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nksyhd mGy; m/yh nksJ}jp


Fwpg;G :

20 Mk; E}w;whz;by; Vw;gl;l ,];yhkpa kWkyHr;rp rpe;jidfspy; nksyhdh mGy; m/yh nksJ}jpapd; gq;F rpwg;G kpf;fjhf ,Uf;fpwJ. jw;fhy #o;epiyfSf;F Vw;w njspthd nfhs;iffisj; je;j nksJ}jpapd; tpsf;fq;fs; cyfj;jpd; gy ghfq;fspy; vOe;j ,];yhkpa rPuikg;G Kaw;rpfSf;F nkU$l;bd. rpWghd;ik r%fj;jpduhd gpypg;igd;]pd; kpz;ldhNkh K];ypk;fspypUe;J> ngUk; ,];yhkpa fyhr;rhu ehLfshd> nkhuhf;Nfh> my;[Phpah> #lhd; Nghd;w ehLfspYk; nksyhdh tpd; fUj;Jf;fs; gutp gyj;j jhf;fq;fis Vw;gLj;jpd. mjpYk; vfpg;jpd; Kf;fpa kWkyHr;rp rpe;jidahsHfshd `]d; my; gd;dh Nghd;wtHfs; nksJ}jpapd; tpsf;fq;fis jq;fspd; nfhs;iffSf;F cWJizahf;fpf; nfhz;ldH.

kWkyHr;rp rpe;jidfSf;F tpj;jpl;ltH [khy; my; Mg;fhdp vd;W vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> ,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;by; ,];yhkpa Rje;jpu jhfj;ij cz;ikahf;fpa ngUikahsHfspy; nksJ}jp jdpr;rpwg;G tha;e;jtuhfj; jpfo;fpd;whH.

nksJ}jpapd; rpwg;gpw;Fk; mthpd; rpe;jid tpA+fq;fSf;Fk; mtuJ FLk;gk; kw;Wk; tho;f;if gpd;dzp mjpfkhd gq;fhw;wiyj; je;Js;sd. nly;ypapd; ,];yhkpa murhq;fj;jpy; rpwg;ghd gjtpfis tfpj;j [p];jp topj; Njhd;wyhf nksJ}jp 1903 y; xsuq;fhghj; efhpy; gpwe;jhH. Mq;fpNyaHfspd; ntw;wpf;Fg; gpd;dH nksJ}jpapd; FLk;gk; nly;ypia tpl;L jf;fhzj;jpy; FbNawpaJ. mtuJ je;ij nra;aJ m`;kJ `]d; mypfhH Mq;fpNyh Xhpaz;ly; fy;Y}hpapd; gbj;J gpd;dH my`hghj;jpy; rl;lj; njhopy; elj;jpatH. vd;whYk; mtH Md;kPf topapy; <Hf;fg;gl;L #/gp`; tl;lj;jpw;Fs; ,wq;fpajdhy;> nksJ}jpapd; Muk;gfy;tp ghuk;ghpa kj;u]h %ykhfNt jug;gl;lJ. Muk;gj;jpNyNa mugp> cHJ> ghurPf nkhopfis ed;F gapd;W gapw;rp ngw;whH.

1918> 1919 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; ,e;jpahtpy; Rje;jpu czHTfs; NkNyhq;fp fhq;fpu]pd; nfhs;iffis ,isQHfis <Hj;jd. mg;NghJ fy;tpj; jhfj;ij tpl murpay; Ntl;if $Ljyhf ,Ue;jjpdhy; nksyhd nksJ}jp mtHfs; mj;jifa czHTfspdhy; ce;jg;gl;lhH. mjd; gadhf mtH gj;jphpf;ifj; Jiwapy; <Lgl;L jd;Dila vOj;Jj; jpwikf;F nkU$l;bdhH. mg;Nghija mtuJ Fwpf;Nfhs; Mq;fpNyaHfis vjpHf;Fk; Njrpa Kaw;rpfSf;F cWJizahf ,Ug;gNjahFk;.

mg;gbg;gl;l #o;epiyapy;> ,e;jpa Njrpa nfhs;iffSld; ,];yhkpa rpe;jid cwTfSk; NrHe;jd. mg;NghJ fpyh/gj; ,af;fk; tYg;ngw;W ,e;jpa K];ypk;fspd; ntspg;gilahd Nfh\q;fs; cyfpd; ftdj;ij <Hj;jd. K];ypk; rKjha czHTfs; NkNyhq;Fk; vz;zq;fs; nksJ}jpaplk; cUthf Muk;gpj;j me;jr; re;jHg;gj;jpy; jhd; K`k;kJ myp mtHfshy; ntspaplg;gl;l `k;jHj; gj;jphpf;ifapd; nghWg;ig mtH Vw;whH. ,J mtuJ tho;f;ifapy; xU jpUg;GKidahf mike;jJ. K];ypk;fspd; MjuT Njrpa nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;l fhq;fpu]{f;Fj; jhd; vd;w jPtpu nfhs;if K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpd; gytPd epiy>mjd; Nehf;fk;> tpisTfs; gw;wpa myry;fshy; ,];yhkpa rhay;fSf;Fl;gLj;jpaJ.

mg;NghJ [hkpmj;-,-cyhkh-`pe;j; vdg;gLk; khHf;f mwpQHfspd; rig cUthf;fg;gl;lJ. nksyhd K/g;jp fp/ghaJy;yh`;> m`kJ ira;aJ Nghd;NwhHfspd; njhlHgpdhYk;> K];ypk; my;-[hkpmj; gj;jphpf;iffspd; %ykhfTk; ,];yhkpa murpay; czHTfs; NkNyhq;fpd.

Kd;dH ,e;jpahtpy; K];ypk;fs; ,Ue;j cd;dj epiyapy;> INuhg;ghtpd; Mjpf;f ntwpapdhy; JUf;fpapy; ,];yhj;jpw;F Vw;gl;l mtyepiyapd; gpd;dzpapy;> ,e;jpa K];ypk;fspd; tUq;fhy epiy rPHJ}f;fpg; ghHf;fg;gl;lJ. gpur;idfSf;Fl;gl;L gpsTfspy; rpf;fpa epiyAk;> ,];yhkpa cs;slf;fj;ijg; Gwf;fzpj;J fyhr;rhu kuGfSf;F cl;gl;l K];ypk;fspd; Nkhrkhf milahsq;fSk;> rKjha kWkyHr;rp jhfj;ij nksyhd nksJ}jpaplk; Vw;gLj;jpaJ. ,it xU rKjha Nehf;Fld; jhd; mg;NghJ ghHf;fg;gl;ld. KOikahd ,];yhkpa czHT ghpzkpf;f mit Kd;Ndhbahf mike;jd. gpur;idfspd; mbg;gilapy; Vw;gll; Ntl;if nksJ}jpapd; fy;tpapd; ghy; kPz;Lk; jpUg;gpaJ. Mq;fpy nkhopia mwpe;J> Nkw;fj;jpa rpe;jidfis GhpAk;gzpapYk;> mj;Jld; ,];yhkpa Nkw;gbg;ig Njt;ge;j; fyhrhiyapy; gbj;J 1926 y; gl;lKk; ngw;wJ. mtiu gue;j rpe;jid kw;Wk; mDgtf; $WfSf;F ,l;Lr; nrd;wJ.

fpyh/gj; ,af;ff; nfhs;iffspd; tPo;r;rpAk;> K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpd; epiyaw;w> Nehf;fkw;w jd;ikAk;> nksJ}jpia ntFthfr; rpe;jpf;f itj;jJ. mjdhy; Njrpa nfhs;iffSldhd cld;ghLfs; rhpT fz;L mtuJ ftdk; ,];yhkpa rKjha Nfhzj;jpy; ghpzhkk; fz;lJ. mjpYk; me;j mikg;Gf; $Wfis murpay; Nkilf;F nksJ}jp nfhz;L tu tpUk;gpdhH.

mg;NghJ jhd; xU mrk;ghtpjk; 1925 y; Rthkp rujhde;jh vd;gtH> [hjpf; nfhLikahy; K];ypk;fshf kjk;khwp tho;e;J te;jtHfis kPz;Lk; `pe;J kjj;jpw;F miof;Fk; gzpapy; jPtpukhf <Lgl;lhH. ,J ngUk; mjpHr;rpiaAk;> ntWg;GfisAk; $lNt td;KiwfisAk; J}z;b tpl;lJ. mthpd; kiwT ,];yhkpaj; Njhw;wj;ij gaq;fug;gLj;jpaJld;> K];ypk;fspilNa xU gpbthj vjpHg;G mzpAk; Nfh\khf my; [p`hj; /gpy; ,];yhk; cUthfpaJ.

[p`hj; gw;wpa mwpT Qhdk; Mokhf ,y;yhky; mij vjw;Fk; gad;gLj;jyhk; vd;W nfhz;L nry;yg;gl;l #o;epiyapy;> nksJ}jp ,];yhkpa nfhs;if tpsf;fj;ij njspthd rpe;jidAld; MokhfTk; mofhfTk; tpthpj;jhH. mJ kpfTk; NeHj;jpahd gilg;G vd;gJ xUGwkpUf;f> #o;epiyf;Fj; jFe;j tpsf;fk; juf; $batH vd;w gl;lKk; GfOk; mtUf;Ff; $lNt te;jd.

me;j jpUg;gj;jpd; fhuzkhf njw;fpy; i`juhghj;jpy; ep[hkpd; MNyhrfuhfTk;> fy;tp mikg;Gfisr; rPHjpUj;Jk; gzpapYk; nray;gl;lhH. ,e;j epiy ntFfhyk; ePbf;ftpy;iy. njYq;fhdk; vdg;gLk; gphptpid ntbj;jjpy; fk;A+dp] gw;WjYld; i`juhghj; ep[hKf;F mg;NghJ vjpHg;Gfs; mjpfhpj;J te;jjhy;> ,];yhkpa fy;tp KiwfisAk; nghJthd kf;fspilNa nfhz;L tUtjw;F mJ jUzky;y vd;W MdJ.

1938 y; my;yhkh ,f;ghypd; fUj;Jf;fs; tYg;ngw;W K];ypk;fSf;F xU jdp Gfyplk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w jfhk; vOe;jJ. mjw;F Kd;Ndhbahf gjd;Nfhl; vd;Dkplj;jpy; G+Hthq;f mikg;G Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. mjpy; jdJ Kj;jpiuia gjpf;f tpUk;gp mq;F nksJ}jp nrd;whH. me;j #o;epiyapy; ,e;jpa Rje;jpu jhfk; jPtpukhfpaJ. K];ypk; yPf;fpw;Fk; fhq;fpu]py; ,Ue;j K];ypk;fSf;Fk; Vuhskhd fUj;J NtWghLfs; Njhd;wpd. gjd;Nfhl; ghpNrhjid ,];yhkpa Nehf;fk; nfhz;L ,Ue;jJ. vdNt> K];ypk; yPf;fpd; jdp ehL nfhs;if mjw;F xj;Jg; NghFk; jd;ikapy; jhd; ,Ue;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;.

Mdhy; K];ypk; yPf;fpy; [pd;dh Nghd;wtHs; cyfhaj Nghf;Fk; ,];yhj;ij czuhf ntspg;gilahd jd;ikfSk; nksyhd nksJ}jpapd; fLikahd tpkHrdj;Jf;F Mshfpd.

,j;jifa tpisTfs; midj;Jk; filrpapy; xUKbTf;F ,l;Lr; nrd;wJ. Nehpilahd murpay; <LghL 1941 y; [khmj;-,-,];yhkp vDk; murpay; fl;rp cUthdJ.

nksJ}jpapd; tho;f;ifia Ma;gtHfs; mthpd; rpe;jid khw;w Njhw;wq;fis mjpfk; tpkHrpf;ff; $Lk; cz;ikAk; mJNt. mg;gbg;gl;l khw;wq;fisAk; tpisTfisAk; %d;W Kf;fpa gFjpfshf gphpf;fyhk;.

Kjy; fl;lkhf mthpd; nfhs;ifg; ghHitahFk;. ,];yhkpa mbg;gilapy; mthpd; Njrpathjk;> gpd;dH ,];yhkpa rKjhag; ghHit Nghd;wit xj;Jg; Nghfpd;wd.

,uz;lhtJ nksJ}jp ,];yhkpa czHTld; jPtpukhf ,];yhkpa fyhr;rhu mikg;G> ehL Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W Nehf;fk; nfhz;ljpdhy;> mjw;fhd topKiwfs;> Mf;fk;> gf;f gyq;fs; vt;thW ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;F njspthd tpsf;fq;fs; ngWtJ.

%d;whtJ murpay; vjhHj;jq;fs;.

nksJ}jpapd; Kbthd rpe;jidfs; ,U Kf;fpa jhf;fq;fspdhy; rPuikf;fg;gl;lJ.

KjyhtJ> Muk;g fhyj;jpy; gs;spg;gUtj;jpy; Mq;fpNyaHfis vjpHf;Fk; jhfk; cUthdJ. mj;Jld; mq;fhq;Nf ,];yhj;jpd; ghuk;gHaj;ij jfHj;J jq;fsJ Mjpf;fj;ij tYj;Jf; nfhz;l Nkw;fj;jpaHfspd; mjpfhuj;Jtg; Nghf;F ,d;Dk; mthpd; ntWg;igj; J}z;baJ. filrpapy; fpyh/gj; ,];yhkpa Kbahl;rpiaAk;> INuhg;gpaHfs; jfHj;jjhy; me;j ntWg;G mtUs; ,d;Dk; tPhpl;L vOe;jJ. vd;whYk; Nkw;fpd; murikg;G> [dehaff; nfhs;if> ehlhSkd;wk;> KO mjpfhuk; ngw;w ePjpghpghydj;Jiw Nghd;wit mthpd;ftdj;ij nghpJk; <Hj;jd. gpd;dH mtuJ ,];yhkpa muR vDk; nfhs;ifapy; mit gpujpgypj;jJ Mr;rhpakpy;iy.

,uz;lhtJ> fk;A+dp]> Nrhryp]f; nfhs;iffs; Me;jpuhtpy; ifahsg;gll Kiwfs;> mjd; jhf;fq;fSk; mtiug; nghpJk; ghjpj;jJ. vdNt> ,e;j ,uz;L ntt;NtW vjpUk; GjpUkhd Xl;lj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; nfhs;ifSf;F eLNt ,];yhk; xU gw;WjiyAk;> ,aq;Fk; jd;ikiaAk; tYf;Fk; topKiwfis tpl ,d;Dk; cahpa epiyf;F ,l;Lr; nry;Yk; jd;ikfs; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mJ rhj;jpakhFk; vd;W nksJ}jp nghpJk; ek;gpdhH. mj;Jld; kf;fspd; mbg;gil elg;G> mtHfspd; nfhs;iffs; gof;f tof;fq;fs; Nghd;wit ,];yhj;jpd; Njhw;wq;fSf;F ,ay;ghfNt khw Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ Kjy; fl;lj; Njit vd;W nksJ}jp tpUk;gpdhH.

,];yhj;jpd; ngauhy; ,Uf;Fk; epWtdq;fs; Njhw;w khw;wq;fs; nra;tjhy; ,];yhkpak; ghpzkpf;fhJ vd;gJ nksJ}jpapd; fUj;J. khwhf> kf;fs; khw;wq;fis tpUk;g Ntz;Lk;. mjw;F mtHfis fy;tp> jfty; %yk; mZf Ntz;Lk; vd;W mtH tpUk;gpdhH. kf;fs; tpUk;Gtjw;fhf \hpmj; rl;lk; nfhz;L tu Ntz;LNk jtpu> \hpmj; rl;lj;ij mjpfhu tHf;fj;jpd; tpUg;gj;jpw;fhf kf;fsplk; GFj;JtJ $lhJ vd;W fUj;Jiuj;jhH. vdNt> ,];yhkpa muir cUthf;Ftjw;F Kd;dH cz;ikahd K];ypk;fis cUthf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj ,jd; Nehf;fk;.

mk;Kaw;rpfs; rKjha murpay; tpopg;GzHr;rp khw;wq;fis epiyj;jd;ik cz;lhf;fhJ vd;gJk;> <uhdpy; Vw;gl;L tUk; khw;wq;fspy; ,Ue;J nksJ}jpapd; nfhs;iffis cWjpg;gLj;Jtjhf mike;jJ.

mNj Nghy jz;lidr; rl;l tp\aj;jpYk; nksyhdh nksJ}jp kpjkhd Nghf;ifNa filgpbj;jhH. rl;lq;fs; kf;fSf;fhf vd;gjhy;> rKjhak; czHe;J mwpe;J ,Ue;jhy;> \hPmj; rl;lj;ij filgpbf;f ve;jj; jlq;fYk; ,Uf;fhJ.

nksyhd ek;kplk; ,uz;L Kf;fpa fUj;Jf;fis tpl;Lr; nrd;Ws;shHfs;. KjyhtJ ek;gpf;ifapd; milahsk;> rKjha nray;ghLfs;. rkaf; flikAzHr;rp vd;gJ rKjha Kidg;GfSf;F top tFf;f Ntz;Lk;. rkak; mjw;F topaikf;f Ntz;Lk;.

,uz;lhtJ> ,];yhkpa Gul;rp vd;gJ> ,Ue;J tUk; mikg;GfSf;Fs; khw;wq;fis cUthf;Fk; Kaw;rpahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mit cjwpj; js;sp tpLk; Kaw;rpfshf ,Uf;ff; $lhJ.

- ed;wp : ek;gpf;if mf;NlhgH 2000.

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