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,];yhkpa tq;fp Kiw XH mwpKfk;

- m\;n\a;f; ]P.IA+g; myp


jw;fhy tl;b Kiwapy; mbg;gilapyhd (Traditional System) tq;fp mikg;G kpf ePz;l fhy tuyhw;Wg; gpd;dzpiaf; nfhz;ljhFk;. gy gz;ila ehfhPfq;fNshL ,jw;Fj; njhlHgpUf;fpd;wJ. gioa tuyhw;W VLfspYs;s jfty;fspd;gb fl;lk; fl;lkhf> gbKiwahd xU tsHr;rpia ,J ngw;W te;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

fyhepjp fhPg; [khy; Fwpg;gpLtJ Nghy;> fp.K.300 Mz;L fhy tuhw;iwAila nkhrgNjkpa ehfhPf vy;iyf;Fl;gl;l njd; <uhf; gpuNjrq;fshd RNkhpaHfsplj;jpYk; mtHfsJ tPo;r;rpf;Fg; gpd;dH vOr;rp ngw;w ghgpNyhdpaHfsplj;jpYk; tq;fpj; njhopNyhL njhlHghd gy eltbf;iffs; fhzg;gl;ld. ,t;tpuz;L ehfhPf fhyg; gFjpfspYk; ghpRj;j Njthyaq;fNs tq;fpj; njhopy; eltbf;iffSf;fhd kj;jpa epiyaq;fshf tpsq;fpd. kf;fs; ek;gpf;ifNahLk; gw;WjpNahLk; jkJ nry;tq;fis mq;F ghJfhj;J te;jdH. ,jdhy; ngUe;njhifahd nry;tk; mq;Nf Ftpe;jpUe;jJ. mj;NjhL Njthyaq;fSf;Fg; gpukpf;fj;jf;fsT epue;ju tUkhdq;fSk; fpilj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jd.1

gpd;dH fpNuf;fHfSk;> NuhkHfSk;> ghgpNyhdpaHfSk; tq;fpj; njhopy; rhH Kiwikfisf; fw;Wj; jkJ fhydpj;Jtj;jpw;Fl;gl;l ehLfspy; gug;gpdH. ,jdhy;> fp.gp. 1k;> 3k; E}w;whz;Lfspy; tq;fpj; njhopy; kpf cahpa tsHr;rpiag; ngw;wpUe;jJ. vdpDk;> gutyhff; fhzg;gl;l tq;fpj; njhopy; rhH eltbf;iffs; xOq;FgLj;jg;gl;L epWtdkhf;fg;gl;l jw;fhy tq;fpaikg;G vg;NghJ Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ vd;gij tiuaWj;Jf; $l Kbatpy;iy.

,e;j tifapy; fp.gp.1157 y; ,j;jhypapYs;s ntdp]; efhpy; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;l tq;fpNa Kjy; tq;fpahf ,Uf;fyhk; vdf; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. gpd;dH fp.gp.1401 y; ghH]Nyhdh efhpy; xU tq;fp epWtg;gl;lJ. mjidj; njhlHe;J `hye;J (Holand) ehl;by; fp.gp.1609 y; mk;];lHlhk; tq;fp epWtg;gl;lJ Kjy; tq;fpj; njhopy; INuhg;gpa cyfpy; tiuaWf;fg;gl;lJ. fp.gp.19 k; E}w;whz;by; ,q;fpyhe;J ehl;by; Vw;gl;l ifj; njhopw; Gul;rpiaj; njhlHe;J cyf ehLfspy; gytw;wpy; gy;NtW Nehf;fq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; gutyhf tq;fpfs; cUthf;fg;gl;ld.2

,e;j tq;fpfs; thbf;ifahsHfspd; gz itg;Gf;fisg; nghWg;Ngw;W mtw;iwg; ghJfhj;jy;> KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfspy; <LgLj;jy;> thbf;ifahsHfSf;Fj; Njitg;gLk; Neuj;jpy; kPs xg;gilj;jy;> tl;bf;Ff; fld; nfhLj;J cjTjy;> ehzakhw;W Nritfis toq;Fjy;> gz clikahsDf;Fk; mjid cgNahfpg;gtDf;Fkpilapy; kiwKfkhdnjhU njhlHig Vw;gLj;Jjy; Nghd;w gzpfis Nkw;nfhs;Sk; epjp epWtdq;fshf tpsq;Ffpd;wd.3 ,it ,aqFtJk;> tsHr;rpailtJk; tl;bapyhdhFk;. tl;bapd;wp ,tw;wpd; ve;jnthU nraw;ghLk; ,lk; ngw KbahJ vd;gNj ntspg;gilahdjhFk;.

,d;iwa cyfg; nghUshjhu ,af;fj;Jf;Fk;> mgptpUj;jpf;Fk; tl;b mbg;gilapyhd ,e;j tq;fpfs; kpfg; gpujhdkhd gq;fspg;Gf;fisr; nrYj;jp tUfpd;wd. cs;ehl;bYk; rHtNjr kl;lj;jpYk; ,lk; ngWk; fld; nfhLf;fy; - thq;fy; eltbf;iffSk; tHj;jffj; njhlHGfSk; ifj;njhopw;rhH mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq;fSk; gzr; re;ij eltbf;iffSk; ,e;j tq;fpfspd; ClhfNt Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd. RUq;ff; $wpd;> jdpkdpj tho;Tk;> rKjha tho;Tk;> Njrpa tho;Tk; $l ,d;W ,e;j tq;fpfNshL njhlHGgLfpd;wd.

Mdhy;> tl;bapd; mbg;gilapy; mike;Js;s vy;yhtpjkhd nfhLf;fy; thq;fy; eltbf;iffisAk; ,];yhk; jil nra;Js;sJ. mJ nrhe;j cgNahfj;Jf;fhfj; jug;gl;l fldhf ,Ue;jhYk;> mgptpUj;jp NtiyfSf;Fg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; %yjdkhf ,Ue;jhYk; rhpNa. NkYk;> tl;bapdhy; ed;ik tpisahJ. jPik jhd; cUthFk;. mJ kdpj tho;tpy; epk;kjpaw;w gjl;l epiyfisAk;> gy;NtW gpur;idfisAk; Njhw;Wtpf;Fk;. mj;Jld; cyfpd; nghUshjhu mgptpUj;jpf;F ve;j tifapYk; gadspf;fhJ vd;gJ ,];yhj;jpd; fUj;jhFk;.

vdNt> ,];yhk; mDkjpf;fhj ,j;jifa tl;b rhh etPd tq;fpfSf;F khw;wPlhf ,];yhkpa nghUshjhuf; Nfhl;ghLfSf;fika ,];yhkpa tq;fpaikg;ig ];jhgpf;f Ntz;bajd; mtrpak; Fwpj;J 1950 fspy; rpy Kf;fpa mwpQHfs; rpe;jpj;jhHfs;. mtHfSs; mwpQH ngUe;jiffshd <]h mg;J`{ ,g;uh`Pk;> m`;kj; e[;[hH> mg;Jy;yh`; my; mwgp> fhkpy; ghfpH> m\;n\a;f; ,H\hj; MfpNahH Fwpg;gplj;jf;ftHfshtH.

,t;twpQHfshy; Kd; itf;fg;gl;l ,];yhkpa tq;fp gw;wpa rpe;jid Muk;gj;jpy; kpff; fLikahd tpkHrdj;jpw;F cs;shdJ. mJ eilKiwr; rhj;jpakw;wJ> mjw;fhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; Kaw;rpfSk;> gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;w %yjdq;fSk; tPzhfp tpLnkd Nkw;Fyfg; nghUshjhu epGzHfshy; nrhy;yg;gl;lJ. rpy Kf;fpa mwpQHfsplj;jpy; $l ,j;jifa fUj;Jf;fs; fhzg;gl;ld. Mdhy;> my;yh`;tpd; fpWigahy; ,uz;liuj; jrhg;jq;fs; foptjw;F Kd;dNu ,];yhkpa tq;fpapd; eilKiwr; rhj;jpakhd nraw;ghLfs; njspthfp tpl;ld.

1963 k; Mz;L vfpg;J ehl;by; KjyhtJ ,];yhkpa tq;fp ];jhgpf;fg;gl;l NghJ vfpg;jpy; muR cl;gl tl;b rhH tq;fpfs; mjid td;ikahf vjpHj;jd.4 ,jdhy; vjpHghHj;j ,yf;if me;j tq;fpapdhy; mile;J nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy.

mjd; gpd;dUk; cyfpd; gy ehLfspy; ,];yhkpa tq;fpfs; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;ld. 1970 y; m\;n\a;f;. ,H\hj; vd;gtuhy; ghfp];jhdpy; epWtg;gl;l ,];yhkpa tq;fp> 1971 y; vfpg;jpd; jiyefH nfa;Nuhtpy; epWtg;gl;l 'eh]pUy; ,[;jpkh," vd;w tq;fp Mfpad mtw;Ws; Kf;fpakhitahFk;. ,itAk; Muk;gf; fl;lj;jpy; gy;NtW rthy;fs;> vjpHg;Gf;fSf;F Kfk; nfhLf;f NeHe;jNjhL> K];ypk;fsplk; ,];yhkpa tq;fpapay; rhH Nfhl;ghLfis eilKiwg;gLj;Jtjpy; Nghjpa mDgt KjpHr;rp fhzg;glhjjdhy; Njhy;tpiaNa jOt NeHe;jJ. my;yJ vjpHghHj;j ,yf;if mtw;why; mila KbahJ Ngha; tpl;lJ. vdpDk; ,e;j tq;fpfs; ngw;w mDgtq;fs;> mit tpl;l jtWfs;> vjpHNehf;fpa gpur;idfs;> rthy;fs; Mfpad gpw;gl;l fhyq;fspy; epWtg;gl;;l ,];yhkpa tq;fpfSf;F ey;y gbg;gpidahf mike;jd.

,e;j tifapy; 1975 k; Mz;L m\;n\a;f; ]<j; ,g;D m`;kj; vd;gtuhYk; kw;Wk; rpyuJ gq;fspg;NghLk; Jghapy; ];jhgpf;fg;gl;l ''Jgha; ,];yhkpa tq;fp"" Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjha; tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. ,JNt KjyhtJ ntw;wpfukhd ,];yhkpa tq;fpahFk;. ,iwaUshy; ,d;W tiu mJ ntF rpwg;ghf ,aq;Ffpd;wJ.5 ,Nj Nghy; ,d;W kw;Wk; gy Fwpg;gplj;jf;f ,];yhkpa tq;fpfSk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

Islamic Bank of Burunai,

Faisal Islamic Bank of Sudan,

Islamic Development Bank of Jeddah

Islamic Bank of Sharjah,

Islamic Banking System Luxambourg,

Investment Co.. Genewa, Switzerland.

Mfpad mtw;Ws; Kf;fpakhditahFk;.

nghJthf ,d;W K];ypk; ehLfspYk;> K];ypk; my;yhj ehLfspYk; ,];yhkpa tq;fp mNkhf tuNtw;igg; ngw;wpUf;fpd;wJ. cyfpYs;s Ie;J fz;lq;fspYk; rpwpa mstpYk; nghpa mstpYk; gy;NtW ngaHfspy; ,e;j tq;fpaikg;G nraw;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. K];ypk;fs; ,jd; kPJ G+uz ek;gpf;if nfhz;L jkJ fzf;Ffis itg;Gr; nra;fpd;whHfs;. jkJ nfhLf;fy; thq;fy; njhlHGfisAk; Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Ls;shHfs;.

,e;j tifapy; etPd nghUshjhuf; fUj;Njhl;lj;jpw;F rthyhf mikAk; tpjj;jpy; ,jd; tsHr;rp Ntfk; Jhpjkile;Js;sJ. jw;fhyg; nghUshjhu mikg;gpy; epyTk; rPHNfLfs;> xOq;fw;w epyikfs; vd;gtw;iw mfw;wp cyfpd; nghUshjhu mgptpUj;jpf;Fk; r%f Nkk;ghl;bw;Fk; ,jd; %yk; cjtyhk; vd;gJ epjHrdkhd cz;ikahfp tpl;lJ. gy E}w;whz;Lfhy; tuyhw;Wg; gpd;dzpiaf; nfhz;l tl;b Kiwapd; mbg;gilapyhd (Traditionaly System) tq;fpfNshL Nghl;bapl;L RkhH ,uz;L jrhg;j fhyg; gFjpf;Fs; ,];yhkpa tq;fp mile;jpUf;fpd;w Kd;Ndw;wk; etPd fhy nghUspay; tpw;gd;dHfis gpukpf;fr; nra;Js;sJ. vdNt jhd; K];ypk; ehLfspYs;s gy;fiyf;fofq;fspy; khj;jpukpd;wp gphpj;jhdpa> mnkhpf;f> n[Hkd; Nghd;w ehl;Lg; gy;fiyf;foq;fspYk; $l ,];yhkpag; nghUspay;> ,];yhkpa tq;fpapay; gw;wpa Ma;Tfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd. rHtNjr ehza epjpak; (I.M.F.) ,jw;nfd jdpahdnjhU Ma;Tg; gphpitNa cUthf;fpapUf;fpd;wJ.6

,d;W rpy tl;b rhH tq;fpfs; ,];yhkpa tq;fpfspd; Jhpjkhd tsHr;rpiaAk;> gpugy;aj;ijAk; fl;Lg;gLj;j Kbahnjd;gjdhYk;> jkJ thbf;ifahsHfs; mtHfsJ gz itg;Gf;fis thg]; ngw;W ,];yhkpa tq;fpfspy; kPs; itg;Gr; nra;tjdhYk; jkJ ,Ug;igNa cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s Kbahj ,f;fl;lhd epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;Ls;sd. vdNt jhd; mit jkJ epHthff; fl;likg;gpd; fPo; ,];yhkpa tq;;fpg; gphpTfisj; Njhw;Wtpf;fj; Jtq;fpAs;sd.

 

,];yhkpa tq;fpapd; jd;ikAk; xOq;fikg;Gk;

,];yhkpa tq;fp vd;gJ r%fj;jpd; gutyhff; fhzg;gLk; nry;tj;ijj; jpul;b r%f Nkk;ghl;bw;Fk;> If;fpaj;jpw;Fk; gad;ey;Fk; tpjj;jpYk;;> ,];yhkpa mbg;gilapyhd $l;L tho;Tf;Fj; Jiz nra;Ak; tpjj;jpYk;> ePjkhd nry;tg; gfpHit cWjp nra;tijAk;> tl;b ePq;fyhd nry;tg; ghpkhw;wj;jpw;Fk; cjTtijAk; ,];yhkpa \hPmj; tpjpKiwfSf;Nfw;g nry;tj;ij KjyPL nra;tjd; %yk; mgptpUj;jp mila toptFg;gijAk; ,yf;fhff; nfhz;l xU epjp epWtdkhFk;. ,jd; nraw;ghLfs; midj;Jk; ,iwar;rj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;Fk;.7

,];yhkpa tq;fp jdJ ,yf;Ffis miltjw;Fg; gpd;tUk; %d;W gpujhd xOq;Ffisf; filgpbf;fpd;wJ.

Nrkpg;Gf;fhd J}z;LjiyAk; mjw;fhd gapw;rpiaAk; toq;Fjy; :

mjhtJ> nry;tj;ij tPz; tpuak; nra;tij tpl;Lk; r%f cWg;gpdHfisj; jLj;J mtHfSk; r%fKk; gad;gLk; tpjj;jpy; mtw;iw vt;thW Nrkpf;fyhk; vd;gjw;fhd J}z;LjiyAk; gapw;rpiaAk; toq;Fjy;

cw;gj;jp eltbf;iffspy; <LgLtjw;fhd gapw;rpia toq;Fjy; :

mjhtJ> r%f cWg;gpdHfs; jkJ Nrkpg;igAk; tq;fpapdhy; toq;fg;gLk; fld;fisAk; vt;thW ed;ik gaf;Fk; njhopw;Jiwfspy; <LgLj;jp mgptpUj;jp nra;J nfhs;s KbAnkd;gjw;fhd gapw;rpiaAk; njhopy; El;ghPjpahd cjtpfisAk; toq;FtNjhL mtrpag;gbd; cw;gj;jpahsUf;Fj; Njitg;gLk; rpy Fwpg;gpl;l %yjdq;fis nkhj;jkhff; nfhs;tdT nra;J mtHfsJ Njitf;Nfw;g fld; mbg;gilapy; toq;Fjy;.

KjyPl;Lj; Jiwapy; vjpHNehf;fg;gLk; rpukq;fisj; jtpg;gjw;fhd topKiwfis fw;Wf; nfhLj;jy; :

mjhtJ> tq;fp ,yhgk; <l;bj; jUk; njhopw;Jiwfis mwpkfk; nra;J itg;gNjhL KjyPl;lhsHfSld; Neubahdj; njhlHG nfhz;L clDf;Fld; Njitahd gapw;rpfisAk; MNyhridfisAk; toq;Fk;. mtHfSf;F kd cWjpiaAk; cw;rhfj;ijAk; nfhLf;Fk;.

 

,];yhkpa tq;fpapd; mbg;gilfs;

,];yhkpa tq;fp jdJ ,yf;Ffis va;Jtjpy; gpd;tUk; mbg;gilfisf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; :

tl;bAldhd njhlHGfs;> nraw;ghLfis Kw;whfNt jtpHj;jy;

nry;tk; jpul;Ltjw;Fhpa %yjdkhfg; gzk; kl;Lkpd;wp kdpjdJ cly; hPjpahd> rpe;jdh hPjpahd ciog;Gk;> ek;gpf;if> ehzaKk; mtrpakhfpd;wd vd;w fUj;ij typAWj;jy;

nghUshjhu mgptpUj;jpNahL r%f mgptpUj;jpaiAk; njhlHGgLj;jy;

nry;tg; ghpkhw;wq;fis ,yFgLj;jy;

cw;gj;jpj; jpwid Nkk;gLj;Jjy;

%yjdj;ij tpUj;J nra;jYk;> cWjpg;gLj;jYk;

,];yhkpa mbg;gilapyhd $l;L tho;Tf;Fk;> gu];gu xj;Jiog;Gf;Fk; top tFg;gNjhL kf;fs; kj;jpapy; ePjpahdJk;> rkj;JtkhdJkhd tsg; gfpHT ,lk; ngw cjTjy;

r%f If;fpaj;jpw;Fk; nghUshjhu Nkk;ghl;bw;Fk; tif nra;jy;

\hPmj; rl;l tpjpKiwfiSf;fikthd njhopw;JiwfisAk; KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfisAk; mwpKfk; nra;jy;

tq;fpapd; ,af;fk;> nraw;ghLfs; Mfpatw;iw ,];yhkpa \hPmj; rl;l tpjpfSf;F ,irthf mikj;Jf; nfhs;sy;.8

,];yhkpa tq;fpapd; gpujhd nraw;ghLfs;

nghJthf tl;b Kiwapd; mbg;gilapyhd tq;fpfs; Nkw;nfhs;fpd;w nraw;ghLfspy; \hPmj; tpjpKiwfSf;F Kuzpy;yhjtw;iw ,];yhkpa tq;fpAk; mg;gbNa mKy;gLj;JtNjhL mtw;Wf;F Kuzhdtw;wpy; \hPmj;jpd; capNuhl;lj;jpw;fika Njitahd jpUj;jq;fisr; nra;J mKy;gLj;Jk;. NkYk; ,];yhkpag; nghUshjhuf; Nfhl;ghLfSf;fika NtW rpy njhopw;ghLfisAk; mJ nfhz;bUf;Fk;. ,tw;wpy; gpujhd njhopy;fs; gpd;tUkhW :

itg;Gfisg; nghWg;Ngw;wYk; mtw;iwg; ghJfhj;jYk;

fld; trjpfis Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLj;jy;

fhNrhiyfisAk;> ehzaf; fbjq;fisAk; ghpkhwpf; nfhs;s thbf;ifahsHfSf;F cjTjy;

ehzaq;fis ,lk; tpl;L ,lk; efHj;j top nra;jy;

thbf;ifahsHfspd; gpujpepjpahf epd;W ehzaf; nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fSf;F cjTjy;

ntspehl;L ehzakhw;W cz;bay;fisAk; toq;Fjy;

ghJfhg;G miwfis thliff;F tply;

cs;ehl;L ntspehl;L tHj;jfj;Jf;F cjTjy;

thbf;ifahsH rhHghf cj;juthjf; fbjq;fis toq;Fjy;

r%ff; fhg;GWjp eltbf;iffspy; <LgLjy;

thlif kw;Wk; mlF Nritfis toq;Fjy;

gq;Ffisf; nfhs;tdT nra;jYk; tpw;gid nra;jYk;

\hPmj; mDkjpj;j tHj;jfk; kw;Wk; njhopw; KiwrhH KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfspy; <Lgl;L gzk; rk;ghjpj;jy; 9

 

tq;fpapd; epjp %yjdq;fs;

,];yhkpa tq;fp jdJ ,af;fj;ij ,yFgLj;Jtjw;Fk; ,yf;Ffis miltjw;Fk;> njhopw;ghLfis rpukkpd;wp Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk; trjpahf mikAk; tifapy; gpd;tUk; gpujhd itg;Gf;fis Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpwJ.

Muk;g itg;G

KjyPl;L Nehf;fk; nfhz;l itg;G

KjyPl;L Nehf;fk; ,y;yhj itg;G

(1) Muk;g itg;G

,];yhkpa tq;fpnahd;iw ];jhgpg;gjw;Fj; Njitahd Muk;gg %yjdj;ij ,J Fwpf;Fk;. ,e;j %yjdk; murhq;fj;jplkpUe;Njh my;yJ muR rhHgw;w nghJepWtdk; xd;wplkpUe;Njh ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk;. gy epWtdq;fs; my;yJ nghJkf;fs; ,ize;j tiuaWf;fg;glhj gq;Filik mbg;gilapYk; (Free Partnership) ,jidg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s KbAk;. trjpgilj;j jdpegUk; ,jid toq;fyhk;.

tq;fpapd; gzk; kw;Wk; nraw;ghl;NlhL njhlHghd rfy eltbf;iffSf;Fk; ,e;j Muk;g itg;ghsHfNs nghWg;ghf ,Ug;gH. ,t;itg;Gf;Fhpa gq;FjhuHfspd; chpikfs; mtHfs; nfhs;tdT nra;Js;s gq;Ffspd; msTf;Nfw;g kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;bUf;fk;. mjw;Nfw;gNt mtHfSf;F ,yhg el;lq;fSk; gfpug;gLk;.

,g;gq;FjhuHfspd; jhk; epidj;j Neuj;jpy; jkJ gq;Ffis thg]; ngw mDkjpf;fg;gl khl;lhHfs;. mtHfspy; ahuhtJ ,we;jhy; mj;jifatuJ gq;Ffs; mtuJ thhpRjhuUf;F khw;wg;gLk;. ,jidhy; tq;fpapd; nraw;ghL ghjpf;fg;gl khl;lhJ.

rpyNtis tq;fp e\;like;J mjdhy; Vw;gl;l ,og;ig <L nra;a mjd; nrhj;Jf;fs; NghjhjpUe;jhy; ,t; itg;ghsHfs; jkJ nrhe;j nrhj;Jf;fis tpw;NwDk; <L nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,jidj; jtpHf;fNt ,yhgj;jpy; xU Fwpg;gl;l tPjk; ghJfhg;G epjpahf xJf;fp itf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. e\;lj;jpd; NghJ ,jidf; nfhz;L <L nra;a KbAk;.

 

(2) KjyPl;L Nehf;fk; nfhz;l itg;G

,yhgkPl;Ljiy Nehf;fkhff; nfz;l gz itg;Gf;fis ,J Fwpf;Fk;. ,];yhkpa tq;fp ,t;tikg;Gf;fis tiuaWf;fg;gl;l gq;Flik () mbg;gilapy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;. vdNt> tiuaWf;fg;glhj itg;ghsHfs; Nghy; ,t;itg;ghsHfs; tq;fp eltbf;iffspy; mjpfhuk; nrYj;Jtjw;Nfh> fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;Nfh chpik ngw khl;lhHfs;. Mdhy;> tq;fpapd; epjpf; fzf;Ffisg; ghHitapl> mjd; eltbf;iffs; \hPMTf;F cl;gl;l tifapy; ,aq;Ffpd;wdth vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s KbAk;. nghJthf tq;fp ,t;itg;Gf;fisg; gpd;tUk; ,uz;L xOq;Ffspy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;.

(m) mjpfhukspf;fg;gl;l KjyPl;L itg;G (Partnership with Authorisation)

(M) mjpfhukspf;fg;glhj KjyPl;L itg;G (Partnership without Authorisation)

(m) mjpfhukspf;fg;gl;l KjyPl;L itg;G

,jpy; itg;Gr; nra;jtH jdJ %yjdj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jk; KOikahd mjpfhuj;ij tq;fpf;F toq;FthH. tq;fp cs;ehl;bNyh> ntspehl;bNyh jhd; ey;ynjd; fUJk; njhopw;Jiwfisj; njhpT nra;J mjidj; jtpHj;Njh jd;dplKs;s ,ju %yjdq;fNshL NrHe;Njh tUkhdk; ciof;Fk; Nehf;fpy; KjyPL nra;Ak;.

epjp tUlk; Kbtpy; KjyPl;lhsUf;fhd ,yhg e\;l msit mtuJ %yjdg; ngWkjp> itg;Gr; nra;j fhyk; vd;gw;Wf;Nfw;g tq;fp epHthfk; kpf ePjkhd Kiwapy; E}w;WtPj mbg;gilapy; jPHkhdpj;J toq;Fk;. mg;nghOJ KjyPl;lhsH tpUk;gpd; mtuJ itg;Gj; njhifia kPsg; ngw KbAk;. tq;fp jdJ Nritf;fhf> ,yhgj;jpy; xU Fwpg;gpl;l tpfpjj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;.

 

(M) mjpfhukspf;fg;glhj KjyPl;L itg;G

,jpy; itg;Gr; nra;jtH tUkhdk; ciof;Fk; Nehf;fpy; tq;fpapdhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w KjyPl;L eltbf;iffspy; jhd; tpUk;gpaijj; njhpT nra;J mjpy; jdJ %yjdj;ij <LgLj;JkhW tq;fpia Ntz;LthH. ,t;itg;ghshplkpUe;J tq;fp ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; %yjdk; ''Kohugh"" xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;Fkhifahy; itg;ghsUf;fhd ,yhgj; njhif tl;b rhH tq;fpfspy; Nghd;W ,t;tsntd Kd; $l;bNa epr;rapj;J tiuaWf;fg;gl;bUf;f khl;lhJ. mtH tq;fpAld; nra;J nfhs;Sk; xg;ge;j ,zf;fg;ghl;bw;F Vw;g mtUf;Fk; tq;fpf;Fkhd ,yhgg; gq;Ffs; tpfpjhrhu mbg;gilapy; mike;jpUf;Fk;. e\;l Nkw;gbd; KO e\;lj;ijAk; itg;ghsNu nghWg;Ngw;f Ntz;Lk;. tq;fpiag; nghWj;jtiu mjd; ciog;G e\;lkhff; fUjg;gLk;.

mk;KjyPl;L Kaw;rpapd; NghJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l Jiwapy; khj;jpuk; gzk; <LgLj;jg;gLtjdhy; mjpy; fpilf;Fk; ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; khj;jpuNk itg;ghsH gq;F ngWthH. KjyPl;L xg;ge;j KwpT fhyk; KjyPl;bd; jd;ikiag; nghWj;J jtizaplg;gl;ljhfNth> jtizaplg;glhjjhfNth ,Uf;f KbAk;.

tq;fp ,j;jifa KjyPl;L eltbf;ifapd; NghJ jdp xU eguJ %yjdj;ij kl;LNkh my;yJ mjNdhLgyuJ ,j;jifa %jdq;fs; kw;Wk; jd;dplk; itg;Gr; nra;agl;Ls;s ,ju %yjdq;fs; Mfpatw;NwhL NrHj;Njh KjyPL nra;a KbAk;. mt;thW jdpj;j xUtuJ %yjdk; khj;jpuk; gad;gLj;jg;gLkhapd; Kd;dH Fwpg;gplg;gl;lJ Nghy; xg;ge;j epge;jidfSf;Nfw;g mtUf;Fhpa ,yhg e\;lk; gq;Ffs; toq;fg;gLk;. ,jw;F khw;wkhf gyuJ %yjdk; mjpy; NrHj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;bUf;Fkhapd; xt;nthUtuJ %yjdj; njhifapd; msTf;Nfw;g tpfpjhrhu mbg;gilapy; ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; gq;f toq;fg;gLk;.

,j;jifa $l;L KjyPl;L Kaw;rpapd; NghJk; tq;fpf;Fhpa ,yhgg; gq;F jdpahf tpfpjhrhu mbg;gilapy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk;. e\;lj;jpy; tq;fp nghWg;Ngw;f khl;lhJ. mjdJ ciog;G e\;lkhff; fUjg;gLk;.

tq;fp mjdplKs;s ,ju itg;Gf;fisAk; (c-k;. Nrkpg;G itg;G> mjpfhukspf;fg;gl;l KjyPl;L itg;G..) ,j;jifa KjyPl;L Kaw;rpapd; NghJ NrHj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fkhapd; mg;gq;Ffs; midj;Jk; tq;fpapd; KjyPl;Lg; gq;fhff; fzpf;fg;gl;L $l;L tpahghu xOq;Ff;Nfw;g ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; tpfpjhrhu mbg;gilapy; gq;F toq;fg;gLk;. ,e;j ,yhg e\;lg; gq;Ffs; tq;fpapd; nghJ KjyPl;NlhL NrHj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gLk;.

,e;j KjyPl;L Kaw;rpapd; NghJ tq;fp jdJ Nritia toq;Fjtw;fhf ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; ,yhgg; gq;F tq;fpf;FhpajhFk;. mjpy; ve;jnthU itg;ghsUf;Fk; gq;F toq;fg;gl khl;lhJ. tq;fp epHthfj;jpd; jPHkhdj;jpw;Nfw;g mJ gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

 

(3) KjyPl;L Nehf;fk; ,y;yhj itg;G

,yhgkPl;Ltij Nehf;fkhff; nfhs;shj gz itg;Gf;fis ,J Fwpf;Fk;. ,t;itg;Gf;fSf;F ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; gq;F toq;fg;gl khl;lhJ. Vida tq;fpfspy; Nghy; tl;bAk; nfhLf;fg;gl khl;lhJ. itg;ghsH jhd; tpUk;Gk; Neuj;jpy; my;yJ jhd; tq;fpAld; epge;jidapl;L ,zq;fpf; nfhz;l fhyj;jpy; jdJ itg;ig kPsg; ngw KbAk;. nghJthf ,];yhkpa tq;fp ,t;itg;Gfisg; gpd;tUk; 3 xOq;Ffspy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpwJ.

Nfs;tp itg;G

Nrkpg;G itg;G

epiyahd itg;G

(1) Nfs;tp itg;G

itg;ghsH tpUk;Gk; Neuj;jpy; mtuJ itg;Gj; njhif kPs xg;gilf;fg;gLk; vd;w epge;jidapd; Nghpy; tq;fp Vw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;w itg;igNa ,J Fwpf;Fk;. ,t;itg;ghshpd; Nehf;fk; mtuJ md;whlf; nfhLf;fy; thq;fy;fis ,yFthftk; ghJfhg;ghfTk; Nkw;nfhs;tjhFk;. tq;fp toq;Fk; fhNrhiyg; Gj;jfk; mjw;F cjTk;.10

,t;itg;ghsUf;F ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; gq;F toq;fg;gl khl;lhJ. khwhf> itg;gpd; ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; mjNdhL njhlHghd ephthfr; nryTfSf;fhf tq;fp rpwpanjhU njhifg; gzj;ij mthplkpUe;J t#ypj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;.

,t;tif itg;Gf;fis tq;fp jdJ jputr; nrhj;jhfg; gad;gLj;Jk;. vdpDk; tq;fp jdJ mDgtj;jpd; %yk; itg;ghsHfs; Nfl;Fk; Neuj;jpy; jpUg;gpf; nfhLg;gjw;F trjpahf xU njhifia cld; fhrhf itj;Jf; nfhz;L kpFjpia FWq;fhy eltbf;iffspy; <LgLj;jyhk;. tq;fpapd; KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfspd; NghJ Vw;gLk; gw;whf; Fiwfis epug;Gjy;> kw;Wk; tHj;jfk;> tptrhak;> ifj;njhopy; Nghd;w JiwfSf;Ff; FWq;fhy fld; toq;Fjy; Nghd;wit ,jpy; mlq;Fk;.

,t;itg;Gf;fis itj;jpUg;gtH vjpHNehf;Fk; gUtfhy neUf;fbfis <L nra;tjw;Fk; mt;thW fld; toq;fg;glyhk;. mtHfSf;F ve;jtpj tUkhdKk; nfhLf;fg;glhjjdhy; mf;fld; cjtpahf mika KbAk;.

NkYk; kpff; fpl;lba jputj;jd;ik nfhz;l KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfspy; jdpahfTk; tq;fpapd; ,ju %yjdq;fSld; NrHe;Jk; gad;gLj;jp ,yhgkPl;l KbAk;. ,e;j yhgj;ij tq;fpapd; nghJeyg; gzpfs;> Nritfs; Kjyhdtw;Wf;Fk; gad;gLj;jyhk;. Nfs;tp itg;Gf;fhd epHthfr; nryitAk; ,jd; %yk; <L nra;a KbAk;. mg;nghOJ ,t;itg;ghsHfsplkpUe;J tq;fp ngWk; fl;lzq;fisj; jtpHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. ,J tq;fpapd; mDgtj;jpd; %yk; jPHkhdpf;fg;gLk;.

 

(M) Nrkpg;G itg;G

itg;ghsH jdJ jpBHj; Njitfis eptHj;jp nra;a rpW rpW mstpy; gzj;ij Nrfhpg;gJ jhd; ,t;tikg;gpd; Nehf;fkhFk;. itg;ghsd; tpUk;Gk; Neuj;jpy; itg;Gj; njhif jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jg;gLk;.

,jw;Fk; Nfs;tp itg;Gf;fspy; NghyNt ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; gq;F toq;fg;gl khl;lhJ. vdpDk;> 'kdpj ey eltbf;if" vd;w rl;l %yhjhuj;Jf;fika tq;fp jdJ mDgtj;jpd; %yk; xU Fwpg;gpl;l njhifia cld; fhrhf itj;Jf; nfhz;L kpFjpia FWq;fhy KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfspy; <LgLj;jp ,yhgkPl;l KbAk;. ,jw;F itg;ghshpd; mDkjp fl;lhakhdjhff; nfhs;sg;gl khl;lhJ. Vnddpy;> ,t;thW KjyPL nra;tjdhy; itg;ghsH xU NghJk; ghjpf;fg;gl khl;lhH. mtH tpUk;Gk; Neuj;jpy; mtuJ itg;ig tq;fp jdJ jputj; nrhj;jpypUe;J jpUg;gpf; nfhLf;Fk;. 11

,e;j KjyPl;L Kaw;rpapy; ,yhgkPl;lg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; me;j ,yhgj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;lnjhU gFjp Kd;epge;jidaw;w Kiwapy; ,j;jifa itg;ghsHfSf;Fg; gfpHe;jspf;fg;gLk;. ,J Nrkpg;igj; J}z;Lfpd;w xU eltbf;ifahf mikfpd;w mNjNtis> tq;fp Nrkpg;G vd;w ngahpy; jhd; ngw;w flDf;fhd ed;wpj; njhifahfTk; mikAk;.

,ijtpl ,t;itg;ig gq;Flik (Kohugh) xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; itg;ghsUld; ,zf;fk; fhzg;gl FWq;fhy rpW njhopy; Kaw;rpfspy; KjyPL nra;a KbAk;.12 ,jd; NghJ xg;ge;j KwpT fhyk; tiu KjyPl;Lf;F <LgLj;jpa itg;ig kPsg; ngw mDkjpf;fg;gl khl;lhJ. itg;ghsUf;F Kohugh xg;ge;j epge;jidfSf;Nfw;g ,yhg e\;lj;jpy; gq;F toq;fg;gLk;.13

,e;j itg;ig KjyPL nra;tjd; %yk; tq;fp ngWk; ,yhgk; mjd; tsHr;rp kw;Wk; epHthfr; nryTfs;> nghJeyg; gzpfs; Mfpatw;Wf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

 

(,) epiyahd itg;G

ePz;l fhyj; jtizapd; gpd;dH jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jg;gLk; vd;w epge;jidapd; mbg;gilapy; tq;fp ngw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;w ga itg;Gf;fis ,J Fwpf;Fk;.

,jw;F ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; gq;F toq;fg;gl khl;lhJ. vdpDk; Nrkpg;G itg;gpy; ifahSfpd;w topKiwia ,jpYk; ifahs;tjd; %yk; ,yhgkPl;b mjpy; xU gFjpia Kd; epge;jidaw;w Kiwapy; ,j;jifa itg;ghsHfSf;Fg; gfpHe;J nfhLf;fg;gLk;. NkYk; Nrkpg;G itg;gpy; Nghy; Nfl;fg;gLk; Neuj;;jpy; jpUg;gpr; nrYj;jg;gLk; vd;w epge;jid ,jpy; ,y;yhjjdhy; ePz;l fhy Nehf;fpyhd KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfspy; ,jidg; gad;gLj;jp $Ljyhd ,yhgkPl;l KbAk;. ,jdhy; %yk; itg;ghsHfSf;fhd ,yhgg; gq;if mjpfhpf;fyhk;. ,j;njhif vt;tsT vd;gij mt;tg;NghJ tq;fp epHthfNk jPHkhdpf;Fk;.

,ij tpl Nrkpg;G itg;Gf;fspy; NghyNt ,jpYk; Kohugh xg;ge;j mbg;gilapy; itg;ghsUld; ,zf;fk; fhzg;gl;l KjyPl;L Kaw;rpfspy; <Lgl KbAk;. ,t;thwhd KjyPLfSf;F ,e;j itg;G kpfTk; nghUj;jkhdjhFk;. ,jd; NghJ itg;ghsUf;F Kohugh xg;ge;j tpjpKiwfSf;F Vw;g ,yhg e\;lq;fspy; gq;F toq;fg;gLk;. ,j;jifa KjyPLfs; %yk; tq;fp ngWk; ,yhgk; mjd; nghJthd tsHr;rp kw;Wk; epHthfr; nryTfs;> Nrkeyg; gzpfs; Nghd;wtw;Wf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;.

 

r%f ey epjpak;

,];yhkpa tq;fpfspd; Nehf;fq;fisAk; mjd; nraw;ghLfisAk; njhlHGgLj;jpg; ghHf;Fk; NghJ> ,yhgkPl;Ljy; gzk; rk;ghjpj;jy; vd;gij tpl Nrit toq;Fjy; vd;gNj Kjd;ik ngw;W tpsq;Ftijf; fhz KbAk;.

tq;fp mjdJ xt;nthU tif KjyPl;L Kaw;rpf;fhfTk; kpf epahakhd xU $ypiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;. ,f;$ypj; njhifNahL> ed;nfhilfs; %yk; fpilf;Fk; tUkhdq;fisAk; NrHj;J nghJey epjpankhd;iw cUthf;Fk;. ,J tq;fpapd; tsHr;rp kw;Wk; ,];yhkpaf; Nfhl;ghLfSf;fika fy;tp cjtp> kUj;Jt cjtp Nghd;w nghJ eyg; gzpfSf;fhfTk;> epthuz NtiyfSf;fhfTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLk;. ,jd; Clhf nry;te;jHfs; jkJ ]fhj; flikia epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;tjw;fhd xOq;FfSk; nra;J nfhLf;fg;gLk;. ,e;j tifapy; xUtpjkhd r%ff; fhg;GWjp epWtdkhf ,e;epjpak; nraw;gLfpwJ vdyhk;.

 

Jizepd;witfs; :

my;-GD}Fy; ,];yhkpa;ah ga;dy; eshpa;ah tj; jj;gPf;. mwpQH mg;Jy;yh`; ,g;D K`k;kj ,g;D m`;kj; mj; - ja;ahH. gf;.32

nksfpg; m\;\hPM kpdy; k]hhpgpy; ,];yhkpa;ah my; - KM]puh : mwpQH mg;Jy;yh mg;JH u`Pk; my; cghjp> gf; :23-24

my; - GD}Fy; ,];yhkpa;ah ga;dhy; eshpa;ah tj; jj;gPf;> mwpQH mg;Jy;yh ,g;D K`k;kj; ,g;D m`;kj; mj; - ja;ahH. gf;.28

nksfpg; m\;\hPM kpdy; k]hhpgpy; ,];yhkpa;ah my; - KM]puh : mwpQH mg;Jy;yh mg;JH u`Pk; my; cghjp> gf; : 156

k[y;yJy; - G+Hfhd;> kyH 48. gf;. 21

k[y;yJy; - j/th> kyH 80, gf; : 26

mj;jd;kpa;aJ kpdy; kd;@ypy; ,];yhkp> ntspaPL : my; - k[;kcy; kyfp yp G`{]{y; `ohuh my; ,];yhkpa;ah> ghfk; 1> gf; : 112.

ghHf;f : my;-GD}Fy; ,];yhkpa;ah ga;dy; eshpa;ah tj; jj;gPf;. mwpQH mg;Jy;yh`; ,g;D K`k;kj ,g;D m`;kj; mj; - ja;ahH.

my;-GD}Fy; ,];yhkpa;ah ga;dy; eshpa;ah tj; jj;gPf;. mwpQH mg;Jy;yh`; ,g;D K`k;kj ,g;D m`;kj; mj; - ja;ahH. gf;.32

mH-hpgh ty; - F&o; gpy; - gpf;`py; ,];yhkp. mwpQH K`k;kj; mg;jpy; `jp> gf; :206

mH ufhgJy; k]Hugpa;ah myy; k]hhphpy; ,];yhkpa;ah> fyhepjp : fhPg; K`k;kj; mg;J`{ eh]pH> gf; : 153. my; gjhth \u,a;ah gpy; - k]h,ypy; ,f;jp]hjpa;ah> ghfk; : 1> gf; : 609-611

my; gjhth \u,a;ah gpy; - k]h,ypy; ,f;jp]hjpa;ah> ghfk; : 1> gf;:609

nksfpg; m\;\hPM kpdy; k]hhpgpy; ,];yhkpa;ah my; - KM]ouh : mwpQH mg;Jy;yh`; mg;Jy; u`Pk; my; cghjp> gf; :201.

ed;wp : ,];yhkpar; rpe;jid> [{iy-brk;gH 2003. ,yq;if ntspaPL

H 4
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