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,Wjpj;J}jh; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; tUif gw;wp ,e;jpa Ntjq;fspy; Kd;dwptpg;G


cz;ik:

K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; cz;ikf;F ,uz;L tifahd rhl;rpaq;fs;.

ePh; egpay;y vd;W epuhfhpg;ghsh;fs; $Wfpd;wdh;. cq;fSf;Fk; vdf;Fk; ,ilapy;(ehd; egpnad;gjw;;F) my;yh`;Tk; (Kd;Ds;s) Ntjq;fis mwpe;NjhUk; rhl;rpahf cs;sdh; vd;W egpNa mth;fsplk; ePh; $WtPuhf. (jpU kiw Fh;Md; 13:43)

gpur;idfis jPh;g;gjw;fhf xU Kiwahd murhq;fk; Njit vd;w mstpw;F xU r%fk; tsh;r;rpailahj tiu mq;Nf rl;lq;fSf;Nfh my;yJ epakq;fSf;Nfh ve;jtpj Kiwahd cUtKk; nfhLf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. mJ NghyNt egpj;Jt thjk; nra;gthpd; cz;ikia ep&gpf;Fk; milahsq;fSk; kf;fspd; kNdh tsh;r;rpia nghWj;J fhyj;jpw;Ffhyk; khWgl;L te;jpUf;fpwJ.Kw;fhyq;fspy; kdpjh;fs; jq;fspd; cz;ikia ep&gpg;gjw;fhf gytpjkhd topfis ifahz;ldh;: cjhuzkhf> rj;jpak; nra;jy;> neUg;ig ifapNye;Jjy; my;yJ mjDs; Fjpj;jy;> ePh; Row;rpia Mgj;jpd;wp flj;jy;> kiyapypUe;J Fjpj;J ve;jtpj Mgj;Jkpy;yhky; tUjy;> Fwp nrhy;Yjy;> ke;jputrpak; nra;jy; kw;Wk; rpj;J Ntiyfs; nra;jy; Nghd;witfshFk;.  cz;ikiaj; NjLgtNuh> FUl;lhk; Nghf;fpy;>rpe;jidapd;wp ek;Gk; epiyapNyNa ,Ue;jhh; vdyhk;.egpj;Jt thjj;ij cz;ikg;gLj;Jtjw;F NtW Mokhd rpe;jid vJTk; NjitahapUe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. ,e;J kjj;jpYk; mJ Nghd;w kw;w Guhjhd kjq;fspYk; Gdpjh;fs; vDk; thjk; ,J Nghd;w ghPl;irfshNyNa ep&gpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.Mdhy; jpUkiw Fh;MNdh egp K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; egpj;Jt thjj;ij ep&gpg;gjw;fhf ,J Nghd;w mw;Gjq;fis Mjhuq;fshf Kd; itf;ftpy;iy. KOikahd rl;l jpl;lq;fis nfhz;lnjhU r%fk; tsh;r;rpaile;j r%fk; vd;why;> egp(]y;) mth;fspd; egpj;Jt cz;ikf;F(Nkw; fz;l trdj;jpy;) jpUkiw Fh;Md; Kd; itj;Js;s mbg;gil kpfTk; Mo;e;J rpe;jpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba xd;whFk;. NkNy Fwpg;gplg;gl;l trdj;jpy; egp(]y;) mth;fspd; egpj;Jt thjj;ij ep&gpg;gjw;fhf ,uz;L tifahd rhl;rpaq;fs; Kd; itf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. ,e;j ,uz;L rhl;rpaq;fSk; mthpd; cz;ikia ep&gpg;gjw;F NghJkhditfshf fUjg;gl;Ls;sd. mitfs; vy;yhk; ty;y ,iwtdpd; rhl;rpaKk;   Ntjq;fis mwpe;Njhhpd; rhl;rpaKNkahFk;. Ntjq;fs; vd;gJ Kd;Ds;s Ntjq;fisNa Fwpf;Fk;.

jltpay; rl;lj;jpy; ,uz;L fhuzpfs; kpfTk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fit: rhl;rp $Wgthpd; Kf;fpaj;JtKk; mth; $Wk; rhl;rpapd; nghUj;jkhd> cWjpahd jd;ik MfpaitfSkhFk;. egp(]y;) mth;fisg; nghWj;j tiu vy;yhk; ty;y ,iwtNd mtUf;fhf rhl;rp $Wtjhy; rhl;rpapd; kfj;Jtk; njspthf mwpe;J nfhs;sg;glf; $baJ.

,iwtdpd; rhl;rp

,iwtdpd; rhl;rp vd;gjhdJ> ,aw;if Gj;jf(Ntj)j;jpd; rhl;rp> kdpj rf;jpf;F mg;ghw;gl;l thd;rf;jp [1] kw;Wk; ,iw mj;jhl;rpfs; Nghd;witfs; vd;Nw Ghpe;J nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. ,itfs;jhd; mth;fs; ,iwj;J}jh;fs; vd;gjw;fhd milahsj;ij vg;nghOJk; nfhLj;J tUtjhFk;. ,e;jg; gpugQ;rj;jpYs;s xt;nthd;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;l rl;lj;jpd; fPo; Msg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gJ ekf;F njhpAk;.  kpfr;rpwpa mZ Kjy; kpfg; ngUk; el;rj;jpuk; tiuapyhd gilg;Gf;fspy; vJTk; rl;lj;jpd; mbg;gil vJTk; ,y;yhky; ,aq;Ftjhf Njhd;wtpy;iy.\xt;nthd;iwAk; gilj;J mitfis (mitfspd; ,yf;if Nehf;fp) top fhl;batNd ek;Kila ug;G.  (jpUf;Fh;Md; 20:50)

,iwr; rl;lj;jpd; ,e;j vy;yhk; jOtpa jd;ik egp(]y;) mth;fspd; egpj;Jt thjj;jpw;F kpfTk; tYthd MjhukhFk;; nja;tPf nra;jp ntspg;ghl;bd; cyfshtpa jd;ikia ep&gpg;gjw;fhf ,e;j thjj;ij Kjd; Kjypy; Kd; itj;jth; egpkhh;fspy; mtNuahthh;.

mjhtJ ,aw;if Gj;jfj;jpYs;s xt;nthU ,iyAk; gilg;gpd; xt;nthU mZTk; vy;yhk; ty;y ,iwtd; mtw;wpw;fspj;jpUf;Fk; rl;lj;jpd; ghy; NjitahapUf;fpwJ vd;gjhFk;. vy;yh QhdKk; kpf;f ,iwtd;> mfpy cyfq;fspd; ug;G> kpfr; rpwpa mZtpw;Ff; $l xU rl;lxOq;F Kiwia mspj;jpUe;jhd; vdpy;> jd; Kd; Vuhskhd Kd;Ndw;w jsq;fis nfhz;bUf;Fk; ,iwtdpd; kpfr; rpwe;j gilg;ghd kdpjDf;F jd;id rhpahd Kiwapy; elj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;Fk; jd;Dila Kd;Ndw;w tsh;r;rpf;Fk; ,iwtdpd; topfhl;LjYk; xspAk; fl;lhak; Njit. vy;yhk; ty;y ,iwtd; jpUkiw Fh;Mdpy; $WtjhtJ: \gilj;J> KOikg;gLj;jp> Fwpg;gpl;l msTg;gbahf;fp mitfis (mitfspd; ,yl;rpaj;ij Nehf;fp) topfhl;Lk; Nkd;ikahd ,iwtid Jjpg;gPuhf.|  jpUkiw Fh;Md; (87:1-3.)

,iwr;nra;jp ntspg;ghl;bw;F khdpl tiuaiwfis ,LtJ my;yJ VNjDk; xU fhyk; my;yJ Fwpg;gpl;l kf;fs; MfpNahUld; mJ epd;W tpLfpd;wJ vd;W $Wtnjy;yhk; fUizahsdhd me;j ,iwtdpd; gz;Gfshd ,uf;fk; md;G Mfpatw;iw kWf;fpwJ vd;gJ khj;jpuky;yhky; kjj;jpd; NjitiaAk; mbg;giliaAk; kpfTk; rpWikg;gLj;jp tpLfpd;wJ.  mJ xt;nthU rKjhaj;jpw;Fk; fz;bg;ghf Nghjpf;fg;gl Ntz;ba jtph;f;f Kbahj Njit my;yJ mJ fhyj;jhy; rPh;nfLf;fg;gl;lhy; mJ xU Gjpa egpahy; Gj;Jap&l;lg;gl;L kdpj tho;tpd; ,af;f rf;jpahf kPz;Lk; khw;wg;gl Ntz;ba xd;W vd;w epiyia ,of;fpwJ.

xNu Fwpg;gpl;l rKjhaj;ij jtpu kw;w midj;J rKjhaq;fSk; kjj;jpd; Jizapd;wp tho;e;jpl KbAnkdpy;> ,iwr; nra;jp ntspg;ghbd;wp ew;Fzk; kw;Wk; ,iwar;rk; Mfpatw;wpw;F kpfTk; cd;dj khjphpfshd n[huh];lh;> Gj;jh; my;yJ Mg;u`hk; %rh> fpU~;zh my;yJ ,NaR fpwp];J MfpNahiu cz;lhf;f KbAnkdpy;> xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,dj;jplkpUe;Jjhd; kw;w midj;J kdpj ,dq;fSk; top fhl;Ljy; ngw Ntz;Lnkd;W nrhy;tjw;F ve;j tpj epahaKkpy;iy. ,iwtNd mtDila gpujpgyd; nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;L> xU rpy Njh;e;njLf;fg;glth;fSf;F khj;jpuk; jd; xspia fhz;gpj;J tpl;L kw;wth;fnsy;yhk; jd;Dila gilg;Gf;fNs ,y;yhjJ Nghy;> top fhl;l kWj;J mopTf;F cs;shf;fpdhy; mg;gbg;gl;l flTs; ve;j tpj khpahijf;F chpatDky;y. mtd; ,Us; uh[paj;jpd; FUl;L kd;didg; Nghyhthd;. mtid Vw;Wf; nfhs;tij tpl epuhfhpg;gNj rpwe;jjhFk;.

,J kpfTk; gue;J tphpe;j tprakhFk;. xUth; ,J gw;wp nkd;NkYk; rpe;jpf;Fk; NghJ> ,];yhk; Rl;bf; fhl;bAs;s R+o;epiy(-egpkhh;fs; vy;yh rKjhaj;jpw;Fk; xd;wd; gpd; xd;whf mDg;gg;gLtJ) ,Ue;jhy;jhd; kjnkd;gNj NjitahapUf;Fk; vd;gJ mtUf;F kpf njspthf GhpAk;. fhyj;jpw;F fhyk; xt;nthU rKjhaj;jpw;Fk; egpkhh;fs; mDg;gg;gl;Ls;shh;fs; vd ,];yhk; $WfpwJ. mstw;w mUshsDk; epfuw;w md;GilNahDkhfpa ,iwtd; jd;Dila gilg;Gf;fspkpUe;J mtDila xsp kw;Wk; rj;jpa khh;f;fk; Mfpatw;iw ngw;wpLk; chpikia gwpj;jpltpy;iy. NkYk; khh;f;fk; vd;gJ> xt;nthU fhyj;jpYk; xt;nthU gpuNjrj;jpYk; epiyehl;lg;gl;l cz;ikahf fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; mijg; gpd;gw;Wgth;fs; mij gug;GtijNa jq;fs; tho;tpd; KO Kjw; ,yl;rpakhf fUj;jpy; nfhz;L nry;glNtz;LnkdTk; ,];yhk; $WfpwJ. khh;f;fj;ij gug;GtjpypUe;J mth;fis cyfj;jpYs;s rf;jp vJTk;> mJ vt;tsT nghpajhf ,Ue;jhYk; jLj;J tplf; $lhJ. rKjhaq;fis epy mjph;r;rpfs; Ml; nfhs;syhk;> ngUk; Gay; fhw;W mth;fspd; nrhj;Jf;fis ehrg;gLj;jyhk;> rj;jpak;-mrj;jpak; Mfpatw;wpd; Nkhjyhy; kdpj ,uj;jk; Mwhf Xlyhk; - Mdhy; rj;jpa khh;f;fj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhs;shj tiu ve;j tpj cjtpAk; ,y;iy vd;W kdpjd; czh;e;J xg;Gf;nfhs;Sk; tiu ,itfnsy;yhk; xd;Wk; nghpaitfsy;y.  ,t;thW ,y;iynad;why;> kjj;ij gug;Gtjpy; %L ke;jpuk; ,Ue;jhNyh my;yJ kw;wth;fs; Nfl;L tplf;$lhJ vd;gjw;fhf ke;jpuq;fis fhJfspy; nrhy;tJ Nghd;witfNsh ,Ue;jhNyh mJ kjj;jpd; mtrpaj;ij Nfs;tpf;Fwpahf;FfpwJ.

egp (]y;) mth;fspd; kPJ ek;gpf;if nfhs;tNj cyfshtpa mikjpf;F topahFk;.

my;yh`;itNa tzq;Fq;fs;: tuk;G kPWgth;fis(-jh$j;fis) tpl;L tpyfp tpLq;fs; vd;w nra;jpAld; xt;nthU rKjhaj;jpw;Fk; ehk; ek;Kila J}jh;fis mDg;gp itj;Js;Nshk;. 16:36

cyfpy; Njhd;wpa egpkhh;fspy; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; khj;jpuNk ,izaw;w nfhs;ifia mspf;fg;gl;ltuhapUe;jhh;fs;. jd;idg; gpd;gw;Wgth;fs; jd;Nky; ek;gpf;if nfhz;bUg;gJ Nghy; jkf;F Kd; nrd;w vy;yh egpkhh;fspd; NkYk; ek;gpf;if nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gij fl;lhaf; flikahf;fpaJ mtUila J}jpd; jdpr;rpwg;ghd mk;rkhFk;. ,];yhj;jpd; ,e;j nfhs;if rj;jpa khh;f;fj;jpd; cz;ikahd mbg;giliaAk; cyf rkhjhdj;ijAk; cUthf;Fk; cd;djk; kpf;fJk; khl;rpik nghUe;jpaJkhFk; vd;gJ khj;jpuky;y mjpypUe;J rpwpjsT $l tpyfpg;NghtJ $l KO khh;f;fj;ijANk rpijj;J tplg; NghJkhdjhFk;.  Vnddpy; khh;f;fk; vd;gJ> ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;ifapd; gpufhuk; xt;nthU rKjhaj;jpYk; fhzg;gLk; cyfshtpa cz;ikahFk;. jw;fhyj;jpy; ,J Nghd;w fz;Nzhl;lj;ijAilath;fs; ngUk;ghYk; xt;nthU kjj;jpYk; Njhd;wp tUtJ ,e;jf; nfhs;if kpfTk; rhpahdJ vd;gjw;F njspthd milahskhFk;.  Mdhy; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs;jhd; ,e;j cd;djkhd nfhs;ifia cyfpw;F Kjd; Kjypy; Nghjpj;j ,iw ntspg;ghL nfhz;l J}juhthh;. mtUf;F Kd;dhYs;s ve;j egpAk; ,e;j cz;ikia ntspg;gLj;jpajpy;iy. vy;yh egpkhhpd; NkYk; ek;gpf;if nfhs;tJ fl;lhak; vd;gij  mtUf;F Kd;dhy; ve;j kjKk; jd;Dila mbg;gilf; nfhs;ifahf  Mf;fpajpy;iy.

cyfq;fspd; ug;G|vd;gJ jpUf;;Fh;Mdpw;F khj;jpuNk nrhe;jkhd nfhs;ifahFk;.

cyfq;fspd; ug;ghd ,iwtDf;Nf vy;yhg; GfOk; chpj;jhFf (1.1).  mtd; fpof;Ff;F ,iwtdhf ,Ug;gJ Nghy; Nkw;fpw;Fk; mtNd ,iwtdhf ,Uf;fpwhd;. xt;nthU rKjhaj;jpw;Fk; egpkhh;fs; tUfpwhh;fs; vd;gij xU gf;fk; tpLq;fs;>  ngUk;ghyhd kjq;fs; jq;fspd; ,iwtd; vy;yh rKjhaq;fspd; ,iwtdhf ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;W xg;Gf; nfhs;Sk; mstpw;Ff; $l rfpg;Gj; jd;ikAs;sth;fshfNth jhusj; jd;ikAlth;fshfNth ,y;iy.  Mh;ah;fs; khj;jpuNk ,iwtdpd; Foe;ijfs; vd;W gpuhkzpaKk; Ntj kjq;fSk; fUjpd (eph;Jfh VI:26).  Ntjq;fspd; gRj; jha; gpuhkzh;fs;> ~j;hpah;fs;> it~;ah;fs; MfpNahUf;F khj;jpuNk jd; mKij toq;fp tsh;j;jhs;. (mjh;tz Ntjk; (XIX : 71>1).  ,];uNtyh;fspd; flTshd n[`Nth vd;gtUk; kw;wth;fs; ahUf;Fkpy;yhky; mth;fSf;F khj;jpuNk flTshf ,Ue;jhh;. kjq;fspd; RUf;f tuyhW vDk; E}ypy; [hd; i`ye;J vOJtjhtJ : \A+jh;fs; tzq;Fk; flTs; Muk;gj;jpy; ehNlhbfspd; Fyj; nja;tkhfj;jhd; fUjg;gl;L te;jJ ...... mth;fspd; flTs; kw;w midj;J rKjhaq;fspd; flTs; vd;w nfhs;if A+j rKjhaj;jhy; xU NghJk; tuNtw;fg;gl;L Vw;fg;gltpy;iy.

,uz;lhk; rhl;rp:- nja;tPf ntw;wpapd; cUtpy; nja;tj;jpd; rhl;rp

cq;fSf;Fk; vdf;Fkpilapy; my;yh`;Nt rhl;rpahf ,Uf;fpwhd;. mtd; jd; mbahh;fis kpf;f mwpe;jtdhfTk; cw;W Nehf;fpdtdhfTk; ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;W egpNa ePh; $WtPuhf.  (17:96)

rj;jpaj;jpd; ntw;wpiaAk; mrj;jpak; mbNahL cUf;Fiye;J NghtijANk ,iwtdpd; rhd;W vd ,t;trdj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wJ. rj;jpak;> mjw;F tUk; vz;zw;w vjph;g;Gfshy; jilg;glhky; CLUtp glh;fpwJ. mNj Neuj;jpy; mrj;jpaNkh mjw;F Vuhskhd mjpfhuKk; nry;thf;Fk; ,Ue;j NghjpYk; Njhw;fbf;fg;gl;L tpLfpwJ. Vnddpy; ug;G jd;Dila rh;t ty;yikahy; kpf;f mwpe;jtdhfTk; cw;W Nehf;fpdtdhfTk; ,Uf;fpwhd;. ug;gpd; ,e;j ,uz;lhk; rhl;rpak; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; tho;tpd; xt;nthU fl;lj;jpYk; tpaf;fj;jFk; ntw;wpahy; ep&gpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.E}`;> ,g;uh`pk;> Gj;jh;> fpU~;zh;> n[huh];lh;> %]h kw;Wk; cyfpy; Njhd;wpa egpkhh;fsplk; Njhd;wpa nja;tPf mj;jhl;rpfs; kpfTk; gpuj;al;rkhd Kiwapy; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fSf;F Mjuthf ntspg;gLfpd;wJ. fLk; vjph;g;Gfs;> Fiwe;jmsT ez;gh;fs;> vjphpfspd; ngUk; gilfs; Mfpad ,Ue;j NghjpYk; mth; ngw;w ngUk; ntw;wpfs; MSik Mfpaitfs; nja;tj;jpd; Mjutpw;F njspthd mj;jhl;rpfshFk;. K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; mile;j tuyhW fhzhj ntw;wpfis ,];yhj;jpd; vjphpfs; $l xg;Gf; nfhz;Ls;sdh;. cz;ikapy; vjphpfshy; xg;Gf;nfhs;sg;gLk; mJNt mtUila kfj;JtKkhFk;. Fh;Md; vd;w fl;Liuapy; vd;i]f;Nshg;gPbah gphpl;lhdpfh egp(]y;) mth;fis \egpkhh;fs; kw;Wk; kjthjpfs; Mfpath;fspy; kpfTk; ntw;wp kpf;fth; vd Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ.

thf;FWjpaspf;fg;gl;l egp

ehd; cq;fSf;F Ntjj;ijAk; Qhdj;ijAk; mspf;fpNwd;. gpd;G cq;fsplKs;s(NtjQhdj;ij) cz;ikg;gLj;Jk; u]_y; cq;fsplk; tUk; NghJ ePq;fs; midtUk; mthpy; <khd; nfhz;L mtUf;F cjtp nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W my;yh`;(egpkhh;fsplk;) cld;gbf;if nra;J ePq;fs; vd;Dila ,e;j cld;gbf;ifia Vw;W cWjp nra;fpd;wPh;fsh? vd;W Nfl;lhd;.mjw;F mth;fs; ehq;fs; Vw;W cWjp $WfpNwhk; vd;W $wpdhh;fs;. mt;thwhapd; (,jw;F)rhl;rpahapUq;fs; ehDk;(,jw;F) cq;fSld; rhl;rpahapUf;fpNwd; vd;W my;yh`; $wpdhd;. jpUf;Fh;Md; (3:80)

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K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; vy;yh jPh;f;fjhprpfSk; cz;ikahdth;fs; vd;W rhd;W gfh;e;jNj cyf rkhjhdj;jpw;Fk; kdpj rNfhjuj;Jtj;jpw;Fk; tYthd mbg;gilahf ,Uf;fpwJ. mNj Neuj;jpy;> cyfj;jpYs;s midj;J jPh;f;fjhprpfSk; K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fspd; egpj;Jtj;jpd; cz;ikia cWjpg;gLj;jpdhh;fnsd;gJ vy;yh khh;f;fq;fspd; cz;ikiaAk; xw;WikaAk; ep&gpf;Fk; kw;nwhU kpfTk; gykhd MjhukhFk;.

xt;nthU ,dk; fhyk; Mfpatw;iwr; Nrh;e;j gpugykhd jPh;f;fjhprpfs; midtUk; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; tUifiag; gw;wp Kd;dwptpj;Js;shh;fs; vd;w tpraj;ij rj;jpaj;ij NjLk; xt;nthUtUk; Mo;e;J rpe;jpf;f Ntz;ba xd;whFk;. K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; cyfpd; midj;J egpkhh;fisAk; cWjpg;gLj;Jgth;fshthh;. ,e;j nfhs;ifNa> ehk; $wpaJ Nghy;> cyf rkhjhdj;jpw;Fk; ,zf;fj;jpw;Fk; mbg;gilahFk;. cyfpd; egpkhh;fs; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fis cWjpg;gLj;Jth;fsfNt ,Ue;jdh;. ,e;j xd;Wjhd; cyf kjj;jpd; Gdpj nfhs;ifia cUthf;FfpwJ. ,e;j Gdpj vy;iyfis tpl;L tpyfp ,Ug;gtd;  tpiutpNyNa ,iw kWg;G nfhs;ifapy; tPo;e;J  ehj;jpfdhf Mfplf; $Lk;.

NtjKilNahhpd; rhl;rp

cq;fSf;Fk; vdf;Fk; ,ilapy; (ehd; egpnad;gjw;;F) my;yh`;Tk; (Kd;Ds;s) Ntjq;fis mwpe;NjhUk; rhl;rpahf cs;sdh; vd;W egpNa mth;fsplk; ePh; $WtPuhf. (jpUf;Fh;Md; 13:43)

vy;yhk; ty;y ,iwtdpd; rhl;rpf;F mLj;j gbahf cyfpd; gy;NtW gpuNjrq;fspy; te;j egpkhh;fSf;F gy;NtW nkhopfspYk; mUsg;gl;l Ntjq;fspd; rhl;rp ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> kw;w kjq;fspd; Ntjq;fs;(,];yhj;jpw;F Kd;) gy;yhapuf;fzf;fhd tUlq;fshf ,Ue;J te;j NghjpYk; K];ypk;fs; fle;j gjpdhd;F E}w;whz;Lfshf mitfs; ,Uf;Fk; nkhopia gbj;J me;j Ntjq;fis Muha;r;rp nra;jhh;fspy;iy. ,g;nghOJ cs;s fhykhdJ ,];yhk; kw;w vy;yh kjq;fisAk; tpl NkNyhq;fp MSik nra;Ak; fhykhFk;. ,];yhj;jpd; rj;jpaj;ij ep&gpf;Fk; vz;zw;w Mjhuq;fs; fhzf;fpilf;Fk; fhykhFk; vd;w cz;ikia kWf;f KbahJ. mtd; jd; khh;f;fj;ij kw;w midj;J khh;f;fq;fisAk; tpl NkNyhq;fr; nra;thd;|(9:33) vd;w nja;t thf;FWjp epiwNtWk; fhykhFk;. cyfpYs;s gy;NtW kjq;fisAk; Nrh;e;j egpkhh;fspd; xl;Lnkhj;j rhl;rpaq;fs; egp K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fSf;F rhjfkhf ntspg;gLk; fhyKkhFk;. kw;w kjq;fisg; gpd;gw;Wgth;fs; mth;fspd; Ntjq;fis ve;j msT [hf;fpuijahf kiwj;J kiwj;J itj;jpUe;jhh;fs; vd;gNj xU ePz;l fij. Gfo; ngw;w mwpQh; ]h;. tpy;ypak; N[hd;]; mth;fspd; rk;gtNk ehk; $Wtij glk;gpbj;J fhz;gpf;fg; NghJkhdjhFk;. ]h;. tpy;ypak; N[hd;]; mth;fspd; jPtPu tplh Kaw;rpahdJ rk];fpUj nkhopia Nkw;fj;jpa cyfpw;F nfhz;L nrd;wJ. mjdhy;jhd; kpfTk; mhpjhd>,Uspy; fple;j Ntjq;fis ,d;W INuhg;gh fpof;fj;jpa kf;fSf;fhf gpuRhpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. ]h;. tpy;ypak; N[hd;]; mth;fs; cr;r ePjp kd;wj;jpd; ePjpgjpahf fy;fj;jhtpw;F 1783k; Mz;L te;jhh;. mth; tq;fhs M]pahbf; nrhi]l;b vd;gij ep&gp ,e;j ehl;il vd;Wk; kwf;f Kbahj kpfg;ngUk; ed;wpf; flDf;F Mshf;fpatuhthh;. ,e;j nrhi]l;bapd; ,ilawhj> jsuhj Kaw;rpapdhy;jhd; Ntjq;fspd; gok; gpujpfSk; kw;w rk];fpUj Gj;jfq;fSk; gfypd; xspia fhzj; Jtq;fpd. ]h;.tpy;ypak; N[hd;]; mth;fs; rk];fpUj nkhopia fw;f tpUk;gpa NghJ> mth; mjw;fhf Vuhskhd Cjpak; ju Maj;jkhapUe;j NghjpYk; ehl;bd; ve;j ,lj;jpYk; mtUf;F mij fw;Wf; nfhLg;gjw;F ve;j gz;bl;Lk; fpilf;ftpy;iy. ]h;. tpy;ypak; N[hd;i] re;jpj;J rk;gsk; gw;wp Ngrp KbntLg;gjw;fhf ,uz;L %d;W gz;bl;Lfs; mtiu jdpNa ufrpakhf re;jpf;fr; nrd;wJ. Mdhy; FUkhh;fs; $l;lk; mij mwpe;J mth;fs; midtiuAk; r%f ePf;fk; nra;J> $b cz;Zjy;> xUtUf;nfhUth; jpUkz rk;ge;jq;fs; nra;jy; Nghd;w mth;fSldhd vy;yh tpj r%f cwTfspypUe;Jk;  mth;fis XJf;fp itj;J tpl;lJ. me;j r%fj;jpd; mt;tsT fLikahd kdg;ghq;F rpy gz;bl;Lfspd; MirfspYk; kz;izg; Nghl;lJ. MfNt gpur;id jPh;f;fg;glhkNy ,Ue;jJ.  fpU~;z efhpd; kfhuh[h rptre;j;uh ]h; tpy;ypak; N[hd;]pd; ez;guhthh;. mtUk; jPtPu Kaw;rp nra;Jk; ,e;j \jPz;lj;jfhj| tpy;ypak; N[hd;]pw;F xU gz;bl;ilg; ngw Kbatpy;iy. ,Wjpahf uhk; Nyhr;rhdh vd;w FLk;gkw;w xU gz;bl; ,e;j Mgj;J epiwe;j Ntiyia nra;a Jzpe;jhh;. gz;bl; mth;fs; jpUkz cwit jtph;j;J tpl;L jdpahf tho;tijNa Njh;e;njLj;jpUe;jhh;. mtUf;F ez;gh;fs; gyh; ,Ue;jhYk; khjk; E}W &gha; rk;gsk;> mtUila tPl;bypUe;J rTud;[pf;F gy;yf;fpy; gazk; Mfpa fth;r;rpfs; mtiu ez;gh;fis xU nghUl;lhf fUjr;nra;atpy;iy. jd; khztd; Nky; gz;bl; tpjpj;j epge;jidfs; kpfTk; fLikahditahf ,Ue;jd. MdhYk; ]h;. tpy;ypak; N[hd;]; mth;fs; rk];fpUjk; fw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w jd;Dila jPh;khdj;jpypUe;J vs;ssTk; jLkhwptpltpy;iy. khspifapd; fPo;j;jsj;jpypUe;j xU miw ,jw;fhf XJf;fg;gl;lJ. gz;bl;Lila cj;juTg;gb mjDila jiuapy; nts;is ryitf;fy; ,lg;gl;lJ. ve;j tifahd ,iwr;rpAk; khspifapd; Rw;Wg;Gwj;jpy; $l nfhz;L tug;gl mDkjpf;fg;gltpy;iy. ]h;.tpy;ypak; ntWk; tapw;NwhLjhd; ghlk; Nfl;f Ntz;bajhapUe;jJ.  vg;nghOjhtJ mth; gz;bl;il kpfTk; jho;ikNahL Ntz;bf; nfhz;lNghJ khj;jpuk; xU Nfhg;ig NjdPh; mUe;j mDkjpf;fg;gl;lhh;. ghlk; njhlq;Ftjw;F miu kzp Neuj;jpw;F Kd; xU ,uhZt tPud; gz;bl;bd; tPl;bw;Fr; nrd;W ghlk; njhlq;f Neukhfptpl;lJ vd;W njhptpj;jhh;. mjd; gpwNf gz;bl; ,e;j fPo; [hjpapdUf;fhf tUthh;. gz;bl; mth;fs; jd;Dila Gdpjk; epiwe;j Nkyq;fpia fow;wp itj;J tpl;L (jPz;lj;jfhj) N[hd;]pd; Kd;dhy; Nghtjw;fhf> jdpahd cil mzpe;J nfhs;Sk; nghUl;L> gbg;giwf;F xl;bNa xU miw xJf;fg;gl;lJ. fq;if ePuhy; jpdKk; me;j gbg;giwiaAk; mjpy; cs;s kur;rhkhd;fs; midj;ijAk; fOtp jPl;L ePf;Ftjw;nfd xU `pe;J epakpf;fg;gl;lhh;. gz;bl; Nfhgf;fhuuhf NtW ,Ue;jhh;. ,iwr;rp jpd;gth;fs; ]k];fpUj nkhopia fw;Wf; nfhs;s KbahJ Vnddpy; mJ jPz;lg;glj;jfhjth;fspd; nkhopay;y> mJ Njt nkhopahFk; vd;W nrhy;yp mth; ]h;. tpy;ypak; N[hd;i] mbf;fb jpl;Lthh;. ]h;.tpy;ypak; N[hd;]; ,e;j khjphpahd jpl;Ljy;fs; midj;ijAk;  Gd;difNahL nghWj;Jf;nfhz;lhh;. ,Wjpahf mth; ]k];fpUjj;ij fw;Nw tpl;lhh;. ]h;. tpy;ypak; N[hd;]pd; ,lj;jpy; NtW ahuhtJ ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; mtUila Mh;tk; xU rpy ehl;fspNyNa Fd;wpg; NghapUf;Fk;.

RUf;fkhfr; nrhy;yg; Nghdhy;> ,e;J kw;Wk; n[huh];l;hPa kj Ntjq;fis mitfspd; ,Us; FifapypUe;J ntspf;nfhz;L te;J mitfSf;F gfypd; xspia fhl;ba mj;jifath;fspd; Kaw;r;rpf;F ehk; kpfTk; flikg;gl;bUf;fpNwhk; vd;gJjhd;. Muk;gj;jpy; ,e;j Kaw;rpfs; ahTk; tpahghu Nehf;if nfhz;litfshf ,Ue;j NghjpYk; gy;NtW nkhopfis fw;W gy goikahd Gj;jfq;fis gpuRhpj;j mth;fspd; jsuhj Kaw;r;rpf;Fk; Mh;tj;jpw;Fk; ehk; ed;wpf; fld; gl;Nl ,Uf;fpNwhk;. ,q;NfAk; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fSila cz;ikf;fhd ehk; Xh; mj;jhl;rpiaf; fhzNt nra;fpNwhk;.  cz;ikapy;> cyf thdpy; \egpj;Jtj;jpd; cr;rpf; fjputd;| Njhd;wg; NghFk; kfpo;Tr; nra;jpia nfhz;L te;j \tpbnts;spNa| ,NaR fpwp];J Mthh;. mijg; NghyNt mtiug; gpd;gw;wpath;fspd; ,yf;fpa kw;Wk; mwptpay; Muha;r;rpfs; vy;yhk; cyfpw;F egp(]y;) mth;fspd; J}Jj;Jtj;ij Nehf;fp topfhl;b> mtUila rj;jpaw;F rhd;W gfuTk; nra;Js;sJ. Mdhy; jw;fhy K];ypk;fs; ,];yhj;ij gpur;rhuk; nra;tjw;Fg; gjpyhf fy;tp fw;gjpy; fhl;Lk; myl;rpaKk;> mth;fspd; fyhr;rhu gz;ghl;bd; tPo;r;rpAk;>  xUtUf;nfhUth; fhgpuhf;fpf; nfhz;L jq;fisNa mopj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; mth;fspd; rz;ilAk; ,];yhj;ijNa cUf;Fiyj;Js;sJ. Mdhy; egp K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; K];ypk;fshy; khj;jpuk; mUs; nra;ag;gl;ltuhapy;iy. ,iwtDk; mtDila thdth;fSk; mtUf;F mUs; (-gpuhj;jid) nra;fpwhh;fs;. JujpU~;ltrkhf ,d;iwa fhyj;jpYs;s K];ypk;fs; jq;fspd; jtwhd Nghf;Ffshy; egp(]y;) mth;fspd; ngaUf;Nf ,opit Vw;gLj;Jfpwhh;fs;. Mdhy; my;yh`;tpd; mUSk; mtd; thdth;fs; mtdplk; nra;Ak; gpuhh;j;jidAk; vy;yh fiwfisAk; ePf;fp mth;fs; Nky; Rkj;jg;gl;l ngha;ahd Fw;wr;rhl;LfspypUe;Jk; mtiu ghpRj;jg;gLj;JfpwJ. INuhg;ghtpy; ,d;W nra;ag;gLk; vy;yh ,yf;fpa kw;Wk; jj;Jt Muha;r;rpfSk; kw;Wk; goq;fhyj;jpa kjq;fisg; gw;wp ntspaplg;gLk; ngUk; ngUk; Gj;jfq;fs; midj;Jk; ,];yhj;jpd; cz;ikia ep&gpf;Fk; Mjhuq;fs; epuk;gpaitfshfNt cs;sd. egp(]y;) mth;fspd; tUiff;F Kd;dhy; fpwp];Jt rd;dpahrpfs; guf;yPj;jpd; (m`;kJ) tUifia kpf MtNyhL vjph;ghh;j;J>  jq;fspd; ,ilawhj tzf;f topghLfs;> kdg;G+h;tkhd gpuhh;j;jidfs;> kw;Wk; ]ythj;Jf;fs; Mfpatw;why; egp K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; tUifiag; gw;wpa re;Njhr nra;jpia cyfpw;F mwptpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhh;fs; vdpy;> mJ NghyNt ,d;Wk; $l mth;fs;(fpwp];jth;fs;) jq;fspd; jPtPu Muha;r;rpfshYk; ,yf;fpa NritfshYk; egp(]y;) mth;fspd; cz;ikf;F rhd;W gfh;e;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wdh;. ,NaR fpwp];Jtpw;Fk; mtUila jhahUf;Fk; mthpd; re;jjpf;Fk; egp(]y;) mth;fs; nra;j cjtp rpwpajy;y.[2] mtiug; gpd;gw;wpNahh;fs; ,];yhj;jpw;F Nrit nra;tjw;fhf(kiwKfkhf) ,d;W Vuhskhd kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd gzq;fis nrytpl;Lk; gy tpjkhd f~;lq;fis mNj ghrj;Jld; jhq;fp (egp(]y;) mth;fspd; egpj;Jtj;ij cz;iknad ep&gpg;gjw;F) ghLgLtJ cz;ikapy;  mjw;fhd xU gzpthd ifkhNw jtpu Ntnwhd;Wkpy;iy. mth;fspd; fLk; ciog;gpdhy; mth;fs; rj;jpa xspiaf; fz;lhh;fNsadhy; mJ tpag;gpw;Fhpanjhd;WNkapy;iy.

K];ypk;fs; ,j;jifaflikfis nra;aj;jtwpaJ mth;fSf;F mjw;fhf ,iwtd; Gwj;jpypUe;Js;s ntFkjpfis fpilf;fhky; Mf;fptpl;lJ vd;gjpy; re;Njfkpy;iy.mNj Neuj;jpy;>mJ ,t;thWjhd; elf;fNtz;Lnkd Vw;fdNt tpjpf;fg;glhkYk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. ,e;j goikahd Ntjq;fis mitfspd; ,UspypUe;J ntspf; nfhz;L tUtjw;F K];ypk;fs; fhuzjhhpfshf ,Ue;jhh;fshdhy;> mitfis jq;fSf;F rhjfkhf khw;wpa Fw;wk; mth;fs; Nky; Rkj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk;. XU Gwk; K];ypky;yhjth;fs; jq;fspd; Ntjq;fspYs;stw;iw kiwj;J itg;gjw;F Kaw;r;rpj;jpUe;jhh;fNsahdhy;>mitfis ntspf;nfhz;L tUgth;fSk; K];ypk; my;yhjth;fNs Mthh;fs;. mJTk; ngUk;ghYk; ,];yhj;jpd; vjphpfNsahthh;fs;. ,e;j Ntjq;fspYs;s Kd;dwptpg;Gf;fs; midj;Jk; gpw;fhyj;jpy; Eiof;fg;gl;lJ vd;w re;Njfj;jpd; epoy; $lg;glhjthW gj;jpukhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkd;gjw;fhf mt;thW tpjpf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ NghYk;.

,];yhj;jpd; tsh;r;rpf; fhyj;jpy; Ntjq;fs;> j];jfPh;(-ghh;rp Ntjk;) kw;w Guhjhd Ntjq;fs; Mfpaitfs; mitfspd; ,Us; FiffspNyNa ,Ue;J te;jd. mitfspy; kiwe;jpUe;j Gijay;fs; K];ypk;fs; tPo;r;rpAWk; fhyj;jpy; mth;fSf;F mspf;fg;gltpUe;jd NghYk;. ,];yhk; jd;Dila rj;jpaj;ij epiyehl;b mij cyf khe;jh; midtUk; mwpe;J nfhs;sr; nra;tjw;fhf ,t;Tyf rf;jpfs; vjidAk; ek;gpapUf;ftpy;iy; khwhf> gy E}w;whz;Lfshf kw;w kjq;fspd; ngl;lfq;fspy; ,Ue;j ,J Nghd;w tpiy kjpf;fKbahj khzpf;fq;fisAk; mJ nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gij mJ ,jd; %yk; ep&gpj;Js;sJ.

H 4
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