miy) mtHfSf;F ,];uhaPy; vd;Wk; xU ngaUz;L. mtHfsJ topj; Njhd;wy;fSf;F ,];uNtyHfs; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk;.

,j;hP]; (miy)

,iwj;J}jH E}`;(miy) mtHfspd; Kg;ghl;ldhuhd ,tH egp Mjk; kw;Wk; \{j;(miy) mtHfSf;Fg; gpd;dhy; te;j ,iwj;J}jH MthH.

,g;uh`Pk; (miy)

,iwj;J}jHfspy; xUtuhd ,g;uh`Pk;(miy) mtHfs; (Mg;u`hk;) fp. K. 2160-y; njd; ,uhf;fpy; cs;s (cH-UR) vd;Dk; Chpy; gpwe;jhHfs;. fyPYy;yh`; - ,iwtdpd; cw;w ez;gH vd;W rpwg;Gg; ngaH ngw;wtH.

,g;yP];

neUg;ghy; gilf;fg;gl;l '[pd;" ,dj;jhiur; NrHe;jtd;. Kjy; kdpjH Mjk; (miy) mtHfisg; gilj;J mtHfSf;Fr; rpuk;gzpAk;gb ,iwtd; fl;lisapl;lNghJ> ngUikabj;J rpuk; gzpa kWj;Jtpl;l fhuzj;jhy; ,iwtd; jd; fUizapypUe;J ,tid mg;Gwg;gLj;jptpl;lhd;. vdNt ,td; ',g;yP];"- ,iwf;fUizapypUe;J mg;Gwg;gLj;jg;gl;ltd; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwhd;. ,td; i\j;jhd;fspd; je;ij Mthd;.

,g;D (gpd;)

kfd; (ck;: K`k;kj; gpd; mg;Jy;yh`; - mg;Jy;yh`;tpd; kfd; K`k;kj;)

,khk;

,];yhkpa murpd; jiytH; Fwpg;gpl;l xU Jiwapy; NjHr;rp ngw;W rpwe;j Kd;Ndhbahfj; jpfo;gtH; njhOiff;Fj; jiyik jhq;fp elj;JgtH.

,\h

#hpad; kiwe;J nrt;thdKk; kiwe;j gpd;dhy; cs;s Neuk;. ,e;Neuj;jpy; njhog;gLk; ,uTj; njhOif ,\hj; njhOif vdg;gLk;.

,];khaPy; (miy)

fp. K. 19-k; E}w;whz;ilr; NrHe;j egp ,];khaPy;(miy) mtHfs; (,];k;Nty;)> egp ,g;uh`Pk;(miy) mtHfspd; %j;j kfdhthHfs;. ,tHfs; md;id `h[uhTf;Fg; gpwe;jtHfs;. 'muGfspd; je;ij" vdg; Nghw;wg;gLk; ,tHfspd; re;jjpapy;jhd; K`k;kJ egp(]y;) mtHfs; gpwe;jhHfs;.

,`;uhk;

Gdpj `[; kw;Wk; ck;uh Mfpa topghLfs; epiwNtw;wg;gLk; NghJ mzpa Ntz;ba> ijf;fg;glhj ,U Jz;Lfshyhd ntz;ikahd Mil.

<Jy; ms;`h

`p[;hp Mz;by; Jy;`[; khjk; 10-k; ehs; K];ypk;fs; nfhz;lhLfpd;w ngUehs; gz;bif. ,iwj;J}jH ,g;uh`Pk; (miy) mtHfs; ,iwtdpd; fl;lisg;gb> jk; kfdhd ,];khaPiy ,iwtDf;fhf mWj;Jg; gypapl Kd; te;j jpahfj;ij epidT $Uk; tifapy; ,e;ehspy; K];ypk;fs; ML> khL> xl;lfk; Mfpa gpuhzpfis ,iwtDf;fhf mWj;Jj; jpahfk; Ghpe;J> mij ViofSf;Ff; nfhLj;J ,g;gz;bifiaf; nfhz;lhLtjhy; ,J <Jy; ms;`h - jpahfg; ngUehs; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. ,ij `[; ngUehs; vd;Wk; miog;gH.

<Jy; /gpj;U

ukshd; khjk; KOtJk; Nehd;G Nehw;W> me;j khjk; Kbe;jJk; Nehd;ig epiwT nra;J mLj;j ehs; \t;thy; khjk; gpiw 1-y; K];ypk;fs; nfhz;lhLfpd;w gz;bif. MfNt> ,e;j \t;thy; Kjy; ehs; gpiwapd; tUif jhd; ukshd; Nehd;ig epiwT nra;af; fhuzk; vd;gjhy; ,J <Jy; /gpj;U - Nehd;ig epiwTnra;j ngUehs; vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ. Nehd;Gg; ngUehs; vd;Wk; ,ij miog;gH.

<]h (miy)

,iwj;J}jHfspy; xUtuhd ,tH(,NaR - JESUS) ghy];jPdj;jpy; cs;s eh]Nuj; - #`S`RE$o vd;Dk; Chpy; kHak;(miy) mtHfSf;F Mz; Jizapd;wp mw;Gjkhd Kiwapy; gpwe;jhHfs;. ,tHfSf;F ,d;[Py; Ntjk; (iggps; Gjpa Vw;ghL - #EW $ES$`M`#$) ,iwtdhy; mUsg;gl;lJ.

ck;K

,jw;F 'jhahH" vd;W nghUs;. (ck;) ck;K rykh - rykhtpd; jhahH.

ck;uj;Jy; fsh

(tpLgl;l ck;uh) `p[;hp 7-Mk; Mz;L egpfshUk; 2000 egpj;NjhoHfSk; epiwNtw;wpa ck;uh; `p[;hp 6-Mk; Mz;L epiwNtw;w Kbahkw; Nghd ck;uhTf;Fg; gpujpahfNt ,ij epiwNtw;wpdH.

ck;uh

`[;i[g; Nghd;Nw ,JTk; fmghit jhprpf;f kf;fhtpw;Fr; nry;Yk; fl;lhaf; flikahFk;. ,jw;Ff; fhyf; Fwpg;G ,y;iy.

ckH gpd; mg;Jy; m[P];

(`p[;hp 61-101- fp. gp.681-720) cika;ah Ml;rpahsHfspy; vl;lhktH. (`p[;hp:99-fp.gp717) NeHtop fyP/ghf;fspy; Ie;jhktH. epHthfk; kw;Wk; nghUshjhuj; Jiwfspy; rPH jpUj;jq;fs; nfhz;L tUtjpy; jdpf;ftdk; nrYj;jpdhHfs;.

c@

njhOif Nghd;w rpy Fwpg;gpl;l tzf;fq;fis epiwNtw;Wtjw;F Kd;dhy; Kfk;> if> jiy> fhy; Kjypatw;iw my;yh`;tpd; Mizf;fpzq;f egpfshhpd; topKiwf;Fl;gl;L J}a;ikg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sk; mq;f Rj;jp Kiw.

c];]h

mwpahikf; fhyj;jpy; FiwaH tzq;fp te;j rpiyfspy; xd;W.

c`{J(g; NghH)

kjPdhtpw;F mUfpYs;s 'c`{J" kiyf;fUfpy; `p[;hp 3-k; Mz;L \t;thy; khjj;jpd; kj;jpapy; ,iwek;gpf;ifahsHfSf;Fk; ,iwkWg;ghsHfSf;FkpilNa eilngw;w NghH.

Cfpah

38.66 fpuhKf;Fr; rkkhd mf;fhy muGfspd; XH vil msT

fmgh

Gdpj kf;fhtpYs;s rJu tbtk; nfhz;l fl;llkhd Gdpj ,iwapy;yk;; cyfpy; Kjd; Kjyhf Vf ,iwtdpd; tzf;fj;jpw;fhf mikf;fg;gl;l ,iwahyak;. ,ij Kd;Ndhf;fpNa K];ypk;fs; njhOif elj;JfpwhHfs;. ,ijj; jhprpg;gjw;fhfNt `[; Gdpjg;gazKk; Nkw;nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

f/gd;

,we;jtHfis mlf;fk; nra;Ak; NghJ mtHfSf;F mzptpf;fg;gLk; Mil

fg;U

,we;jtHfis mlf;fk; nra;Ak; kz;ziw; GijFop

fuh[;

,];yhkpa murpd; ghJfhg;gpy; thOk; K];ypky;yhNjhH Mz;Lf;F xU Kiw Fwpg;gpl;l msT jq;fspd; nry;tj;jpypUe;J muRf;Fr; nrYj;j Ntz;ba xU tif epy thp.

/fdPkj;

NghHr; nry;tk;; Nghhpy; vjphpfs; tpl;Lr; nrd;w nghUs;. ,jpy; NghuhspfSf;F Ie;jpy; ehd;F gq;Fk;> kPjKs;s xU gq;F ,iwj; J}jUf;Fk; chpajhFk;.

fyP/gh

,iwj;J}jhpd; topKiwg;gb ,iwr; rl;lq;fis tho;f;ifj; Jiwfs; midj;jpYk; nray;gLj;Jfpd;w ,];yhkpa Ml;rpj; jiytH. egpfshUf;Fg; gpd;dH Ml;rpf;F te;j K];ypk; Ml;rpj; jiytHfs; ,t;thW miof;fg;gl;ldH.

fsh

flikahd tzf;fq;fis chpa Neuj;jpy; epiwNtw;w Kbahj epiy Vw;gLk; NghJ mtw;wpw;Fhpa Neuk; fle;J NtW fhyq;fspy; mtw;iw epiwNtw;WtJ.

f];H

fl;lhaf; flikahd ehd;F uf;mj; njhOiffs; S`H> m]H> ,\h mfpatw;iw gpuahzj;jpd; NghJ ,uz;L uf;mj;fshfr; RUf;fpj; njhOjy;.

fh/gpH

Vf ,iwtid Vw;f kWg;gtH; 'K\;hpf;" vDk; ,izitg;gtUk; xNu ,iwtid tzq;fhky; gy flTs;fis tzq;Ftjhy; mtiuAk; 'fh/gpH" vdf; $WtJz;L.

ft;]H

nrhHf;fj;jpy; egp(]y;) mtHfSf;F my;yh`; nfhLf;fpd;w jz;،Hj; jlhfk;! jhfk; epiwe;j me;ehspy; egp(]y;) mtHfs; jkJ rKjhaj;jpdUf;F mjpypUe;J jz;،H Gfl;LthHfs;.

f]hkh

nfhiyf; Fw;wj;jpy; rhl;rpfSld; nfhiyahsp mwpag;glhj re;jHg;gj;jpy; nfhiyAz;lthpd; cwtpdH nra;Ak; xU tif rj;jpak;.

fp];uh

ghurPfg; NguurHfspd; Gidg; ngaH. egpfshhpd; fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;j F];&tpd; ngaH mg;Nuha]; gpd; `{HK]; - fp.gp. 590-628) ,tUld; ,uhf;fpy; ghurPfg; NguuR KbTf;F te;jJ.

fpg;yh

cyfpYs;s K];ypk;fs; midtUk; kf;fhtpYs;s Gdpj ,iwapy;ykhk; fmghit Nehf;fpNa njho Ntz;Lk;. fmgh cs;s jpirNa 'fpg;yh" vd;W miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

fpahkj; ehs;

cyfk; mbNahL mopf;fg;gl;L> gilg;Gfs; midj;Jk; capH nfhLj;J vOg;gg;gLk; kWik ehs;> ,e;j ehspy; jhd; kdpjd; nra;j nray;fSf;Ff;fhd jPHg;Gfs; toq;fg;gLk;; jPa nray;fSf;Fj; jf;f jz;lidfSk; ew;nray;fSf;F KOikahd ew;gyd;fSk; toq;fg;gLk;.

fpuhmj;

XJjy;. ,iwkiwahk; jpUf;FH Mid Kiwahf XJtjw;Fk;> XJk; Kiwf;Fk; 'fpuhmj;" vd;gH.

fPuhj;

xU fPuhj; vd;gJ 213 kpy;yp fpuhk; msthFk;. rpy Ntisfspy; ,J c`{J kiyasT ngUk; viliaf; Fwpf;fTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLtJz;L.

F/g;U

Vf ,iwtid kWf;Fk; jd;ik> ,izitj;jYk; ,iwia kWg;gNj!

FHMd;

cyf kf;fs; midtUf;Fk; NeHtop fhl;l ,Wjpj; J}jH K`k;kj; egp(]y;) mtHfSf;F ,iwtd; mUspa ,Wjp Ntjk;

FHghdp

,iwtdpd; neUf;fj;ijg; ngWtjw;fhf mtdJ fl;lisg;gb ML> khL> xl;lfk; Mfpatw;iw mWj;J ViofSf;Ff; nfhLj;jy;. ,g;gb ,iwtDf;fhf mWj;Jj; jpahfk; nra;ag;gLk; gpuhzpia FHghdpg; gpuhzp vd;gH. jpahfg; gpuhzp vd;Wk; $wyhk;.

FK];

,jw;F 'Ie;jpy; xU ghfk;" vd;W nghUs;. Nghhpy; fpilj;j nry;tq;fspy; ehd;F ghfk; Nghhpy; fye;J nfhz;l tPuHfSf;Fg; gfpHe;jspf;fg;gLk;. kPjKs;s xU ghfk; (1/5) ,iwj; J}jUf;F chpa epjpahFk;. ,ij 'FK];" vd;gH. ,jid ,iwj;J}jH Nrk eyepjpahfTk; ,d;Dk; chpa ,dq;fspYk; nrytpLthHfs;.

Fiw

es;H gpd; fpdhdhtpd; re;jjpfshfpa muG tk;rj;jpdH. egp(]y;) mtHfSk; ,t;tk;rj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfNs.

FD}j;J

,e;jr; nrhy;Yf;F njhOif> cs;sr;rk;> ePz;l Neuk; epw;wy;> fPo;g;gbjy;> gpuhHj;jid vd;W gy nghUs;fs; cz;L. mjpfkhfj; njhOifapy; Xjg;gLk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l gpuhHj;jidia ,r; nrhy; Fwpf;Fk;.

$/gh

,uhf;fpYs;s nghpa efuk;.

ifgH

a+j kjPdhtpypUe;J \hk; ehl;bw;Fr; nry;Yk; topapy; mike;Js;s nghpa efuk;. `p[;hp 7-(fp.gp. 628)Mk; Mz;by; ,iwek;gpf;ifahsHfSf;Fk;> ,iwkWg;ghsHfSf;Fk; ,ilNa ele;j NghUf;F 'ifgH" NghH vd;W $wg;gLfpwJ.

if]H

Nuhk> ig]he;jpag; NguurHfspd; Gidg; ngaH> egp(]y;) mtHfs; fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;j ifrhpd; ngaH `puhf;spa]; (oeraclius fp.gp 610- 641) MFk;. ,tNuhL Nuhkg; NguuR Kw;Wg; ngw;wJ.

r%j;

fp.K. ,uz;lhapuj;jpy; (.2430) rjpa;ahtpy; cs;s 'My; `p[;H" vd;Dkplj;jpy; tho;e;j muGg; goq;FbapdH.

r/A

]/gh> kHth kiyf;Fd;WfSf;fpilNa VOKiw Xl;lKk; eilAkhfr; nry;tJ ,J `[;[pd; fphpiafspy; xd;whFk;.

rjfh> ]jfh

jHkk;; mwk;. mugp nkhopapy; ,r;nrhy; flikahd ]fhj;ijf; Fwpf;fTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLtJ cz;L.

rhp/g;

kf;fhtpypUe;J gj;J iky;fSf;F cl;gl;l xU gFjp. ,q;Fjhd; egpfshhpd; JiztpahH md;id ik%dh (uyp) mtHfs; ,we;jhHfs;.

r[;jh (R[{j;)

rputzf;fk;. njhOifapy; new;wp> %f;F> ,U cs;sq;iffs;> ,U Kl;Lf; fhy;fs;> ,U fhy;fspd; tpuy;fs; Mfpa cWg;Gfs; jiuapy; gLk;gb nra;ag;gLk; rputzf;fk;. ,J> ,iwtDf;F kl;LNk nra;ag;gl Ntz;bajhFk;.

r`H (Neuk;)

,utpd; gpw;gFjpapy; itfiwf;Fr; rw;W Kd;Ds;s> Nehd;gpw;fhf czT cz;Zk; Neuk;.

ryhk;

xU K];ypk; kw;nwhU K];ypikr; re;jpf;Fk; nghOJ 'm];]yhK miyf;Fk;" (,iwtdpd; rhe;jp> mikjp cq;fs; kPJ cz;lhfl;Lk;) vd;W $Wk; ,];yhkpa Kfkd;. ryhk; nrhy;yg;gl;ltH ryhk; nrhd;dtUf;F 't miyf;F K]; ]yhk;" (mt;thNw cq;fs; kPJk; ,iwtd; rhe;jp cz;lhfl;Lk;) vd;W gjpy; nrhy;yNtz;Lk;.

rP/Gy; g`;H

'flw;fiu" vd;W nghUs;. `p[;hp - 8 - Mk; Mz;L u[g; (fp.gp. 629 etk;gH) khjk; kjPdhtpypUe;J md;iwa 5 ehs; njhiy J}uj;jpy; ,Ue;j flw;fiu Xuj;jpy; nrd;W nfhz;bUe;j Fiwfspd; tzpff; FOnthd;iw klf;f> 300 NgH nfhz;l gil mg+ cigjh gpd; [Huh`;(uyp) jiyikapy; nrd;wJ. ,r;rk;gtj;ij 'flw;fiug; NghH" vd;Wk; 'mg+ cigjh gilg;gphpT" vd;Wk; 'fUNty ,iy gilg;gphpT" vd;Wk; Fwpg;gpLtH.

Rg;`hdy;yh`;

',iwtd; ve;j tpjf; FiwghLk; gytPdKk; mw;w J}Nahd;" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUshFk;. ngUk;ghYk; tpag;Gf;Fhpa tp\aq;fisg; ghHf;Fk; NghNjh Nfl;Fk; NghNjh ,g;gbf; $wg;gLk;. ,iwtidj; Jjpf;f ,ijf; $WthHfs;.

Rg;`{

itfiwapy; #hpa cjaj;jpw;F Kd;Ds;s Neuk;. ,e;Neuj;jpy; epiwNtw;wg;gLk; flikahd njhOiff;Nf Rg;`{j; njhOif vd;Wk; /g[;Uj; njhOif vd;Wk; ngaH.

Riykhd;

egp Riykhd;(miy) mtHfs; (fp.K. 990-930) egp jhj;(miy) mtHfspd; ike;juhthH. ,tH NguuruhfTk; tpsq;fpdhH. n[&ryj;jpYs;s Gdpj ,iwapy;ykhd igj;Jy; kf;jpi] ,iwtdpd; fl;lisf;F Vw;g GJg;gpj;jhHfs;. [pd; ,dKk; gwit ,dKk; md;dhUf;F trg;gLj;jpf; nfhLf;fg;gl;bUe;jd.

NrHj;Jj; njhOjy;

''mu/ghtpy; ,UNtisj; njhOiffisr; NrHj;Jj; njhOjy;"" vd;gJk; 'K];jyp/ghtpy; ,UNtisj; njhOiffisr; NrHj;Jj; njhOjy;" vd;gJk; [k;T vd;W miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. gazj;jpy; Y`H> m]H njhOiffis NrHj;Jj; njhoyhk;. kf;hpg; ,\h njhOiffisAk; NrHj;Jj; njhoyhk;. Y`H> m]H Mfpa njhOiffis Y`H Neuj;jpy; NrHj;Jj; njhOjhy; [k;kjf;jPk; vd;Wk; m]H Neuj;jpy; njhOjhy; [k;kj/fPk; vd;Wk; $wg;gLk;. mt;thNw ,\hit kf;hpg; Neuj;jpy; NrHj;Jj; njhOjhy; [k;k jf;jPk; vd;Wk;> ,\h Neuj;jpy; NrHj;Jj; njhOjhy; [k;kj/fPH vd;Wk; $wg;gLk;.

jMyh

'caHe;J tpl;lhd;" vd;W nghUs;. ngUk;ghYk; my;yh`;tpd; jpU ehkj;Jf;Fg; gpd;dhy; ,izj;J (my;yh`{j; jMyh - caHe;Njhdhfpa my;yh`; vd;W) $wg;gLfpwJ.

jf;gPH

'my;yh`{ mf;gH - ,iwtd; kpfg; nghpatd;" vd;W nrhy;Yjy;.

jth/g;

Gdpj fmghitr; Rw;wp VO Kiw tyk; tUtJ. `[;[pYk; ck;uhtpYk; ,J Kf;fpa topghlhFk;.

jak;Kk;

'c@" vd;Dk; mq;f Rj;jp nra;aj; jz;zPH fpilf;fhj rkaq;fspYk; NehAw;wpUg;gJ Nghd;w rkaq;fspYk; Rj;jkhd kz; cs;s jiuapy; iffisg; gjpj;J Kfk; iffspy; jltpf; nfhs;tJ.

jg+f;

kjPdhtpw;F tlf;fpy; 7 fp. kP. njhiytpy; mike;Js;s efuk;. `p[;hp 9y; u[g; khjj;jpy; ek;gpf;ifahsHfSf;Fk; ,iwkWg;ghsHfSf;F kpilNa ,q;F eilngw;w NghH 'jg+f; NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ.

jy;gpah

'yg;igf; my;yh`{k;k yg;igf;> yg;igf; yh \hPf;f yf;f yg;igf;> ,d;dy; `k;j td;dp/kj;j yf;f ty;Ky;f> yh\hPf;f yf;f" vdf; $WtJ. ,jd; nghUs; gpd;tUkhW: ,iwth! cdf;Nf ehd; fPo;g;gbfpNwd;. ,izapy;yhjtNd! cdf;Nf ehd; fPo;g;gbfpNwd;. GfOk;> mUl;nfhilAk;> Ml;rpAk; cdf;Nf chpad. cdf;F ,izahdtH vtUkpy;iy.

jt;uhj;

(Njhuh) ,iwtd; ,iwj;J}jH %rh(miy) mtHfSf;F mUspa Ntjk;. ,J iggpspd; gioa Vw;ghlhff; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.

j[;[hy;

,Wjp ehs; rkPgpf;Fk; nghOJ Njhd;Wk; ngha;ad;; fz;fl;L tpj;ij nra;gtd;. fpwp];jtHfs; ,tid md;b fpwp];J vd;gH. ,tid <]h(miy) mtHfs; te;J nfhy;thHfs;.

j];gP`;

'Rg;`hdy;yh`;" (,iwtd; midj;Jf; FiwghLfspypUe;Jk; J}a;ikahdtd;) vd;W Jjpj;jy;.

j`[;[{j; (njhOif)

#hpad; kiwe;J> nry;thdKk; kiwe;j gpd;dhy; njhog;gLk; ,\h - ,uTj; njhOiff;Fg; gpd;G J}q;fp vOe;J njhOk; es;spuTj; njhOif.

juhtP`;

'jHtP`;" vd;gJ ,jd; xUikahFk;. 'Xa;ntLj;jy;" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;. ukshd; khj ,uT Neuj;jpy; njhog;gLk; ,j;njhOifiaj; njhOgtHfs;. ,uz;L ]yhk;fSf;fpilNa rw;W Xa;ntLj;Jf; nfhs;thHfs;. vdNt> ,J 'juhtP`;" vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

jt;gh

nra;j jtw;wpw;fhf kdk; tUe;jp> mij kPz;Lk; nra;tjpy;iy vd;w cWjpAld;> ,iwtd; kd;dpg;ghd; vd;w ek;gpf;ifAld;> J}a;ikahd vz;zj;Jld; ,iwtdplk; ghtkd;dpg;Gj; NjLjy;.

jth/Gy; tjh

fmghit ,Wjpahf tyk; tUjy;.

jth/G]; ]pahuj;

jth/g; tyk; tUjy;> ]pahuj; - re;jpj;jy;. Jy;`[; khjk; 10k; ehs; `[; Gdpjg; gazpfs; kpdhtpypUe;J jpUk;gp te;J fmghit VOKiw Rw;wp tyk;tUtJ. ,J `[;[pd; ,d;wpaikahf; flikfSs; xd;whFk;.

j\`;`{j;

'rhl;rp nrhy;Yjy;" vd;W nghUs;. njhOifapd; ,uz;lhtJ uf;mj; kw;Wk; filrp uf;mj;jpy; ,uz;lhtJ ][;jhtpw;Fg; gpd; mkHe;J XJfpd;wtw;wpy; 'm\;`J" ehd; rhl;rp nrhy;fpNwd;" vd;w thrfk; te;Js;sjhy; ,e;j ,Ug;gpw;F j\`;`{jpd; ,Ug;G (rhl;rp nrhy;Yk; ,Ug;G) vd;Wk; ,jpy; XJtij 'j\`;`{j;" XJtJ vd;Wk; nrhy;yg;gLfpd;wJ. j\`;`{j; m\;`J ,uz;Lk; xNu NtHr; nrhy;ypypUe;J te;jitahFk;.

jhj;Jy; fuj;

kjPdhtpypUe;J \hk; ehL nry;Yk; topapy; md;iwa 2 ehs; gazj; njhiytpyike;j XH ,lj;jpd; ngaH. ,q;F `p[;hp 6-Mk; Mz;L xl;lfj; jpUlHfSld; eilngw;w chpikg; Nghuhl;lNk jhj;Jy; fuj; NghH> J} fuj; NghH> my; /fhgh NghH vDk; ngaHfspy; mwpag;gLfpwJ.

jhj;JH hpfhc

rjpa;ahtpy; e[;j; gFjpapy; cs;s XH ,lk;. /fj;/ghd; Fyj;jhuhd gD} K`hhpg;> gD} ]mygh $l;lj;jhUld; `p[;hp 7-Mk; Mz;L ele;j ifgH NghUf;Fg; gpwF ,q;F eil ngw;w rz;ilNa jhj;JH hpfhc NghH; K`hhpG f];/gh NghH; gD} ]mygh NghH; e[;Jg; NghH vd;w ngaHfspy; mwpag;gLfpwJ.

jhY}j;

fp.K. 10-Mk; E}w;whz;by; tho;e;j ,];uNty; kf;fspd; jiytH. egp %rh(miy) mtHfSf;F RkhH 350 Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd; tho;e;j mtH muruhfTk; ,Ue;jhH.

jhap/g;

kf;fhtpw;Fj; njd;fpof;Nf 65 iky; njhiytpy; mike;Js;s efuk;.

jhj;J]; ]yh]py;

kjPdh efhpypUe;J md;iwa 10 ehs; gazj; njhiytpypUe;j kzw; ghq;fhd XH ,lk;. mq;F tho;e;j muGf; Fyj;jhH kjPdhtpd; kPJ gilnaLf;f Kw;gl;ldH. mtHfSld; ,q;F `p[;hp 7 my;yJ 8-(fp. gp. 630) Mk; Mz;L eil ngw;w rz;ilNa 'jhj;J];]yhtpy; NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ. ,jw;F 'yf;k; NghH" '[{jhk; NghH" vd;w ngaHfSk; cz;L.

jhj; (miy)

egp jhj;(miy) mtHfs; (fp. K. 1010 - 970) egp am$g; (miy) mtHfspd; topj; Njhd;wyhthHfs;. ,tHfSf;F ']g+H" vd;Dk; Ntjk; ,iwtdhy; mUsg;gl;lJ. ghy];jPd rHthjpfhhp [hY}j;ij tPo;j;jp rhjid gilj;jhHfs;.

jpk;kP

,];yhkpa murpd; fPo;thOk; gpw kjj;jtH.

jpH`k;

,J 3.62 fpuhk; msT nfhz;l mf;fhy nts;sp ehzak;.

jPdhH

4.374 fpuhk; vil nfhz;l jq;f ehzak;. 50 thw; NfhJik jhdpaq;fSf;Fr; rkkhd vil.

JM

gpuhHj;jid Ntz;Ljy;.

Jy;fy]h

(Jy;Fy]h) akd; ehl;L f];mk; kw;Wk; g[Pyh Fyj;jhH vOg;gpa Myak;. ,J jhap/g; - e[;uhd; ,ilNa f];mk; vd;Dkplj;jpy; ,Ue;jJ. Nghl;b fmghthf epHkhzpf;fg;gl;l ,e;j Myak; 'akd; ehl;L fmgh" vd;W miof;fg;gl;L te;jJ.

Jy; `{iy/gh

kf;fh - kjPdh ,ilNa cs;s XH ,lk;. kjPdh kw;Wk; mjd; jpirapypUe;J `[;[{f;Fr; nry;NthH ,q;F jhd; ,`;uhk; cil mzptH.

Jy;fmjh

`p[;hp Mz;bd; gjpNdhuhk; khjk;.

Jy; `[;

`p[;hp Mz;bd; gd;dpuz;lhk; khjk;.

J}H

kiy vd;W nghUs;. egp %rh(miy) mtHfs; ,iwtDld; ciuahba ,lk; J}H rPdh - rpdha; kiy MFk;.

J} fuj;

kjPdhtpypUe;J \hk; ehL nry;Yk; topapy; md;iwa 2 ehs; gazj; njhiytpyike;j XH ,lj;jpd; ngaH. ,q;F `p[;hp 6-Mk; Mz;L xl;lfj; jpUlHfSld; eilngw;w chpikg; Nghuhl;lNk jhj;Jy; fuj; NghH> J} fuj; NghH> my; /fhgh NghH vDk; ngaHfspy; mwpag;gLfpwJ.

egp

kf;fSf;F ,iwr; nra;jpfis vLj;Jiuj;J> mtHfSf;F NeHtop fhl;Ltjw;fhf kf;fspypUe;Nj ,iwtdhy; NjHe;njLf;fg;gl;l ,iwj;J}jH.

eatQ;rfHfs;

(Kdh/gpf;$d;) neQ;rj;jpy; tQ;rj;ij (,iwkWg;ig) itj;Jf; nfhz;L K];ypikg; Nghy ebg;gtHfs;.

e[;j;

,jw;F Nkl;L epyk;> cs;ehL> Nkl;Lr; rkntsp vd;W nrhw; nghUs;fs; nfhs;tH. md;W jp`hkhtpypUe;J ,uhf; epyg;gug;G tiuAs;s Nklhd gFjpfSf;F e[;j; (the araniaN high laNd) vd;w ngaH ,Ue;jJ. gpd;dH e[;j; vd;gJ hpahj;> cid]h> Giujh cs;spl;l mNugpa efuq;fisf; nfhz;l rjpa;ahtpd; kj;jpa khfhzj;jpw;Fg; ngauhapw;W.

e[h\P

,J mgprPdpa ehl;L kd;dHfspd; Gidg; ngauhFk;. egpfshhpd; fhyj;jpy; tho;e;j e[h\Papd; ,aw; ngaH: m];`kh> md;dhH egpfshiu tpRthrpj;jJld; kf;fh efu K];ypk;fSf;F ,f;fl;lhd fhyj;jpy; MjuTk; ey;fpdhH. `p[;hp 8 my;yJ 9-Mk; Mz;L ,we;jhH.

e/gpy;

flikay;yhj> cghpahd tzf;f topghL.

ew;$yp> ed;ik

tzf;f topghLfs;> jhd jHkq;fs; kw;Wk; ey;y nray;fSf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; gyid> Gz;zpaj;ijf; Fwpf;Fk; nghUspy; ,e;jr; nrhw;fisj; jkpo; K];ypk;fs; toq;fp tUfpd;wdH.

epa;aj;

kdjpy; vz;zk; nfhs;Sjy;> njhOif epa;aj;: njhog;NghfpNwd; vd vz;Zjy;. Nehd;G epa;aj;: Nehd;G Nehw;gjhf vz;Zjy;.

E]{f;

,iwtzf;fk;> my;yh`;tpw;fhfr; rkHg;gpf;fg;glf;$baJ. mWf;fg;glf;$ba gypg;gpuhzp (FHghdp) vd ,jw;Fg; gy nghUs;fSz;L!

E}`; (miy)

(Nehth) Mjpj; J}jH Mjk; (miy) mtHfSf;Fg; gpd; te;j XH ,iwj;J}jH. 950 Mz;Lfs; tho;e;jhHfs;. md;dhhpd; fhyj;jpy; Vw;gl;l nts;sg; gpusaj;ij tuyhW NgRk;.

iey;

Mg;gphpf;fhtpy; mike;Js;s cyfpNyNa ePskhd ejp. ,iwj;J}jH %rh(miy) mtHfSf;F vjpuhfr; nray;gl;l murd; /gpHmt;d; ,e;j ejpapy; jhd; ,iwtdhy; %o;fbf;fg;gl;L ,we;jhd;.

gj;U(g; NghH)

kjPdhtpw;Fj; njw;Nf 150 fp. kP. njhiytpy; 'gj;U" vd;Dk; ,lk; mike;Js;sJ. ,t;tplj;jpy; `p[;hp 2y; ,iwek;gpf;ifahsHfSf;Fk;> ,iwkWg;ghsHfSf;FkpilNa ele;j NghH gj;Ug; NghuhFk;. ,];yhkpa tuyhw;wpy; ,JNt Kjy; Gdpjg; NghuhFk;.

gs;sp

gs;spthry;; njhOif elj;jg;gLk; ,iwapy;yk;; 'gs;sp" vd jkpo; K];ypk;fspd; tof;fpy; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

/gjf;

ifgH efuj;Jf;F mUfpYs;s XH ,lk;.

/gH]f;

RkhH 8 fpNyh kPl;lH nfhz;l J}uk;.

/guf;

RkhH 7.425 fp. fpuhk; vilAs;s muGfspd; msit.

/g[;U(j; njhOif)

itfiwapy; #hpa cjaj;jpw;F Kd;dH njhog;gLk; njhOif.

gD} ,];uhaPy;

,iwj;J}jH am$g; (miy) mtHfSf;F ,];uhaPy; vd;w ngaUz;L. mtHfspd; re;jjpfs; gD} ,];uhaPy; (,];uhaPypd; gps;isfs; - ,];uNtyHfs;) vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

g]uh

,uhf;fpYs;s Kf;fpakhd efuk;. ,uz;lhtJ fyP/gh ckH gpd; fj;jhg;(uyp) mtHfspd; fhyj;jpy; fp. gp. 636y; ,e;efuk; epWtg;gl;lJ.

g`;iud;

rjpf;Ff; fpof;Nf ghurPf tisFlhtpy; mike;Js;s mNugpa ehL. ,jd; jiyefH kdhkh.

gHjh

me;epa MltHfs; ghHf;fhj tifapy; ngz;fs; jq;fs; Kfk;> iffs;> ghjq;fs; jtpu cly; KOtijAk; Jzpahy; kiwj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;. ,jid '`p[hg;" vd;Wk; $WtH.

me;epa Mz;fs; ghHf;fhj tifapy; ngz;fs; jkJ cly; KOtijAk; kiwj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy;. ,jid `p[hg; vd;Wk; $WtH. cliy kiwf;Fk; tp\aj;jpy; gpd;tUk; epge;jidfisf; filg;gpbg;gJ mtrpak;.

1. KO cliyAk; kiwf;Fk; tpjkhf Milfs; mika Ntz;Lk;.

2. Milfs; gpwiu trPfhpj;J ,Of;Fk; tpjj;jpy; ftHr;rp fukhditahf ,Uf;fyhfhJ.

3. cly; mtatq;fisf; fhl;Lk; tifapy; nky;ypajhf ,y;yhky; fdkhditahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

4. clypd; fdghpkhzq;fisf; fhl;Lk; tpjj;jpy; ,Wf;fkhdjhf ,y;yhky; njha;thf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

5. eWkzk; jltg;gl;ljhf ,Uf;ff; $lhJ.

6. Mz;fspd; Milfs; Nghy ,Uf;ff; $lhJ.

7. me;epa kjg; ngz;fs; mzpAk; Mil Nghd;Wk; ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. cjhuzk; nghl;L> g+ Nghd;witfshFk;.

8. kkij fHtj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; tpjkhfg; ngUikahd Milfis mzpahyfhJ.

guf;fj;

mUs; tsk;; tsHr;rp; Nkk;ghL; mgptpUj;jp vd;W nghUs; nfhs;syhk;. fy;tp> nry;tk;> Mw;wy;> MAs; Mfpa midj;Jj; JiwfspYk; ,iwtd; mUSk; Nkk;ghl;il ,r;nrhy; Fwpf;fpwJ.

/ga;c

vjphp ehl;Lld; NghH elf;fhkNyNa me;ehL ntw;wp nfhs;sg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; fpilf;fg; ngWk; nry;tk;. ,jpy; NghuhspfSf;Fg; gq;F fpilahJ. Ml;rpahshpd; nghWg;gpy; ,J rpwg;G epjpahf ,Ue;J tUk;.

gD} md;khH

(md;khH) tlf;F mNugpaf;Fyq;fspy; xd;W. ep]hH gpd; Kmj; vd;gthpd; kf;fspy; xUtuhd 'md;khH" vd;gthpd; topj; Njhd;wy;fNs gD} md;khH MtH. jhj;JH hpfhcg; Nghhpy; ,tHfSk; fye;J nfhz;ldH. MfNt mg;NghUf;F 'md;khH NghH" vd;w ngaUk; cz;L.

gD} K];jypf;

gD} F]hM Fyj;J [{ijkh gpd; rmj; vd;ghhpd; Gid ngaNu K];jypf;. ,tUila topj;Njhd;wy;fNs gD} K];jypf; Fyj;jhH MtH. ,tHfspd; jhf;Fjiy Kwpabf;f kjPdh mUfpYs;s KiurPc vDk; ePH epiyaUNf (`p[;hp 5 my;yJ 6-y;) eil ngw;w vjpHj; jhf;FjNy gD} K];jypf; NghH> KiurPc NghH vDk; ngaHfspy; mwpag;gLfpwJ.

ghj;jp`h #uh

jpUf;FHMd; XJtijj; njhlq;fp itf;Fk; jpwg;ghf mike;Js;s Kjy; mj;jpahak;;. vy;yhj; njhOiffspYk; ,J Xjg;gLfpd;wJ.

ghq;F

njhOiff;fhf tpLf;fg;gLk; miog;G.

/gpH mt;d;

mkhypf;fh murg;guk;giuapy; te;j 11 vfpg;J ehl;L murHfspd; gl;lg; ngaH. ,iwj;J}jH %rh(miy) mtHfs; fhyj;jpy; rHthjpfhhpahf ,Ue;j /gpHmt;dpd; (ramses II) ngaH K];mg; gpd; cikH MFk;. ,td; fp.K. 15-Mk; E}w;whz;by; tho;e;jhd;. ,iwtDf;Fk; ,iwj;J}jH %rh(miy) mtHfSf;Fk; vjpuhfr; nray;gl;l ,td; nrq;flypy; %o;fbf;fg;gl;L ,we;jhd;. ,tDila cly; ghJfhf;fg;gl;L> ,d;Wk; vfpg;J kpa+rpaj;jpy; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

/gpHjt;];

Njhl;lk;> g+q;fh> Nrhiy Mfpa nghUs;fs; cz;L. nrhHf;fj;jpYs;s Njhl;lk; xd;Wf;F /gpHjt;]; vd;W ngaH. 'my;/gpHjt;]{y; m/yh" vd;why; caHe;j nrhHf;fk; vd;W nghUs;.

gpj;mj;

khHf;fj;jpd; ngauhy; khHf;fj;jpy; Gjpjhf Eiof;fg;gLfpd;w> my;yh`;Tk; ,iwj;J}jUk; mq;fPfhpf;fhj E}jd fUj;Jf;fs;> nfhs;iffs;> rlq;Ffs; kw;Wk; nray;ghLfs;.

/gpj;uh

Nehd;Gg; ngUehshfpa <Jy; /gpj;H ngUehSf;fhf (Nehd;Gg; ngUehs;) Vio vspNahHf;F FLk;gj;jpYs;s nghpatHfs;> rpwpatHfs; midtH rhHghfTk; Nehd;ghspahy; mspf;fg;gLk; fl;lha jHkk;.

gpd;J

kfs; (/ghj;jpkh gpd;j;J K`k;kj; - K`k;kjpd; kfs; /ghj;jpkh)

/gpj;dh

,jw;Fg; gy;NtW nghUs;fs; cz;L. topnfLj;jy;> ,iwepuhfhpg;G> NghH> Fog;gk;> Jd;gk; vd;Dk; nghUspy; nghJthfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,e;jf; Fog;gk; Nkw;fz;l nghUs;fspy; ve;j tbtpy; Ntz;LkhdhYk; tuyhk;; ngUk;ghYk; K];ypk;fspilNa cl;g+ry;> jkf;fpilNa xUtNuhnlhUtH NghHGhpjy; Mfpa tbtq;fspy;jhd; ,e;jf; Fog;gk; jiyJ}f;fpaJ.

gp];kpy;yh`;

my;yh`;tpd; ngauhy;................

GM];

kjPdhtpypUe;J 2 iky; njhiytpYs;s XH ,lk;. `p[;uj;jpw;F 5 Mz;LfSf;F Kd; kjPdh thrpfshd mt;]; kw;Wk; f];u[; Fyj;jhhpilNa ,q;F eilngw;w (cs; ehl;Lr; rz;ilNa 'GM]; NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ.

Guhf;

NfhNtWf; fOijia tplr; rpwpaJk; fOijia tplg; nghpaJkhd nts;is epwj;jpyike;j (kpd;dy; Ntf) gwf;Fk; thfdk;. ,J ghHit vl;Lfpw J}uj;jpw;F XH vl;L itf;Fk; mghu Mw;wy; nfhz;lJ. ,jpy;jhd; egpfshH kpmuh[; vDk; tpz;Zyfg; gazk; Nkw;nfhz;lhHfs;.

Gituh

kjPdhTf;Fk; ijkhTf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s XH ,lk;.

igj;Jy; km%H

kf;fhtpYs;s ,iwapy;yk; fmghtpw;F Neuhfthdpy; mike;Js;s ,iwapy;ykhFk;. 'Suh`;" vd;gJ ,g;gs;spthrypd; ngauhFk;. ,jd; cz;ik epiyia ,iwtNd mwpthd;.

igj;Jy; kf;jp];

INtisj; njhOiffs; elj;jg;gLk; gs;spthry;> muG nkhopapy; 'k];[pj;" - 'my; k];[pj;" (njhOk; ,lk;) vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. 'my; mf;]h" gs;spthry; ghy];jPdj;jpy; n[&ryj;jpYs;s gs;spthry; MFk;. 'igj;J kf;jp];" (J}a;ikapd; ,y;yk;) 'my; igj;Jy; Kfj;j];" (J}a;ikahd ,y;yk;) vd;Wk; miog;gH. ,g;gs;spthry; ,Uf;Fk; jpir Nehf;fpj; jhd; Muk;gj;jpy; K];ypk;fs; ,iwtidj; njhOJ te;jhHfs;. Ntjf;fhuuHfs; ,ij 'i`f;fy;' vd;gH. ,J %d;whtJ Gdpjg; gs;sp MFk;.

igmj;JH hps;thd;

`p[;hp 6-Mk; Mz;L egp(]y;) mtHfSk; 1500 K];ypk;fSk; ck;uhg; gazk; Nkw;nfhz;l NghJ kf;fh thrpfshy; jLj;J epWj;jg;gl;ldH. mtHfs; K];ypk;fisj; jhf;fg; NghFk; nra;jp egpfshiu vl;ba NghJ egpj;NjhoHfs; ''kPd; thq;f khl;Nlhk;; capiuj; jj;jk; nra;Nthk;"" vd cWjp nkhop toq;fpdH. xU fU Ntykuj;jpdbapy; eil ngw;w ,r;rk;gtj;ijj; 'ig mj;JH hps;thd;" (,iw jpUg;jp ngw;w cWjp nkhop) vd;W miog;gH.

igj;Jy; `uhk;

fz;zpakpf;f ,iwapy;yk;; Gdpj fmghitr; Rw;wpYKs;s gs;spthry;. ,jw;F 'k];[pJy; `uhk; - fz;zpakpf;f gs;spthry;" vd;Wk; ngaUz;L.

igsh

egp(]y;) mtHfsJ nts;isf; NfhNtWf; fOijapd; ngaH.

ig]he;jpaH

md;iwa Nuhk; ehl;ltH.

kfhK ,g;uh`Pk;

',g;uh`Pk; epd;w ,lk;" vd;W nghUs;. egp ,g;uh`Pk;(miy) mtHfSk; md;dhhpd; Gjy;tH ,];khaPy;(miy) mtHfSk; fmghtpd; mbj;jsj;ij caHj;jpf;fl;b mijg; GJg;gpj;j NghJ ,g;uh`Pk;(miy) mtHfs; ve;j ,lj;jpy; epd;W fmghitf; fl;bdhHfNsh me;j ,lj;jpd; ngaH.

k];[pj;

INtisj; njhOiffs; elj;jg;gLk; gs;spthry;> muG nkhopapy; ''k];[pj;"" (njhOk; ,lk;) vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

ka;apj;

,we;j cly;

kyf;F

thdtH. ,jd; gd;ik 'kyhapf;fh" (kyf;Ffs;) vd;gjhFk;. ,tHfs; ,iwtdpd; Nguurpy; mtdJ CopaHfs; MtH. mtd; ,l;l fl;lisfis mg;gbNa nray;gLj;JgtHfs; MtH. ,tHfs; ,iwf;fl;lisf;F khW nra;akhl;lhHfs;.

kfhKd; k`;%j;

Gfog;gLk; me;j];J> kWikapy;> ePjp tprhuizf;F Kd;G kf;fs; kWikapd; Ntjidahy; Jd;GWk; nghOJ mjpypUe;J mtHfisf; fhg;ghw;Wk; nghUl;L> my;yh`;tplk; ghpe;Jiu nra;Ak; kpfg;nghpa me;j];ij egp(]y;) mtHfSf;F kl;LNk my;yh`; toq;Fthd;. ,jdhy; egp(]y;) mtHfs; midtuhYk; Gfog;gLthHfs;. ,e;j kpfg;nghpa me;j];J kfhKd; k`;%j; vdg;gLfpwJ.

kHak;

md;id Nkhp. ,k;uhd; - `d;dh jk;gjpahpd; kfshd ,tH> Mz; Jizapd;wp mw;Gjkhd Kiwapy; ,NaR(<rh)itg; ngw;nwLj;j fd;dpj; jha; MthH. ,Wjp tiu kzKbj;Jf; nfhs;shj md;id khpahis ,iwj;J}jH ]fhpa;ah(miy) mtHfNs tsHj;jhHfs;.

k`;\H

xd;W $l;lg;gLk; ,lk;. fhyk; cyfpy; Njhd;wpa vy;yh kdpjHfisAk; cyfk; mope;j gpd; cap&l;lg;gl;L xd;W $l;lg;gLk; ehisNa 'at;Ky; `\;H" vd;Wk; 'k`;\H" vd;Wk; $WtH.

k]P`;

(m) ,jw;Fj; jlTfpd;wtH> jltg;gl;ltH> gazpg;gtH Kjypa nghUs;fs; cz;L. ,iw cjtpahy; jkJ jpUf;fuq;nfhz;L Nehahspfisj; jltp epthuzg;gLj;jpaikahy; ,iwj;J}jH <rh(miy) mtHfis 'k]P`; - jlTfpd;wtH" vd;gH. fpwp];jtHfis 'k]{`pa;a+d;" vd;gH.

kf;hpG(j; njhOif)

#hpad; kiwAk; Nkw;Fj; jpir. #hpad; kiwe;j gpd; njhog;gLk; njhOif 'kf;hpGj; njhOif" vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk;.

k[_]p

'kpd;[; $\;" Njhw;Wtpj;j nfhs;ifia Vw;wtHfs; 'k[_]pfs;" vd;wiof;fg;gLfpd;wdH. xspAk; ,USNk midj;Jr; nray;fSf;Fk; mbg;gil. ey;yit xspapypUe;Jk; jPait ,UspypUe;Jk; cUthfpd;wd vd;gJ ,tHfspd; Kf;fpaf; nfhs;if. 'kpd;[; $\;" vd;w thHj;ij mugpahf;fg;gl;L 'k[_];" vd;whdJ.

k];[pJy; mf;]h

INtisj; njhOiffs; elj;jg;gLk; gs;spthry;> muG nkhopapy; 'k];[pj;" - 'my; k];[pj;" (njhOk; ,lk;) vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ. 'my; mf;]h" gs;spthry; ghy];jPdj;jpy; n[&ryj;jpYs;s gs;spthry; MFk;. 'igj;J kf;jp];" (J}a;ikapd; ,y;yk;) 'my; igj;Jy; Kfj;j];" (J}a;ikahd ,y;yk;) vd;Wk; miog;gH. ,g;gs;spthry; ,Uf;Fk; jpir Nehf;fpj; jhd; Muk;gj;jpy; K];ypk;fs; ,iwtidj; njhOJ te;jhHfs;. Ntjf;fhuuHfs; ,ij 'i`f;fy;' vd;gH. ,J %d;whtJ Gdpjg; gs;sp MFk;.

k];[pJe; egtp

kjPdhtpYs;s Gdpj ,iwapy;yk;. ,ij egp(]y;) mtHfs; fl;bajhy; ,J k];[pJe; egtp (egpfshhpd; gs;spthry;) vd miof;fg; gLfpd;wJ. ,J cyfpd; ,uz;lhtJ kpfg; ngUk; gs;spthryhFk;.

k];[pJy; `uhk;

Gdpj kf;fhtpYs;s ,iwapy;yk;; ,jDs;spUf;Fk; ikag; gFjpapy; jhd; 'fmgh" vd;Dk; Guhjd ,iwapy;yk; cs;sJ.

k];`{

jlTjy; vd;W nghUs;. c@r; nra;Ak;NghJ eide;j iffshy; jiyiaj; jlTtjw;Fk;> mb> fhak; Nghd;w fhuzq;fshy; fOt Kbahj cWg;Gfis ePH njhl;Lj; Jilg;gjw;Fk; k];`{ vd;gH.

k`;H

kzk; Ghpe;J nfhs;tjw;fhf kzkfd; kzkfSf;Ff; fl;lhak; nrYj;j Ntz;ba tpthff; fl;lzk;.

kpmuh[;

(,jw;F VWk; fUtp - Vzp vd;gJ nrhw;nghUs;.) ,iwtdpd; fl;lisg;gb egp(]y;) Nkw;nfhz;l tpz;Zyfg; gazk;. ,g;gazk; egp(]y;) mtHfs; kf;fhitj; Jwe;J kjPdhtpw;F (`p[;uj;) nry;tjw;F Xuhz;bw;F Kd;G u[g; khjk; 27k; ehspy; (fp. gp.621y;) ele;jJ. ,g;gazj;jpd; NghJ ,iwthdhy; K];ypk;fSf;F INtisj; njhOif flikahf;fg;gl;lJ.

kpk;gH

ciuNkil. ,khk; my;yJ jiytH Vwp epd;W nrhw;nghopthw;w gs;spthrypy; njhOif elj;jg;gLk; ,lj;jpw;F mUfpy; ,J mikf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

kpdh

mu/ghTf;Fr; nry;Yk; topapy; kf;fhtpypUe;J 5 iky; njhiytpy; mu/ghtpypUe;J Vwf;Fiwa 10 iky; J}uj;jpy; mike;Js;s XH ,lk;.

kpdhTila ,uT

'`[; cila fhyq;fspy; 'kpdh" vd;w ,lj;jpy; jq;f Ntz;ba Jy;`[; 11>12>13 Mfpa %d;W ehl;fs;.

kPf;fhaPy;

Kf;fpakhd thdtHfspy; xUtH. kio kw;Wk; gapHfSf;Fhpa nghWg;Gf; nfhLf;fg;gl;ltH. rpy Neuq;fspy; ,iwr; nra;jpia ,iwj; J}jHfSf;Fj; njhptpf;Fk; gzpiaAk; nra;Js;shH.

K/kpd;

Xhpiwtd;> thdtHfs;> ,iwj; J}jHfs;> ,Wjpj; J}jH K`k;kJ(]y;)> ,iwtdhy; mUsg;gl;l Ke;ija Ntjq;fs;> ,Wjp Ntjk; jpUf;FH Md;> kWik ehs; kw;Wk; jiytpjp Mfpatw;wpd; kPJ ek;gpf;if nfhz;l ,iw ek;gpf;ifahsH.

KiurPc

gD} F]hM Fyj;J [{ijkh gpd; rmj; vd;ghhpd; Gid ngaNu K];jypf;. ,tUila topj;Njhd;wy;fNs gD} K];jypf; Fyj;jhH MtH. ,tHfspd; jhf;Fjiy Kwpabf;f kjPdh mUfpYs;s KiurPc vDk; ePH epiyaUNf (`p[;hp 5 my;yJ 6-y;) eil ngw;w vjpHj; jhf;FjNy gD} K];jypf; NghH> KiurPc NghH vDk; ngaHfspy; mwpag;gLfpwJ.

K];jyp/gh

mu/ghTf;Fk; kpdhTf;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s jpwe;j ntsp. `h[pfs; mu/ghtpypUe;J jpUk;gpa gpd;dH ,q;F jq;FtH; ,JTk; `[;[pd; fphpiafspy; xd;whFk;. ,ij 'k\;mUy; `uhk;' (Gdpjr; rpd;dk;) vd;W miog;gH.

Ki]ypkh

egp(]y;) mtHfspd; me;jpkf; fhyj;jpy; (fp. gp. 633) akhkh gFjpapy; tho;e;j xU kfh ngha;adpd; ngaH. ,td; jd;id ,iwj;J}jnud thjpl;L te;jhd;. Kjyhk; fyP/gh mg+gf;H(uyp) Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; (`p[;hp: 14-y;) tlf;F akhkhtpYs;s mf;ugh (`jPf;fj;Jy; kt;j;) vDk; fsj;jpy; ele;j akhkh Nghhpy; egpj;NjhoH t`;\P(uyp) nfhy;yg;gl;lhd;.

K`h[pH

ehL Jwe;jtH. ,iwkhHf;fj;ijg; gpd;gw;wpl jilfs; Vw;gLk; NghJ jhk; trpf;Fkplj;ij> jhafj;ijj; Jwe;J Ntw;wplk; nry;gtH. ,t;thW kf;fhitj; Jwe;J kjPdh efuj;jpw;Fr; nrd;w egpj;NjhoHfs; 'K`h[pHfs;" vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

Kj;J

kjPdh efhpy; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;J te;j RkhH 796 fpuhk;> 68 kpy;ypfpuhk; vil nfhz;l XH msT.

K];ypk;

,iwek;gpf;if nfhz;L ,iwr; rl;lq;fSf;Ff; fPo;g;gbgtH; ,iw topghLfisr; rhptur; nra;J tUgtH.

K`k;kJ (]y;)

,iwtdpd; ,Wjpj; J}juhd egp(]y;) mtHfSila ngaH. Gfog;gl;ltH vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;. ,tHfs; fp. gp. 570 Mf];L 20 -y; kf;fhtpy; gpwe;jhHfs;.

K]y;yh

njhOifj;jply;> njhOif tphpg;G

Kdh/gpf;

eatQ;rfd;; ntspj;Njhw;wj;jpy; jd;id ,iwek;gpf;ifahsdhff; fhl;bf; nfhz;L cs;Ns ,iwepuhfhpg;ig nfhs;ifahff; nfhz;bUg;gtd;.

K`Huk;

`p[;hp Mz;bd; Kjy; khjk;.

%]h (Nkhr];) (miy)

,iwj;J}jHfspy; xUtH. ,tHfs; fp. K.14k; E}w;whz;by; vfpg;jpy; gpwe;jhHfs;. (moses NkhNrh> fp.K. 1520- 1400) ,tHfSf;F ,iwtdhy; jt;uhj; (Njhuh) vd;Dk; gioa Vw;ghL (old testament) mUsg;gl;lJ.

%j;jh

N[hHjhd; ehl;by; 'my;fuj;" efUf;Fj; njw;Nf mike;Js;s XH ,lk;. ,J md;iwa \hk; ehl;bd; 'my; gy;fh" efH mUfpy; mike;jpUe;jJ. ,q;F `p[;hp 8-Mk; Mz;L Nuhk ig]he;jpaHfSf;Fk; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa eil ngw;w rz;ilNa '%j;jh NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ.

ahf;NfhG (miy)

ahf;NfhG - fp. K. 19-Mk; E}w;whz;by; tho;e;j ,tHfs; egp ,];`hf; (miy) mtHfspd; Gjy;tUk; ,iwj;J}jHfspy; xUtUk; MthH. md;dhUf;F 12 Mz; gps;isfs; ,Ue;jdH. ,e;j gd;dpUthpd; topj;Njhd;wy;fNs ,];uNty; rKjhaj;jpdH (jews) MtH. am$g;(miy) mtHfspd; kw;nwhU ngaNu ,];uhaPy;. ,jdhy;jhd; ,];uNtyHfis gD} ,];uhaPy; - ,];uhaPypd; kf;fs; vd;gH.

a/[_[;> k/[_[;

tlfpof;F Mrpahtpy; tho;e;j xU r%fj;jhH. ,tHfs; tskpf;f ehLfisf; nfhs;isabj;J tho;e;J te;jdH. kWik ehspd; rkPgj;jpy; ,tHfs; ntspg;gLtH. NtW rpyhpd; fUj;Jg;gb fUq;flypd; tlf;F> fpof;Fg; gFjpfspy; tho;e;j rpj;jpad; (sythians) r%fj;jpdH vd;Wk; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. kh];Ny cs;spl;l u\;ag; gFjpfspYk; tho;e;Js;sdH.

akd;

rjpf;Fk;> XkDf;Fk;> Vlhd; tisFlhTf;Fk;> nrq;flYf;Fk; kj;jpapy; mike;Js;s mNugpa jPgfw;gj;jpd; njd; Nkw;Fg; gFjpapYs;s muG ehL.

akhkh

kf;fh efhpypUe;J md;iwa 4 ehs; gazj; njhiytpy; mike;j XH ,lk;. md;W akd; efukhf ,Ue;j akhkh ,d;W rjpa;ahtpy; xU ghiy ,ilr; Nrhiy MFk;. jd;id egpnad thjpl;l kfh ngha;ad; Ki]ypkhTld; fyP/gh mg+gf;H(uyp) Ml;rpapy; ,q;F eil ngw;w NghNu 'akhkh NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ.

aH%f;

N[hHjhdpYs;s xU fhy;thapd; ngaH. `p[;hp 15-Mk; Mz;by; (fp.gp. 636) ,uz;lhk; fyP/gh ckH(uyp) mtHfsJ Ml;rpf; fhyj;jpy; Nuhk ig]he;jpaHfSf;Fk;> K];ypk;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa eilngw;w rz;ilNa 'aH%f; NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ.

a`;ah (miy)

,iwj;J}jH a`;ah(miy) mtHfs;; (Nahthd;) egp ]fhpa;ah(miy) mtHfspd; kfdhthH. ,tHfs; ,];uNtyHfshy; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;.

a];hpg;

'Fog;gk;" vd;gJ nrhw;nghUs;. egp(]y;) mtHfs; FbNawpa kjPdh efuj;jpd; Kd;dhs; ngaNu ,J. gpd;dhspy; 'kjPdj;Je; egP - egpfshhpd; efuk;" vdg; ngaH khw;wg; ngw;wJ.

a`Pj;

a+jHfs; (,];uNtyHfs;)

a+R/g; (miy)

,iwj;J}jH am$g;(miy) mtHfspd; kfdhd ,tHfSk; XH ,iwj; J}juhthHfs;. ,tHfs; fp. K. 13-k; E}w;whz;by; tho;e;jhHfs;. vfpg;jpa murpy; Mw;wy; kpf;f epjpaikr;ruhf ,tHfs; ,Ue;jpUf;fpwhHfs;.

at;Kd; d`;H

gypapLk; ehs;> Jy;`[; 10Mk; ehs; gypg;gpuhzpiag; gypapLtjhy; me;ehs; 'at;Kd`;H" vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. ,Nj ehspy; jhd; cyf K];ypk;fs; midtUk; ,iwtDf;fhfg; gpuhzpiag; gypapl;L ,iwtDf;fhf vijAk; mHg;gzpf;fj; jahuhf ,Uf;Fk; czHitj; njhptpf;Fk; ehs; (<Jy; ms;`h) nfhz;lhlg;gLfpwJ.

a+D]; (miy)

egp a+D]; gpd; kj;jh(miy) mtHfs; (Nahdh - JB#`o) fp. K. 6-k; E}w;whz;by; ,uhf;fpYs;s 'ePdth" gFjp kf;fSf;F ,iwj;J}juhf mDg;gg;gl;lhHfs;.

a+\c gpd; E}d;

a+\c gpd; E}d;(miy) mtHfs; ,iwj;J}jH %rh(miy) mtHfs; ,we;J 40 tUlq;fSf;Fg; gpd; egpahf;fg;gl;lhHfs;.

uf;mj;J

njhOifapy; xU Kiw Fdpjy; kw;Wk; ,uz;L Kiw ][;jh (jiuapy; new;wpiag; gjpj;J tzq;Fk;) epiyfis cs;slf;fpa gFjp.

ug;G

epHtfpg;gtd;. tsHg;gtd; vd;W nghUs;gLk;. cyfpy; midtiuAk; epHtfpf;ff; $ba ,iwtdhd my;yh`;Tf;F 'ug;G" vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk;.

ukshd;

`p[;hp Mz;bd; xd;gjhk; khjk;. ,k;khjj;jpy; jhd; jpUf;FH Md; mUsg;gl;lJ. Nehd;G itg;gJ flikahf;fg;gl;lJ. ,k;khjj;jpy; K];ypk;fs; midtUk; Nehd;G Nehw;gH.

uyp

'uypay;yh`{ md;`{" ',iwtd; mtHfisf; Fwpj;Jj; jpUg;jp nfhs;thdhf!" vd;gjd; RUf;fk;. ,J ngUk;ghYk; egpj;NjhoHfSf;fhfr; nra;ag;gLk; gpuhHj;jidahFk;.

u[g;

`p[;hp Mz;bd; Vohk; khjk;.

u`;

'u`;kj;Jy;yh`p miy`p" - ,tHfs; kPJ ,iwtd; fUiz Ghpthdhf!" vd;gjd; RUf;fk;. ,we;J Nghd ,];yhkpag; nghpatHfSf;fhf ,g;gbg; gpuhHj;jpg;gJ tof;fk;.

u[Pc

kf;fhtpw;Fk; jhap/gpw;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s XH ,lk;. `{ijy; vd;Dk; muGg; g+HtPff; Fbfs; ,q;F trpj;J te;jdH. `p[;hp 3-Mk; Mz;L ,q;F eilngw;w rz;ilNa 'u[Pc NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ.

uky;

`[;[pYk; ck;uhtpYk; Njhs;fisf; FYf;fpathW XLtJ.

uhk `{HK];

Nkw;F <uhdpy; Nfh]];jhd; khfhzj;jpYs;s njhd;ik tha;e;j xU gpugy efuk;. ,J ',uhf;Fy; muG" gFjpf;F mUfpYs;sJ. egpj;NjhoH ry;khd; my; ghHrP(uyp) mtHfs; ,e;efuj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs; MthHfs;.

Uf;Dy; akhdp

fmghtpd; tyJgf;f %iy.

U$c

njhOifapy; ,U iffisAk; ,U Koq;fhy;fs; kPJ itj;Jf; Fdpe;J epw;Fk; epiy.

yg;igf; gp ck;uj;jpd; t `[;[j;jpd;

`[; ck;uhit epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhf cd; fl;lisf;F mbgzpe;J te;J tpl;Nld;!"" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUshFk;. ,J ck;uhTk; `[;[{k; nra;tjw;fhf kdj;jpy; cWjp nfhz;ltz;zk; thahy; nkhoptjhFk;. ,J flikahd xd;W.

yh ,yh` ,y;yy;yh`;

'tzf;fj;jpw;Fk; fPo;g;gbjYf;Fk; chpa ,iwtd; my;yh`;itj; jtpu NtnwtUk; ,y;iy!""

iyyj;Jy; fj;U

'fz;zpaj;Jf;Fhpa ,uT. ,e;j ,utpy; jhd; jpUf;FHMd;> egp(]y;) mtHfSf;F mUsg;gl;lJ. ukshd; khjj;jpy;> filrpg; gj;J ehl;fspy; cs;s xw;iwg;gil ,uTfspy; ,e;j ,uT ,Ug;gjhf egp(]y;) mtHfs; $wpAs;shHfs;.

Y`;H (njhOif)

ez;gfYf;Fg; gpd; gpw;gfypd; Kw;gFjpapy; cs;s Neuk; Y`H MFk;. me;Neuj;jpy; njhog;gLk; njhOif ,J ,];yhkpa khHf;fj;jpy; flikahd INtisj; njhOiffspy; ,JTk; xd;whFk;.

Yf;khd; (my; `fPk;)

kj;jpa fpof;F Mrpahtpy; tho;e;j xU jj;Jtg; NguwpthsH. nrq;flNyhuj;jpy; 'ma;yh" vDk; gFjpapy; trpj;J te;j md;dhH> Xhpiwf; nfhs;ifia mOj;jkhfg; Nghjpg;gtuhfj; jpfo;e;jhHfs;. md;dhhpd; jj;Jtq;fs; rpytw;iwj; jpUf;FH Md; vLj;Jiug;gNj md;dhhpd; rpwg;Gf;F Nghjpa rhd;whFk;.

Y}j;(miy)

Nyhj;. ,iwj;J}jHfspy; xUtH. egp ,g;uh`Pk;(miy) mtHfspd; rNfhjuH kfdhd md;dhH N[hHjhdpYs;s ']j;J}k;" vd;Dk; gFjpf;F ,iwj;J}juhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. rpiy tzf;fj;ijAk; Xhpdr; NrHf;ifiaAk; vjpHj;Jj; jPtpug; gpurhuk; nra;jhHfs;.

s/d;

nghpa muGf; Fykhd 'm];j;" Fyj;jpy; xU fpisNa 'jt;];" vd;Dk; Fyk;. ,f;Fyj;jhH trpj;J te;j gFjpapypUe;j xU kiyapd; ngaNu 's/d;" MFk;. egpj;NjhoH mg+ `{iuuh (uyp) mtHfs; 'jt;];" Fyj;jhH MthHfs;.

S`h

#hpa cjaj;jpw;Fk; ez;gfYf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l Neuk;. ,e;Neuj;jpy; egpfshH njhOj vl;L uf;mj; njhOiff;F 'S`h njhOif" vdg;gLfpwJ. ,J flikay;yhj njhOifahFk;.

tyPkh

jpUkzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; kzhsd; toq;f Ntz;ba kztpUe;J. ,J egp topahFk;.

tf;/g;

xUtH jdJ nghUisj; jd;dplk; itj;Jf; nfhz;L (private of family trust) my;yJ ,iwtdplk; (nghJthd mwf;nfhilahf public trust) xg;gilj;J tpl;L> mjd; gad;ghl;ilj; jHkk; nra;tJ.

t]f;F

160 fp. fpuhKf;Fr; rkkhd msT.

t`P

thdtH %yk; ,iwj;J}jHfSf;F ,iwtdhy; toq;fg;gLk; ,iwr; nra;jp.

thjpy; Fuh

`p[h]; gpuNjrj;jpy; kjPdhTf;Fk; my; cyhTf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s xU gs;sj;jhf;F. `p[;H thrpfSk; r%j; $l;lj;jhUk; tho;e;j tuyhw;Wg; gjpT ngw;w gFjpahFk;.

thdtHfs;

(kyf;Ffs;) kdpj ,dk;> [pd; ,dk; my;yhj NtNwhH ,dj;jpdH. xspahy; gilf;fg; gl;l ,tHfs; Mz;ghypdUky;yH. ngz;ghypdUky;yH. ,iwtdpd; cj;juTfisr; nra;J Kbg;gJk; ,iwtid tzq;FtJk; Jjpg;gJNk ,tHfspd; gzpfshFk;. ,tHfSf;F Cz;> cwf;fk;> cwT> jpUkzk;> Mrh ghrk;> re;jjp fpilah. thdfNk ,tHfspd; trpg;gplkhFk;.

tpj;H

xw;iw> xw;iwahdtd; vd;W nghUs;. ,\h njhOiff;Fg; gpd;G my;yJ j`[;[{j; ,uTj; njhOiff;Fg; gpd;G njhog;gLk; xw;iwg;gilahd uf;mj; nfhz;l njhOiff;F 'tpj;Uj; njhOif" vd;gH.

[ky; (NghH)

`p[;hp 36-k; Mz;L g]uh (fp. gp. 656) (,uhf;) EioT thapypy; myP(uyp) mtHfspd; MjuthsHfSf;Fk;> Map\h(uyp) mtHfspd; MjuthsHfSf;Fk; ,ilNa ele;j cs; ehl;Lg; NghH.

[dh]h (ka;apj;)

,we;j cly;> gpNujg; ngl;b> gpNujg; ngl;bapy; fplj;jg; gl;bUf;Fk; rlyk; vd;w nghUs;fs; cz;L. ,we;jtUf;Fg; gpuhHj;jid nra;Ak; Kfkhfj; njhOtpf;fg;gLk; njhOiff;F '[dh]hj; njhOif" vd;Wk;> fz;nzjpNu gpNujk; ,y;yhky; njhOtpf;fg;gLk; njhOiff;F '/fhapg; [dh]h njhOif" vd;Wk; $WtH.

[k;uh

`uk; vy;iyf;Fs; 'kpdh" vDkpj;jpy; ,Uf;fpd;w i\j;jhd; kPJ fy;nywpAk; ,lj;ijf; Fwpf;fpd;wJ. ,j;jifa [k;uhf;fs; nkhj;jk; %d;W cs;sd.(m) [k;uhj;Jy; Cyh: Kjy; [k;uh (M) [k;uj;Jy; c];jh: eL [k;uh (,) [k;uj;Jy; mfgh : filrp [k;uh

[khmj;

,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l egHfisf; nfhz;l mikg;Gf; $l;lk;. ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;ltHfs; NrHe;J elj;Jk; njhOif '[kh mj;" njhOif vdg;gLfpwJ.

[hkpc

njhFg;G; jpul;L 'my; [hkpy;c]; ]`P`; my; K];dj; my; Kf;j]H kpd; c%hp u#ypy;yh`p tRddp`p t ma;ahkp`p" vd;gjd; Jtf;fk;. ,JNt ]`P`{y; Gfhhp vd;Dk; E}Yf;F E}ypd; MrphpaH #l;ba KOg; ngauhFk;. ,jd; nghUshtJ; Mjhug; g+Htkhd> mwptpg;ghsH njhlH KwpTwhj> epge;jidf;Fl;gl;l mwptpg;Gfs; kl;LNk ,lk;ngw;w egp(]y;) mtHfspd; nrhy;> nray;> mq;fPfhuk;> tho;f;ifr; rhpij> Fz eyd;fs;> mq;f yl;rzq;fs; Mfpa midj;Jk; cl;nghjptha; mike;j rd; khHf;fj;jpd; rfy JiwfisAk; cs;slf;fpa njhFg;G.

[pd;

kdpjDk; thdtUk; my;yhj XH ,dk;. ,e;j ,dk; jPg;gpok;ghy; gilf;fg; gl;ljhFk;. fz;Zf;Fj; njhpahj thAthfTk; kdpjd; cs;gl gy;NtW caphpdq;fspd; Njhw;wj;jpYk; [pd;fs; cs;sd. kdpjDf;F Kd;Ng ,e;j ,dk; gilf;fg;gl;Ltpl;lJ. ek;ikg; NghyNt [pd;fspYk; Mz;> ngz;> re;jjpg; ngUf;fk;> khHf;fr; rl;lk;> ed;ik - jPik vy;yhk; cz;L. ,g;yP]; ,e;j ,dj;jpy; gpwe;jtd; Mthd;.

[p`hj;

,iwjpUg;jpiag; ngWfpd;w xNu Nehf;fj;Jld; jHkj;ijf; fhg;gjw;fhf mjHkj;ij vjpHj;J ,iwtuk;GfSf;Fl;gl;L NghHGhpjy;; nrhy;yhYk; nrayhYk; cz;ik K];ypkhf tho KaYjy;.

[{khjp];]hdp

`p[;hp Mz;bd; 6-tJ khjk;.

[pg;hpy;

,iwtdpd; jug;gpypUe;J ,iwj;J}jHfSf;Fr; nra;jp nfhz;L te;j thdtH. ,tNu thdtHfspd; jiytH MthH.

[p];ah

,];yhkpa murpd; fPo; mjd; ghJfhg;gpy; tho;e;J nfhz;bUe;j K];ypky;yhj gpui[fSf;F K];ypk;fSf;fpUe;j midj;J chpikfSk; mspf;fg;gl;ld. ,e;jg; gpui[fSf;Fg; Nghhpy; fye;J nfhs;tjpypUe;J tpjptpyf;F mspf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j tpjptpyf;fhy; mtHfs; mikjpahd tho;f;if thoTk;> tsuTk; tha;g;Gf; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. Nkw;nrhd;d epahakhd fhuzq;fSf;fhf kpff; Fiwe;j tpfpjj;jpy; '[p];ah" vDk; fhg;G thp mtHfsplkpUe;J t#ypf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;j thpiag; ngz;fSk; ViofSk; nrYj;j Ntz;bajpy;iy. ,ij ,];yhkpa Ml;rpapd; fPo; ,Ue;j K];ypky;yhj muRfs; $l ,];yhkpag; NguuRf;Ff; fg;gkhff; fl;b te;jd. ngUkhdhH fhyj;jpy; ,J tUlj;jpw;F 10 jpH`k;fshf ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; K];ypky;yhj xUtH ,];yhkpag; gilapy; NrHe;J gzpahw;Wk; nghOJ mtUf;Fk; ,e;j thpapypUe;J tpyf;F mspf;fg;gl;lJ.

[{k;M ehs;

nts;spf; fpoik> ,e;ehspy; K];ypk;fs; #hpad; cr;rp rha;e;j gpd;G gs;spthrypy; xd;W $b [{k;M njhOifia elj;Jtjhy; ,e;ehs; [{k;M ehs; vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ.

[{i`dh

[{i`dh gpd; ]{/gH vd;ghhpd; topj; Njhd;wy;fs;> mwpahikf; fhyj;jpy; nry;thf;Fld; tho;e;j muGf; Fyj;jhH.

\t;thy;

`p[;hP ,];yhkpa Mz;bd; 10 MtJ khjk;; ukshd; khjj;jpw;F mLj;j khjk;.

\mghd;

`p[;hp Mz;bd; vl;lhk; khjk;.

\`Pj;

capHj; jpahfp ,iwthf;if (rj;jpaj;ij) NkNyhq;fr; nra;tjw;fhf mjHkj;jpw;F vjpuhd mwg;Nghhpy; capHj; jpahfk; nra;jtH.

\hk;

mf;fhyj;jpy; rphpah> /gy];jPd;> N[hHjhd;> nygdhd; Kjyhd ehLfs; NrHe;j If;fpa ehl;bd; ngauhFk;. ,d;W mjd; ngUk;gFjp rphpahtpy; mike;Js;sJ.

\{Ig; (miy)

egp ,g;uh`Pk;(miy) mtHfspd; topj;Njhd;wy;fspy; te;j XH ,iwj; J}jH. md;dhH tl Nkw;F rjpa;ahtpYs;s kiyg;gpuNjrkhd 'kj;ad;" gFjpf;F ,iwj;J}juhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. Xhpiwf; Nfhl;ghl;ilAk; tzpf NeHikiaAk; typAWj;jp> jk; kf;fspilNa jPtpug; gpurhuk; Nkw;nfhz;lhHfs;.

i\j;jhd;

rhj;jhd;; kdpj ,dj;ij - fz;Zf;Fj; njhpahky; ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl - top nfLf;Fk; [pd; ,dj;ijr; NrHe;jtd;; ,tidf; fpwp];jtHfs; mRj;j Mtp vd;wiof;fpd;wdH.

]fhj;

Mz;L KOtJk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l msT nry;tk; xUthplk; Njq;fpapUe;jhy; mtH fl;lhaf; flikahf ,iwtDf;fhf mjpypUe;J 2.5 rjtPjk; ,];yhkpag; nghJepjp thpahf FHMdpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s> NjitAs;s vl;L gphptpdUf;F toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

]/gh> kHth

kf;fhtpy; fmghTf;F mUNf mike;Js;s rpwpa kiyf; Fd;Wfs;.

]k;]k;

kf;fhtpYs;s Gdpjf; fpzW.

]%J

fp. K. ,uz;lhapuj;jpy; (2430) rjp mNugpahtpy; cs;s 'my; `p[;H" vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; tho;e;j muGg; goq;FbapdH. ,tHfSf;F NeHtop fhl;Ltjw;fhf mDg;gl;l ,iwj;J}jH ]hyp`;(miy) mtHfs; MthHfs;.

]y;

']y;yy;yh`{ miy`p t]y;yk;' (,iwtdJ fUizAk; mikjpAk; mtHfs; kPJ cz;lhfl;Lk;) vd;gjd; RUf;fk;. ,J K`k;kJ egp(]y;) mtHfs; ngaUld; ,izj;Jf; $wg;gLk;. mtHfSf;fhf ehk; mt;thW gpuhHj;jpf;fpNwhk;.

][;jh> ]{[{J

njhOifapy; ,U ghjq;fs;> ,U Koq;fhy;fs;> ,U iffs;> new;wp Mfpa VO cWg;Gfs; jiuapy; gLkhW jiy jho;j;jp tzq;Fk; epiy.

]`;H

1. itfiw - tpbfhiy. 2. Nehd;G Nehw;gjw;fhf itfiwf;F Kd;dhy; cz;zg;gLk; czT mt;thW cz;Zjy;.

]`hgh

egpj;NjhoHfs;; egp(]y;) mtHfNshL el;Gf; nfhz;L my;yJ mtHfisg; ghHj;J> ,];yhj;ij Vw;W> K];ypk;fshfNt tho;e;jtHfs;.

]hT

kjPdhtpy; eilKiwapy; ,Ue;J te;j 3 fpNyh 149 fpuhk; 280 kp. fp. vil nfhz;l msT.

]t;H

kf;fhtpw;F mUfpYs;s xU kiyapd; ngaH. ,jpYs;s Fifnahd;wpy;jhd; egp(]y;) mtHfSk;> NjhoH mg+gf;H(uyp) mtHfSk; `p[;uj; gazj;jpd; NghJ xspe;jpUe;jhHfs;.

]fhpa;ah (miy)

[fhpah fp. K. Kjyhk; Ew;whz;bd; ,Wjpf; fl;lj;jpy; ,];uNtyHfSf;F ,iwj;J}juhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhHfs;. egp jhj; (miy) mtHfspd; topj; Njhd;wyhd ,tHfNs md;id kHaik tsHj;jhHfs;. egp a`;ah(miy) mtHfs; md;dhhpd; Gjy;tuhthH.

]d;M

akd; ehl;bd; jiyefH.

]hyp`; (miy)

fp. K. 2000-y; (2430) rjpa;ahtpy; cs;s 'my;`p[;H" vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; tho;e;j ,iwj;J}jH. Mlk;gu tho;tpy; %o;fp> rpiy tzf;fj;jpy; kha;e;J Ngha;f;nfhz;bUe;j 'r%j;" $l;lj;jhiur; rPHjpUj;jg; ghLgl;lhHfs;.

]p/g;gPd; (NghH)

fp. gp. 657y; `[;hp 37 Mk; Mz;L rphpah ehl;bd; هg;uB]; ejpf;fiuapy; ']p/g;gPd;" vDk; ,lj;jpy; myP gpd; mgPjhypg;(uyp) mtHfspd; MjuthsHfSf;Fk; KMtpah gpd; mgPR/g;ahd; (uyp) mtHfspd; MjuthsHfSf;FkpilNa eilngw;w cs; ehl;Lg; NghH. fhH[pahf;fspd; fpsHr;rp ,jw;Fg; gpwF jhd; Jtq;fpw;W.

]{d;`{

k];[pJe; egtP gs;spthrypUe;J xU iky; njhiytpYs;s xU fpuhkj;jpd; ngaH. kjPdhtpd; Nkl;Lg;gFjpapy; ,J ,Ue;jjhy; ,jid 'Mypah - Nkl;Lg;gl;b" vd;Wk; miog;gH

]{Hkh

Fwpg;gpl;l fy;ypypUe;J jahhpf;fg;gLk; xU tif mQ;rdk;. (fz; ik)

]{d;dh

egp(]y;) mtHfspd; nrhy;> nray;> mq;fPfhuk;.

]{g;`hdy;yh`;

'',iwtd; ve;j tpjf; FiwghL gytPdKk; mw;w J}Nahd;"" vd;gJ ,jd; nghUs;. ngUk;ghYk; tpag;Gf;Fhpa tp\aq;fisg; ghHf;Fk; NghNjh> Nfl;Fk;NghNjh ,g;gbf; $wg;gLk;; kdpjj; jtWfisAk; FiwghLfisAk; epidT$Uk; NghJk; ,g;gbf; $w Ntz;Lk;.

`jP];

egp(]y;) mtHfspd; nrhy;> nray;> mq;fPfhuk; MfpaitAk; mtw;iw mwptpg;gJk; '`jP];" vdg;gLk;.

`Huh

kjPdhTf;F ntspNa fUq;fw;fs; epiwe;j gFjp. cika;ahf;fspd; ,uz;lhk; fyP/gh aJf;Fk; kjPdh K];ypk;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa `p[;hp 63-y; ,q;F eilngw;w rz;ilNa 'my; `Huh NghH" vdg;gLfpwJ.

`uk;

mgakspf;Fk; Gdpj g+kp. Gdpj kf;fhTk; Gdpj kjPdhTk; mgak; mspf;Fk; Gdpj g+kpfshf mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,q;F NghH Ghpaf; $lhJ. ve;j caphpdj;jpw;Fk; ,k;kpAk; ,ilQ;ry; juf;$lhJ.

`uhk;

jpUf;FHMdhYk;> egp(]y;) mtHfshYk; rl;lg;g+Htkhfj; jil nra;ag;gl;lit. rl;lg; g+Htkhf mDkjpf;fg;gl;ltw;Wf;F `yhy; vd;W nrhy;yg;gLk;.

`[;

Gdpj kf;fhtpYs;s Kjy; ,iwapy;yj;ij (fmghit) jhprpj;J epiwNtw;wg;gl Ntz;ba xU topghL. ,J ,];yhj;jpd; Ie;J flikfspy; xd;whFk;.

`yhy;

mDkjpf;fg;gl;lJ vd;W nghUs;. Gdpj `[;[pd; NghJ ,`;uhk; ciliaf; fise;J ,ay;ghd epiyf;Fj; jpUk;Gtjw;Fk; '`yhy;" vDk; nrhy; Msg;gLtJz;L.

`t;Sy; ft;]H

kWikapy; egp(]y;) mtHfSf;F ,iwtd; nfhLf;fpw jz;،Hj; jlhfk;.

`[;[Jy; tjh

egp(]y;) mtHfs; kuzpg;gjw;F Ke;ija `p[;hp 10-k; Mz;by; KjyhtjhfTk; ,WjpahfTk; nra;j `[; `[;[Jy; tjh - tpil ngw;Wr; nry;Yk; `[; vd;wiof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

`[;[h[; gpd; a+R/g;

(`p[;hp: 95> fp. gp. 714) jhap/g; thrpahd ,tH mg;Jy; kypf; gpd; kHthdpd; gilj;jsgjpahfj; jpfo;e;jhH. ,yf;fpa thjpahd ,tH(kf;fh> kjPdh> jhap/g;> ,uhf; cs;spl;l) `p[h]; khepyj;jpd; MSeH gjtp tfpj;jhH. ,tuJ Ml;rpapy; nfhLq;Nfhz;ik NfhNyhr;rpaJ.

`[Uy; m];tj;

fmghtpd; xU %iyapy; gjpf;fg;gl;Ls;s fUg;Gf; fy;; `[;[pd; NghJ ,ij Kj;jkply; egp topahFk;.

`[_d;

kf;fhtpd; nghJ mlf;fj;jyj;jpw;F mUfpYs;s XH ,lk;. kf;fh ntw;wpapd; NghJ ,q;Fjhd; egp(]y;) mtHfs; ,];yhkpar; Nridapd; nfhbia el;L itf;f cj;jutpl;lhHfs;.

`h&d; (miy)

MNuhd;; %rh(miy) mtHfspd; rNfhjuuhd ,tHfs; %rh(miy) mtHfSf;Fj; Jizahf Vf fhyj;jpy; ,iwj;J}juhfg; gzpahw;wpdhHfs;.

`puh

kf;fhtpw;F mUfpYs;s kiy. ngUkhdhH egpahf mDg;gg;gLtjw;F Kd;Ng ,iwtid ,q;F tzq;fp te;jhHfs;. mtHfspd; 40tJ tajpy; fp. gp. 610 Mf];L 10y; jpUf;FH Md; Kjy; jpUtrdk; ,q;Fjhd; mUsg;gl;lJ.

`p[;uj;

,iwkhHf;fj;ijg; gpd;gw;wplj; jilfs; Vw;gLk; nghOJ jhk; trpf;Fkplj;ij> jhafj;ijj; Jwe;J Ntw;wplk; nry;Yjy;. ,t;thW egp(]y;) mtHfs; fp. gp. 622-y; kf;fhitj; Jwe;J kjPdh nrd;w epfo;r;rp ,];yhkpar; nrhy; tof;fpy; `p[;uj; vdg;gLfpwJ.

`p[;hp

Nkw;$wg;gl;l `p[;uj; epfo;r;rpia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;Nl '`p[;hp" vDk; ,];yhkpa Mz;L Jtq;FfpwJ.

`p[h];

rjp mNugpahtpy; nrq;flYf;F mUNf tlf;Nf mfgh tisFlhtpypUe;J njw;Nf 'mrPH" tiu gue;J fplf;Fk; gFjp. ,e;j epyg;gFjpapy; jhd; kf;fh> jhap/g;> jg+f; efuq;fs; cs;sd. Gdpj kf;fh ,jd; jiyefuhFk;.

`pk;];

rphpah ehl;by; lkh];f]{f;Fk; `khj;jpw;Fk; ,ilapy; cs;s xU efuk;. ,jid `{k;]; vd;Wk; miog;gH.

`{ijgpa;ah

,J kf;fhtpypUe;J rpwpJ njhiytpy; cs;s xU gs;sj;jhf;F MFk;. `p[;hp 6k; Mz;by; egp(]y;) mtHfSk; kf;fhthrpfSk; ,q;F nra;J nfhz;l xg;ge;jk; '`{ijgpa;ah" xg;ge;jk; vdg;gLfpd;wJ.

`{idd; (NghH)

kf;fhtpypUe;J 3 iky; njhiytpy; cs;s '`Pidd;" vd;w ,lj;jpy; `p[;hp 8Mk; Mz;L ele;j NghH.

`_j; (miy)

fp.K 2000-y; tho;e;j 'Mj;" r%fj;jpd; ,iwj;J}jH.

H 4
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