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`p[;hp ehl;fhl;bapy;

ehspd; Muk;gk; vg;NghjpUe;J?

Dr. A K`k;kJ myp Ph.D jpUr;rp-7


;cyfpy; NtWgl;l kjq;fs;> rkaq;fs;> fyhr;rhuq;fs;> gof;f tof;fq;fs;> gz;ghLfs;> Rw;Wg;Gw #o;epiyfs;> thdpiy gUt khw;wq;fs; gy ,Ug;gpDk;> fhyj;ijf; fzf;fpLtjpy; vy;NyhUk; xd;Wgl;Ls;sdH. 60 tpehbfs; xU epkplk;> 60 epkplq;fs; xU kzp> xU ehisf;F 24 kzp> 7 ehl;fs; xU thuk;> 12 khjq;fs; xU tUlk; vd;gjpy; vtUk; khWgLtjpy;iy. ,jpy; khj> tUlj; ijf; fzf;fpLtjpy; #hpa kz;ly Row;rp - Mq;fpNya(fpwpj;Jt)H fspd; Kiw> re;jpu kz;ly Row;rp vd;w K];ypk;fspd; `p[;hp Kiw tof;fj;jpy; cs;sJ.

g+kp kj;jpaNuiff;F tlf;Fk;> njw;Fk; nry;yr; nry;y ,uT> gfy; Neuq;fspy; ngUk; tpj;jpahrk; njd;glyhk;. Mdhy;> g+kp kj;jpa Nuiff;F mUfpYs;stHfs; XusT rkkhf ,uT> gfy; Neuq;fis tUlk; KOtJk; ngWfpwhHfs; vd;gJ cyfwpe;j cz;ik.

ehisf; fzf;fpLtjpy; cyfstpy; ,U ngUk; epajpfs; eilKiwapy; gpd;gw;wg;gl;L tUfpwJ. #hpa kz;l Row;rpapd; Mq;fpNya(fpwpj;Jt)Hfspd; mbg;gilapy; cUthd Mq;fpy ehl;fhl;bapd; - Gregorian Calendar- gpufhuk; xt;nthU ehSk; eLeprp ,uT 12kzpf;F Muk;gkhfpwJ. ,k;Kiw fp.gp. 1592Kjy; eilKiwapYs;sJ. gjpd;%d;whk; 'fpufhP' vd;w Nghg; Mz;l tuhy; ,J tiuaWf;fg;gl;L eilKiwf;F te;jJ. (Mjhuk;: Dr. rpjk;guehj nrl;bahH njhFj;jspj;j Mq;fpy - jkpo; mfhujp> nrd;id gy;fiyf; fofk;> 1965 Mz;L gjpg;G gf;fk; 456) ehsiltpy; fhydp Mjpf;fj;ij cyfstpy; tphpTgLj;jpa INuhg;gpa(fpwpj;Jt)Hfs; ,k;KiwiaAk; jq;fspd; fhydp Mjpf;fj;jpYs;s ehLfspy; eilKiwg;gLj;jpdH. ,J ,d;wsTk; gpd;gw;wg;gl;L tUfpwJ.

njhd;Wnjhl;L> gz;gl;l ehfhpfq;fis jd;dfj;Nj nfhz;l vfpg;J> rPdh> ,e;jpa kf;fs; xt;nthU ehisAk; #hpad; cjpf;Fk; mjpfhiyapypUe;J Muk;gpj;jdH. ,JNt g+HtpfKiw ahFk;. ,jdbg;gilapy; jkpo; ehl;fhl;b fhyz;lhpy; ehs; mjpfhiyapy; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gij gQ;rhq;f E}y;fspy; epjHrdkhf ,d;Wk; fhzyhk;.

Mq;fpy ehl;fhl;bapd;gb ,uT eLeprp 12kzpf;F ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ. mjpfhiy #hpa cjaj;jpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gJ g+HtPf jkpo; ehl;fhl;b. ,t;tpuz;LNk #hpa kz;lyr; Row;rpapd; mbg;gilapy; cUthdit. vdNtjhd;> khj fzf;fpy; 28>29>30>31>32 ehl;fs; vd;w NtWghLfs; tUfpd;wd. Mdhy;> ,];yhk; tFj;jspf;Fk; ehl;fhl;b re;jpu kz;ly Row;rpapd; mbg;gilapyhdit. vdNtjhd;> khjj;ijf; fzf;fpLk; NghJ 29 ehl;fs;; mjpfgl;rk; 30 ehl;fs; vd> tiuaWj;J typAWj;JfpwJ ,];yhk;. mjidAk; Kjy; gpiwiaf; fhZtjd; %yk; fzf;fpl MizapLfpwJ.

ehs; vg;NghJ Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gjpy;> K];ypk;fspilNa ,U ngUk; fUj;Jf;fs; epytp tUfpd;wd.

1. gpiwiag; ghHj;J khjj;ij Muk;gpf;f egp(]y;) mtHfs; Mizapl;bUg;gjhy;> gpiw ghHf;Fk; Neukhd khiy (k/hpg; - #hpa m];jkd) Neuj;jpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gJ ngUk; ghyNdhhpd; fUj;jhFk;. vdNt jhd;> kw;w ehl;fhl;b - fhyz;lH gpufhuk; tpahod; ,uit K];ypk;fs; nts;sp ,uT vd;W miof;fpd;wdH. ukohdpd; gpiw fz;l \/ghd; filrp ,utpNyNa ''ukohdpd; ,uTj; njhOif (juhtP`; vd;W ngahpl;L) njhOfpd;wdH. \t;thy; gpiw fz;l ,uT> ''ukohdpd; ,uTj; njhOif epWj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,itaidj;Jk; khiy (k/hpg;) Neuj;jpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gjw;fhd Mjhuq;fs; vd;Wk; thjpLfpd;wdH.

2. #hpa m];jkd (k/hpg;) Neuj;jpy; gpiwghHj;J khjk; Muk;gkhdhYk;> mg;gpiw njd;gLtjpy; ,lk;> Neuk; khjh khjk; NtWgLtjhy;> mr;nra;jpia mwpa Vwj;jho gpiwf; fhZk; filrp 29tJ ehspd; ,uT Neuk; KOJk; fope;J> tpbaw;fhiy (g[H) Neuk; tiu mtfhrk; jug;gLfpwJ. mjd;gpd; tpbaw;fhiy (g[H) Neuk;> Kjy; ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gJ kpfTk; rpW ghz;ik K];ypk;fspd; fUj;J.

ngUk;ghz;ik> rpWghz;ik vd;w Nfhl;ghl;by; ,];yhkpa epiyia fzpf;f KbahJ. xU Ntis rpWghz;ikapdhpd; fUj;jpYk; cz;ikapUf;fyhk;. ngUk;ghz;ikapdH mwpahikapy; #o;e;jpUf;fyhk;. my;yJ ngUk;ghz;ikapdiu ehd; top nfLg;Ngd; vd #Siuj;j i\j;jhdpd; #o;r;rp tiyapy; tPo;e;jpUf;fyhk; Vfd; my;yh`; mtdJ mUs;kiwapy; $Wfpwhd;:

g+kpapy; cs;stHfspy; ngUk;ghNyhiu ePH gpd;gw;W tPuhdhy; mtHfs; ck;ik my;yh`;tpd; ghijia tpl;L topnfLj;J tpLthHfs;. (Mjhukw;w) ntWk; Cfq;fisj;jhd; mtHfs; gpd;gw;WfpwhHfs;. NkYk;> mtHfs; fw;gidapNyNa %o;fpAs;sdH. (my;FHMd; 6:116)

vdNt> K];ypk;fspilNa ehs; vg;NghJ Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gjpYs;s ,U fUj;Jf;fspy; vJ rhpahdJ? vJ jtwhdJ? vd;gij FWfpa ehL> Njrpa czHTfisAk; ,d> Fy> nkhop gz;ghl;L ghr epidTfisAk;> kf;fspilNa ghuk;ghpakhf cs;s gof;ftof;fq;fisAk; tpl;L tpl;L midtUk; xUkpj;J Vw;Fk; Mjhuq;fshd khrpyh ,Wjp ,iwNtjk; jpUf;FHMd;; mt;Ntjj;ijNa jdJ tho;T newpahf nfhz;L ,k;kpAk; gpwohky; tho;e;J fhl;ba ekJ xNu jiytH K`k;kJ(]y;) mtHfspd; nrhy;> nray;> mq;fPfhukhd egptop (Rd;dj;) %yk; Muha;Nthkhf! my;yh`; NeHtop fhl;Lthdhf! MkPd;!

,uT> gfypy; vJ Muk;gk;:

xU ehspy; ,uT> gfy; vd ,U gFjpfs; cs;sd. g+kp kj;jpaNuiff;F mUfpYs;s ,lq;fisj; jtpu tlf;Nfh> njw;Nfh nry;y nry;y ,uTk;> gfYk; rkkhf 24 kzpj;Jspfis gphpj;J tUtjpy;iy. g+kp kj;jpaNuiff;F xl;ba ,lq;fspy; XusT rkkhf tUfpwJ. g+kp kj;jpaNuiff;F tlf;Nfh> njw;Nfh nry;y nry;y epr;rakhf> ehspd; 24kzpj;Jspfs; gphpj;J rkkhf tUtjpy;iy. NkYk;> Nfhil> FspH> ,iyAjpH> ,sNtdpy; fhyq;fspy; kpfg; ngUk; tpj;jpahrq;fisf; fhzyhk;. ,Ug;gpDk; cyfshtpa epiyapy; ,uTk;> gfYk; khwp khwp tUfpwJ.

xU ehis fzf;fpl ehk; ,uT> gfypy; vJ Kjypy; tUfpwJ vd;gijj; jPHkhdpf;f Ntz;Lk;. gpiw ghHf;Fk; Neukhd khiy (k/hpg; - #hpa m];jkd) Neuj;jpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gpg;gjhff; $WgtHfs;> ,utpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gpg;gjhff; $Wfpd;wdH. mjhtJ Kjypy; ,uT tu mjidj; njhlHe;J gfy; tUtjhff; $Wfpd;wdH. ,J jtwhdf; fUj;J vd;gjid my;yh`;tpd; mUs;kiw typAWj;jpf; $WfpwJ.

#hpad; re;jpuid (neUq;fpg;) gpbf;f KbahJ ,uT gfiy Ke;j KbahJ. (my;FHMd; 36:40)

#hpad; kPJk; - mjd; gpufhrj;jpd; kPJk; rj;jpakhf!

mjidj; njhlHe;J tUk; re;jpud; kPJk; rj;jpakhf!

gfy; ntspahFk; NghJ> mjd; kPJk; rj;jpakhf!

(mg;gfiy) %bf; nfhs;Sk;> ,utpd; kPJk; rj;jpakhf!

(my;FHMd; 91:1-4)0

my;y! re;jpud; kPJ rj;jpakhf!

gpd;Ndhf;fpr; nry;Yk; ,utpd; kPJk; rj;jpakhf! (my;FHMd; 74:32>33)

mtNd ,uitf; nfhz;L gfiy %Lfpd;whd;;

mt;tpuT gfiy ntF tpiuthfg; gpd; njhlHfpwJ. (my;FHMd; 7:54)

mtNd ,uitf; nfhz;L gfiy %Lfpd;whd;. (my;FHMd; 13:3)

mtNd nghOJ tpbar; nra;fpd;whd;; ePq;fs; fisg;ghwp mikjp ngw mtNd ,uitAk;> fhyf; fzf;fpid mwpa #hpaidAk;> re;jpuidAk; cz;lhf;fpdhd;. (my;FHMd; 6:96)

,t;tpiw trdq;fspy; ,lk;ngWk;:

1. ,uT gfiy Ke;j KbahJ

2. #hpad;> mjidj; njhlUk; re;jpud;

3. gpd;Ndhf;fpr; nry;Yk; ,uT

4. ,uT gfiy ntF tpiuthf gpd;njhlHjy;

5. ,uitf; nfhz;L gfiy %Ljy;

6. tpbe;j gfypy; cioj;J> njhlUk; ,utpy; mikjp ngWjy;

Nghd;w nra;jpfs; cs;sq;if ney;ypf;fdpahf gfy; Kjypy; tu> mjidj; njhlHe;J ,uT tUtJ GydhfpwJ. mjhtJ ehspd; ,uT> gfy; vd;w ,U gFjpfspy; gfy; Kjypy; tUtjhy;> gfypypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gJ njspthfpwJ.

gfypYk; ve;j Neuj;jpypUe;J Jy;ypakhf ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gijAk; Vfd; my;yh`; mtdJ Ntjkiwapy; tpNtfj;Jld; tpthpg;gijg; ghhPH.

cq;fs; kidtpaUld; $b my;yh`; cq;fSf;F tpjpj;jijj; Njbf; nfhs;Sq;fs;; NkYk; mjpfhiy (g[;H) Neuk; vd;w nts;is E}y; (,uT vd;w) fUg;G E}ypypUe;J njspthfj; njhpAk; tiu cz;Zq;fs;; gUFq;fs;. gpwF ,uT tUk; tiu Nehd;igg; g+Hj;jp nra;Aq;fs;. (my;FHMd;2:187)

,];yhj;jpy; my;yh`;tpd; Mizg;gb mtDf;fhd Ik; ngUk; flikfspy; xd;whd ukohd; khjj;jpa Nehd;G itg;gij gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLifapy; ukohd; khjj;jpa gpiw ghHj;j khiy (k/hpg; - #hpa m];jkd) Neuj;jpypUe;J Nehd;G flik Muk;gpf;f tpy;iy gpiw ghHj;j khiy Neuj;ijj; njhlUk; ,utpy; cz;Zq;fs;> gUFq;fs;> cq;fsJ JiztpaUld; cy;yhrkhf ,Uq;fs;. mt;tpuitj; njhlHe;J mjpfhiy(g[;H)apypUe;J Nehd;G ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ. mjpfhiy (g[;H) Neuj;jpypUe;J> mjidj; njhlUk; ,uT tiu Nehd;igg; g+Hj;jpr; nra;Aq;fs; vdj;njs;sj; njspthf my;yh`; $Wfpwhd;. vd;Nd njspT!

xU ehspd; KbT Neuj;ijAk; ,Njj; njspTld; jdJ jpUkiwapy; tpthpg;gijg; ghhPH

fz;zpakpf;f me;j ,uT Mapuk; khjq;fis tpl NkyhdJ. mjpy; thdtHfSk;> Md;khTk; ([pg;uaPYk;) jk; ,ul;rfdpd; fl;lisapd;gb rfy fhhpaq;fSld; ,wq;Ffpd;wdH. rhe;jp (epyTtjhf!) mJ tpbaw;fhiy (g[;H) cjakhFk; tiu ,Uf;Fk;. (my;FHMd; 97:3-5)

Ke;jpa ,iwtrdj;jpy; Nehd;gpd; Muk;gk; tpbaw;fhiy (g[;H) Neuk; Muk;gpg;gjpypUe;J vdf; $wpa my;yh`;> mNj ukohd; khjj;jpy; tUk; ''iyyj;Jy; fj;H vd;w Mapuk; khjq;fis tpl rpwg;Gg; ngw;w ,utpd; filrp Neukhf tpbaw;fhiy (g[;H) Neuk; cjakhFk; tiu vd tiuaWj;Jf; $Wfpwhd;. ,e;j ,iwthf;Fgb ,];yhkpahPjpapy; ehs; vd;gJ #hpa cjaj;jpw;F Kd; cUthFk; tpbaw;fhiy (g[;H - Dawn) Neuj;jpypUe;J njhlHe;J mLj;j tpbaw;fhiy (g[;H - Dawn) cjakhFk; tiuAs;sJ vd;gJ njspthfpwJ.

vJ eLj;njhOif?

tpbaw;fhiy (g[;H) njhOifapd; Muk;g Neuj;jpypUe;J ehs; Muk;ghk; me;ehspd; Kjy; njhOif (tpbaw;fhiy) g[;H; ,uz;lhtJ njhOif (kjpak;) O`H: %d;whtJ (eLj;) njhOif (khiy) m]H; ehd;fhtJ njhOif (#hpa m];jkdk;) k/hpg;; Ie;jhtJ njhOif (,uT) ,\h vd mike;jpUg; gijAk;; mj;njhOiffspd; ngaHfNs mugpapy; g[;H - tpbaw; fhiy Neuk;; O`H - kjpa Neuk;; m]H - khiy Neuk;; k/hpg; - #hpa m];jkd Neuk;; ,\h - ,uT Neuk; vd #hpa kz;l Row;rpapd; mbg;gilapyhd Neuj;ijf; Fwpg;gpLtijAk; fhzyhk;. ,jdbg;gilapy; my;yh`; mtdJ mUs; kiwapy; mwptpg;gijg; ghhPH:

njhOiffis - (Fwpg;ghf) eLj;njhOifiag; Ngzpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. (my;FHMd; 2:238)

,e;j ,iw trdj;jpy; eLj;njhOif vdf; Fwpg;gplg;gLtJ ''m]H njhOifnad u#y;(]y;) mtHfs; tpsf;fkspj;jhHfs; vd> RkhH 35-f;Fk; Nkyhd egpnkhopfspy; fhz KbfpwJ.

mwptpg;ghsHfs;: myP> Map\h> gHuhc gpd; M]pg;> ,g;D k];J> rk;uj;jpg;D [{d;Jg;> `g;]h (uop - md;`{k;)

Mjhuq;fs;: Kmj;jh khypk;: M.nkh: 307 - 308 (288> 289)> K];ypk;: M.nkh: 1314 - 1317 (996-998) mg+jhj;: M.nkh. 409-411 (347-348)> e]aP(468) jpHkpjP (2908) mg+jhj; jhayp]p - 168>

m`;kJ: 867> 17925> 19296> 23309> 24278

egp(]y;) mtHfspd; md;G JiztpahH Map\h(uop) mtHfs; egpatHfspd; kuzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; jq;fSf;nfd xU jpUf;FHMd; gpujpia vOj itj;jpUe;j jdJ vOj;jhsH ,g;D D];(u`;) mtHfsplk; (2:238) ,t;trdk; te;jJk;> ,q;F ''eLj; njhOifk; vdg;gLtJ m]H njhOifnad u#y;(]y;) mtHfs; tpsf;fkspj;jjhff; $wpdhHfs;.

Mjhuq;fs;: Kmj;jh- khypk; 307 (288) K];ypk;: 1316 (998) mg+jhj;: 410 (307); e]aP 468; jpHkpjP: 2908;

K];dJ m`;kJ: 23309> 24278

egpatHfspd; kw;nwhU JiztpahH> ckH(uop) mtHfspd; kfshH `g;]h(uop) mtHfs; jq;fSf;nfd xU jpUf;FHMd; gpujp vOj itj;jpUe;j jdJ vOj;jhsH mk;H gpd; uhgpc(u`;) mtHfsplk; md;id Map\h(uop) mtHfs; jdJ vOj;jhshplk; $wp aijg; Nghd;Nw $wpdhHfs;.. Mjhuk;: Kmj;jh khypk; : 308> (289)

`jP]; fyhty;YeHfsplk; %d;W my;yJ %d;Wf;F Nkw; gl;l egpj;NjhoHfshy; ([khmj;jpw;F Fiwe;jgl;rk; %d;W NgH Njit) [khmj;jhf xU egpnkhop (`jP];) $wg;gl;lhy;> mjid ''KjthjpH vd;w caHe;j juj;jpy; itg;ghHfs;. mjhtJ `jP]; Fj;]p (my;yh`; $wpajhf egp(]y;) mwptpj;jitfs;) juj;jpw;F mLj;jj; juj;jpy; KjthjpH (gy egpj;NjhoHfshy; VNfhgpj;J mwptpj;jit) juj;ij itg;ghHfs;.

,iwtrdk; 2:238-y; ,lk; ngWk; ''eLj;njhOifk; vd;gJ m]H njhOifiaf; Fwpf;Fnkd RkhH Ie;J egpj;NjhoH - Njhopfs; - mjpy; ,UtH egpatHfspd; Jiztpfs; xUtH egpatHfspd; tsHg;G gps;isAk;> jdJ md;G kfspd; fztH - mjhtJ egpatHfspd; kUkfdhH - ,lk; ngw;Ws;sdH vd;why;> ,e;egpnkhopapd; (`jP]pd;) Mjhuj;ijf; Fiw fhzNth; re;Njfk; nfhs;sNth KbAkh? KbaNt KbahJ. kpf kpf Mjhug; g+Htkhd egpnkhopfs;.

,e;epiyapy; ngUk;ghyhd khHf;f mwpQH(Mypk;)fs; jq;fsJ jtwhd thjj;ij epiyepWj;j ''eLj; njhOifk; tp\aj;jpy; gy;NtWgl;l fUj;Jf;fs; ,Ug;gjhfTk;> ,f;fUj;Jf; fspy; INtis njhOifg; ngaHfSk; ''eLj;njhOif vdf; Fwpg; gplg;gLtjhfTk; $WthHfs;. Mdhy;> mit Mjhug;g+Htkhd fUj;Jf;fsy;y. xU rpy fUj;Jf;fs; ,Ug;gJ cz;ikNa. mJTk; egp(]y;) mtHfspd; $w;wy;y. egp(]y;) mtHfspd; kuzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; xU rpyH $wpa Cfq;fNs! egp(]y;) mtHfs; tiu Mjhug;g+Htkhf nrd;wilAk; ve;j egpnkhopAk; ''eLj;njhOifk; m]H njhOif vd;gjw;F khw;wkhf ,y;yNt ,y;iy.

Mjhug;g+Htkhd ,e;egpnkhopfs; %yk; ,iwtrdk; 2:238 $wg;gLk; eLj;njhOif m]H vd;why; ehspd; Muk;gk; tpbaw;fhiy (g[H) Neuj;jpypUe;J Muk;gpf;fpwJ vd;gij czuyhk;. ,Nj mbg;gilapy; egp(]y;) mtHfspd; eilKiw tho;f;ifAk;> ,iwtopghL(,ghjj;)fSk; mike;jpUe;jij NkYk; gw;gy egpnkhopfs; njs;sj; njspthf czHj;Jfpd;wd.

Mapuk; khjq;fis tpl caHthd> fz;zpakpf;f iyyj;Jy; fj;iu ngWtjw;fhf u#y;(]y;) mtHfs; ukohdpd; filrp gj;J ehl;fspy; ,iw jpahdj;jpy; - ,/jpfh/g;gpy; - ,Ue;jhHfs;. ukohdpd; 21-tJ Nehd;G ehspd; Muk;g Neukhd g[hpypUe;Nj ,/jpfh/g;gpy; ,Ue;jhHfs; vd;W egpnkhopfspy; fhzKbfpwJ.

egp(]y;) mtHfs; ,/jpfh/g;gpy; ,Uf;f ehbdhy;> g[;H njhOJtpl;L ,/jpfh/g; ,Uf;Fkplj;jpw;Fs; Eioe;J> mkHthHfs;. mwptpg;gtH: Map\h(uop)

E}y;fs;: Gfhhp> 1892> 1900 (u.m.j: 2033> 2040) K];ypk;: 2007> mg+jhj;: 2107> e]aP: 702> jpHkpjP: 721> ,g;Dkh[h : 1761> K];dJ m`;kJ: 24710

,e;j egpnkhop %yk; ehspd; Muk;gj;ij mwpAk; ehk; ehspd; filrp Neuj;ijAk; mwpa egp(]y;) mtHfs; top tFj;J nrd;Ws;sijg; ghhPH:

jpdrhp INtis njhOifapy; gHyhd filrpj; njhOif ,\h. mjw;Fg; gpd; cghpahd ,uTj; njhOiffisg; gw;wp egp(]y;) mtHfs; Fwpg;gpLifapy;> md;iwa jpdj;jpd; filrpj; njhOifahf tpj;iu mikj;Jf; nfhs;s Mizapl;lhHfs;.

cq;fsJ filrpj; njhOifahf tpj;iu Mf;fpf; nfhs;Sq;fs; vd> egp(]y;) mtHfs; Mizapl;lhHfs;.

mwptpg;gtH: ,g;D ckH(uop)

E}y;fs;: Gfhhp> 452> 943 (u.m.j: 472> 998) K];ypk;: 1242> 44> 45> 46 (1635> 36>37>38)> jpHkpjP: 401 e]aP: 1664> mg+jhj;: 1211> 1226 (1416> 1433) m`;kj;: 4480> 4730> 5233> 5499> 5736> 5913> 6018> 6084> 6085> 6133

tpj;U njho filrp Neuk; g[;Uf;F Ke;jpa Neuk;. mjhtJ kWehs; Muk;gkhtjw;F Kd; md;iwa filrpj; njhOif tpj;U vd egp(]y;) mtHfs; mwpTWj;jpAs;shHfs; vd;gij fPo;f;fz;l egpnkhop ep&gpf;fpwJ.

(cghpahd) ,uTj; njhOiffis ,uz;buz;lhf njhOq;fs;. mjpfhiy (g[;U) njhOif te;J tpLnkd xUtH mQ;rpdhy;> xU uf;mj; njhoyhk;. mtH njhOj(xU uf;mj;)J tpj;uhf mikAk; vd> egp(]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs;.

mwptpg;gtH: ,g;D ckH(uop)

E}y;fs;: Gfhhp: u.m.j. 473> 990> 993> 999> 1137> K];ypk;: 1632-34> 1644> 1647> jpHkpjP: 423 e]aP: 1649> 1656> 1674> 1676> ,g;Dkh[h: 1164> 1165> Kmj;jh khypf;: 247> 251> m`;kJ: 4263> 4331> 4628> 4790> 4841> 4967> 5142> 5197> 5213> 5667> 5893> 5900> 5976> 6070.

''g[;H njhOiff;F Kd; tpj;U njhOifia tpiue;J epiwNtw;Wq;fs;

'',utpd; filrp njhOif tpj;Uk; Nghd;w egpnkhopfs;> g[;hpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gpj;J> m]H njhOif eLj;njhOifahf (FHMd; trdk; 2: 238 gb) mika> njhlUk; ,\h Kbj;J g[;Uf;F Kd; filrpahf njhog;gLk; tpj;U njhOifiaf; nfhz;L xU ehs; vd;gJ g[;H Kjy; g[;H cs;sf; fhyk; vd;gij czuyhk;.

k/hpgpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhdhy; 2:238 trdg;gb eLj;njhOifahf m]H mikahJ. g[;H mikAk;> tpj;U md;iwa ehspd; filrpj; njhOifahf mikahJ. m]H mikAk;. m]Uf;Fg; gpd; cghpahd (egpy;) njhOif ,y;iy vd;gJ egpnkhopahFk;.

NkYk;> ,f;$w;iw nka;g;gpf;Fk; kw;WnkhU egp nkhopiag; ghhPH:

tpj;U vd;why; Xw;iwg;gil vz; vd;w nghUSk; cz;L. ,jdbg;gilapy; egp(]y;) $wpdhHfs;:

k/hpg; njhOif gfypd; tpj;U. vdNt> ,utpYk; tpj;U njhOq;fs;. mwptpg;G: ,g;D ckH(uop)

E}y;: m`;kJ 4615> jpHkpjp; 507> Kmj;jh: 254

ehspd; Muk;gj; njhOif mjpfhiy (g[;H) njhOif; md;iwa filrpj; njhOif ,uT tpj;U - ,\htpw;Fg; gpd; g[;H tUtjw;F Kd; njhog;gLk; cghpahd njhOif vd;gJ tpsq;FfpwJ. md;iwa egpj;NjhoHfSk; ,Nj mbg;gilapy; ehisf; fzpj;Js;sdH. k/hpgpypUe;J ehisf; fzpf;ftpy;iy vd;gjw;fhd Mjhuq;fis ghhPH:

,d;iwa (mu/gh) jpdj;jpy;:

cq;fsJ khHf;fj;ijg; g+Hj;jpahf;fp tpl;Nld;; vdJ mUl;nfhilia KOikahf;fp tpl;Nld;; ,];yhj;ij cq;fsJ khHf;fkhf (mq;fPfhpj;J) nghUe;jpf; nfhz;Nld;. (my;FHMd; 5:3)

',e;j ,iwtrdk; jq;fSf;F ,iwtdhy; toq;fg;gl;bUe;jhy;> me;ehis ehq;fs; ngUehshf nfhz;lhLNthk;' vd> jHfs; $wpdhHfs;. ,r;nra;jp md;iwa ,];yhkpa rhk; uh[;aj;jpd; [dhjpgjp ckH(uop) mtHfsplk; $wg;gl;l NghJ> ,t;trdk; vq;F> vg;NghJ> ve;Neuj;jpy; ,iwtdhy; ,wf;fg; gl;lJ vd;gij ehd; ed;F mwpNtd; vdf; $wp:

,t;trdk; egp(]y;) mtHfs; nts;spf;fpoik mu/ghtpy; epd;W nfhz;bUe;j NghJ ,wq;fpaJ vd gjpyspj;jhHfs;.

mwptpg;gtH: jhhpf; gpd; `p\hk;(uop)

E}y;fs;: Gfhhp (u.m.j 45> 4407> 4606> 6726) K];ypk;: 5332> 5334> e]aP: 4926> jpHkpjp; 2929> m`;kJ: 183> 261

mu/gh ehs; nts;spf;fpoik khiy (ma;aJ mu/gh) Neuj;jpy; ,wq;fpaJ. Mjhuk;: m`;kJ: 183

nts;spf;fpoik ,uT: ehq;fs; u#y;(]y;) mtHfSld; mu/ghtpy; ,Ue;j rkak; ,t;trdk; ,wf;fg;gl;lJ.

E}y;: e]aP 2952

ckH(uop) mtHfspd; $w;Wg;gb u#y;(]y;) mtHfs; re;jpj;j xNu `[; mu/gh ehs; nts;spf;fpoikahf ,Ue;Js;sJ. mu/gh ehsd;W `h[pfs;> egptopapy; [{k;M> m]H njhOif fis NrHj;J ([k;c) njhOJ tpl;L m]H Neuj;jpypUe;J #hpa m];jkdk; (k/hpg;) tiu mu/gh ikjhdj;jpy; - [gNyu`;kj;jpd; mbthuj;jpy; - epd;W kdKUfp ,iwQ;RthHfs;. #hpad; m];j kpj;jJk; (k/hpg;) clNd mq;fpUe;J Gwg;gl;L K[;jyp/ghTf;F tpiue;J tUthHfs;. K[;jyp/ghtpy; k/hpg;> ,\h njhOiffis NrHj;J epiwNtw;WthHfs;. me;j ,uit K[;jyp/ghtpy; jq;Fk; ,uT vd miog;gH.

,k;Kiwia nra;J fhl;ba egp(]y;) mtHfs; mu/gh ehsd;W nts;spf;fpoik m]hpypUe;J ,iwtdplk; kdKUfp gpuhHj;jpj;J tpl;L> #hpa m];jkdj;jpd; NghJ xU gpurq;fk; nra;jhHfs;. mjd; Kbtpy; my;yh`;> ehk; NkNy Fwpg;gpl;l 5:3 trdj;ij mUsp ,];yhj;ijg; g+Hj;jpahf;fpajw;fhd rhd;wpjioj; je;jhd;.

md;iwa ehis> khiyia> ,uit> nts;spf;fpoik> nts;spf;fpoik mu/gh khiy> nts;spf;fpoik ,uT vd> ckH(uop) mtHfs; $WtjpypUe;J ,];yhkpa `p[;hp fhyz;lH gpufhuk;> ehs; fhiy g[;hpypUe;J Muk;gpj;J KO gfiyAk; Kbj;J> njhlUk; ,uitAk; Kbj;J mLj;j g[;hpd; Muk;gj;jpy; KbtilfpwJ vd;gij cs;sq;if ney;ypf;fdpahf tpsq;FfpwJ.

Nkyjpfkhd tptuq;fis> Mjhuq;fis tpUk;GNthH `[; tzf;fq;fisg; gw;wp tpthpf;Fk; egpnkhopfspy; - ve;j E}ypYk; fhzyhk;. gpiwg; ghHj;j khiy #hpa m];jkdj;jpypUe;J (k/hpgpypUe;J) ehs; Muk;gkhtjw;F ek;khy; ve;jnthU Mjhuj;ijAk; fhz Kbatpy;iy.

,Nj mbg;gilapy; ukohd; khjj;jpd; Kbtpy; \t;thy; gpiwg; ghHj;j tp\aj;ijAk; egp(]y;) mtHfs; fzpj;Js;shHfs; vd;gij fPo;tUk; egpnkhopfs; CH[pjk; nra;tijg; ghhPH:

1. ehq;fs; Kg;gjhk; ehs; RG`; Ntisia mile;Njhk;; mg;NghJ ,U fpuhkthrpfs; te;J> New;W ehq;fs; gpiw ghHj; Njhk; vd;W egp(]y;) mtHfsplk; rhl;rpg; gfHe;jhHfs;. clNd> egp(]y;) mtHfs; Nehd;ig tpLk;gb kf;fSf;Ff; fl;lis apl;lhHfs;. mwptpg;gtH: mg+k];j; my;md;rhhp(uop)

E}y;: jhuFj;dP

2. ukohdpd; filrp ehs; kf;fsplk; fUj;J NtWghL Vw;gl;lJ. ,U fpuhkthrpfs; te;J> New;W khiy gpiwg; ghHj;Njhk; vd egp(]y;) mtHfsplk; rhl;rpf; $wpdhHfs;. clNd> egp(]y;) mtHfs; Nehd;ig tpLkhWk;> ngUehs; njhOif njhOk; jplYf;Fr; nry;YkhWk; fl;lisapl;lhHfs;. mwptpg;gtH: hpg;aP gpd; k;uh\;(uop)

E}y;fs;: mg+jhj; (1992) m`;kJ: (18070> 21991)

3. Nkf%l;lk; fhuzkhf \t;thy; jiyg;gpiw vq;fSf;Fj; njd;gltpy;iy. vdNt> Nehd;G Nehw;wtHfshf ehq;fs; gfypd; ,Wjp Neuj;ij mile;Njhk;. mg;NghJ xU thfdf; $l;lj;jpdH egp(]y;) mtHfsplk; te;J New;W ehq;fs; gpiw ghHj;Njhk; vdf; $wpdhHfs;. clNd> egp(]y;) mtHfs; md;idwa Nehd;ig tpLkhWk;> (tpbe;jJk;) kWehs; ngUehs; njhOif njhO khWk; vq;fSf;Ff; fl;lisapl;lhHfs;.

mwptpg;gtH: mg+cikH(uop)>

E}y;fs;: mg+jhj; (977)> e]aP (1539)> ,g;Dkh[;[h: (1643)> ig`fP> jhuFj;dP> ,g;D `pg;ghd;> K];dJ m`;kJ. (19670> 19675)

,e;egpnkhopfspy; gpiwg; ghHj;j nra;jp mjpfhiy Rg;`{f;Fg; gpd; njhpa tUfpwJ. vdNt> New;W ehq;fs; gpiwg; ghHj;Njhk; vdf; fpuhkthrpfs; $wpAs;sdH. Kjypuz;L egpnkhopfspYk; fhiy Neuj;jpNyNa> mjhtJ ngUehs; njhOif Neuj;jpw;F Kd;Ng egp(]y;) mtHfSf;F Ke;ija ehs; khiy gpiwg; ghHj;j nra;jp fpilg;gjhy;> md;iwa Nehd;ig tpLk;khWk;> clNd ngUehs; njhOif njhOkplk; nry;YkhWk; fl;lisapl;lhHfs;.

%d;whtJ egpnkhopapy;> thfdj;jpy; te;j ntspHthrpfs; ngUehs; njhOk; Neuj;jpw;F gpd;> gfypd; filrp Neuj;jpy; nra;jp te;jjhy;> md;iwa Nehd;ig tpLk;gbAk;; me;ehs; Kbe;J kWehs; (tpbe;jJk;) ngUehs; njhOif njhOkplj;jpw;Fr; nry;y fl;lisapl;Ls;shHfs; vd;gJ njspthfpwJ.

jpUf;FHMd; trdq;fs;> egpnkhopfs; %yk; re;jpu Row;rpapd; mbg;gilapy; xU ehs; mjpfhiy g[;H Neuj;jpypUe;J Muk;gpj;J> KO gfiyf; nfhz;L Muk;gkhfp> njhlUk; ,uitAk; Kbj;J> mLj;j mjpfhiy g[;H cjakhFk; NghJ KbtilfpwJ vd;gij tpsq;fyhk;.

cjhuzkhf Mq;fpy fhyz;lhpy; tpahof;fpoik eL,uT 11:59 kzpf;F Kbtile;J es;spuT 12 kzpf;F nts;spf;fpoik Muk;gkhFk;. Mdhy;> re;jpu Row;rpapd; mbg;gilapy; `p[;hp fhyz;lhpy; tpahof;fpoik ,uT Kbtile;J g[;H cjakhFk; NghJ nts;spf;fpoik cjakhFk;.

,JTk;> my;yh`; ,e;j gytPdkhd rKjhaj;jpw;F mUspa msg;ngUk; mUl;nfhilahFk;. kWehs; fhiy g[;hpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhdhYk;> gpiw ghHg;gjpYk;> ghHj;j nra;jpia mwptjpYk; tUk; gpur;rpidfisg; Nghf;fpf; nfhs;s my;yh`; RkhH 10 kzp Neu mtfhrj;ijj; je;Js;shd; NghYk;.

,];yhj;jpd; %ykhfpa jpUf;FHMd;> egptop (`jP];) mbg;gilapy;> mjpfhiy - tpbaw;fhiy (g[;H - Dawn)apypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gij mirf;f Kbahj Mjhuq;fspy; ,Jtiuf; fz;Nlhk;. Mdhy;> kf;fspilNa gpiwg;ghHf;Fk; khiy (k/hpg;) Neuj;jpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhtjhf fzpj;J> eilKiwg;gLj;jp tUfpd;wdH. ,jw;fhd ek;gj;jFe;j ve;j Mjhuq;fisAk; jpUf;FHMdpNyh> egpnkhop(`jP];)fspNyh fhz Kbatpy;iy.

thioab thioahf kf;fspilNa tof;fj;jpYs;s ,f;fzpg;gpdhy; ehk; ,Jtiu nra;J te;j> nra;J tUfpd;w jtWfisg; ghhPH:

1. nts;spf;fpoik ,uT vd epidj;J> gy ew;fhhpaq;fis ehk; tpahod; ,utpy; elj;jp tUfpNwhk;.

2. \/ghd; khjj;jpd; filrp ehspd; ,uit ukohdpd; Kjy; ,uthff; nfhz;L> ukohdpd; ,uTj; njhOif (juhtP`; vd;W) elj;Jfpd;wdH. mjhtJ \/ghdpd; ,utpy; ukohdpd; ,uTj; njhOif elj;jg;gLtJ Nghy>

3. ukohdpd; filrp ehspd; khiy (k/hpg;) Neuj;jpy; \t;thy; gpiwf; fz;lhNyh> my;yJ gpiwg; ghHj;j nra;jpiag; ngw;whNyh> mg;NghNj ukohd; Kbe;J tpl;ljhf epidj;J> md;iwa ukohdpd; ,uTj; (juhtP`; vd;W) njhOif njhO tjpy;iy. mjhtJ ukohdpd; filrp ,utpy; ukohdpd; ,uTj; njhOif njhOtNj ,y;iy.

4. Mapuk; khjq;fis tpl rpwg;Gkpf;f iyyj;Jy; fj;H ,uT ukohdpd; 27-tJ ,uT vd;gij 26-y; nfhz;lhb tUfpNwhk;.

5. egpnkhopg; gpufhuk; ukohdpd; filrp gj;J ehl;fspy; xw;iwg;gil (21> 23> 25> 27> 29) ,uTfspy; Mapuk; khjq;fis tpl rpwg;Gkpf;f iyyj;Jy; fj;iug; ngw> gyH 20> 22> 24> 26> 28 Njjpfspy; fz;zpag;gLj;Jfpd;wdH.

6. ,];yhj;jpw;F vjpuhd mt;ypahf;fs;> ehjhf;fs; ngahpy; elj;jg;gLk; c&];> nfhbNaw;wk; Nghd;wit mtutUf;F gpwe;j - ,we;j ehl;fSf;F Ke;jpa ehspd; ,uTfspy; elj;Jfpd;wdH.

,tw;wpid kWg;gtHfs; khiy (k/hpg;) Neuj;jpypUe;J ehs; Muk;gkhfpwJ vd;gjw;F Mjhuq;fis vLj;Jiuf;f Ntz;LfpNwhk;. fpwpj;JtHfs; ,utpd; eLNeuj;jpypUe;J (eLeprp 12kzpf;F) Muk;gpf;fpd;wdH. ,e;Jf;fs; ehspd; fhiyapypUe;J ehis Muk;gpf;fpd;wdH. ehk; ehspd; khiy Neuj;jpypUe;J Muk;gpg;Nghnkd epidg;gNjh> nray;gLtNjh my;yh`;tpd; mUik jpUf;FHMd;> egp(]y;) mtHfspd; topKiw(Rd;dj;)f;F Kw;wpYk; khWgl;ljhFk;.

,g;gpuRuj;ij gbf;Fk; ,];yhkpa mwpQH ngUkf;fis rpwpJ rpe;jpf;f Ntz;LNfhs; tpLf;fpNwhk;. khWgl;l fUj;Js;stHfs; Mjhuj;Jld; njspthf;f Ntz;LfpNwhk;. t];]yhk;.

H 4
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