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,Ugjhk; E}w;whz;by; fsk; mikj;jtHfs;


[khYj;jPd; Mg;fhdP

etPd ,];yhkpa vOr;rpapd; Muk;g rpw;gpahf [khYj;jPd; Mg;fhdp fhzg;gLfpwhH. ,];yhkpa r%fj;jpd; cs;shHe;j rpf;fy;fis ed;F mwpe;jpUe;j md;dhH ifj;njhopy; Gul;rpAk;> mjd; fHj;jhf;fshfpa Nkw;FyFk; K];ypk;fSf;F vjpuhfj; jPl;ba rjpfisAk; eilKiwapy; tpsf;fpapUe;jhH mwpQH K`k;kj; mg;J`{ $WfpwhH.

mtUf;F Kd;dH rPHjpUj;jg; gzpapy; <Lgl;bUe;j K`k;kj; gpd; mg;Jy; t`;`hg; (18 Mk; E}w;whz;L)  K`k;kj; gpd; myp m];]D}]p (19 k; E}w;whz;bd; Kw;gFjp) MfpNahH jq;fsJ gzpia> r%fj;jpd; cs;shHe;j Fiwfis ePf;Ftij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;Nl mikj;Jf; nfhz;ldH. Vnddpy; ,tHfs; me;epa gpuNjrq;fis jphprpf;ftpy;iy. gazq;fs; ,lk; ngw;whYk; ghiytd rhaYila ,];yhkpa ehLfSf;Fs;NsNa mit ,lk; ngw;wd. Mdhy; [khYj;jPd; Mg;fhdp \hPM gw;wpa mwpTld; kl;LNk RUq;fp tplhJ eilKiw cz;ikiaAk;> Fwpg;ghf Nkw;FyifAk;> mjd; Nghf;ifAk; EZf;fkhf tpsq;fpapUe;jhH. Nkw;Fyfpd; gy ehLfSf;F mtH tp[aq;fisj; jhkhf Nkw;nfhz;bUe;j NghjpYk;> ehL flj;jg;gl;l NghjpYk; mq;F ,];yhj;jpw;Fk; K];ypk;fSf;Fk; vjpuhfj; jPl;lg;gl;l xt;nthU rjpiaAk; ed;Fmilahsk; fz;L nfhz;lhH.

,jd; fhuzkhfNt kdpj eyd;fSf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; mspf;Fk; mikg;G vd jhd; vz;zp mq;fj;Jtk; ngw;wpUe;j khNrhdpah mikg;G kdpjj;ij Fop Njhz;bg; Gijf;fpwJ vd;gij mwpe;J nfhz;L mjpypUe;J ePq;fpf; nfhz;lhH. Mq;fpNyaHpd; rjpapdhy; Mg;fhd; mur FLk;gj;jhH rHr;irg;gl;Lf;nfhz;bUe;j fhyg;gFjpapy; mur tHf;fj;jpdUld; Vw;gl;l Kuz;ghL fhuzkhf ,e;jpahTf;f ehL flj;jg;gl;lhH.

rH irapj; m`;kJ fhd; ,e;jpahtpy; gpugQ;r ,af;fk; KOtJk; ,aw;ifapdhy; jhd; Xbf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;w thjj;ij Kd; itj;j NghJ mJ ,];yhkpa ek;gpf;if Nfhl;ghl;bw;F KuzhdJ vd;gij kf;fSf;Fj; njspTgLj;jpdhH. mj;NjhL m`;kJ fhd; Mq;fpy topf; fy;tp kl;LNk vkf;F Ntz;Lk; vd;w rpe;jidia Kd; itj;j NghJ ,J vkJ r%fj;jpd; mbj;jsj;ijNa Ml;lk; fhzr; nra;tNjhL> vkJ ,isQHfspd; %isfisr; ryit nra;tjw;fhfTk; Mq;fpNyaHfs; jPl;bapUf;Fk; rjp vd;gijAk; [khYj;jPd; Mg;fhdp mtHfs; Kd; itj;jhHfs;. [p`hj; mtrpakpy;iy vd;w m`;kj; fhd; mtHfspd; fUj;ijAk; ,tH td;ikahff; fz;bj;jhH.

Mq;fpymuRld; njhlHe;Jk; Kuz;gl;Lf; nfhz;L tuNt mtH vfpg;jf;F ehL flj;jg;gl;lhH. ,q;Nf jhd; mtH ,khk; K`k;kJ mg;J`{ Nghd;Nwhiuf; nfhz;l xU rPlH FOit cUthf;fpdhH. mq;Fk; 1879 y; gpuhd;]{k; gphpj;jhdpahTk; $l;lhfj; jpl;lkpl;L gy rjpfSf;F vjpHg;Gj; njhptpf;fNt kPz;Lk; ,e;jpahTf;F mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;lhH.

,];yhkpa fpyhgj;ij tpotplf; $lhJ vd;gjpy; kpfTk; fz;Zk; fUj;Jkhf nraw;gl;lhH. mtH jdJ khztuhd K`k;kJ mg;J`{ mtHfSld; NrHe;J gpuhd;]pypUe;J ntspapl;l my; cHtj;Jy; T];fh vd;w gj;jphpf;ifA+lhf ,jw;fhd Kaw;rpfis Nkw;nfhz;lhH. Mdhy; Nkw;fpd; #o;r;rp mg;gj;jphpf;ifia tpl;L itf;ftpy;iy. mJ rpy ,jo;fSld; jil nra;ag;gl;L tpl;lJ.

,khk; [khYj;jPd; mg;fhdp mtHfs; gy Nghuhl;lq;fs; epuk;gpa tho;f;ifia Nkw;nfhz;L ,Wjpahf JUf;fpapy;  kuzkile;jhH.

,khk; K`k;kj; mg;J`{

Muk;gj;jpy; jdJ topfhl;b [khYj;jPd; mg;fhdp mtHfSld; ,ize;J vfpg;J> nga;&j;> ghhp];> tlMg;hpf;fh Nghd;w gpuNjrq;fspnyy;yhk; Mq;fpNyaUf;fhd Nghuhl;lq;fspy; jPtpukhf <Lgl;lhH. Xuhgp gh\htpd; Gul;rpapy; gq;fhw;wpajd; tpisthf 1883 y; ,khktHfs; nygdhDf;F ehL flj;jg;gl;lhHfs;. mt;Ntisapy; Mg;fhdp mtHfs; yz;ldpw;F nrd;wpUe;jhH. mq;f mjpfk; jhkjpf;fhJ ghhp]{f;Fr; nrd;W> mq;fpUe;J K`k;kj; mg;J`{ mHfis jd;Dld; ,ize;J nfhs;SkhW kly; tiue;jhH.

vq;F nrd;w NghJk; ,khktHfsspd; gzpf;F Nkw;Fyfk; gfpuq;fkhf jilfis ,l;Lf; nfhz;NlapUe;jJ. vdNt mtHfSld; gfpuq;fkhf Kuz;gl;Lf; nfhs;tjhy; vjidAk; rhjpf;f KbahJ vdf; fUjp jdJ MrphpaUf;F>

Mq;fpNyahpd; gpb mw;w ehl;bw;Fr; nrd;W vkJ r%fj;jpw;F jiyikj;Jtj;ij toq;Fk; xU FOtpdiu cUthf;FNthk; vd MNyhrid $wpdhH. mjid ,khk; mg;fhdp mtHfs; mq;fPfhpf;ftpy;iy. gpd;dH my;cHtJy; T];fh gj;jphpf;ifia ,UtUk; Muk;gpj;jdH. ghhp]py; mJTk; epWj;jg;glNt K`k;kj; mg;J`{ mtHfs; jdJ Kl;bf; nfhs;Sk; Nghf;iff; iftpl;L xU njspthd epiyg;ghl;Lld; vfpg;ij te;jile;jhH.

murpay; mjpfhuk; Nghd;wtw;iwr; rPH nra;J jw;NghJ rhj;jpakpy;iy vd;gij czHe;J murpaiy tpl;L KOf;f xJq;fp tho;e;jhH.

,e;j khHf;fj;ijr; #o;e;jpUe;j njsptpd;ik> %lek;gpf;if vd;gtw;iwf; fistjw;F Kf;fpaj;Jtkspj;jhH. gphptpidfs;> Fog;gq;fs; cUthf Kd;dH egpfshUk;> ]`hghf;fSk; tho;tjw;F topaikj;j ,];yhj;ijNa vkJ topfhl;bahff; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W typAWj;jpdhH. ,jw;fhd fskhf my; m];`H gy;fiyf;fofj;ijj; njhpT nra;jhH. mjpypUe;J ntspNaWgtHfs; rPHjpUe;jpdhy; ,];yhkpa cyfpw;F tpbT fpilf;Fk; vd cWjpahf ek;gpdhH.

mLj;J muG nkhopiaAk;> ,yf;fpaj;ijAk; capHg;gpg;gjw;fhd topKiwfis Nkw;nfhz;lhH. K];ypk;fis ,];yhj;ij tpl;Lk; J}ukhf;f Nkw;Fy Nkw;nfhz;l Muk;g Kaw;rp> muG nkhopia twz;l rpf;fyhd nkhop vd tHzpg;gjpNyNa jhd; gpujpgypj;jJ. my;FHMd; etPd fhyj;Jf;F tho;tspf;fty;yJ vd;w ek;gpf;ifAld; tphpTiufis toq;fpdhH. ]{uh me;ep]htpd; 125 Mk; trdk; tiuf;Fkhd jg;]PH tpsf;fTiufis ,khktHfsJ Neub topfhl;lypd; fPo; n\a;f; u\Pj; hpoh mtHfs; jg;]PUy; kdhH vd;w ngahpy; ntspapl;Ls;shHfs;.

xU rpW FOthftpUe;J murpay; rPHjpUj;jk; rhj;jpag;glhjNghJ mlf;FKiwfs; jiyf;F Nky; kpifj;J tplNt J}a ,];yhkpa ghuk;ghpa rpe;jidia ghJfhg;gjpD}lhf Vida rPHjpUj;jq;fis ,khktHfs; vjpHghHj;jhHfs; vd;Nw $w Ntz;Lk;. ,khktHfs; 1905 y; kuzkile;jhHfs;.

n\a;f; u\Pj; hpoh

`p[;hp 1282 y; mg;Nghija \hkpy; (jphpg;Nghyp) gpwe;j n\a;f; mtHfs; `jP];fiyiaf; fl;bf; fhj;J te;j xU FLk;gj;ijr; NrHe;jtHfs;.

my;cHtJy; T];fh gj;jphpf;ifA+lhf [khYj;jPd; Mg;fhdpAlDk;> ,khk; K`k;kj; mg;J`{ mtHfSlDk; mwpKfkhdhH. Mg;fhdp mtHfis re;jpf;f tha;g;Gf; fpilf;fh tpl;lhYk; mtuJ rpe;jid thhpR K`k;kj; mg;J`{itr; re;jpj;J mtUld; ,];yhkpag; gzpapy; ,uz;lwf; fye;jpUe;jhH. vd;Dila rpe;jidapd; nkhopngaHg;ghsH vd K`k;kj; mg;J`{ mtHfis n\a;f; mtHfs; tHzpj;jpUf;fpd;whH.

etPd fhyj;jpy; ,];yhj;jpw;nfjpuhf fpsk;gpa rpe;jdh hPjpahd midj;J rthy;fSf;Fk; Kfq;nfhLf;Fk; Mw;wiy jdJ Mrphpauhd K`k;kj; mg;J`{ mtHfSld; NrHe;J ngw;wpUe;jhH. mtH jdJ my;kdhH rQ;rpifapD}lhf KO ,];yhkpa cyfpw;Fk; xspA+l;bdhH vd;Nw $w Ntz;Lk;.

muG ehLfspy; khj;jpuky;y> ,e;jpa cgfz;lj;jpypUe;Jk; rpe;jidr; rpf;fy;fis jPHj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhf mg;NghjpUe;j gQ;rhg; Kg;jp mtHfs; n\a;f; mtHfSf;Ff; fbjk; tiue;jpUe;jhHfs;.  ,];yhkpa \hPM ,e;jpahtpypUe;J ePf;fg;gl;l epiyapy; XH me;epa Ml;rpapd; fPo; K];ypk; mur njhopy; Ghpa KbAkh? vd;w Nfs;tpf;F kpfj; njspthd xU tpsf;fj;ij ,khktHfs; toq;fpaik ,q;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

]{uh me;ep]htpy; ,khk; K`k;kj; mg;J`{ mtHfs; tpl;Lr; nrd;w ,lj;jpypUe;J n\a;f; mtHfs; my;FHMDf;F mNj ghzpiag; gpd;gw;wp tpsf;fTiu vOjp jdJ my;kdhH rQ;rpifapy; gpuRhpj;J te;jhHfs;. ]{uh A+]{gpd; 11 tJ trdk; tiuANk mtuhYk; tphpTiuia toq;f Kbe;jJ. 1935 y; mtHfs; kuzkile;J tpl;lhHfs;.

etPd fhyj;jpy; cUthfpa r%ftpaw; rpe;jidf;fhd jg;]PHfspy; Kjd;ikahdjhf jg;]PUy; kdhH fhzg;gLfpwJ. `jP]; fiyapy; Mo;e;j Gyik ngw;wpUe;j ,khktHfs; jdJ tphpTiufSf;F gf;fgykhf ]{d;dhitAk; itj;Jf; nfhz;lhH vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

,];yhk; $Wfpd;w vy;yhf; fiyfisAk; ,khktHfs; jdJ jg;]Phpy; gad;gLj;jpapUg;gNjhL ,];yhkpa murpay; rpe;jidia kpf mofhf newpg;gLj;jpapUe;jhH vd;W $w Ntz;Lk;.

murpaypy; Neubahfg; gq;F ngwh tpl;lhYk; jdJ jg;]PUlhf mjw;F topfhl;bapUe;jhH. 1927 k; Mz;L fhyg;gFjapy; gpHmt;dpa thjk; vfpg;jpy; jiyJ}f;fpa NghJ mjidf; fLikahff; fz;bj;jhH.

ah my;yh`; vq;fsJ r%fj;ij kd;dpg;ghahf! mtHfis tpl;Lk; Nguhir gpbj;j me;epauJ gpbia ePf;fp mtHfSf;F cjTtJld; eatQ;rfHfsJ jPq;if tpl;Lk; ghJfhg;ghahf!

vd my;yh`;tpd; Nfhgk;> jz;lid gw;wpg; Ngr tUfpd;w xU trdj;jpw;F tpsf;fkspf;fpd;w NghJ gpuhHj;jpj;jhHfs;. 1919 y; Mq;fpNyahpd; ml;^opaq;fs; mjpfhpj;j NghNj ,jid vOjpdhHfs;.

1924 y; Ml;lk; fz;l ,];yhkpa fpyhgj;jpd; cs;shHe;j Fiwfis tpkHrpj;jhYk; mJ tPo;r;rpaila Ntz;Lnkd ,khktHfs; xU NghJk; tpUk;gpapf;ftpy;iy. ,];yhj;jpd; Nkyhjpf;fj;jpd; %yNk ,g;G+Tyfpw;F tho;tspf;f KbAnkd ,khktHfs; G+uz ek;gpf;if nfhz;bUe;jhHfs;. Nkw;fj;ija fyhr;rhuj;jpd; rPuopTfis tpkHrpf;fpd;w Nghnjy;yhk;  ,];yhk; vtUf;Fk; topfhl;l jiyik jhq;fp elhj;j jFjp ngw;wJ vd;w thjj;ij mofhf jdJ jg;]{hpy; Kd; itj;Js;shHfs;.

,khk; `]Dy; gd;dh`;

Kd;dH nrd;w %d;W ,khk;fsJ rpe;jidfSf;F nraYUtk; toq;f mtHfs; tpl;Lr; nrd;w ,lj;jpypUe;J G+uzkilar; nra;a xU khkdpjdJ Njit 20 Mk; E}w;whz;by; czug;gl;Nl te;jJ. 1906 y; vfpg;jpy; gpwe;j ,khktHfs; 1928 y; my;,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;ij cUthf;fp> mt;tpilntspia epiwT nra;jhHfs;. fpyhgj; tPo;e;J ehd;F tUlj;jpy; ,t;tpaf;fk; kPs fpyhgj; fl;bnaOg;Gtjw;fhd mbg;gilfis ,LfpwJ.

,khktHfs; Kd;dH nrd;w %thpdJk; rpe;jidia eilKiwg;gLj;j te;j thhpR vd;Nw $w Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy; mtuJ gy eltbf;iffis (gj;jphpf;iffs; cl;gl) vfpg;jpa muR jil nra;jpUe;jJ. ,J njhpe;jpUe;Jk; n\a;f; u\Pj; hpoh FLk;gj;jpd; jg;]PUy; kdhiu mtH tpl;l ,lj;jpypUe;J njhlHtjw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd eguhf ,khk; `]Dy; gd;dh`; mtHfisNa njhpT nra;jdH.

RUq;ff; $wpd;> gpsTfs; Fog;gq;fs; Njhd;w Kd;dH egpfshUk;> ]`hghf;fSk; nfhz;bUe;j J}a ,];yhkpa rpe;jidapd; thHg;gpy; xU r%fj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gjy;> mtHfspD}lhf tPo;r;rp fz;l ,];yhkpa Ml;rpf;F capHnfhLj;jy;> ,jw;F rthyhf vkJ r%fj;ij fhyzpj;Jtj;jpw;F cl;gLj;jp vkJ xOf;fg; ghuk;ghpaq;fis rPHFiyj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; Nkw;fj;jpaHfis vkJ kz;zpypUe;J gpd;thq;fr; nra;jy;> mtHfsJ ,uhZt rpe;jid Mf;fpa fl;Lf;fspypUe;J vkJ r%fj;ij tpLtpj;J ,];yhkpa mr;rpy; thHj;njLj;J ,t;Tyf topelhj;Jk; nghWg;ig kPz;Lk; ,];yhj;jpw;Fg; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jy; vd;gd Nghd;w mbg;gilfspd; epoypNyNa ,khktHfs; jdf;F Kd; nrd;wtHfspd; mbr;Rtl;ilg; gpd;gw;wp my; ,`;thDy; K];yp%d; ,af;fj;ij cUthf;fpdhHfs;. ,jdhy; 1949 y; Nkw;FrhH vfpg;jpa murpdhy; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;lhHfs;. md;dhH Rlg;gl;L kUj;Jtkidapy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l gpd;dUk; mtUf;F vt;tpj rpfpr;ifAk; mspf;fg;gltpy;iy. me;jsT Nkw;fj;jpa murpw;F rpk;k nrhg;gdkhfTk; kf;fs nry;thf;ifg; ngw;wtuhfTk; mtHfs; jpfo;e;jhHfs;. mtiuf; nfhiy nra;J tpl;lhYk;> cyfk; KOtJk; gue;J tpahgpj;jpUf;Fk; mtuJ rpe;jidiaAk;> ,af;fj;ijAk; ahuhYk; gLnfhiy nra;a Kbatpy;iy.

irapj; FJg;

muG ,];yhkpa mwpthw;wYf;F cukpl;L mjid tsHj;jtH vd;w ngUik iraj; FJg;igNa rhUk; vd;W Ma;thsHfs; $Wfpd;wdH.

Nkw;fj;jpa Mjpf;fk; kpFe;J mjd; fy;tp> fyhr;rhu jhf;fq;fs; rKjha mikg;ig khw;wp kf;fspd; xOf;f - tpOkq;fis rPHNfL milar; nra;J te;jJ. Fwpg;ghf K];ypk;fSk; mjpy; rpf;Fz;L rpd;dhgpd;dkhtJ midtUk; mwpe;j cz;ik.

Nkw;fj;jpa rf;jpfSf;F jf;f gjpyb toq;fp rhpahd tpsf;fq;fSk; eilKiwg;gLj;jf; $ba topKiwfSk; ,y;yhkNyNa ntw;wplkhf mg;NghJ ,Ue;jJ. khHf;f tpw;gd;dHfshd cykhf;fs; Nkw;fpd; jhf;fj;ij gw;wp fLikahf rhbdhHfNs jtpu mjw;F khw;W topfis ,];yhkpag; ghHitapy; $wtpy;iy. goikapy; Cwpg; Nghd mtHfshy; kf;fspd; cz;ikahd Mjq;fj;ijAk; czHTfisAk; rhpahf fzpf;f ,aytpy;iy.

,j;jifa mjpHTfis rpWgpuhaj;jpypUe;Nj ghHj;J te;j iraj; FJg; jdJ ,sikf; fhyj;jpYk; fy;tp fw;Fk; NghJk; nghJ tho;tpYk; njhlHe;J ,jw;fhd gjpy;fis Njb te;jhH.

jw;fhy #oypy; kjk; - Fwpg;ghf ,];yhk; mjd; gq;F> ghuk;ghpa gz;Gfis xJf;Fk; rf;jpfspd; Kaw;rpfs;> kjthjpfs; vg;gb Nkw;fpd; fhydpj;Jt nfhs;iffSf;F xj;J}j gapw;rp jug;gLfpwhHfs; Nghd;w rpe;jidfs; mtiu Ml;nfhz;ld.

vfpg;jpd; m];]pA+j; khfhzj;jpw;Fl;gl;l Nkh\h vDk; fpuhkj;jpy; khHf;fg;gw;wpkpf;f tprha FLk;gj;jpy; 1906 Mk; Mz;L gpwe;j FJg; jdJ rpW tajpNyNa jpUf;FHMid kddk; nra;J tpl;lhH. 1920 y; nfa;Nuhtpd ;jhUy; cY}k; fyhrhiyapy; jd; gbg;ig njhlHe;jhH. mjd; gpd; MrphpaH ghpNrhjidahsH vd;w gyjug;gl;l fy;tp nghWg;Gfspy; caHe;jhH.

1948-51 tiu caH fy;tp epkpj;jk; mnkhpf;fh nrd;W te;j gpwF mtuJ rpe;jidfspy; jPtpuk; $baJ. jdJ Nkw;fj;jpa fy;tp Ma;it Kbj;J jhafk; te;jJk; ehd; fz;l mnkhpf;fh vDk; E}iy vOjpdhH. mjpy;> K];ypk; ehLfs; Nkw;fj;jpa fyhr;rhuj;ij fz;%bj;jdkhf gpd;gw;Wtjhy; tpisag; NghFk; Nguhgj;Jf;fs; gw;wpAk;> ,];yhkpa r%fj;jpd; jdpj;jd;ikfis mopj;njhopg;gjw;fhf Nkw;Fyfk; nra;J tUk; jpl;lq;fisAk; ,];yhkpa fyhr;rhuk; kw;Wk; xOf;f gz;ghLfis Ngzpf; fhj;jpl Ntz;ba mtrpak; gw;wpAk; njspthf tpsf;fpdhH.

mg;NghJ vfpg;jpy; gytpjkhd murpay; #o;epiy epytpaJ. Nkw;fj;jpaUf;F MjuT> gphpl;b\;  Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpw;F vjpHg;G> vfpg;jpd; tpLjiy> vfpg;J vfpg;jpaHfSf;Nf vd;w Nfh\k;. ,];yhkpa kWkyHr;rp ,g;gb gy;NtWgl;l rpe;jidfSk; thjq;fSk; mq;F cyh te;jd. me;jr; #oypy; jhd; fHdy; [khy; mg;Jy; ehrhpd; jiyikapy; Ml;rp ftpo;g;G eltbf;if ele;jJ.

md;iwa murpd; ghuk;ghpa mjpfhuj;jpd; gytPdj;ij mwpe;j ,uhZtk;> Ml;rpiaAk; mjpfhuj;ijAk; ifg;gw;w Gul;rpg;gil jiyikj;Jtj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. me;j epiyapy; kf;fspd; Mjuit G+uzkhfg; ngWtjw;F md;iwa #o;epiyapy; ,`;hthd;fspd; jaT ehrUf;F nghpJk; Njitg;gl;lJ.

`]Dy; gd;dhtpd; gLnfhiyf;Fg; gpwF `]d; my; `{ijgp ,`;thd;fspd; jiyikia Vw;wpUe;jhH. iraj; FJg; ,`;thd;fSld; ,zq;fp mj;jUzj;jpy; nray;gl;ljhy; Gul;rp rigapd; nghJr; nrayhsH gjtpAk; FJg;Gf;F ehruhy; toq;fg;gl;lJ.

Mdhy;> [{iy 1952 y; ,uhZtg; Gul;rpf;Fg; gpwF XhpU tUlq;fspy; ehrH mtuJ rfh md;tH rjhj; Nghd;wtHfspd; muG kw;Wk; vfpg;jpa Njrpa czHTfSk; ,`;thd; ,af;fj;jpd; ghHitAk;> cykhf;fspd; goikg; ghHitAk; Nkhj Muk;gpj;jd. ,ilapy; vfpg;J tpLjiy mile;J tpLjiy ngw;whYk; xU Rje;jpu rKjhak; vg;gb rpwg;ghf mika Ntz;Lk; vd;w nfhs;if tFf;fg;gltpy;iy. xU rpwg;ghd rKjha mikg;ig cUthf;Fk; Njl;lj;jpy; %o;fp nra;apj; FJg; 1952 Mk; Mz;L jhk; tfpj;J te;j midj;J mjpfhug; gjtpfisAk; Jwe;jhH. kWkyHr;rp kW rpe;jid ,];yhj;jpw;F Kjd;ikahf ,lk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w ce;Jjy; Kd;dpw;f nra;apJ FJg; mtHfSld; vfpg;jpa ghuk;ghpaKk; gwpNghfhky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ek;gpdhH. mj;jifa ek;gpf;if md;iwa vfpg;jpa rpe;jidahsuhf jh`h `{I]d; Nghd;wtHfspd; ,];yhk; my;yhj fUj;jf;fSf;F xU rthyhfTk; ,Ue;jJ. Mdhy; mtw;iw tpl md;iwa muG Njrpa czHT KOikahff; nfhz;l mjpfhuj;Jt muRf;F mj;jifa nfhs;iffs; xU vjpHg;ghfTk; mike;jd. nra;apj; FJg;gpd; nray;ghLfis %d;W gFjpfshfg; gphpf;fyhk;.

KjyhtJ fl;lj;jpy; md;W mtuJ rpe;jidfisg; nghpJk; ghjpj;jJ. xOf;f KiwNfLfNs ey;tho;Tf;Fj; Njitahd ,];yhkpa Nfhl;ghLfs; tsHf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w jPtpug;gpur;rhuj;jpy; FJg; ,wq;fpdhH.kdpj ,ay;Gk; kw;Wk; rKjhaf; flikfs; kdpj chpikfs; Nghd;wtw;iw tpLjiy Ghpe;JzHT  ld; mtH mZfpdhH. kdpjj; Njitfs;> tpUg;G ntWg;Gfs; ,];yhkpa Nehf;fpy; ghHf;fg;gl;L kf;fspd; <Hg;ig mtH ngw;whH.

,uz;lhtJfl;lj;jpy; nra;apj; FJg; myryfs;> ,];yhj;ijj; jw;fhyr; #o;epiyAk; rthy;fSk; gjpyhfTk; etPdq;fspd; jhf;fq;fisr; rkhspf;fTk;> ,];yhKk; K];ypk;fSk; jahuhf Ntz;Lk; vd;W KbntLj;J K];ypk;fSf;fpilNa vijAk; rkhspj;J tpLk; Mw;wy; kpifj;J epw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nehf;fk; mtUs; ,Ue;jJ. mj;jifa tpsf;fq;fisj; jhq;fpa ,];yhkpa r%f ePjp> ,];yhKk; Kjyhspj;JtKk;> cyf mikjpAk;> ,];yhKk; ,];yhkpa vOr;rpapd; iky;fw;fs;> jpUf;FHMd; epoypNy Nghd;w mtuJ E}y;fs; ,];yhj;jpd; gq;fpid czHj;JtjhfTk;> ,jaq;fisj; jl;b vOg;GtjhfTk; ,Ue;jd.

,e;j E}y;fspd; nghjpe;J fple;j ,d;ndhU tp\ak; vd;dntd;why; jw;fhy rKjha murpay; gpur;idfSf;F rhpahd gjpy; jUtjw;F xw;Wikahd rhpahd rKjhag; ghHit Njitnad typAWj;jg;gl;lJ. mj;jifa rpe;jidfSk; gpur;rhuq;fSk; md;iwa murhq;fq;fSf;Fk;> mtw;wpd; eltbf;iffSk; kUl;ly; jUk; ghzpapy; ,Ue;jd. vdNt ,`;thd; ,af;fk; 1954 y; MSk; tHf;fj;jpduhy; jil nra;ag;gl;lJ. mg;NghJ ,`;thd;fspd; ,af;fj;jpd; miog;G kw;Wk; gpur;rhuf; FOtpd; jiytuhfTk;> ,af;fj;jpdiu top elj;Jk; jiyikg; nghWg;gpd; %d;whtJ ,lj;jpYk; nra;apJ FJg; ,Ue;jhH. vdNt mtUk; ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhH. fLk; rpj;jputijfSf;F MshdhH. ,jpy; Mr;rhpag;glj;jf;f mk;rk; vJTk; ,y;iy. vNjr;rjpfhuk; jiyJ}f;Fk; NghJ cz;ikahsHfspd; jiyFdptpw;Fk; ,opTf;Fk; MshtJ ,aw;if jhNd. Mdhy; mtUf;F 15 tUl fLq;fhty; jz;lid tpjpj;jJ murpay; neUf;fbapd; cr;rfl;lj;ij njspthf;fpaJ. murhq;fj;ij vjpHg;gtHfSf;Fk; ntQ;rpiwjhd; ghprhff; nfhLf;fg;gLk; vd;gij Ml;rpahsHfs; giwrhl;bdhHfs;. 1964 y; nfa;NuhTf;F tUif je;j <uhf;fpd; mjpgH mg;Jy; ]yhk; Mhp/g; nra;apJ FJg; 10 Mz;LfSf;F Nky; jz;lid mDgtpj;J tpl;lhH. mtiu tpl;L tpLq;fs; vd;W $wpdhH. <uhf;fpd; jait ehb epd;whH ehrH. FJg;ig tpLjiy nra;jhH. FJg; tho;f;ifapd; %d;whtJ gFjpapy;> mtuJ rpe;jidapy; jj;Jt Nehf;fpy; vjpHfhy ,];yhkpa cd;djj;ij ntspg;gLj;Jtjhf ,Ue;jJ. kh/mypk; /gp-my; jhhpf; - ,];yhkpa vOr;rpapd; iky;fw;fs; vd;Dk; E}ypy; ,tw;iw mtH tpthpj;jhH. /gpohypy; FHMd; - jpUf;FHMd; epoypy; vd;Dk; jpUf;FHMd; njspTiu vd;Dk; E}ypy; ,d;iwa fhyj;jpd; rthy;fSf;F jf;fthW mjid tbj;jhH. mjpy; jdJ mDgtq;fisAk; mjd; %yk; ngwg;gLk; cs;Nehf;F tpsf;fq;fisAk; Kd; itj;jhH. ,iwek;gpf;if ekJ Neubr; nray;fSf;F cWJizahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gijj; njspTgLj;jpdhH. tho;f;ifapd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;F toptFf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W mjpy; tpthpj;jhH. ,];yhj;jpd; Muk;g fl;lj;jpy; egpj;Jtk; mwpahik khw;Wtjw;F Kaw;rpj;jJ vd;why; mNj #o;r;rp epiy ,d;W K];ypk;fspd; kj;jpapYk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;W $wp> egpfshhpd; miog;Gg; gzpia jpUk;gf; $w Ntz;Lk; vd;W typAWj;jpdhH. ,j;jifa rpe;jidfs; ,e;jpah cgfz;lj;jpy; nksyhdh mGy; m/yh nksJ}jp> nksyhd mGy; `]d; myp ej;tp> nksyhdh mg;gh]; my; mf;fhj; Nghd;NwhHfspd; fUj;Jf;fSf;F Vw;g ,Ue;jJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

20 Mk; E}w;whz;bd; Njitf;Fj; jf;fgb xU ew;rKjhaj;ij kPz;Lk; cUthf;f Kaw;rpj;J mtuJ cuj;j rpe;jidapd; xsp> 1966 Mk; Mz;L mizf;fg;gl;lJ. murhq;fj;ij Gul;rpapd; topapy; ftpo;f;f Kaw;rpj;jhH vd;W Fw;wk; rhl;b mtUf;Fj; J}f;Fj; jz;lidia ehrhpdhy; jug;gl;lJ. Fw;wk; rhpahdgb ep&gpf;fg;gltpy;iy. MdhYk; kuz jz;lid tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ.

nra;apj; FJg;gpw;F toq;fg;gl;l nfhLe; jz;lidia Fiwf;Fk;gb cyf K];ypk;fspd; ehLfspd; jiytHfSk;> Nghpaf;fq;fSk; ehriuf; Nfl;Lf; nfhz;ld. mtw;iwg; Gwe;js;sp mtUf;F kuz jz;lidia toq;fp tuyhw;wpy; ePq;fhj tLit ehrH cz;lhf;fpdhH. vfpg;jpd; xU tPuj;jpUkfid ,oe;jJ ,];yhkpa cyfk;. kfj;jhdnjhU rpe;jidahsiuAk; r%f rpw;gpiaAk; ,oe;jJ.

H 4
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