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K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; Gj;jkj Ntjq;fspy; Kd;dwptpg;Gfs;


Gj;jh;fs;

cz;ikahf Gj;jiug; gpd;gw;Wgth;fs;

jk;kgjh vd;Dk; Gj;j Ntjk; cz;ikahf Gj;jh;fisg; gpd;gw;Wgth;fspd; Fz eyd;fis nfhLf;fpd;wJ.

jhj;jfjhf;fs;(-Gj;jh;fs;) gpur;rhufh;fs; khj;jpuNk epr;rakhf cdf;F ePjhd; Kaw;rp nra;jpl Ntz;Lk;. (ew;) ghijapy; Eioaf; $ba rpe;jidahsh;fs; khuhtpd; fl;bypUe;J tpLgl;L tpLfpd;whhh;fs;.[227]

khuh vd;gjd; mh;j;jk; jPatd;> nfl;lijr; nra;a J}z;Lgtd;> (ey;ytw;iw) mopg;gtd;| vd;gjhFk;.[228]  MfNt khuh vd;gJ irj;jhd; vd;gjhFk;.

,iwtdpd; cz;ikahd ey;ybahh;fs; kPJ irj;jhdpw;F ve;j tpj mjpfhuKkpy;iy vd K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; Nghjpj;jjhf jpUf;Fh;Md; $Wfpd;wJ

-            (mjw;F ,g;yP];) vd; ,iwtNd ehd; ,t;Tyfpy; (top Nfl;ilj;jUk; midj;ijAk;) mth;fSf;F mofhfj; Njhd;Wk;gb nra;J (mjd; %ykhf) mth;fs; midtiuAk; top nfLj;J tpLNtd; - mth;fspy; me;juq;f Rj;jpAs;s (cd;dUs; ngw;w) cd; ey;ybahh;fisj; jtpu| vd;W $wpdhd;. jpUf;Fh;Md;. 15:42

-            epr;rakhf vd; mbahh;fs; kPJ cdf;F vt;tpj mjpfhuKk; ,y;iy. cd;idg; gpd;gw;wp top nfl;lth;fisj; jtpu\ epr;rakhf (cd;idg; gpd;gw;Wk;) midtUf;Fk; eufk; thf;fspf;fg;gl;l ,lkhFk; vd;W $wpdhd;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 15: 42-3.

-           epr;rakhf (K/kpdhd) vd;Dila mbahh;fs; kPJ cdf;F ve;j mjpfhuKkpy;iy|(vd;Wk; my;yh`; $wpdhd; egpNa me;j vd; ey;ybahh;fisf;) fhj;Jf; nfhs;s ck;Kila ,iwtd; NghJkhdtd;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 17:66

,iwtdpw;F Kw;wpYk; mbgzpe;jth;fs; khuhtpd; gpbapypUe;J tpLgl;L ,Uf;fpwhh;fs;. mth;fs; Nky; mtDf;F ve;j mjpfhuKkpy;iy vd;gJk; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; Nghjidfspy; xd;whFk; vd;gJ njspT.

fpwp];jt Ntjq;fs; nrhy;tJ Nghy;> ,NaR fpwp];J irj;jhid \,t;Tyfpd; mjpgjp|vd;W xj;Jf; nfhz;lhh;.[229] gTYk; ,NaRitg; Nghd;W irj;jhid \,g;gpugQ;rj;jpd; Njtd;|vd;Nw fUJfpd;whh;.[230]

Nkw; $wg;gl;bUg;gJ rhpnadpy;> ,NaRtpd; Nghjidg; gpufhuk; midj;J kdpjh;fSk; khuhtpd; flLf;Fs;NsNa ,Uf;fpd;whh;fs; vd;gJ njspT. xUtd; ,t;Tyfpy; ,Uf;Fk; tiu mtd; khuhtpd; fl;bypUe;J ePq;fpapUf;f KbahJ.

\kdpjd; jtwpioj;J tPo;e;jjpypUe;J rhj;jhdpd; mbikj;jdj;jpYk; mlf;F KiwapYNk ,Uf;fpd;whd;[231]

MfNt ,NaR Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.

rq;fuhr;rhhpahTk; khuhtpd; gpbapypUe;J tpLgLk; Rje;jpu RtpNr~j;ij Nghjpf;fhjjhy; mtUk; Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.

K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Mthh;fs;. Vnddpy; ,iwtdpd; cz;ikahd mbahh;fs; midtUk; khuhtpd; fl;bypUe;J tpLgl;L Rje;jjpukhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W gpur;rhuk; nra;jth;fshthh;fs;.

11 cyfpy; xU Neuj;jpy; xNu xU Gj;jh;jhd; ,Uf;f KbAk;

-            \Kw;wpYk; Gdpjkhd KOikahd Qhdk; epiwe;j ,uz;L Gj;jhf;fs;  ,t;Tyfpy; xNu Neuj;jpy; Njhd;w khl;lhh;fs;[232]

-            \xNu cyfpy; ,uz;L cd;dj mu`j; Gj;jhf;fs; xNu rkaj;jpy; Njhd;WtJ rhj;jpakw;wJk; mj;jifa rk;gtj;jpw;F ve;j fhuzkw;wJkhFk; mt;thwdJ xUf;fhYk; Nehpl KbahJ[233]

-            \KOikahd midj;J QhdKk; epiwe;j Gj;jh; Njhd;Wk; NghJ ,uz;lthJ xUth; mNj Neuj;jpy; Njhd;Wtjpy;iy[234]

xNu Neuj;jpy; KO Qhdk; mile;j ,iwr; nra;jpaspf;fg;gl;l Nghjfh;fs; xNu ehl;by; xNu fhyj;jpy; Njhd;w KbahJ vd;gJ Nkw; Nfhbl;L fhl;lg;gl;l Gj;j kj fpue;jq;fs; kw;Wk; Gj;j kj mwpQh;fspd; $w;Wf;fspypUe;J njhpa tUfpd;wJ.

,NaRtpd; fhyj;jpy; ,NaR tho;e;J Nghjpj;J te;j [{jpah vd;w mNj ehl;by; Nahthd; Qhd];ehdd; vd;w kw;nwhU ,iwr; nra;jpaspf;fg;gl;l Nghjfh; ,Ue;jhh;.

-            rhypk; CUf;Fr; rkPgkhd mapNd vd;dk; ,lj;jpNy jz;zPh; kpFjpahapUe;jgbapdhy; NahthDk; mq;Nf Qhd];ehdq;NghLj;Jte;jhd;; [dq;fs; mtdplj;jpy; te;J Qhd];ehdk; ngw;whh;fs;. mf;fhyj;jpy; Nahthd; fhtypy; itf;fg;gl;bUf;ftpy;iy. mg;nghOJ NahthDila rP~hpy; rpyUf;Fk; A+jUf;Fk; Rj;jpfhpg;igg;Fwpj;J thf;FthjKz;lhapw;W. mth;fs; Nahthdplj;jpy; te;J; ugP> ck;KlNd $l Nahh;jhDf;F mf;fiuapy; xUth; ,Ue;jhNu; mtiuf; Fwpj;J ePUk; rhl;rp nfhLj;jPNu> ,Njh> mth; Qhd];ehdq;nfhLf;fpwhh;>  vy;yhUk; mthplj;jpy; Nghfpwhh;fs; vd;whh;fs;. Nahthd; 3:23-6.

-            Nahtidg;ghh;f;fpYk; ,NaR mNefk; Nghiur; rP~uhf;fp Qhd];ehdq; nfhLf;fpwhnud;W ghpNrah; Nfs;tpg;gl;ljhff; fh;j;jh; mwpe;j NghJ. ... Nahthd; 4:1

Nahthd; Qhd];ehdd; xU ,iwr; nra;jpaspf;fg;gl;l Nghjfh; vd;Wk; \xU jPh;f;fjhprpia tpl Nkd;ikAs;sth;[235] vd;W ,NaRNt xg;Gf;nfhz;Ls;shh;.

Rq;fuhr;rhhpahtpd; fhyj;jpy; ,e;jpa Njrj;jpy; mtUf;F ,izahf Fwpg;gplj;jf;f Fkhhpyh gl;lh vd;w Nghjfh; ,Ue;jhh;.

MfNt ,NaRNth my;yJ rq;fuhr;rhhpNah Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ.

K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; ,iwr;nra;jpaspf;fg;gl;ll Nghjfh;. ,NaRitg; Nghd;W mth; NtW ve;j NghjfiuAk; jd; tho;ehspy; mq;fPfhpj;jjpy;iy. MfNt mth;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Mthh;.

12 Gj;jh;fs; Nghjfh;fsw;wth;fs;

xU nfhk;Gs;s fhz;lhkpUfk; Nghd;W Gj;jh;fs; Mrphpaw;wth;fs;> Ra rhh;Gs;sth;fs;> jdpikahdth;fs; vd kpype;jgd;` $Wfpd;wJ.[236]

Gj;jh;fs; ve;j \kdpj %yj;jpypUe;Jk;[237] my;yJ \guk;giu mwpT[238] nfhz;Nlh jq;fspd; Mj;kPf Qhdj;ij ngWtjpy;iy

Gj;jh fTjkh nrhd;djhf mwptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhtJ:-

ehd; ,t;TyfpYs;s vtuhYk; fw;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;bajpy;iy|[239]

cq;fspd; Mrphpah; ahh; vd fTjk Gj;jhtplk; eph;thz Jwtpahd[240] cghfh Nfl;lhh;. mjw;F Gj;jh; gjpyspj;J:-  \Rakhf fw;wtd; ehd;; ehd; ahiu jiytndd;W miog;Ngd;? vdf;Fj; njhpe;jij ehd; vthplkpUe;Jk; fw;ftpy;iy. me;j ez;gh; G+kpapypy;iy. mth; kdpjh;fSf;Nfh my;yJ thdth;fSf;Nfh  gpwe;jtuy;y.[241]

rq;fuhr;rhhpahUf;F Nfhtpe;j Rthkp vDk; Qhdhrphpah; ,Ue;jhh;.[242]

Nahthd; Qhd];ehddhy; Qhd];ehdk; nra;ag;gl;l gpwNf ,NaR Qhdkile;jhh;;-

me;;j ehl;fspNy ,NaR fypNyahtpYs;s ehrNuj;J}hpypUe;J te;J> Nahh;jhd; ejpapy; Nahthdhy; Qhd];ehdk; ngw;whh;. mth; $yj;jpypUe;J fiuNawpdTlNd> thdk; jpwf;fg;gl;lijAk; Mtpahdth; Gwhitg;Nghy; jk;Nky; ,wq;FfpwijAk; fz;lhh;. md;wpAk; ePh; vd;Dila Ner Fkhud; ck;kpy; gphpakhapUf;fpNwd; vd;W thdj;jpypUe;J xU rj;jk; Nfl;lJ. khh;f; 1:9-11.

MfNt> Nahthid ,NaRtpd; Mj;kPf Nghjfh; vd;W fUJtJ jtwhFk;. ,NaR mtiu \xU jPh;f;fjhprpia tpl Nkd;ikahdth;[243] vd;W mioj;jpUf;fpd;whh;. ,NaR Nahthd; Qhd];ehdDf;F mspj;j khpahijAk; fz;zpaKk; mthpd; fPo;f;fz;l thh;j;;ijfspypUe;J czh;e;J nfhs;syhk;.

\];jPhpfspy; gpwe;jth;fspy; Nahthd;Qhd];ehdidg;ghh;f;fpYk; nghpatd; xUtDk; vOk;gpdjpy;iy.|kj;NjA 11:11

,NaRtpw;F xU Mrphpah; ,Ue;jjhf ghyh; RtpN~rj;jpy; vOjg;gl;Ls;sJ.

\$f;fb]]; vd;w gs;sp Mrphpah;|[244]

ve;j gilg;Gk; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fSf;F Mrhpauhf ,Ue;jjpy;iy. ,e;j tpraj;ij jpUf;Fh;Md; kpfj; njspthff; $Wfpd;wJ;-

\my;yh`;tpd; kPJk;> vOjg;gbf;fj;njhpah egpahfpa mtd; J}jhpd; kPJk; Nkhd; nfhs;Sq;fs;. 7:157

\vOjg;gbf;fj;njhpahj|vd;gJ ck;kp vd;w thh;j;ijapd; nkhop ngah;g;ghFk;. ck;kp egp vd;gjw;F gpd;tUk; %d;W nghUl;fs; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;W jpUf;Fh;Md; nkhopngah;g;ghsuhfpa K`k;kJ myp mth;fs; $Wfpd;whh; ;-

1 vOjg; gbf;fj; njhpahjth;

2 mugpf; Nfhj;jpuj;jpYs;sth;

3 kf;fhtpypUe;J tUgth;.[245]

ck;kp vd;w thh;j;ij jha; vd;W mh;j;jKs;s \ck;|vd;w thh;j;ijapypUe;J te;jjhFk;.[246]

MfNt ck;kp vd;gJ jd; jhapd; tapw;wpypUe;J mg;nghOJjhd; gpwe;jJ Nghd;w \Mrphpauw;wth;;|vd;W mh;j;jkhFk;.

jd;Dila miog;Gg; gzpf;F Kd;G egp(]y;) mth;fSf;F vOjNth gbf;fNth njhpahJ vd;gjw;F jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; Mjhuk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ:-

md;wpAk;(egpNa) ,jw;F Kd;dh; ePh; ve;j Ntjj;jpypUe;Jk; Xjp te;jtuy;yh;; ck; tyf;ifahy; mij vOJgtuhfTk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. mt;thW ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; ,g;ngha;ah;fs; re;Njfg;glyhk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 29:48.

jpUf;Fh;Mid njhFg;gjpy; ve;jtpj gilg;gplkpUe;Jk; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; cjtp ngwtpy;iy vd;gjw;F jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; Mjhuk; cs;sJ:-

 -            \,d;Dk;; ,J(my;Fh;Md;) ngha;Naad;wp NtW ,y;iy. ,ij ,tNu ,l;Lf;fl;bf; nfhz;lhh;; ,d;Dk; kw;w kf;fs; $l;lj;jhUk; ,jpy; mtUf;F cjtp Ghpe;Js;shh;fs;|vd;Wk; epuhfhpg;gth;fs; $Wfpd;wdh;; Mdhy;(,g;gbf; $Wtjd; %yk;) jpldhf mth;fNs Xh; mepahaj;ijAk; ngha;iaak; nfhz;L te;Js;shh;fs;\ jpUf;Fh;Md; 25:4

 -            epr;rakhf mtUf;Ff; fw;Wf; nfhLg;gtd; xU kdpjNd(,iwtdy;yd;) vd;W mth;fs; $Wtij jplkhf ehk; mwpNthk;; vtidr; rhh;e;J mth;fs; $Wfpwhh;fNsh mtDila nkhop(mugpay;yhJ) md;dpa nkhopahFk;;  Mdhy; ,JNth njspthd mugp nkhopahFk;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 16:103

 -            (egpNa) A+jh;fSk;> fpwp];jth;fSk; mth;fs; topia ePh; gpd;gw;whjtiu ck;ikg;gw;wp jpUg;jpaila khl;lhh;fs;. (MfNt mth;fis Nehf;fp ;) \epr;rakhf my;yh`;tpd; top(,];yhk;) mJNt Neh;top\ vd;W nrhy;Yk;; md;wp Qhdk; ck;ik te;jile;j gpd;dUk; mth;fSila ,r;irfisg; gpd;gw;WtPNuahdhy; my;yh`;tplkpUe;J ck;ikf; fhg;ghw;WgtDk; ckf;F cjtp nra;gtDk; ,y;iy. jpUf;Fh;Md; 2:120

 -            vdNt (,ijg;gw;wpa) Qhdk; ckf;Ff; fpilj;j gpd; ePh; mth;fSila tpUg;gq;fisg; gpd;gw;wp elg;gPuhapd; epr;rakhf ePh; mepahaf;fhuh;fspy; xUtuhf ,Ug;gPh;. jpUf;Fh;Md; 2:145.

K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs; A+jh;fs; my;yJ fpwp];jth;fs; my;yJ kw;w kf;fspd; fl;lisfis gpd;gw;wpdhh;fs; vd;gij kWg;gjw;F NkNy nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ NghJkhdjhFk;.

NkNy Rl;bf;fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sitfspd; mbg;gilapy; ,NaRNth my;yJ rq;fuhr;rhhpahNuh Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Ue;jpUf;f KbahJ. Vnddpy; mth;fs; Mrpah;fsw;wth;fsy;y. K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Vnddpy; mth;fSf;Fj;jhd; ve;j gilg;Gk; Mrphpauhf ,Ue;jpUf;ftpy;iy.

13 xt;nthU Gj;jUf;Fk; xU Nghjp kuk;

KOikahf Qhdk; mile;j xtnthU Gj;jUf;Fk; ,g; G+kpapy; xU Ngh my;yJ Nghjp kuk; cz;L vd Gj;j kj Ntjq;fs; $Wfpd;wd;.

\VO Gj;jh;fSk; mth;fspd; kuq;fspd; gl;baYk;:-

tpg]p> glhyh(Batala); rpf;fp> Ge;j;hpfh (Lotus); tp];tG> ]yh (Shoria ronusta); fuf;~;~d;jh> rNu~h (Ntykuk;); fdfKdp> cjk;g;uh; fh];agh> ieaf;Nuhjh (My kuk;); rhf;aKdp> m];tjh (Fiscus religiosa)[247]

Gj;jh ikj;Nuahtpd; Nghjp kuk; ‘The tree of Dragaon flower| MFk;.[248]

y.u. itj;ah mth;fspd; Mq;fpy-rk];fpUj mfuhjpapd;gb vd;gJ rk;gf kuk; Fk;.

thl;lh;]; vd;gtUk; ,J \rk;gf| kunkd;Nw $Wfpd;whh;.[249]

,l;]pq;f; Gj;jh ikj;Nuahtpd; Nghjp kuj;ij \ehf kuk;| vd miof;fpwhh;.[250]

y.u. itj;ah mth;fspd; Mq;fpy-rk];fpUj mfuhjpapd;gb ehfh vd;gJ Naga kesser tree\ MFk;.

rpy jw;fhy Gj;j mwpQh;fspd; fUj;Jg;gb Gj;jh ikj;Nuahtpd; Nghjp kuk; Iron-wood  kuk; MFk;.[251]

Iron wood kuk; vd;gJ \gy tifahd kuq;fSf;F nrhy;yg;gLk; ngauhFk;.[252]  kpfTk; mrhjuzkhd Kiwapy; fodkhdJk; fod kuj;ijAila ve;j kuKk; Iron wood kuk; vd;W miof;fg;gLk;.[253] ,t;thwhf Gj;jh ikj;Nuahtpd; Nghjp kuj;jpd; ngaiu cWjpahff; $wpl KbahJ.

`{ijgpahtpYs;s K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; Nghjp kuj;jpd; ngaiuAk; cWjpahf $wpl ,ayhJ.

gy mugp Mf;fq;fis Mjhukhff; nfhz;L Nry; mth;fs; mij \vfpg;jpa Ks; kuk;\ my;yJ \xUtifah ,ye;ij kuk;\ vd;W fUJfpd;whh;.[254]

K];ypkpd; $w;Wg;gb mJ \rNkhuh\ my;yJ \~[Uh; hp];thd;.\

Kd;$pj;jpd; $w;Wg;gb mJ \,uhf;\ vd;gjhFk;.

jpUf;Fh;Md; ,e;j kuj;jpd; ngaiu \~[h;\ vd;wiof;fpd;wJ. (48) 

NyDila mugp-Mq;fpy mfuhjpapd;gb ~[h; vd;gJ \fbd jz;Ls;s ve;j kuKk;\ vd;gijf; Fwpf;Fk;. MfNt> `{ijgpa;ahtpYs;s kuk; Iron wood ,dj;ijr; Nrh;e;j kuk;jhd; vd;W ehk; $wpl ,aYk;.

,e;j kuk; rk;ke;jkhf K];ypk; fpue;jj;jpd; nkhop ngah;g;ghsh; t`PJ ]khd; mth;fspd;  fUj;J:-

\me;j kuk; ,g;nghOJ ,y;iy. kf;fs; me;j kuj;ij Rw;wp tUfpwhh;fs; vd;W mwpe;j ckh; (uyp) mth;fs; mij ntl;btpl;lhh;fs;|[255]

t`PJ $khd; mth;fs; jtwhd xU fUj;ijNa nfhz;bUf;fpwhh;fs; vd;W ehd; fUJfpNwd;. gpd;tUk; egp nkhopfspypUe;J mjw;fhd fhuzj;ij vspjhf Cfpf;fyhk; ;-

 -            \kuj;jpd; fPo; my;yh`;tpd; J}jhplj;jpy; rj;jpag; gpukhzk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;lth;fspy; vd;Dila je;ijAk; xUtuhthh;; \mLj;j tUlk; ehq;fs; `[;[pw;f;F te;j NghJ> me;j kuk; ,Ue;j ,lj;ij vq;fshy; fz;Lgpbf;f Kbatpy;iy; cd;dhy; (fz;Lgpbf;f) Kbe;jhy; cdf;F (vd;id tpl) mjpfk; njhpAk;| (vd;W mh;j;jk;) vd;W jd; je;ij $wpajhf raPj; gpd; Ki]g; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[256]

 -                  \... ... ... mLj;j tUlk; egpj; Njhoh;fs;(me;j kuj;ij) kwe;J tpl;ldh;. (mij milahsk; fz;L gpbf;f Kbatpy;iy) vd raPj; ,g;D Ki]g; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;wdh;. [257]

 -            \ehd; me;j kuj;ij ghh;j;jpUf;fpNwd;; Mdhy; kPz;Lk; ehd; mq;Nf te;j NghJ vd;dhy; mij milahsk; fz;L nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy|vd ]aPj;; ,g;D Ki]g; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[258]

rq;fuhr;rhhpahUf;F Nghjp kuk; ,Ue;jjpy;iy. ,NaRtpd; Nghjp kuk; gw;wp RtpN~rq;fspy; ve;j Fwpg;Gk; ,y;iy.  MfNt ,NaRNth my;yJ rq;fuhr;rhhpahNuh Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ. K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fSf;F Nghjp kuk; ,Ue;jjhy; mth;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Mthh;fs;.

14 Nghjp kuj;jpd; fPo; re;jpj;jy;

Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Nghjp kuj;jpd; fPo; kpfg;ngUk; ntw;wpAld; gpur;rhuk; nra;thh; vd rpy Gj;jkj fpue;jq;fs; $Wfpd;wd.[259] rpy gagf;jpAs;s Gj;jh;fs; ,e;j kuj;jpd; fPopUe;J Gj;jh ikj;Nuah NgRtijf; Nfl;gjw;F tpUg;gk; njhptpj;Js;sdh;. ,l;]pq; vd;gth; mth;fSs; xUtuhthh;:-

\Gj;jh ikj;Nuahit Kjd; Kjypy; Dragon-flower kuj;jpd; fPo; ehd; re;jpj;J mthpd; Mokhd miyNkhJk; Fuiy ehd; Nfl;fl;Lk;\[260]

,e;j re;jpg;G jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; ed;F Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ-

\Kkpd;fs; me;j kuj;joapy; thf;FWjp nra;j NghJ nka;ahfNt my;yh`; mth;fisg;nghUe;jp(Vw;Wf;) nfhz;lhd;; mth;fSila ,jaq;fspy; ,Ug;gij mtd; mwpe;J mth;fs; kPJ(rhe;jpiAk;) mikjpia(Ak;) ,wf;fpaUspdhd;\ jpUf;Fh;Md; 48:18.

\rhe;jp> kd mikjp\ vd;gJ eph;thzk; vd;gjd; kWngaNuad;wp Ntwy;y.

Nghjp kuj;jpy; $b ,Ue;j rpyh; mwptpj;jij nfhz;L Nghjp ku re;jpg;igg; gw;wp ehk; tpsf;FNthk:-

 -            ...... ehq;fs; egp(]y;) mth;fsplk; tpRthrg; gpukhdk; vLj;Njhk;. (,e;j Neuj;jpy;) r%uh kuj;jpd; fPo; ckh;(uyp) mth;fs; mth;fis ifahy; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. ehq;fs; [hj; gpd; if]; md;rhhpiaj; jtpu midtUk; tpRthrg; gpukhzk; vLj;Njhk;. mth; mtUila xl;lifapd; tapw;wpd; fPo; xspe;J nfhz;lhh;\ vd mgP `{igh; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. M. Vol. V. P.  2000.

 -            `{ijgpa;ah jpdj;jd;W ... ... ... \cyfpy; cs;s midj;J kf;fisAk; tpl ,d;W ePq;fs; kpfr; rpwe;jth;fshtPh;fs;|vd my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; $wpdhh;fs;.vdf;F fz;ghh;it khj;jpuk; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy; me;j ,lj;ij cq;fSf;F fhz;gpj;jpUg;Ngd; vd [hgph;(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whhh;fs;. Ibid. PP. 2000-1

 -            kuj;jpd; fPo; vd;dplk; tpRthrg; gpukhzk; nra;j vtUk; eufpdpy; Eioa khl;lhh;|vd my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; $wpajhf [hgph;(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Ta. Vol. V. P. 85. A.T. & M. quoted.

 -            (kuj;jpd; fPo; re;jpj;j) md;dhspy; my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; tpRthrg; gpukhzk; thq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jij ehNd fz;Nld;. kuj;jpd; fpis mthpd; Nky; (tpohjthW) ehd; jLj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;Njd; ... ... ...vd kpfhapy; gpd; ahrh;(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  M. Vol. P. 2001.

,NaRtpw;F my;yJ rq;fuhr;rhhpahUf;Nfh ve;jtpj Nghjp kuKk; ,Ue;jJ njhpag;glhjjhy; Nghjp kur; re;jpg;G vd;gJ Nfs;tpf;F mg;ghw;gl;ljhFk;. K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fSf;F Nghjp kuk; ,Ue;jjhYk; mjd; fPo; ele;j re;jpg;G ,];yhkpa rhpj;jpuj;jpy; kpfTk; Gfo; tha;e;jJ vd;gjhYk; mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Mthh;fs;.

15 Nghjp kuj;jpd; fPo; ntw;wp

Gj;jh;fs; Nghjp kuj;jpd; fPo; jPatdpd; kPJ ntw;wp nfhs;Sfpwhh;fs; vd Gj;j kj Ntjq;fs; mwptpf;fpd;wd.  fTjk Gj;jh; mth;fs; Nghj;-fah vd;Dkplj;jpy; Fiscus Religiosa kuj;jpd; fPo; khuhit (-rhj;jhid) ntw;wp nfhz;lhh;fs;.

,NaR rhj;jhdhy; \ehw;gJ ehl;fs;|Nrhjpf;fg;gl;lhh;[261]vd RtpN~rq;fspy; ehk; thrpf;fpNwhk;. ,NaR rhj;jhdpd; Nky; ntw;wp nfhs;stpy;iy vd;gij Y}f;fhtpd; mwptpg;Gf;fspypUe;J njspthfpd;wJ. mjw;Fg; gpwF ntw;wp nfhs;sg;glhkNyNa gprhrhdtd; \rpy fhyk; mtiu tpl;L tpyfpg; Nghdhd;.

,NaRtpw;Fk; gprhrpw;Fk;(khuh) ele;j Nghuhl;lj;jpy; kpfTk; Jf;fj;jpw;Fhpa ghfj;jpw;F ehk; tUfpNwhk;. ,NaR jd;Dila kuzj;jpw;F Kd; rPlh;fSf;F nrhy;tjhtJ:-

,dp ehd; cq;fSlNd mjpfkha; NgRtjpy;iy. ,e;j cyfj;jpd; mjpgjp tUfpwhd;. mtDf;F vd;dplk; xd;Wkpy;iy. Nahthd; 14:30

,NaR gprhirNa \,e;j cyfpd; mjpgjp|vd;W miog;gjhf fpwp];jt mwpQh;fs; $Wfpd;whh;fs;.

re;Njfj;ij ePf;Ftjw;fhf Nkw;fhl;lg;gl;l ,e;j gj;jpf;F nuntnuz;l; W. Walsham How D.D. mspf;Fk; tpsf;fj;ij fhz;Nghk;;-

\KO gj;jpAk; gpd;tUkhW cs;sJ:- rhj;jhd; mtdpd; gyj;ij vdf;nfjpuhf epiyehl;l Kay;fpwhd;. mtd; vd;dplk; ve;j ghtj;ijAk; fhzhjjhy; mtd; vd;id ntw;wp nfhs;s KbahJ. ,Ug;gpDk; ehd; ,t;Tyfpw;fhf khpj;jplNtz;Lk; vd;w vd; gpjhtpd; tpUg;gj;jpw;F fPo;g;gbAk; tifapy; vd;Dila rhPuj;ij kuzj;jpw;Fs;shf;Fkstpw;F mtdplkpUe;J tUk; f~;lq;fis rfpg;Ngd;. ehd; gpjhit Nerpf;fpNwd; vd;gij KO cyfKk; ,jdhy; mwpa tUk;[262]

NkYs;s tpsf;fk; rhpahf ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mjd; KbT ntspg;gilahdJ:-

,Wjpg; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; ,NaR rhj;jhid ntw;wp nfhs;shky; tPu kuzkile;jhh; khuh ,t;Tyfpd; mjpgjpahf Kd;dpUe;jJ Nghd;W njhlh;e;J ,Uf;fpwhd;. 

,t;thwhf Gdpj gTy; gprhirg;gw;wp vOJtjhtJ:- 

mtpRthrpfshfpa mth;fSf;Fg; gpufhrkhapwhjgbf;F ,g;gpugQ;rj;jpd; Njtdhdtd; mth;fSila kdijf; FUlhf;fpdhd;. 2 nfhhpe; 4:4

fPo;g;gbahikapd; gps;isfsplj;jpy; ,g;nghOJ fphpianra;fpw Mfhaj;J mjpfhug;gpuGthfpa Mtpf;Nfw;wgbahfTk; ele;J nfhz;Bh;fs;. vNg 2:2

Nghjp kuj;jpd; fPo; K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fspd; ntw;wp jpUf;Fh;Mdpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ:-

(egpNa) epr;rakhf ehk; xU njspthd ntw;wpahf ckf;F ntw;wp mspj;Js;Nshk;- ckf;fhf ck;Kila Ke;jpa jtWfisAk; gpe;jpatw;iwAk; my;yh`; kd;dpj;J ckf;fhfj; jdJ mUl;nfhiliaAk; G+h;j;jp nra;J ck;ik Neuhd topapy; elj;Jtjw;fhfTk;. 48:18.

jpUf;Fh;Mdpd; ,e;j gj;jpahdJ gpd;tUk; Gj;jh fTjkhtpd; thh;j;ijfspYs;s mNj cl;fUj;ijNa Cl;Lfpd;wJ.

\,q;Nf ehd; Jd;gq;fspd; rq;fkj;jpypUe;J vd;id ehNd tpLtpj;J nfhz;L mitfspd; Rikfis mg;ghy; J}f;fp vwpe;J tpl;Nld;[263]

egp(]y;) mth;fs; khuhit ntw;wp nfhz;lJ `jP]; njhFg;gpy; kpfj; njspthff; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ:-

\jq;fspd; fzth;fs; ,y;yhkypUf;Fk; rkaj;jpy; (-mth;fs; jdpahf ,Uf;Fk; NghJ) ngz;fsplk; nry;yhjPh;fs;. Vnddpy; xt;nthU kdpjdpd; ehb euk;gpYk; irj;jhd; Xbf; nfhz;bUf;fpwhd; vd;W egp (]y;) mth;fs; nrhd;d NghJ \cq;fspd; ehb euk;GfspYkh?\ vd;W Njhoh;fs; tpdh vOg;gpdh;.

vd;Dila euk;gpYk;jhd;. Mdhy; mtid ntw;wp nfhs;s ,iwtd; vdf;F cjtp nra;jhd;. MfNt mtd; vdf;F fPo;g;gbe;J tpl;lhd; vd egpath;fs; gjpyspj;jhh;fs;.[264]

\xt;nthU kdpjhplj;jpYk; irj;jhd; ,Uf;fpwhd; vd;W my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; nrhd;dhhh;fs;. mjw;F ehd; \cq;fsplj;jpYkh|vd;W Nfl;Nld;. mjw;F mth;fs; \vd;dplj;jpYk;jhd; Mdhy; irj;jhid ntw;wp nfhs;Sgtdhf ,iwtd; vd;id Mf;fptpl;lhd;. MfNt mtd; vdf;F fPo;g;gbe;J tpl;lhd; vd gjpyspj;jhh;fs; vd Map~h (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[265]

rq;fuhr;rhhpahh; khuhit ntd;wth; vd;gjw;fhd ve;j tpj rhd;Wk; ,y;iy. ,NaRTk; khuhit ntw;wp nfhs;s Kbatpy;iy vd;gij ehk; fhz;gpj;Js;Nshk;.  MfNt ,NaRNth my;yJ rq;fuhr;rhhpahNuh Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ. K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Mthh;fs;. mth;fs;jhd; khuhit ntw;wp nfhz;lth;fshthh;fs;. `{ijgpa;ah kuj;jpd; fPo; ntw;wp epiy ehl;lg;gl;lJ.

16 thdj;J Nghjp kuk;

Gj;jhtpd; thdj;J Nghjp kuk; gw;wp rpy Mf;fq;fs; njhptpf;fpd;wd.

m - me;j kuk; kpfg; ngUk; msitAilajhFk;.

M - xt;nthU Gj;jhtpw;Fk; xU Nghjp kuk; nghJthdjhFk;.

, - ,e;j Nghjp kuj;jpy; thdth; jiyth; gpu`;khit Gj;jh re;jpj;jhh;

< -  mth; Qhdk; ngw;w gpd;G ,e;j Nghjp kuj;ij Nehf;fp Gj;jh; epiyahd ghh;itia nrYj;Jfpwhh;.

M kpfg; ngUk; msitAilaJ

jz;zPhpypUe;J ntspahfp 68 kpy;ypad; Nahridj; J}uq;fs; msT (xU Nahridj; J}unkd;gJ xU ,uhZtk; xU ehspy; ele;J nry;yf; $ba J}ukhFk;> 7 iky;fs;) kz;zpy; gutpapUe;j kpfg; xU ngUk; nts;is ---- kukhdJ Gj;jh jd;Dila jhapd; fh;g;g miwf;Fs; Eioe;j mNj ,uT md;W gpu`;k cyfpd; kj;jpapUe;J vOe;jJ.  ,e;j --- kuj;ij kdpjh;fspd; Neh;topfhl;bfSk; gpu`;khTk;jhd; ghh;f;f KbAk;.[266]

 -            my;yh`;tpd; mhpahrdj;j;F tyg;Gwj;jpy; nropj;J tUk; rj;uj; vd;W miof;fg;gLk; fz;zpw;F Gyg;glhj kuj;ij Nehf;fp K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs; jpBnu,d caNu mioj;Jr; nry;yg;gl;ldh;.; #hpad; G+kp Mfpaw;wpUf;Fk; J}uj;ij tpl mjpfkhd J}uk; ,e;j kuj;jpd; fpisfs; gutpapUe;jJ.  Irving P. 81.  

 -            mjDila epoypNyNa xU Xl;Ldh; E}W tUl fhyk; gazk; nra;Akstpw;F kpfg; nghpa kuk; xd;W Rtdj;jpy; cs;sJ vd my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; $wpdhh;fs; vd mG+`{iuuh(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.  Vol. II. P. 199.

 -            xU Xl;Ldh; E}W tUlk; fhyk; gazk; nra;Jk; $l mjDila epoiy flf;f ,ayhj mstpw;Fs;s kpfg; nghpa kuk; xd;W Rtdj;jpy; cs;sJ vd my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; $wpdhh;fs; vd mG+ ]aPj; Fj;hp (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.\ Vol. II. P. 199.

M nghJthd Nghjp kuk;

\Nghjp kuk; midj;J Gj;jh;fSila ntw;wpfspd; mhpahrdk;....mq;Nf midj;J Gj;jh;fSk; jq;fSila khkpr Miria nehWf;fpdhh;fs;,mjw;F mg;ghy; mtd; rf;fhthf ,Ue;j NghjpYk; vtUk; nry;y KbahJ.[267]

,e;j kuk; kpfTk; J}uj;J vy;iyapypUf;Fk; \mjw;fg;ghy; vtUk; flf;f Kbahj[268] kukhFk; vd jpUf;Fh;Md; $Wfpd;wJ 

,e;j kuk; VohtJ thdj;jpy; ,iwtdpd; mhpahrdj;jpw;F tyg;Gwj;jpy; ,Uf;fpwnjd;Wk; mjw;F Nky; thdth;fs; fle;J nry;yf;$lhj vy;iyahfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ vd tphpTiuahsh;fs; $Wfpwhh;fs; vd;w Fwpg;ig Nry; jUfpd;whh;.[269]

,Wjp vy;iyapy; ,Uf;Fk; kuk; vd;w ,J miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. thdth;fspd; mwpT me;j ,lj;NjhL Kbe;J tpLfpd;wJ. my;yh`;tpd; J}jiuj;jtpu NtnwtUk; mijf; fle;J nrd;wjpy;iy vd ,g;D mg;gh];(uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;.[270]

, gpu`;kdpd; tUif

mth; Qhdj;ij mile;j clNdNa thdth; jiyth; gpu`;kh Nghjp kuj;jpw;fUfpy; Gj;jh fTjkhit re;jpf;fpwhh;.[271] Gj;jh fTjkhtpw;F ele;jJ Nghd;w mNj epfo;r;rp K`k;kJ(]y;) mth;fSf;Fk; ele;jJ.  jpUf;Fh;Md; $Wfpd;wJ \md;wpAk;> epr;rakhf mth; kw;nwhU KiwAk; mijf; fle;J vtUk; nry;y Kbahj ,ye;ij kuj;jUNf mtiu([pg;uaPy;) fz;lhh;\ jpUf;Fh;Md; 53;

< Nghjp kuj;Jg; ghh;it

\cyfshtpa mstpy; fz;zpak; kpf;f mth; jd;Dila mhpahrdj;jpypUe;J vOe;J Nghjp kuj;jpw;F rw;W njhiytpy; Ngha; fhy;fis khw;wpg; Nghl;L mkh;e;J ghh;itia mfw;whky; Nghjp kuj;ijg; ghh;j;jthW VO ehl;fs; efuhky; mkh;e;jpUe;jhh;... ... ... gpd; ehl;fsp;y; xU NfhGuk; xd;W ,e;j ,lj;jpy; vOg;gg;gl;L mJ \fz;fis cah;j;jhjJ vd;W miof;fg;gl;lJ|[272]

K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fisg; gw;wp ,Nj khjphp jpUf;Fh;Md; NgRfpwJ-

\mth; kW KiwAk; ----- mUNf mtiu fz;lhh;. mjw;fg;ghy; nry;Yk; ve;j topAkpy;iy. mjd; rkPgj;jpy;jhd; [d;dj;Jy; k/th vd;Dk; Rth;f;fk; ,Uf;fpwJ. ]pj;uj;Jy; Kd;j`h vd;Dk; mk;kuj;ij #o;e;J nfhz;bUe;j Ntisapy;(mtUila) ghh;it tpyfTkpy;iy; mijf; fle;J(khwp) tplTkpy;iy. jplkhf mth; jk;Kila ,iwtdpd; mj;jhl;rpfspy; kpfg; nghpaijf; fz;lhh;.\ jpUf;Fh;Md; 53: 

egp (]y;) mth;fspd; Nghjp kug; ghh;it #jP]; fpue;jq;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,iwtdpd; cj;juT mk;kuj;ij #o;e;j NghJ ve;j gilg;ghYk; mjd; moif tpthpf;f ,ayhj mstpw;F mJ moF kpf;fjhapw;W vd my;yh`;tpd; J}juth;fs; $wpajhf md]; (uyp) mth;fs; mwptpf;fpd;whh;fs;. Vol. I. P. 281.

,NaRtpw;Fk; rq;fuhr;rhhpahUf;Fk; chpa tpz; kuk; vJTkpy;iy. MfNt mth;fspy; ahUk; Gj;jh ikj;Nuahthf ,Uf;f KbahJ. K`k;kJ (]y;) mth;fs;jhd; Gj;jh ikj;Nuah Vnddpy; Mfha Nghjp kuk; gw;wpa mtUila tpsf;fk; Gj;jh Ntjq;fspy; $wg;gl;Ls;s kuj;NjhL xj;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

[227]  S.B.E. Vol. XXI. P. 225. 

[228]  Carus. P. 251. 

[229]  John 12:31. 

[230]  2 Cor. 4:4. 

[231]  Bible Concordance by Cruder. P. 130.

[232]  Anguttara Nikaya by Gooneratne. P. 39. 

[233] Vol. XXXVI. Questions of King Milinda. Part II. P. 47

[234]  The Life and Teachings of Buddha by Anagarika Dharmapala. P. 84. 

[235]  Matt. 11:9

[236]  The Manual of Mystic by Woodward. P. 6. Foot Note. 

[237]  Romantic History of Buddha by Beal. P. 241. 

[238]  Sutta Nipata by Fausboll. P. 177.

[239]  Udanavarga by Rockhill. P. 91.

[240]  Mejhima Nikaya by Silacara. P. 153.

[241]  Ibid. P. 154. 

[242]  Bharetyacharitamnudhi. P. 453. 

[243]  Matt. 11:9

[244]  The Popular Life of Buddha by Lillie. P. 30. 

[245]  Foot Note. 950. 

[246]  Javahar-al- Lughat. P. 37; and others. 

[247]  The Popular Life of Buddha by Lillie. P. 232.  I-tsing by Takakusu. P. 213. 

[248]  I-tsing by Takakusu. P. 213.

[249]  Vol. II. P. 52. 

[250]  Takakusu. P. 213.

[251]  Foot Note.  1929. P. 280.

[252]  Webster.

[253]  Chaber’s Ency. 

[254]  Sale’s Koran P. 494. Foot Note.

[255]  M. Vol. V. PP. 2000-1

[256]  M. Vol. V. PP. 2000-2

[257]  Ibid. P. 2002. 

[258]  Ibid. P. 2002. 

[259]  Watters. Vol. II. P. 52. 

[260]  Takakusu. P. 213.

[261]  Luke  4:2. 

[262]  The Four Gospels. 

[263]  Romantic History of Buddha Beal. P. 237. 

[264]  Ta. Vol. III. P.91.

[265]  Ta. Vol. V. P. 21. A and N. quoted.

[266]   Lalit Vistara quoted in Popular Life of Buddha by Lillie. 

[267]  Jataka by Francis and Thomas. Vol. IV. P. 146-7.

[268]  The Holy Qur’an 53

[269]  The Koran : P. 508 Foot Note. 

[270]  M. Vol. 1. P. 280. 

[271]  Mahhima Nikaya by Silacara. P. 151.

[272]  Romantic History of Buddha by Beal. P. 237.

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