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[fhj;


(,];yhj;jpy; [fhj; kw;Wk; mjd; Kf;fpaj;Jtk;)

,];yhj;jpd; mbg;gilfspy; xd;Wk;> kfj;jhd mjd; mikg;Gfspy; cs;sJkhFk;. NkYk; Fwpg;gpl;l $l;lj;jpdUf;F kw;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;l Neuj;jpy; gy epge;jidfNshL nry;tj;jpy; flikahd chpikAkhFk;.

NkYk; mJ fz;zpak; kw;Wk; kfj;Jtj;jpw;Fhpa my;yh`;tpd; Ntjj;jpy; mNef ,lq;fspy; njhOifAld; ,izf;fg;gl;L(f; $wg;gl;L)s;sJ.

mJ fl;lhaf; flikahdnjd K];ypk;fs; cWjpahf xUkpj;j fUj;Jk; njhptpj;Js;sdH. MfNt mJ gw;wp (fl;lhaf; fliknad)j; njhpe;jpUg;gJld; vtH ,e;jf; fl;lhaf; flikia kWj;J tpl;lhNuh> mtH ,];yhkpa khHf;fj;ij tpl;L ntspNawp tpl;ltuhthH.

vtH mJgw;wp (mij epiwNtw;Wk; tp\aj;jpy;) fUkpj;jk; nra;fpd;whNuh> my;yJ mjpypUe;J vijahtJ Fiwj;Jf; nfhz;lhNuh> mtH jz;lid kw;Wk; Ntjidf;F vLj;Jf; fhl;lg;gLgtHfshd mepahaf;fhuHfspy; cs;stuhthH.

my;yh`; jd; jpUkiwapy; $Wfpd;whd; :

njhOifiaAk; epiwNtw;Wq;fs;> [fhj;ijAk; nfhLq;fs;. (my;gfuh : trdk; 110)

NkYk;>

''my;yh`;Tf;F tzf;fj;ij J}a;ikahf;fpatHfshf (jtwhd topapypUe;J tpyfp rhpahd topapy;) gpbg;Gs;stHfshf my;yh`;it mtHfs; tzq;f Ntz;Lk;; NkYk; njhOifia mtHfs; epiyehl;lNtz;Lk;; NkYk; [fhj;ij mtHfs; toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gijj; jtpu (NtnwJTk;) mtHfSf;Ff; fl;lisaplg;gltpy;iy. ,Jjhd; Neuhd khHf;fkhFk;."" (98:5)

,g;D ckH (uyp) mwptpj;J GfhhP kw;Wk; K];ypkpy; gjpthfpAs;sJ - mtHfs; $Wfpd;whHfs; :

(mbg;gilfshd) Ie;jpd; kPJ ,];yhk; mikf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd my;yh`;tpd; J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; $wp tpl;L> (Ie;jhd) mtw;wpypUe;J [fhj; nfhLg;gijf; $wpdhHfs;.

KMj; (uyp) mtHfis akd; Njrj;jpd;ghy; mDg;gpa rk;gtk; GfhhPapy; gjpthfpAs;sJ. mjpy; ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs;> (Vfj;Jk;> njhOif Mfpa Kd; $wg;gl;l) mjw;F mtHfs; fPo;g;gbe;J (fl;Lg;gl;L) tpl;lhy;> epr;rakhf my;yh`; jHkj;ij ([fhj;ij) mtHfspd; kPJ fl;lhaf; flikahf;fpAs;shd;. mtHfspy; ViofshapUg;NghUf;F jpUg;gpf; nfhLf;fg;gLk; vd;gij mtHfSf;F mwptpg;gPuhf! vd;W $wpdhHfs;.

NkYk;> [fhj; ij epiwNtw;Wtij tpl;ltH> epuhfhpg;gpy; cs;shH vd;gJ gw;wp caHe;Njhdhfpa my;yh`; $Wfpd;whd; :

MfNt mtHfs; (jq;fs; ghq;fspypUe;J tpyfpg;) gr;rhjg;gl;L> njhOifiaAk; epiwNtw;wp> [fhj;ijAk; nfhLj;J te;jhy; (mtHfs;) cq;fSf;F khHf;fj;jpy; rNfhjuHfs;. (9:11)

njhOifia epr;rakhf epiwNtw;whJ> [fhj;ijAk; nfhLf;fhjtH ek;Kila khHf;fr; rNfhjuHfspy; cs;stuy;yH - mJ khj;jpuky;yhJ epuhfhpj;Njhhpy; mtH cs;stuhthH vd;gJ gw;wp  ,t;trdj;jpypUe;J tpsq;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

mjd; epkpj;jNk> mGgf;fH rpj;jPf; (uyp) mtHfs; njhOif kw;Wk; [fhj;jpw;fpilNa tpj;jpahrg;gLj;jp ([fhj;jhd) mijf; nfhLf;f kWj;jtHfNshL NghH nra;jdH. njhOifia epiwNtw;wp [fhj;ij(f; nfhLf;f) kWj;jtHfNshL NghH nra;jdH. (me;epiyapy; mtHfNshL NghH njhLf;f Ntz;Lnkd mGgf;fH (uyp) mtHfs; vLj;j Kbthd) mjw;F egpj;NjhoHfs; mtHfSf;F cld;ghL njhptpj;jdH. MfNt mJ (egpj;NjhoHfspd; xUkpj;J vLf;fg;gl;l fUj;jhf) ,[;khc> thf Mfptpl;lJ.

[fhj; khHf;fkhf;fg;gl;ljd; jj;Jtk;

  • kdpjidf; fQ;rj;jdj;jpypUe;J J}ukhf;FtJ> J}a;ikg;gLj;JtJ

  • K];ypKf;F jHk rpe;jidia Vw;gLj;JtJ

  • nry;te;jDf;Fk; Viof;FkpilNa Nerj;ij epue;jukhf;FtJ. Vnddpy; kdpj cs;sq;fs; jkf;F cgfhuk; nra;gtHfis Nerpg;gjd; kPNj gilf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

  • Vio K];ypkpd; Njit epiwT nra;ag;gl;L NghJkhd xU epiyia cUthf;FtJ

  • kdpjid ghtq;fis tpl;Lk; J}a;ikg;gLj;JtJ. ghtq;fis mopj;J> gjtpis caHj;Jtjw;Fk; [fhj; fhuzkhf mikfpwJ

xt;nthU K];ypk; nry;te;jUk; jd;dplk; Xuhz;L tiu Fiwe;jgl;rk; Ik;gj;J ,uz;liuj; Njhyh nts;sp ,Ue;jhy; mjpypUe;J ehw;gjpy; xU gq;ifj; jq;fSila Vio cwtpdUf;Nfh my;yJ NtW ahuhtJ NjitAs;stUf;Nfh> tWik tha;g;gl;ltUf;Nfh> Gjpjhf K];ypk; MdtUf;Nfh> gpuahzpf;Nfh> fld;gl;ltUf;Nfh nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W my;yh`; flikahf;fp ,Uf;fpd;whd;.

my;yh`; ,t;tpjkhfg; gzf;fhuHfspd; nry;tj;jpy; ,uz;liur; rjtPjk; gq;F ViofSf;nfd;W jPHkhdpj;jpUf;fpd;whd;. ,jw;F NkYk; mjpfkhf VNjDk; xUtH toq;fpdhy; mJ Nghw;wj;jf;f mwkhFk;. mjw;Fhpa ew;gyd; kpFjpahfNt fpilf;Fk;.

ghUq;fs;! ,e;jg; gq;F my;yh`;Tf;Fg; Ngha;r; NrUtjpy;iy.mtd;> cq;fSila ve;jg; nghUSilaTk; NjitAilatdhf ,y;iy. Mdhy; mtd; $WtjhtJ> ePq;fs; cq;fs; Vior; rNfhjuUf;F kd kfpo;r;rpNahL VNjDk; vd; ngauhy; nfhLj;jhy; mJ vdf;Ff; nfhLj;jJ NghyhFk;. nfhLf;fg;gl;ltdpd; rhHghf ehd; cq;fSf;Fg; gd;klq;F ew;$ypia toq;FNtd;. xU epge;jid cz;L. ePq;fs; ahUf;fhtJ VNjDk; nfhLj;Jg; nghpa cjtp Ghpe;J tpl;ljhf ,Wkhg;Gf; nfhs;shjPHfs;. thq;fpatid ,opTgLj;jhjPHfs;. mtDila ed;wpiag; ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;Nwh> cq;fs; ts;sy; jd;ikiag; gw;wp kf;fs; Ngr Ntz;Lnkd;Nwh> ,d;dhH nghpa nfhilahsp vd;W cq;fisg; Gfo Ntz;Lk; vd;Nwh tpUk;ghjPHfs;. ,j;jifa vz;zq;fspypUe;J cq;fs; neQ;rq;fisg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. ,iwtd; $WtjhtJ> vd;Dila kfpo;r;rpf;fhf kl;LNk cq;fs; nry;tj;jpypUe;J ViofSf;Fg; gq;FnfhLj;jhy;> ehd; vd; mstw;w nry;tjpypUe;J vd;Wk; Fiwahj gq;if ehd; cq;fSf;F toq;FNtd; vd;W $Wfpd;whd;.

,ijg; gw;wpAk; rpe;jpAq;fs;...!

my;yh`; vt;thW njhOif> Nehd;G> Mfpatw;iw ek;kPJ flikahf;fpAs;shNdh> mt;thNw ,e;j [fhj;ijAk; flikahf;fpAs;shd;. ,J ,];yhj;jpd; kpfg; nghpa J}zhFk;. J}zhf ,J jPHkhdpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Vnddpy; ,J K];ypk;fSf;Fs; ,iwtDf;fhf vijAk; jpahfk; nra;Ak; rpwg;gpay;Gfis cz;lhf;FfpwJ. Raeyk;> FWfpa kdg;ghd;ik> nghUshir Mfpa jPa Fzq;fis tpyf;FfpwJ. gzj;ijg; G+[pg;gtDk;> gzj;jpw;fhf capH tpLk; Nguhirf;fhuDk;> fQ;rDk; ,];yhj;jpw;F xU gpuNahrdKk; mw;wtHfs;. vtd; my;yh`;tpd; Mizg;gbj; jhd; f\;lg;gl;Lr; rk;ghjpj;j nghUis ahnjhU Raey Nehf;fKkpd;wpj; jpahfk; nra;ar; rpj;jkhapUg;ghNdh mtNd ,];yhkpa NeHtopapy; elf;f KbAk;. K];ypk;fis [fhj;> ,j;jjifa jpahfj;jpw;Fg; gapw;rp mspf;fpwJ. ,iw topapy; nryT nra;a Ntz;ba mtrpak; Vw;gLk; NghJ> nry;tj;ijj; jd; khHNghL mizj;J itj;Jf; nfhz;buhky; jhuhs kdj;Jld; nryT nra;Ak; jFjpAilatdhf mtid Mf;FfpwJ.

K];ypk;fisg; gu];guk; cjtp nra;J thOk;gbr; nra;tNj [fhj;jpdhy; cyfpy; Vw;gLk; ed;ikahFk;. ve;j K];ypKk; Milapy;yhkNyh> cztpy;yhkNyh> epHf;fjpahfNth ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. nry;tHfs; Viofisj; jhq;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Viofs; ,ue;Jz;L jphpaf; $lhJ. ahUk; jq;fs; nry;tj;ijr; Rf Nghfq;fspYk; Mlk;guq;fspYk; thhp ,iwf;fhky;> mr;nry;tj;jpy; rKjhaj;jpy; cs;s mdhijfs;> tpjitfs;> NjitAs;stHfs; MfpatHfSf;Fk; chpikAz;L vd;W fUjp tho Ntz;Lk;. mr;nry;tj;jpy; ahuhtJ tpahghuNkh> njhopNyh nra;Ak; jFjpAilatHfshf ,Ue;J ifapy; Kjy; ,y;yhky; nra;a Kbahky; ,Ug;gtHfSf;Fk; ,aw;ifahf ey;y $HkjpAk;> jpwikAk; ngw;wpUe;Jk; ViofshapUf;Fk; fhuzj;jhy; fy;tp fw;f tha;g;gpy;yhky; ,Ug;gtHfSf;Fk;> mq;f`PdHfshapUe;J ahnjhU Ntiy nra;aTk; jFjp ,y;yhjtHfshapUg;gtHfSf;Fk; gq;F cz;L. vtd; ,e;j chpikia xg;Gf; nfhs;stpy;iyNah mtd; nfhLikahsd; Mthd;. ePq;fs; cq;fsplk; gzj;ijf; fw;iw fw;iwahf itj;Jf; nfhz;L khlkhspiffspy; Rf Nghfq;fis mDgtpj;Jf; nfhz;L> Nkhl;lhH thfdq;fspy; gwe;J jphpe;J nfhz;L> cq;fs; rKjhaj;ijr; NrHe;j Mapuf;fzf;fhd kf;fs; Nrhw;Wf;F ,y;yhky; thb tjq;FtijAk;> Mpauf;ffzf;fhdtHfs; Ntiyapy;yhky; njUj; njUthf miytijAk; ghHj;Jf; nfhz;bUg;gijf; fhl;bYk; kpfTk; nfhLikahd nray; vJ ,Uf;f KbAk;. ,];yhk; ,j;jifa Raeyj;Jf;F tpNuhjp. ,iwepuhfhpg;ghsHfSf;F mtHfSila ehfhPfk;> ifapy; fpilj;j gzj;ijr; RUl;b ms;sp ms;sp itj;Jf; nfhz;L> mij tl;bf;Ff; nfhLj;J mf;fk;gf;fk; cs;s kf;fspd; rk;ghj;jpaj;ijAk; jq;fsplk; <Hj;Jf; nfhz;L thOk;gbf; fw;gpf;fpwJ.

Mdhy; K];ypk;fSf;Nfh> mtHfSila khHf;fk;> cq;fis NjitfSf;F Ntz;baJ Nghf kpQ;Rk; msT my;yh`; cq;fSf;Fr; nry;tk; mUspdhy; mijf; Ftpj;Jg; gJf;fp itf;fhjPHfs;. cq;fSila Vior; rNfhjuHfSf;Fk; toq;Fq;fs;. mtHfs; Njitfs; G+Hj;jpahfl;Lk;. cq;fisg; Nghy mtHfSk; rk;ghjpf;fNth> Ntiy nra;aNth jFjpAilatHfs; Mfl;Lk; vd;W mwpTWj;JfpwJ.

vtw;wpy; [fhj; flik?

jq;fk;> nts;sp> tpahghur; ruf;Ffs;> fhy;eilfs; (ML> khL> xl;lfk;) G+kpapy; tpisAk; jhdpaq;fs;> goq;fs; kw;Wk; cNyhfq;fs; Mfpatw;wpy; [fhj; flikahFk;.

jq;fk;> nts;sp

jq;fk;> nts;sp ve;j tifiar; rhHe;jjhf ,Ue;jhYk; mtw;wpy; [fhj; flikahFk;. ep]hg; vDk; cr;rtuk;G msT jq;fk;> nts;sp ahhplk; cs;sNjh mtH kPJ [fhj; flikahFk;. jq;fj;jpy; ep]hg; msT 20 kp];fhy; mjhtJ vOgJ fpukhFk;. nts;spapd; ep]hg; 20 jpH`k; mjhtJ> ehE}w;W mWgJ fpuhkhFk;. ahH jq;fj;jpw;Fhpa ep]hg; msit itj;jpUf;fpwhNuh mtH jd;dplKs;sjpy; ,uz;liu rjtPjk; [fhj; nfhLg;gJ mtH kPJ flikahfp tpLfpwJ. mJ xd;wiu fpuhkhFk;. nts;spapy; ep]hig itj;jpUg;gthpd; kPJ gjpndhd;wiu fpuhk; flikahFk;.

nuhf;fg; gzkhff xUtH [fhj; nfhLf;f tpUk;gpdhy; ve;j ehspy; Xuhz;L G+Hj;jpahfpd;wNjh me;j ehspy; xUfpuhk; jq;fk; my;yJ nts;spapd; tpiy kjpg;igf; Nfl;Lj; njhpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. gpwF mjd; kjpg;Gf;F epfuhd gzj;ij [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf xUthplk; E}W fpuhk; jq;fk; ,Ue;jhy; mtUf;F mjpy; [fhj; flikahfp tpLfpwJ. Vnddpy; mtH ep]hg; vDk; cr;rtuk;ig ngw;W tpl;lhH. mjw;Fhpa [fhj; ,uz;liu fpuhkhFk;.

,e;j [fhj;ij mtH nuhf;fg; gzkhff; nfhLf;f ehbdhy; [fhj; flikahd ehspd; jq;fj;jpd; tpiy kjpg;igf; Nfl;lwpe;J> ,uz;liu fpuhk; jq;fj;jpd; kjpg;gPl;Lf;Fr; rkkhd njhifia [fhj;jhff; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

,J Nghd;w nuhf;fg; gzk; [fhj;jpd; ep]hig mile;J> Xuhz;L G+Hj;jpahfp tpl;lhy;> mjpy; [fhj; flikahfp tpLfpwJ. vdNt xUtdplk; vOgJ fpuhk; jq;fkstpw;F nuhf;fg; gzk; ,Uf;Fkhdhy;> mtd; kPJ [fhj; flikahfp tpLfpwJ. ,uz;liu rjtPj msT fzf;fpl;L mtd; [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. vdNt xUK];ypkplk; gzkpUe;J> Xuhz;L G+Hj;jpahfp tpl;lhy;> mtd; jq;f tpahghhpaplk; vOgJ fpuhk; jq;fj;jpd; tpiy kjpg;igf; Nfl;f Ntz;Lk;. mj;njhif Nghd;W mtdplkpUf;Fkhdhy; mjw;F mtd; [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. tpahghhp $wpaij tpl mtdplk; Fiwthf ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mtDf;F [fhj; flikahfhJ.

cjhuzkhf xUtdplk; Kg;ghjhapuk; &gha; ,Ue;J> Xuhz;Lk; epiwT ngw;wpUe;jhy;> mtd; jdJ ehl;bd; ehza kjpg;gPL jq;fj;jpd; msitf; nfhz;bUf;Fkhdhy;  jq;fj;jpd; xU fpuhk; tpiyiaf; Nfl;Lj; njhpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ jdJ ehl;bd; ehza kjpg;gPL nts;spiaf; nfhz;bUf;Fkhdhy; xU fpuhk; nts;spapd; tpiyiaf; Nfl;Lj; njhpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mg;NghJ vOgJ fpuhk; jq;fj;jpd; tpiy ehw;gjhapukhf ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mtDf;F [fhj; flikahfhJ. Vnddpy; mtdplKs;s ,e;jj; njhif [fhj; nfhLf;FksTf;fhd njhifay;y. nts;spf;Fk; ,t;thNw nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

tpahghur; ruf;FfSf;Fhpa [fhj;

nghUs; trjpiag; ngw;W mij tpahghuj;jpy; KjyPL nra;af; $ba K];ypkhd tpahghhpapd; kPJ [fhj; nfhLg;gij tUlk; xU Kiw ,];yhk; flikahf;fpAs;sJ. ,J> mtd; my;yh`;tpd; mUSf;F ed;wp nra;tjw;fhfTk; jd; rNfhjuHfspy; NjitAilatHfspd; Njitia epiwT nra;tjw;fhfTk; MFk;.

mirahg; nghUs;s> gpuhzp> czT> ghdk;> fhH Nghd;wtw;wpy; ,yhgj;ij Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;L nfhLf;fy; thq;fy; nra;af; $ba midj;jpYk; [fhj; flikahfpwJ. ,tw;wpy; [fhj;jpw;Fhpa epge;jid : gzk; ep]hg; vDk; cr;r tuk;ig vl;bapUf;f Ntz;Lk;.mtw;iw nts;sp> jq;fk; ,t;tpuz;by; xd;wpd; fpuaj;jpw;F <lhf kjpg;gpl Ntz;Lk;. mtw;wpd; nkhj;jf; fpuaj;jpy; ,uz;liu rjtPjk; [fhj; flikahFk;. xUtdpd; tpahghug; nghUspd; fpuakhf xU yl;rk; &gha; ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mtd; mjpy; 2500 &gha; [fhj; nfhLg;gJ flikahFk;.

tpahghhpfs; xt;nthU tUlKk; jq;fsJ ,Ug;ig tpiy kjpg;gPL nra;tJ flik. gpwF mtw;wpd; [fhj;ijf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. xU tpahghhp xU tUlk; G+Hj;jpahf gj;J ehl;fspUf;Fk; NghJ xU nghUis tpiyf;F thq;fpdhy;> mij kw;w nghUl;fSld; NrHj;J mjw;Fr; [fhj; nfhLj;J tpl Ntz;Lk;. tpahghuj;ij ve;j ehs; Muk;gpj;jhNdh me;j ehspypUe;J tUlk; Muk;gkhfp tpLfpd;wJ. vy;yh K];ypk;fSk; jq;fsplKs;stw;wpw;F xt;nthU tUlKk; [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;bajpUg;gjhy; ,J tUlhe;jpu [fhj; vd;W Mfp tpl;lJ.

jPdp nfhLj;J tsHf;Fk; fhy;eilfs; tpahghuj;jpw;Fhpaitahf ,Uf;Fkhdhy; mit [fhj;jpd; msit mile;jhYk; milahtpl;lhYk; rhpNa! mtw;wpd; tpiy kjpg;gPL ep]hGf;F Nky; NghFk; NghJ mtw;wpd; Nghpy; [fhj; flikahfp tpLk;. vdNt mtd; mtw;wpw;F ehzaj;ijf; fzf;fpl;L [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

gq;FfSf;F [fhj;

,f;fhyj;jpy; kf;fs; mirahr; nrhj;Jf;fspYk; kw;wtw;wpYk; gq;Ffs; NghLk; gof;fk; cilatHfshf ,Uf;fpd;wdH. ,d;Dk; ,tHfspy; rpyH mg;gq;F fspy; xU njhifia rpy rkaq;fspy; gy Mz;Lfshf Klf;fp itg;gtHfSk; ,Uf;fpd;wdH. mj; njhif $lTk; nra;Ak. ,it tpahghug; nghUs;fshff; fzpf;fg;gLtjhy; ,g;gq;FfSf;Fk; [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. vdNt xU K];ypk; xt;nthU Mz;Lk; mtw;wpd; kjpg;igf; fzf;fpl;L mtw;wpw;Fhpa [fhj;ij nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. my;yJ mtw;iw tpw;W mtw;wpd; fpuaj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; NghJ me;j tUlq;fs; midj;jpw;Fk; [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

tpisnghUSf;Fhpa [fhj;

Nrkpf;fg;glf; $ba> epWf;fg;glf; $ba NghPjjk; gok;> jpuhl;ir Nghd;w fdp tiffspYk; kzpf;NfhJik> mhprp Nghd;w jhdpaq;fspYk; [fhj; flikahFk;. vdpDk; goq;fspYk; fha;fwpfspYk; [fhj; flikapy;iy.

tpisnghUs;fs; ep]hg; vDk; cr;rtuk;ig mile;J tpl;lhy; [fhj; fl;lhakhFk;. [fhj;jpd; msT 675 fpNyhthFk;. NfhJikf;Fhpa ep]hg; (cr;r tuk;G msT) 552 fpNyhthFk;. Xuhz;L G+Hj;jpahf Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ ,tw;wpy; epge;jidapy;iy.

,it kio ePH> Mw;W ePH Nghd;w jz;zPuhy; nrytpd;wp ePHg;ghrk; nra;ag;gl;L tpise;jpUf;Fkhdhy; gj;J rjtPjk; [fhj; flikahFk;. jz;zPUf;fhfr; nryT nra;ag;gl;bUf;Fkhdhy; Ie;J rjtPjk; [fhj; flikahFk;. cjhuzkhf xUtd; NfhJikia nrytpd;wp ePHg;ghrdk; nra;J mjpy; mtDf;F 800 fpNyh fpilj;jpUf;Fkhdhy; mjpy; gj;jpy; xd;W 80 fpNyh flikahFk;. nryTld; ghrdk;kj nra;jpUe;jhy; ,UgJ rjtPjk; mjhtJ 40 fpNyh flikahFk;.

fhy;eilfSf;Fhpa [fhj;

fhy;eilfs; vd;why; xl;lfk;> khL> nts;shL> nrk;kwp ML> MfpaitahFk;. ,tw;wpy; fPo; fhZk; epge;jidfSld; [fhj; flikahFk;.

  • ep]hg; vDk; cr;rtuk;ig vl;l Ntz;Lk;. xl;lfj;jpd; ep]hg; Ie;J> nrk;kwp ML> nts;shL ,tw;wpd; ep]hg; ehw;gJ. khl;bd; ep]hg; Kg;gJ. ,jw;F Fiwthdjpy; [fhj; fpilahJ.

  • ,it chpikahshpd; iff;F te;J Xuhz;L G+Hj;jpahfp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

  • ,f;fhy;eilfs; tUlj;jpy; mjpf ehl;fs; ntspNa nrd;W Nka;e;jjhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. jPdp nfhLj;J tsHf;fg;gl;llitahfNth my;yJ mtw;Wf;fhd jPdp tpiyf;F thq;fg;gl;litahfNth ,Ue;jhy; my;yJ mtw;Wf;fhd jPdpia chpikahsNu Nrfhpf;fpd;whH vd;why; ,JNghd;w fhy;eilfSf;F [fhj; flikapy;iy. Mdhy; ,it tUlj;jpy; mjpf ehl;fs; Nka;e;jitahf ,Ue;jhy; [fhj; flikahFk;.

  • mit gzpapy; <LgLj;jg;glhjitahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mtw;wpd; chpikahsd; mtw;iw tptrhaj;jpNyh my;yJ Rik J}f;fNth my;yJ NtW NtiyfSf;Nfh mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;jhky; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.

xl;lfk;

[fhj;jpw;Fhpa ep]hg; Ie;J xl;lfq;fs; ,Ue;jhy; xl;lfj;jpy; [fhj; flikahFk;. xU K];ypkplk; Ie;Jf;F Nky; xd;gJ tiu xl;lfq;fs; mtdJ clikapypUe;jhy; XH Mz;L epiwtile;jpUe;jhy; mtw;wpy; xU ML [fhj; flikahFk;. gj;Jf;F Nky; gjpdhd;F tiu ,Ue;jhy; mtw;wpy; ,uz;lhL flikahFk;. gjpide;jpw;F Nky; gj;njhd;gj tiu %d;whLfs;. ,Ugjpw;F Nky; ,Ugj;J ehd;F tiu ehd;F MLfs;. ,Ugj;ije;jpw;F Nky; Kg;gj;ije;J tiu xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd ngz; xl;lfk;. ,J mtDf;Ff; fpilf;ftpy;iyahdhy; ,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU Mz; xl;lfk;. 36 f;F Nky; 45 tiu ,UtaJ G+Hj;jpahd ngz; xl;lfk;. 40 f;F Nky; 60 tiu %d;W taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk;. 61f;F Nky; 75 tiu ehd;F taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk;. 76 f;F Nky; 90 tiu ,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd ,U ngz; xl;lfk;. 91f;F Nky; 120 tiu %d;W taJ G+Hj;jpahd ,U Mz; xl;lfq;fs;. ,jw;F Nky; mjpfkhdhy; xt;nthU ehw;gJf;Fk; ,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk;. xt;nthU Ik;gJf;Fk; %d;W taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk;. fPo;f;fhZk; ml;ltiz xl;lfj;jpw;Fhpa [fhj;ij njspTgLj;JfpwJ.

vz;zpf;if

[fhj;

5 Kjy; 9 tiu

xU ML

10 Kjy; 14 tiu

,U ML

15 Kjy; 19 tiu

%d;W ML

20 Kjy; 24 tiu

ehd;F ML

25 Kjy; 35 tiu

xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk; my;yJ ,UtaJ G+Hj;jpahd xU Mz; xl;lfk;

36Kjy; 45 tiu

,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk;

46 Kjy; 60 tiu

%d;W taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk;

61 Kjy; 75 tiu

ehd;F taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU ngz; xl;lfk;

76 Kjy; 90 tiu

,uz;L taJ G+Hj;jpahd ,U ngz; xl;lfq;fs;

91 Kjy; 120 tiu

%d;W taJ G+Hj;jpahd ,U xl;lfq;fs;

,jw;FNky; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jhy; xt;nthU 40f;Fk; ,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd ngz; xl;lfKk; xt;nthU Ik;gJf;Fk; %d;W taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU xl;lfKk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

khLfs;

xUtdplk; 30 f;Fk; Nky; 39 tiu khLfs; ,Ue;jhy; xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU gRTk;> 40 f;Fk; Nky; 59 tiu ,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU gRTk;> 60 f;F Nky; 69 tiu xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd ,uz;L fhisfSk;> 70 f;Fk; Nky; 79 tiu ,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU gRTk;> xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU fhisAk; gpd;dH xt;nthU 30f;Fk; xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd xU fhisAk;> xt;nthU 40 f;Fk; xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd gRTk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

vz;zpf;if

[fhj;

30 Kjy; 39 tiu

xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd gR xd;W

40 Kjy; 59 tiu

,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd gR xd;W

60 Kjy; 69 tiu

xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd fhis ,uz;L

70 Kjy; 79 tiu

,U taJ G+Hj;jpahd gR xd;Wk;> xU taJ G+Hj;jpahd fhis xd;Wk;

MLfs;

xUtdplk; 40 Kjy; 120 tiu MLfs; ,Ue;jhy; mtd; xU ML nfhLg;gJ flikahFk;. 121 Kjy; 200 tiu ,U MLfSk;> 201 Kjy; 300 tiu ,Ue;jhy; %d;W MLfSk;> 301 Kjy; 400 tiu ehd;F MLfSk;> 401 Kjy; 500 tiu Ie;J MLfSk; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpd;dH ,jw;F Nky; mjpfkhFk; gl;rj;jpy; xt;nthU E}W MLfSf;Fk; ruhrhp xU ML nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

vz;zpf;if

[fhj;

40 Kjy; 120 tiu

xU ML

121 Kjy; 200 tiu

,U MLfs;

201 Kjy; 300 tiu

%d;W MLfs;

301 Kjy; 400 tiu

ehd;F MLfs;

401 Kjy; 500 tiu

Ie;J MLfs;

gpd;dH xt;nthU E}W MLfSf;Fk; xU ML nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

[fhj; ngwj; jFjpahdtHfs;

my;yh`; $Wfpd;whd; :

([fhj; vd;Dk;) jhdjHkq;fnsy;yhk; ViofSf;Fk;> twpatHfSf;Fk; ,e;j jhdjHkq;fis t#y; nra;Ak; CopaHfSf;Fk;> ,];yhj;jpd; ghy; mtHfsJ cs;sk; <Hf;fg;gl;ltHfSf;Fk;> mbikfis tpLjiy nra;tjw;Fk;> fld;gl;ltHfSf;Fk;> my;yh`;tpd; ghijapy; (NghH GhpNthUf;Fk;) topg;Nghf;fHfSf;Fk; chpadthFk;. (,J) my;yh`; tpjpj;j flikahFk;. my;yh`; (ahTk;) mwpgtd;> kpff; QhdKilatd;. (9:60)

my;yh`; [fhj; ngwj; jFjpahd vl;L tiff; $l;lj;jpdiu tpsf;fpf; $wpAs;shd;. ,];yhj;jpy; [fhj; rKjhaj;ijAk; NjitAilNahiuAk; nrd;wilfpd;wJ. Vida khHf;fq;fspYs;sJ Nghy - khHf;f tpw;gd;dHfSf;F kl;LNk nfhLf;fg;gl khl;lhJ.

1) /gfPH (Vio) :

capH tho;tjw;Fg; NghJkhd Njitfspy; ghjpf;Fk; Fiwthfg; ngw;wpUg;gtH

2) kp];fPd; :

capH tho;tjw;Fg; NghJkhd Njitfspy; ghjpf;F Nky; ngw;wpUg;gtH. vdpDk; mtH NghJkhd KOikahd msitg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy;iy. ,tHfSf;F gy khjq;fSf;fhd my;yJ xU tUlj;jpy; NghJkhd mstpw;Fhpa gzk; [fhj; epjpapypUe;J nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

3) [fhj; njhifia t#ypg;gtHfs; :

[fhj; njhifia nry;te;jHfsplkpUe;J Nrfhpg;gjw;fhf Ml;rpahsuhy; epakpf;fg;gLgtHfs;. mtHfs; nry;te;jHfshapUe;jhy; mtHfsJ me;j];j;jpw;Nfw;g mtHfsJ Ntiyf;Fhpa $ypiaf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

4) cs;sk; <Hf;fg;gl;ltHfs; :

jk; kf;fsplj;jpy; khpahijf;Fhpa jiytHfspy; vtHfs; ,];yhj;jpw;F tUthHfs; vd;Nwh K];ypk;fSf;Fj; njhy;iy juhkypUg;ghHfs; vd;Nwh vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwNjh mj;jifatHfs;. ,t;thNw ,];yhj;jpy; Gjpjhf te;jtHfSf;Fk; mtHfsJ cs;sq;fs; ,];yhj;jpd;ghy; Nerkhf;fg;gLtjw;fhfTk;> mtHfspd; cs;sq;fspy; <khd; cWjpahtjw;fhfTk; mtHfSf;F [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

5) mbik kPl;G (rpiwapypUe;J tpLjiy nra;tjw;F)

mbikfis chpiktpLtjw;fhfTk; vjphpfshy; ifJ nra;ag;gl;ltHfis tpLtpg;gjw;fhfTk; [fhj; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

6) fld;gl;ltHfs; :

,tHfSila fld;; milg;gjw;fhf [fhj; epjpapypUe;J nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. MapDk; K];ypk;fshapUg;gJk;> flid milg;gjw;F trjpAs;s nry;te;jHfshf ,y;yhkypUg;gJk;> mtHfsJ fld; ghtj;jpw;Fhpajhf ,y;yhkypUg;gJk; jw;fhypf fldhf ,Ug;gJk; tpjpKiwahFk;.

7) my;yh`;tpd; ghijapy; [p`hj; nra;gtHfSf;F

Cjpaj;ij vjpHghHf;fhky; tzf;fkhff; fUjp NghHGhpgtHfs;. mtHfspd; nrytpw;fhf my;yJ MAjq;fs; thq;Ftjw;fhf [fhj; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;. khHf;ff; fy;tpiaj; NjLtJk; [p`hijr; NrHe;jJ jhd;. khHf;ff; fy;tpapy; <LgtLtij ehLk; xU kdpjd; jd;dplk; nghUshjhu trjpapy;yhkypUf;Fkhdhy; mtd; khHf;ff; fy;tpiaj; NjLtjpy; <LgLkstpw;F NghJkhd njhifia kl;Lk; [fhj; epjpapypUe;J nfhLg;gJ $Lk;.

8) topg;Nghf;fd; :

CUf;Fr; nry;y Kbahky; topapNyNa epd;W tpl;l xU gazp. mtdJ Chpy; mtd; nry;te;jdhf ,Ue;jhYk; mtd; CH Ngha;r; NrUkstpw;F [fhj; njhifapypUe;J nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

[fhjpd; epjp gs;spfl;Ltjw;Fk; rhiyfis rPHgLj;Jtjw;Fk; nrytpLtJ $lhJ.

Fwpg;G :

fly; nghUs;fspypUe;J [fhj;

Kj;J> gtsk;> kPd; ,d;Dk; ,it Nghd;w flypypUe;J vLf;fg;gl;ltw;wpy; tpahghuj;jpw;nfd xJf;fg;gl;ltw;iwj; jtpu kw;wtw;wpy; [fhj; flikapy;iy.

thliff; fl;blq;fs; kw;Wk; njhopw;rhiyfs;

thliff;fhd fl;llq;fs;> njhopw;rhiyfs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; [fhj; flikapy;iy. vdpDk; thlifg; gzk; ep]hg; (cr;rtuk;G) vDk; cr;rtuk;ig vl;bapUe;J Xuhz;L G+Hj;jpahfp tpLkhdhy; mjpy; [fhj; flikahFk;. cjhuzkhf xUtd; xU tPl;il thliff;F tpl;L mjd; thlifia vLj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhd;. mtd; thlifahf vLj;Jf; nfhz;l njhiff;Nfh my;yJ mjpy; rpwpjsTf;Nfh mit [fhj;jpd; msit vl;Lk; gl;rj;jpy; - Xuhz;L G+Hj;jpahfp tpLkhdhy; mjpy; [fhj; flikahFk;.

cjtpa E}y;fs; :

1) ,J jhd; ,];yhk;.fhk; (mGy; m/yh nksJ}jp)

2) ghlj;jpl;lk; 1 - (jkpo;top) Ry;gp ntspehl;ltH miog;G ikak;> nrsjp mNugpah.

H 4
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