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rj;jpak; - mrj;jpak;

neLfj; njhlUk; gifik


kdpjdpd; rpwg;gk;rk; mwpNt!

typikAilatdhfTk; kw;w gilg;gpdq;fspypUe;J NtWgl;ltdhfTk; kdpjid Mf;FtJ mtdplk; cs;s mwpNt MFk;. nra;Ak; nray;fisg; gw;wpa nghWg;GzHT kpf;ftdhf mtid khw;WtJk; mwpNt! xU ghiwNah ngUq;fy;Nyh NkypUe;J tpOe;J topapy; Nghfpd;w xUtdpd; capiug; gwpj;J tpl;lhy; mf;fy;iy ahUk; Fw;wQ;rhl;l ,ayhJ. Ntfkhfg; NghFk; NgUe;jpd; topia khNlh vUikNah topia kwpj;jhy; epd;W `hHd; mbj;J khl;il tpyf;fg; ghHg;ghNu xopa khl;il biutH jpl;bf; nfhz;bUf;f khl;lhH. mNjrkak; VNjDk; xU kdpjd; FWf;fpl;lhy; rhTfpuhf;fp vd;w Muk;gpj;J mtUf;Fj; njhpe;j vy;yhtifahd tirfisAk; Koq;fptpl;Lj; jhd; tz;biaNa vLg;ghH. khL Kl;b nrj;jjw;fhf khl;il ahUk; Fw;wk; gpbg;gjpy;iy. mNj nfhiyia xU kdpjd; nra;Jtpl;lhy; mtd; jd;Dila tho;ehspy; gjpdhd;F Mz;Lfis rpiwr;rhiyapy; fopf;fNtz;b ,Uf;Fk;. MLkhLfSf;F mwptpUe;jhYk; czHT ,Ug;gjpy;iy. mNj rkak; kdpjDf;F mwpTk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. jhd; vd;d nra;fpNwhk; vd;d nra;ag; NghfpNwhk; vd;w czHTk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mjhtJ> vJ rhp vJ jtW vd;W ghFgLj;jpg; ghHf;ff;$ba mwpT ,Uf;fpd;wJ. jhtuq;fs;> fhy;eilfSf;F ,e;j mwpT ,Ug;gjpy;iy. Mf. nghWg;Gs;stdhfTk; jhd; nra;Ak; nray;fSf;F [thg;jhhpahfTk; nra;Ak; nray;fSf;Fhpa gpd;tpisTfis mDgtpf;f Ntz;batdhfTk; kdpjdp Mf;FtJ mtdplk; cs;s mwpTjhd;!

mwpitg; gad;gLj;jhj kdpjd;

mwpTs;s xU [Ptd; vd;gjhy; kdpjDila nray;fs; ahTk; mwpthHj;jkhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;W vz;zptplf; $lhJ. jhd; nra;fpd;w xt;nthU nraiyAk; kdpjd; rpe;jpj;J rPHJ}f;fpg; ghHj;Nj nra;fpwhd; vd;nwy;yhk; vz;zptplf; $lhJ. xU khztd; tPz;tpisahl;LfspYk; Ntbf;iff; Nfspf;iffspYk; Neuj;ij Nghf;Ffpwhd;> mNj rkak; ,d;ndhU khztd; jd;Dila nghWg;GzHe;J gbg;gjpy; <LgLfpwhd;. kdpjd; vDk; epiyapy; ghHf;Fk;NghJ ,UtUk; mwpTilatHfs; jhk;! mwpit ed;whfg; gad;gLj;jj; njhpe;jtHfs; jhk;! MdhYk;> ,tHfs; ,UtUNk mwpitr; rhpahf gad; gLj;JfpwhHfs; vd;W kwe;Jk;$l ahUk; nrhy;yptplkhl;lhHfs;. ,j;jifa ,UNtWgl;l Kuz;ghlhd cjhuzq;fis ehk; epiwa nrhy;ypf;nfhz;Nl Nghfyhk;.

Mf> jd;dplk; cs;s ,e;j mwpT vDk; rpwg;gk;rj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp kdpjd; ntw;wpiaj; Njbf;nfhs;Sk; mNjNeuj;jpy; Njhy;tpiaAk; mtd; milaNt nra;fpwhd;. gl;baypy; cw;Wg; ghHj;jhy; ntw;wpfistpl Njhy;tpfNs mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

mwpitg; gad;gLj;jp mtd; Njhw;Wg;NghFk; rkaq;fistpl mwpit mwNt gad;gLj;jhjjhy; Njhw;Wg; NghFk; rHe;jHg;gfNs mjpfk;!

mJNghd;Nw mwpitg; gad;gLj;jp mwptpd; MNyhridia ngw;w gpd;Gk; mijf; Nfl;Lk; Nfl;fhjijg; Nghy fz;Lnfhs;sky; ,Ue;Jtpl;l fhuzj;jhy; tPzhfpg; NghdJk; mjpfk;! vj;jid vj;jidNah FbfhuHfs;> #jhbfs;> topg;gwpf; nfhs;isf;fhuHfs;> tf;fpuk; gpbj;j fhhpaq;fisr; nra;gtHfSf;F jhk; nra;tJ jPikahd fhhpak;jhd; vd;W ed;whfNt njhpaNt nra;fpd;wJ. MdhYk;$l> mtHfspy; xUtUk; jdJ mwptpd; Ngr;irf; Nfl;L mj;jPa fhhpaj;ij tpLtjhff; fhNzhk;!

  • jd;Dila mwpitg; gad;gLj;jp rpe;jpj;Jr; rPHJ}f;fpg; ghHj;J kdpjd; xt;nthU fhhpaj;ijAk; nra;tjpy;iy.

  • mg;gbNa mtd; mwpNthL fye;jhNyhrpj;jhYk; mtDila mwpT mspf;Fk; MNyhrid rhpahdjhfj;jhd; ,Uf;Fk; vd;W nrhy;tjw;fpy;iy.

  • xUNtis mJ rhpahdjhf ,Ue;jhYk; mjd;gbNa nray;gLthd; vd;gjw;F ve;j cj;juthjKk; ,y;iy.

md;whl tho;tpy; vjpHg;gLfpd;w rhjhuz fhhpaq;fspNyNa kdpjd; ,e;j msTf;Fj;jhd; mwpitg; gad;gLj;Jfpwhd;> mwpT nrhd;dgb Nfl;fpwhd; vDk;NghJ ,iwtd;> rkak; Nghd;w Gyd;fSf;F mg;ghw;gl;l tp\aq;fspy; vd;d MFk; vd;gij mstplNt KbahJ. Ie;J &gha; gj;J &gha; tp\aj;jpNyNa ehzaj;NjhL ele;Jnfhs;shjtid ,yl;rf; fzf;fhd gzk; Goq;Fk; tp\aj;jpy; ek;g KbAkh? kdk;Nghdgb ,\;lj;Jf;F thoKbfpd;w cyf tho;f;ifapNyNa mwpit xOq;fhf gad;gLj;jhjtd;> xUNtis mwpT xOq;fhf topfhl;bdhYk; mjd;gb nray;glhjtd; ,iwtd; tp\aj;jpYk; rkak; rhHe;j tp\aj;jpYk; Fiwe;jgl;rk; gj;J rjtpfpjkhtJ Kiwg;gb mwpitg; gad;gLj;Jthd; vd;W vjpHghHf;fnty;yhk; KbahJ. ,e;jg; gj;J rjtpfpjj;ijahtJ mwpT nrhd;dgb nray;gLj;jhthdh vd;why; mJTk; fpilahJ. Mifahy;jhd;> tuyhW neLf rka NtWghLfSk;> ,iwtidg; gw;wpa fUj;J Nkhjy;fSk; epuk;gp toptijf; fhzKbfpd;wJ. mwpitj; jtwhf gad;gLj;jpajw;Fk; my;yJ mwpitg; gad;gLj;jhkNyNa tpl;ljw;Fk; gw;gy fhhpaq;fspy; mwpT nrhd;dgb nray;glhky; Nghdjw;Fk; cjhuzq;fs;jhk; ,it!

kiwf;Fk; jpiufs;

,j;jifa gpuk;khz;lkhd ,khyaj; jtW Vd; Vw;gLfpd;wJ? jd;Dila mwpNthLk; ,aw;ifNahLk; kdpjd; Vd; ,t;thW KiwNflhf ele;Jnfhs;fpwhd;? fz;bg;ghf ,e;jf; Nfs;tpf;F ehk; tpil fz;Nl Mf Ntz;Lk;!

,e;jj; jtW epfo;tjw;F gy;NtW tp\aq;fs; fhuzkhf mikfpd;wd vd;wNghjpYk; kdpjDila mwpitAk; ed;ikahd fhhpaq;fisNa ehLfpd;w mtDila ,aw;ifiaAk; gy;NtW tp\aq;fs; jpiufshf khwpj; jLf;fpd;wd vd;w NghjpYk; Kf;fpakhf xUrpy tp\aq;fis kl;Lk; ehk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sNtz;bAs;sJ!

(1) kdpjDila clw;rhHe;j NjitfSk; kdk; rhHe;j ,r;irfSk; Kjy; jpiuahf mikfpd;wd. ,e;j ,r;irfs; kpfTk; typik tha;e;jitahfTk; gyk; nghUe;jpaitahfTk; mikfpd;wd. ,tw;iw kdpjd; fl;Lg;gLj;jhtpl;lhy; Vfj;Jf;F tsHe;J vf;fr;rf;fkhf vOe;J epw;fpd;wd. mjd;gpd; jkf;Fg;gpbf;fhj ve;jf; fhhpaj;ijAk; nra;jtjw;Nfh Vd; epidg;gjw;Ff;$l kdpjid ,it mDkjpg;gjpy;iy. xU fhhpaj;ij nra;aNtz;Lk; vd;w epidg;Ng kdpjDf;F vohjNghJ mtDila mwpT vd;djhd; vr;rhpj;jhYk; mtd; mijg; gw;wpnay;yhk; ftiyNa gLtjpy;iy. kJf;fpz;zj;jpy; %o;fpf; fplg;gtDf;F mJ kpfTk; ghtkhd nghy;yhj fhhpak; vd;W ed;whfNt njhpaj;jhd; nra;fpd;wJ! ghtq;fSf;nfy;yhk; MzpNtH mbNtH ,Jjhd; vd;W Ghpaj;jhd; nra;bfpd;wJ. rpe;ijNahL nraYk; nraNyhL xOf;fKk; ,jdhy; rPHnfl;Lg; Nghfpd;wd vd;W tpsq;fj;jhd; nra;fpd;wJ. ,tw;iwnay;yhk; njhpe;Jk;$l mtd; jd;Dila kdjpd; Ngr;irj; jl;l ,ayhky; kJf;fpz;zj;ijf; ifapy; vLj;Jf; Fbf;fj;jhd; nra;fpwhd;. mwptpd; vr;rhpf;ifia ntF vspjhf myl;rpag;gLj;jptpLfpwhd;.

(2) ,dg;gw;W> [hjpntwp> Kd;NdhHfs; kPjhd ghrk;> kuG> njhd;Wnjhl;L epytptUk; gof;ftof;fq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw ,uz;lhtJ jpiuahf Fwpg;gplyhk;!. ntspapypUe;J te;jpUf;fpd;wJ; jd;Dila ,dj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfshy; mJ nrhy;yg;gltpy;iy vd;w xNu fhuzj;jpw;fhf vj;jid vj;jidNah ey;y tp\aq;fis kdpjd; Gwe;js;sp tpLfpwhd;. jd;dplj;jpy; cs;s tp\ak; jd;Dila %jhijaHfshy; toptopahfr;nrhy;yg;gl;LtUk; tp\ak; kl;Lk;jhd; rhpahdJ gpd;gw;wj; jFjpahdJ vd;w ,dntwp khiaapy; Vwf;Fiwa vy;yh kdpjHfSk; mfg;gl;Lj; jtpf;fpwhHfs;. jq;fSila kuGk; gof;ftof;fq;fSk; jtwhfTk; ,Uf;ff;$Lk; vd;fpw rpe;jidNa gyNgUf;F Ntk;gha; frf;fpd;wJ.

(3) Kiwaw;w rpe;jidAk; jhWkhwhd fUj;Njhl;lKk; %d;whtJ jpiuahf mikfpd;wd. rkak; Nghd;w mjpKf;fpakhd tp\aq;fs; Fwpj;J ,j;jifatHfs; rpe;jpj;jhYk; rhpahd jpirapy; gazpf;fhky; gpw;o;e;J NghfpwhHfs;. Mokhf ,y;yhJ NkNyhl;l khfTk; ruhrhpahd mstpYNk mtHfSila rpe;jidg; Nghf;F mike;J tpLfpd;wJ. ntFrhjhuzkhd Mjhuq;fis vLj;Jf;fhl;b jq;fSila thjj;jpw;F tY NrHf;f mtHfs; Kaw;rpf;fpwhHfs;. ghijapy; xUrpy fhybfis itj;jTlNdNa jpir jLkhwp topjtwpg; Ngha;tpLfpwhHfs;. cjhuzkhf> ,j;jifatHfspy; rpyH ,iwtid Vw;Wf;nfhs;sTk; nra;thHfs;; kWik tho;nthd;W cs;sJ vd;W ek;gTk; nra;thHfs;. Mdhy;> mtHfSila ,iwek;gpf;ifAk; kWik ek;gpf;ifAk; Mokhdjhf ,Uf;fNt ,Uf;fhJ. ,tw;iw mtHfs; ek;GtJk; ek;ghky; ,Ug;gJk; rkkhfNt ,Uf;Fk;. ,tHfisg; nghUj;jtiu ek;GtJ ek;ghky; ,Ug;gJ ,uz;LNk xd;Wjhd;! cz;ikapNyNa ek;GgtHfs; vj;jifa tprhykhd> Mokhd ek;gpf;ifiag; ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;LNkh mtw;iwnay;yhk; ,tHfsplj;jpy; ghHf;fNt KbahJ! ,t;Tyifg; gilj;jtd; xNu my;yh`;jhd; vd;W ek;GthHfs;; mfpyq;fSf;nfy;yhk; mtd;jhd; murd; vd;Wk; ek;GthHfs;; ,g;gpugQ;rj;ijAk; mjpYs;s nghUl; fisAk; gilj;jtd; my;yh`; xUtd;jhd; vd;Wk; ek;GthHfs;; ,t;Tyiff; fl;bf; fhg;gJk; epHtfpj;J tUtJk; mtNd vd;Wk; ek;G thHfs;. ,aw;if> gilg;G Nghd;wtw;wpy; ,iwtdpd; ty;yikia xg;Gf; nfhs;Sk; mNj rkak;> ehl;LepHthfk;> rl;lnewpKiw Nghd;w tw;wpy; ,iwtid xg;Gf;nfhs;s khl;lhHfs;. thdpy; cs;s ,iwtidf; fPopwf;fp itafj;jpd; tPjpNahuj;jpy; cl;fhu itj;J tpLthHfs;. cyifahSk; kd;dHfisg; Nghy mtidAk; vz;zpf; nfhz;L kw;wkw;w gUg;nghUl;fisnay;yhk; guk;nghUNshL ,iz ahf;fptpLthHfs;. moptw;w rpuQ;rPtpahd epue;juid mope;J NghFk; rhjhuzg; nghUl;fNshL rkkhff; fUjj;njhlq;fp tpLthHfs;. cz;ikapy; rhjhuz mwpitf; nfhz;L rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHj;jhNy ,itnay;yhk; ngUk; Kl;lhs;jdk; vd;gJ njhpe;JNghFk;!

kWik ek;gpf;if tp\aj;jpYk; ,Nj Nghd;wnjhU epiyjhd; fhzg;gLk;. kuzj;jpw;Fg; gpwF kPz;Lk; vOg;gg;gLNthk;; Nfs;tp> fzf;F tprhuiz eilngWk; vd;nwy;yhk; ek;GthHfs;. mNj rkak;> mq;Nf jkf;fhf rpghhpR nra;thHfs; vd;w ek;gpf;ifapy; kz;ziw fspd; Kd;dhy; jiyiaf; Fdpe;Jnfhz;L epd;Wnfhz;bUg;ghHfs;. rpghhpR vy;yhk; mq;Nf vLgLk; vd;why; mg;Gwk; Nfs;tp>fzf;F tprhuizf;nfy;yhk; vd;djhd; Njit vd;nwy;yhk; Nahrpj;Nj ghHf;f khl;lhHfs;.

,e;jpahtpy; tho;e;j \h`; typAy;yh`; (1702-1763) vd;w ,];yhkpag; NguwpQH (1) kdj;jpiu (2) rlq;Fj; jpiu (3) mQ;Qhdj; jpiu vd;W ntF mofhf ,j;jpiufis thpirg;gLj;jp tpsf;fpf; $wpAs;shH.

,j;jpiufSf;Fg; gpd;dhy; rpf;fpr; rPuope;J NghdtHfSf;F vy;iyNa fpilahJ. jpiufs; fz;iz kiwg;gjhy; jl;Lj; jLkhwp rj;jpa topia tpl;Lk; tpyfp fhhpUspy; %o;fpg; NghdtHfs; Vuhsk;! rkak; rhuhj tp\aq;fis ,j;jpiufs; %LtNjh kiwg;gNjh fpilahJ. ,iwtd;> rkak; Nghd;w tp\aq;fspy; kl;Lk;jhd; ,it kdpjdpd; fz;fis ,Wf;fkhf fl;bf;nfhz;L tpLfpd;wd. ,j;jpiufis mfw;wp cz;ik ntspr;rj;ij CLUtpg; ghHg;gJ ngUk;ghNyhUf;F vspjhd fhhpakhfNt ,y;iy!

(njhlUk;)

H 4
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