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jpg;Gtpd; rkaf; nfhs;if 
f.,yf;Fkpehuhazd;> fhg;ghl;rpaH> muR mUq;fhl;rpafk;> Nryk;.


i`jH myp 1758 y; ik#iu kuhl;baHfsplkpUe;J fhg;ghw;wpaijj; njhlHe;J ik#hpd; tuyhW njd;dpe;jpah tuyhwhfpaJ. 1758 Kjy; 1799 tiuahd ehw;gj;jpnahU Mz;Lfhy ik#H tuyhW ngUikkpf;f xU tPufhtpakhfj; jpfo;fpwJ. i`jUk; mtuJ kfd; jpg;GTk; ,e;jf; fhy fl;lj;jpy; Mq;fpNyaiu vjpHj;J khngUk; rf;jpfshfr; nray;gl;ldH. jpg;Gtpd; tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gpd;dNu Mq;fpNyaUf;F jq;fs; Mjpf;fj;ijj; njd;dpe;jpahtpy; epiyepWj;jpf; nfhs;syhk; vd;W ek;gpf;if tYtile;jJ.

ik#H muirr; nrg;gk; nra;J Vw;fdNt typTld; tpsq;fpa kuhl;baH> i`juhghj; ep[hk; Nghd;w cs;ehl;L muRfSlDk;> ,e;jpahtpy; jq;fis epiyg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s gijg;Gld; nray;gl;l Mq;fpyf; fk;ngdpAlDk; Nkhjj;jf;f mstpw;F xU rpwe;j murpay; rf;jpahf;fpdhH i`jHmyp. i`jH cUthf;fpa rf;jpiaf; fhj;Jg; NghuhLk; epiy jpg;Gtpw;F tha;j;jJ. mtuJ gjpNdO Mz;L fhy Ml;rp> epfo;r;rpfs; epuk;gpait. mtuJ nray;ghLfSk; epHthf KiwfSk; mtH fhyj;J ,e;jpa kd;dHfsplkpUe;J mtiu NtWgLj;jp caHj;jpf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

jpg;Gitg; Nghd;w xUkd;diuj; jq;fs; ,yhgj;jpw;fhf tPo;j;jpa fk;ngdpahH> jq;fs; nraYf;F epahak; fw;gpf;f cyf muq;fpy; jq;fis jtW nra;ahjtHfshff; fhl;bf; nfhs;s> jpg;Gtpd; Fiwfshf NfhHj;Jr; nrhd;dit gy. Mq;fpy tuyhw;W MrphpaHfSk; mtw;iw mg;gbNa tuyhwhf vOjp itj;jdH.

jpg;G nfh^ukhd kjntwpaH. gy ,e;Jf; Nfhapy;fs; mtuJ gilnaLg;Gfspy; ghohf;fg;gl;ld. Nfhapy;fspd; clikfs; ifg;gw;wg;gl;ld. ntd;w kf;fisf; fLikahd Kiwapy; kjk; khw;wpdhH vd;gJ Nghd;W jphpj;Jf; $wg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fs; Mq;fpy tuyhw;whrphpaHshy; mg;gbNa Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;L> mtHfsJ tuyhw;W E}y;fspYk; mt;thNw gjpag;gl;ld. Mdhy; jpg;Gtpd; mZFKiwfSk; nray;ghLfSk; ,f;fUj;Jf;fSf;F NeHkhwhfNt ,Ue;jd.

rkaf; nfhs;if

jpg;G jkJ ,];yhk; kjj;jpy; gpbg;G kpf;ftuhf> xU rpwe;j K];ypkhf tho;e;jhH vd;gJ cz;ikNa. xUtH jdJ kjj;jpd; kPJ <LghL nfhz;L rkag; gpbg;Gld; tho;tJ ey;nyhOf;fj;jpd; xU gpbahFk;. me;jg; gpbg;Gk; gw;Wk; jdJ kjk; xd;Nw rpwe;jJ vd;w Nghf;fpy; xUtiu kjj; JNtrj;Jld; nray;gl itg;gJ jhd; tpUk;gj;jfhj ntwpr; nrayhFk;. jpg;Gtpd; nray;ghLfs; rkaf; fho;g;ig mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lit my;y vd;gJ tuyhw;W cz;ikahFk;. vy;yhr; rkaq;fSk; ey;y rkaq;fNs vd;w ed;dk;gpf;ifia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;lJ jpg;Gtpd; rkaf; nfhs;if.mtuJ Ml;rpf;Fl;gl;l epHthf ikaq;fs; xt;nthd;wpYk; xU k#jpAk;> xU ,];yhkpa khHf;fg; gs;spAk; epWtp> jdJ kjnewp tsHr;rpf;Fk;> rPuhd nray;ghl;bw;Fk; tif nra;j jpg;G> ,e;Jf; Nfhapy;fs;fSf;Fk; klq;fSf;Fk; mspj;j eptj;jq;fSk;> nfhilfSk; Vuhsk;. irtj;jpd;ghy; ngUk; <LghL nfhz;l Nrho kd;dHfs; Vida itzt> rkz>  ngsj;j kjq;fisAk; kjpj;Jg; Nghw;wpaijg; NghyNt jpg;GTk; nray;gl;bUf;fpwhH. jpg;Gtpd; epHthfj;jpy; murhy; rka epWtdq;fSf;fhf nrytopf;fg;gl;l Mz;Lj; njhifahd  &.2>33>959 tuhfd;fspy; ,e;J Nfhapy;fSf;Fk; klq;fSf;Fk; kl;Lk; 2>13>959 tuhfd;fs; mspf;fg;gl;lJ vd;w fzf;F tpguNk jpg;G jd;dhl;by; ngUthhp kf;fshf ,Ue;j ,e;Jf;fspd; czHTfisg; Nghw;Wk; tifapy; mtHfsJ rkag; gzpf;F Mjutspj;Jr; nray;gl;l ghq;if ed;F tpsf;Fk;.

xt;nthU kjj;jtUk; jq;fs; kj newpfisg; gpd;gw;wp kw;w kjj; jiytHfisAk;> kjj;jpdiuAk; kjpj;J ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj jpg;Gtpd; capHg;ghd rkaf; nfhs;ifahf tpsq;fpaJ. 1799 rPuq;fg;gl;lzk; Kw;Wifg; Nghhpy; vhpAz;L mope;J Nghdijg; Nghf vQ;rpa muz;kid E}yfj;jpy; fpilj;j E}y;fspy; jpUf;Fuhd; ehw;gj;jp ehd;F gpujpfSk; mjw;F <lhd vz;zpf;ifapy; jpUf;FuhDf;fhd tpsf;f E}y;fSk; ,Ue;jd. ,tw;Wld; RkhH 115 ,e;J-K];ypk; xw;Wikiag; Nghjpf;Fk; #gp khHf;f E}y;fs; ,Ue;jJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

jpg;Gtpd; jdp tho;tpYk; murpaypYk; vLf;fg;gl;l eltbf;iffs; ngUk;ghYk; kdpj Neaj;ijr; rka czHT Kwpj;Jg; Nghlhj tifapy; vLf;fg;gl;litNa. jpg;Gtpd; rka czHT rkurk; Nghw;wpajhfTk;> vy;yh rkaq;fSf;Fk; rk kjpg;G mspg;gjhfTNk ,Ue;jJ. ,jidg; Gyg;gLj;Jk; epfo;r;rpfs; gy tuyhw;W epfo;r;rpfshfNt ,Uf;fpd;wd. mtw;Wy; xUrpy kl;Lk; vLj;Jf; fhl;lhf ,q;Nf $wg;gLfpwJ.

1.       rPuq;fg;gl;lzk; - rPuq;fehjH Nfhapy;

2.      gPHyjh gpzf;F

3.      tlfiy-njd;fiy tof;Fj; jPHj;jJ

4.      ghJ\h ypq;fKk; fyr KuRk;

5.      FUthA+uhDf;Ff; fhzpf;if

6.      kuhl;ba nfhs;isAk;> jpg;Gtpd; nfhilAk;

 

1. rPuq;fg;gl;lzk; - rPuq;fehjH Nfhapy;

jpg;Gtpd; jiyefuhd rPuq;fg;gl;bzj;jpYs;s ,e;jf; Nfhapy;fspy; epakk; jtwhky; topghL epfo;r;rpfs; elj;jg;gl;L te;jJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. jpg;Gtpw;F ,f;Nfhapy;fs; kPJ jdp <LghL cz;L. tp[aefu fhyj;jpy; fl;lg;gl;l ,f;Nfhapy;fSf;Fj; jpg;G toq;fpa topghl;Lg; nghUs;fs; gy ,d;Wk; mtH ngaiuj; jhq;fp mf;Nfhapypy; cs;sd. ,f;Nfhapypy; topghLfSk; G+i[Ak; Kiwg;gb rpwg;Gwr; nray;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy; jpg;Gtpw;F,Ue;j MHtj;ijg; Gyg;gLj;Jk; epfo;r;rp xd;W Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. NfhapYf;F kpf mUfpNyNa jpg;Gtpd; muz;kid ,Ue;jJ. rPuq;fehjUf;Fr; nra;ag;gLk; G+i[fspy; xypf;fg;gLk; Nfhapy; kzp Xiriaf; Nfl;L mwpe;J nfhs;tJ jpg;Gtpd; tof;fk;. xU rkak; VNjh fhuzj;jhy; Nfhapy; G+irkzp fhyk; fle;J xypj;jJ. ,jidf; Nfl;l jpg;G cldbahf Nfhapy; jf;fhiu tutioj;J vr;rhpj;J tUk; fhyj;jpy; ,t;tpj Rzf;fk; Nfhapy; topghl;by; Vw;glf; $lhJ vd fLikahf mwpTWj;jpdhH.

2. gPHyjh gpzf;F

jpg;Gtpw;Fk; gPHyjhtpw;Fk; ,ilNa Vw;gl;l fUj;J NtWghL jpg;Gtpd; rkaNgjkw;w mZFKiwf;F xU ey;y rhd;whFk;. gPHyjh rPuq;fg;gl;bzj;jpy; trpj;j rpwe;j ,];yhkpa mwpQH. ,tUf;F gy rPlHfs; cz;L. xUKiw efuj;J ,e;Jf;fs; efhpd; Kf;fpa tPjpfspy; Rthkp CHtyk; elj;jpr; nrd;wdH. ,jidf; fz;l gPHyjhtpd; rPlHfs; vs;sp eifahbdH. njhlHe;J Vw;gl;l fytuj;jpy; gPHyjhtpd; rPlHfs; CHtyj;jpy; te;jtHfshy; jhf;fg;gl;ldH vd;w nra;jp mwpe;J rPw;wkile;j gPHyjh> xU K];ypkpd; Ml;rpapy; K];ypk;fSf;F ghJfhg;G ,y;iyah? vdf; Nfl;L jpg;Gtpw;F tpz;zg;gpj;jhH. mjd; kPJ tprhuiz nra;j jpg;G Fw;wk; KOtJk; gPHyjhtpd; rPlHfs; kPJ ,Ug;gij mwpfpwhH. mt;thW mwpe;J mtH nray;gl;l tpjk; Ml;rpahsHfs; ,d;iwf;Fk; filgpbf;f Ntz;ba ngUkpjr; nrayhFk;. ePjpapd; fz;fSf;F ,e;JTk; K];ypKk; xd;Nw. Fw;wthspfisj; jhd; vd;dhy; jz;bf;f KbAk; vd jpg;G mwptpj;jJ gPHyjhtpw;F ngUk; rpdj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. K];ypk;fSf;F Mjuthf eltbf;if vLf;fhtpl;lhy; jhk; ik#iu tpl;Nl ntspNawp tpLtjhf  jpg;Gtpw;F gPHyjh njhptpf;fpwhH. ePjpapd; ghy; nfhz;l gpbg;ghy; jpg;G rw;Wk; fyq;fhky; jq;fs; tpUg;gk; mJthdhy; nra;ayhk; vd cldbahf gPHyjhtpw;F njhptpj;J tpl;lhH

(,d;Dk; tsUk;.. ,d;\h my;yh`;)

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