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,];yhj;jpd; ghHitapy;

FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL

mg;Jy; `kPJ


gp];kpy;yh`pH u`;khdpH u`Pk;

ghfk; 1

  • FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL XH kdpj ,dr; rPuopT

    • 1. FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; Njhw;wk;

    • 2. khy;j;j]pd; nfhs;if Muk;gNk Njhy;tp kak;

    • 3. FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL mjpNtfkhfg; gutpajd; fhuzpfs;

    • 4. njhopw;Gul;rp Vw;gLj;jpa r%f khw;wk;

  • r%f mtyq;fs;

    • 1. r%fr; rkepiyr; rPHNfL

    • 2. nghUg;gw;w Nky;jl;L tHf;fk;

    • 3. mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,sk; Fw;wthspfs; cUthff; fhuzk;

    • 4. nghUg;gw;w ,e;jpa Nky;jl;l tHf;fk;

    • 5. EfHnghUs; Mirapy; Nky;kl;l tHf;fk;

    • 6. EfHnghUs; Mirapy; ,e;jpa eLj;ju tHf;fk;

    • 7. rKjhar; rkepiyg; ghjpg;Gk; mjd; tpisTfSk;

    • 8. rKjhar; rkepiyg; ghjpg;gpy; ,e;jpah

    • 9. tajhdtHfs; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpg;G

    • 10. epthuzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; Ntjid

    • 11. Fiwe;J Nghd gpwg;G tpfpjk;

    • 12. Foe;ijapy;yhj; jhk;gj;aKk;> kztpyf;Fk;

    • 13. mnkhpf;fhtpd; tpthfuj;J epyik

    • 14. ghypay;> Fw;wq;fs;> nfhiyfs;> Neha;fs;

      • fs;sf; Foe;ijfs;

      • mnkhpf;ff; fy;Y}hp epiyikfs;

      • Fw;wq;fs;

      • Neha;fs;

    • 15. tsHe;j ehLfSld; Nghl;b NghLk; ,e;jpah

  • FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L KiwfSk; mjdhy; Vw;gLk; kdepiy cly;epiy ghjpg;GfSk;

    • 1. FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwfs;

      • jw;fhypf fUj;jil Kiwfs;

      • epue;ju fUj;jil Kiwfs;

      • ,];yhk; toq;Fk; kUe;jpay; nfhs;if

    • 2. fUf;fiyg;G my;yJ fUr;rpijT (ABORTION)

    • 3. Bd;V[; fUf;fiyg;G

    • 4. r%f mtyKk; jtwhd rpj;jhe;jKk; - ,e;jpa epiy

ghfk; : 2

  • jtwhd rpj;jhe;jk;

    • 1. tho;thjhug; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLkh?

    • 2. cyfkf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpAk;> czT cw;gj;jpAk;

      • jdpegH tUkhdk;

    • 3. jdpegH tUkhdf; fzpg;G - Gjpa Kiw

    • 4. fy;tp ,y;yhf; Foe;ijfSk;> Njrj;jpd; tsHr;rpAk;?

    • 5. ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;?

    • 6. jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;l gad;glhj epyq;fs;

    • 7. czTg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;?

    • 8. rhjidapYk; Nrhjid + Ntjid

    • 9. tpiuakhFk; cw;gj;jp

    • 10. fz;nfl;l gpd;

ghfk; : 3

  • FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL : ,];yhkpag; ghHitAk; mjd; rl;lq;fSk;

    • 1. ,];yhj;jpd; ghHitapy; kdpjd;

    • 2. kdpjDf;Fs;s Rje;jpuk;

    • 3. kdpjdJ nghWg;Gfs;

    • 4. ,iwr; rl;lq;fs;

    • 5. jpUf;FHMd; XH kUj;Jt E}y; my;y

    • 6. kdpjd; ,iwtDila gpujpepjp

    • 7. jpUkzKk; mjd; Nehf;fKk;

    • 8. nghUshjhu Nehf;fk;?

    • 9. ,];yhkpa FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiw

      • jpUkiw vd;d nrhy;fpwJ

      • egpnkhop (`jP];) vd;d nrhy;fpwJ

    • 10. m];y; gw;wp ehd;F kj;`Gfs;

    • 11. fUtpd; epiy gw;wpa ,];yhkpaf; nfhs;if

    • 12. ,];yhj;jpy; fU(rpR)tpd; chpikfs;

      • tho;thjhu chpik

      • nrhj;Jhpik

      • ,we;J tpl;l fUTk; mjd; fz;zpaKk;

    • 13. fUf;fiyg;Gk; mjw;fhd jz;lidfSk;

    • 14. fUr;rpijT gw;wp kj;`Gfs;

    • 15. FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL gw;wpa ,];yhkpaj; jPHT

    • 16. FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;F vjpuhf Vida kjq;fSk;> mwpQHfSk;

      • fpwp];j;Jtk;

      • ,e;J kjk;

    • 17. FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL K];ypk;fSf;nfjuhd rjpNa!

 

vd;Diu


FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL gw;wpAk;> mjd; rhjdq;fs; r%fj;jpy; vt;thW kd khw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jp rKjha rPuopTf;F kf;fis ,l;Lr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gijAk;> mj;Jld; ,d;W vjw;fhf FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij mtrpak; filgpbj;jhf Ntz;Lk; vd midtiuAk; typAWj;Jfpd;Nwhk; vd;W mjd; MjuTthjpfs; $Wk; jtwhd $w;Wf;fis rhpahd Gs;sp tpguq;fSld; Muha;tNj ,g; Gj;jfj;jpd; Nehf;fkhFk;.

NkYk; ,J gw;wp ,];yhk; vd;d fUj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sJ vd mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;baJ ekf;F NkYk; mtrpakhdnjhd;whf ,Uf;fpwJ.

Vnddpy; ,J ekJ (<khdpy;) ek;gpf;ifapd;ghy; rk;ge;jg;gl;l xd;whf cs;sJ. mLj;J ek;ik Nehf;fp tPrg;gLk;> K];ypk;fs; Vd; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL nra;J nfhs;tjpy;iy vd;gd Nghd;w Nfs;tpfSf;F rhpahd gjpYk; nrhy;yf; flikg;gl;Ls;Nshk;.

NkYk; ek;khy; elj;jg;gLk; khw;Wkj ez;gHfSf;fhd Nfs;tp gjpy; epfo;r;rpapy;> jtwhJ ,lk; ngWk; Nfs;tpfSs;> NkNy ehk; ghHj;j Nfs;tpAk; xd;whf ,Ug;gjhy; ehk; mjw;fhd KOikahd gjpiyj; jahH nra;a Ntz;baJ mtrpakhfpwJ.

NkYk;> ekJ rNfhjuHfs; mjw;fhd gjpiy ,];yhkpaf; fz;Nzhl;lj;Jld;> XusT Gs;sp tpguq;fSld; tpsf;fk; mspj;jhYk;> KOikahd gjpy; ,d;Dk; ekf;Ff; fpilf;ftpy;iy vd;gij; jhd; mtHfsJ gjpypy; ,Ue;J ehd; czHe;Njd;. ,jw;fhd rhpahd tpsf;f E}y;fs; jkpopy; ,y;yhjJk; xU Fiwahf ,Uf;fyhk;.

NkYk;> jkpopy; rNfhjuH K`k;kJ Ki`jPd; cytp mtHfshy; ntspaplg;gl;l FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL vDk; E}iyj; jtpHj;J NtW E}y;fs; ,Ug;gjhf ehd; mwpa Kbatpy;iy.

,jw;fhd gjpiy rhpahd tbtpy; ehk; Vd; jahhpf;ff; $lhJ vd;w ce;Jjypd; Nghpy; vd;dhy; Kbe;jsT ,e;j Gj;jfj;jpw;fhd Mjhuq;fisj; jpul;bj; je;jpUf;fpd;Nwd;.

NkYk;> ,jw;fhd Mjhuj; Njlypy;> mwpQH ngUe;jif mGy; m/yh nksJ}jp (u`;) mtHfshy; vOjg;gl;L Mq;fpyj;jpy; nkhopahf;fk; nra;ag;gl;L ntspte;Js;s (BIRTH CONTROL) vd;w E}Yk;> njd; Mg;ghpf;fhitr; NrHe;J rNfhjuH mGy; go;y; nkh`;rpd; ,g;wh`pk; mtHfs; vOjpa Abortion Birth Control & Surrogate Parenting An Islamic Perspective – Abul Fadl Mohsim Ebrahim vd;w E}Yk; rNfhjuH K`k;kJ Ki`jPd; cytp mtHfs; vOjpa FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL vd;w E}Yk;> vd; Gj;jf Mjhuj; jpul;lYf;F NgUjtp Ghpe;jd.

NkYk;> mGy; m/yh nksJ}jp (u`;) mtHfSila E}ypy; cs;s Gs;sp tpguq;fs; gioadthf ,Ue;jjhy;> mJ vd; gzpia KOikailar; nra;ahJ vd czHe;Njd;.

,J gw;wp vdJ ez;gH N\f; ,g;wh`Pk; A+Rg; mtHfsplk; fye;J MNyhrid nra;j NghJ> gphpl;lhdpah fiyf;fsQ;rpak; kw;Wk; cyf ml;y]; kw;Wk; nra;jpj; jfty;fs; %yk; ngwyhk; vd;w Nahridiaj; njhptpj;J> ehd; Nfl;l Gs;sp tpguq;fis mtUk;> vq;fsJ ez;gH nra;aj; `]d; fdp mtHfSk; rpukk; ghuhJ Nrfhpj;Jf; nfhLj;jhHfs;.

NkYk; ,e;j E}y; `p[;hp 15-08-1418 vOjp Kbf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. gy fhuzq;fshy; ntspapl Kbahky; ,Ue;j ,e;E}y;> fle;j xU tUlkhf jkpo; ,izakhd jkpo;,];yhk; (www.a1realism.com) ,izaj;jpy; njhluhf ntspte;J nfhz;bUe;jJ vd;gijAk; epidtpy; nfhs;f. vdNt rpy Gs;sp tpguq;fs; rw;W gioajhf khwp tpl;lnjd;gJ jtpHf;f ,ayhjjhfp tpl;lJ.

NkYk; ,g;gzpia vd; %yk; ,iwtd; ehbaikf;F ehd; vd;d ed;wpf;fld; nra;jhYk; mJ <lhfhJ. ,iwtd; ,jd; %yk; ey;y gy tpisTfis ek;kpYk;> khw;Wkj ez;gHfsplKk; Vw;gLj;Jthdhf vdj; JMr; nra;J nfhs;Nthkhf! MkPd;!!

NkYk;> ,g;Gj;jfk; cUthf gy tiffspYk; vdf;F cjtpahf ,Ue;jtHfs; midtUf;Fk; vdJ ed;wpiaj; njhptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpNwd;. ,iwtd; ,jw;fhd ew;$ypia mtHfSf;F toq;fpl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; gpuhHj;jpf;fpd;Nwd;.

NkYk; gbf;Fk; thrfHfs; jq;fsJ Nkyhf fUj;Jf;fis njhptpg;gNjhL> jq;fsJ Nkyhd MNyhridfs; kw;Wk; Gjpa jfty;fisj; je;jhy; ,dptUk; ntspaPLfspy; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;.

,iwth! ,jpy; cs;s epiwfis Vw;Wf; nfhz;L> Fiwfis kd;dpg;ghahf! ,J Nghy rKjhag; gzpapy; vd;Wk; vd;id epiyg;gLj;jp> Neuhd topapd;ghy; nry;yf; $ba ew;ghf;fpaj;ij vdf;Fk;> vq;fs; midtNthHf;Fk; toq;Fthahf!

cd;idNa ek;Gfpd;Nwhk;! cd;dplNk cjtpAk; NjLfpd;Nwhk;.

mg;Jy; `kPJ

18-08-1423 (23-10-2002)

 

ghfk; 1

FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL XH kdpj ,dr;rPuopT


1. FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; Njhw;wk;

%y fhuzfHj;jhf;fs; :

khy;j;j]; (MALTHUS) :

FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij mNefkhf cyFf;F Kjd;Kjypy; mwpKfg;gLj;jpatH> nutnuz;l; jhk]; uhgHl; khy;j;j]; vd;gtuhthH. ,tH Mq;fpypfd; nrhirl;b vd;w fpwp];Jt rigapd; ghjphpahUk;> nghUshjhu mwpQUk; MthH. 1798 y; mtH ntspapl;l> kf;fs; njhifapd; mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffSk;> tUq;fhy re;jjpfspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpy; mJ Vw;gLj;Jk; tpisTfSk; (On Principles of Population as It Affects The Future Improvement of Society) vd;w E}y; jhd; kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL mtrpak; vd;w kdepiyia kf;fs; kdjpy; Vw;gLj;jpaJ.

Mdhy; mtH vOjpa ,e;E}ypy; kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fs; kw;Wk; kUe;Jfis cgNahfg;gLj;jr; nrhy;yp mwpTWj;jtpy;iy. khwhf> tsHe;J tUk; kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;tijj; jhkjg;gLj;JjiyAk;> Raf;fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwia NgZtijAk; mtrpak; vd;gij typAWj;jp ,Ue;jhH. ,jd; %yk; Foe;ij gpwg;gij jhkjg;gLj;jp> mjd; %yk; tsUk; kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jyhk; vd;w nfhs;ifia Kd; itj;jhH.

NkYk;> ,tuJ E}y; lhHtpd; Nghd;w ghpzhktpay; mwpQHfspd; ,aw;ifj; NjHT vd;w Nfhl;ghl;il cUthf;f J}z;LnfhyhfTk; mike;jJ. Vnddpy;> khy;j;j]; jk; E}ypy;> ,aw;ifahfNt czTg; gw;whf;FisAk;> Neha;fSk; kdpj ,dj;jpd; ngUf;fj;ij fl;Lg;gLj;jpNa te;jpUf;fpd;wJ vd;gijj; jk; E}ypy; Fwpg;gpl;L ,Ue;jhH.

NkYk;> khy;j;j]; jk; E}ypy;> G+kpapd; trpg;gplkhdJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l msNt cs;sJ. ,d;iwa kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;jpd; msT 1>2>4>8>16>32>64.. .. vd;w mstpYk;> czTg; ngUf;fj;jpd; msT 1>2>3>4>5>.. .. vd;w mstpYk; nrd;W nfhz;bUg;gjhy; ,d;Dk; rpy E}w;whz;Lfspy; kf;fs; trpg;gplk; ,d;wpAk;> czTg; gw;whf;FiwapdhYk; rpukg;gl NehpLk; vDk; fUj;ij vLj;J itj;jhH.

Nkw;fz;l khy;j;j]pd; $w;W jtW vd;gij Rl;bf; fhl;b> cz;ikiz ntspr;rj;Jf;F nfhz;L tUtNj ,e;j E}ypd; Nehf;fkhFk;.

 

gpuhd;rp]; :

khy;j;j]pw;Fg; gpd; te;j ,tH gpuhd;]; ehl;ilr; NrHe;jtH. ,tH khy;j;j]; d; fUj;ij typAWj;jpaNjhly;yhky;> kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;ijf; Fiwf;F khy;j;j]; d; Nfhl;ghlhd Raf; fl;Lg;ghL> jpUkzj;ijj; jhkjpj;jy; Nghd;wtw;iw tpl;L tpl;L mjw;Fg; gjpyhf> fUj;jilr; rhjdq;fis cgNahfpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;whH.

 

lhf;lH. rhHy]; nesy;ld;

1833 y; mnkhpf;fhitr; NrHe;j lhf;lH.rhHy]; nesy;ld;> gpuhd;rp]; d; fUj;ij Mjhpj;jhH. ,tH vOjpa E}yhd The Fruits of Philosophy - jhd; mNefkhf fUj;jil gw;wp ntspte;j Kjy; Gj;jfkhFk;. ,e;j E}ypy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; mtrpaj;jpy;> fUj;jil rhjdq;fspd; gq;Fk; mjd; kUj;Jt Nehf;Fk; typAWj;jg;gl;bUe;jJ.

 

2. khy;j;j]pd; nfhs;if - Muk;gNk Njhy;tp kak;

khy;j;j]pd; nfhs;ifahdJ mjd; Muk;g fhyj;jpNyNa Nkw;Fyfpduhy; xJf;fpj; js;sg;gl;lJk; my;yhky;> mtuJ nfhs;if ngha;ahdJ vdTk; ep&gzkhdJ.

kf;fs; njhif vt;tsT tsHe;jNjh me;jsT ,aw;ifapd; gq;fspg;Gk;> ,iwtd; kdpjd; kPj nrYj;jpa mtdJ mUl;nfhilapd; %yk; czT cw;gj;jpAk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. ,aw;ifahfNt G+kp jd; kbapy; itj;jpUf;Fk; nghf;fp\j;jpd; jd;ikia mwpa Kbahky; ,tHfSk; rlthjk;> ,tHfsJ fz;izNa kiwj;J tpl;lJ vd;gjpy; Mr;rhpak; xd;Wk; ,y;iy. NkYk;> kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf czT cw;gj;jpAk;> mJ rhHe;j njhopy; tsHr;rpAk;> GJg;GJ tpQ;Qhdf; fz;Lgpbg;GfSk;> tsHe;J tUfpd;w kf;fs; njhifapd; Njitfis epiwT nra;Ak; mstpy; tsHe;jNj xopa> khy;j;j]pd; nfhs;ifg; gpufhuk;> kf;fs; njhif ngUg; ngUf> me;jg; ngUf;fk; fhuzkhf kl;Lk; ahUk; gl;bdp fplf;ftpy;iy. NkYk; ,d;W tiu ,lg;gw;whf;FiwAk; Vw;gltpy;iy.

mjhtJ> khy;j;j]; tho;e;j fhykhd 1780 y; gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; njhif 8 kpy;ypad; kl;LNk. Mdhy; fle;j ,uz;L E}w;whz;Lfshf gphpl;ldpy; Vw;gl;l kf;fs; tsHr;rp> mq;F ve;jtpj mnrsfhpaq;fisAk; Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy.

 

gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp :

Mz;L kf;fs; njhif - kpy;ypadpy;

1815 - 18.5

1911 - 45.2

1996 - 58

1997 - 65

khy;j;j]pd; $w;Wg;gb 1780 Kjy; 1977 tiu 8 kpy;ypadpypUe;J 65 kpy;ypadhf gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; njhif caHe;Jk;> mq;f ahUk; kf;fs; njhif tshr;rp fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l Nghl;bapy; gl;bdp fple;J nrj;jjhfNth my;yJ ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw fhuzkhf %r;R Kl;b ,we;jjhfNth ek;khy; ,Jtiu mwpa Kbatpy;iy. Mdhy;> mjw;F khwhf> cyfpd; Kjy; ju trjpfisg; ngw;wpUg;;gNjhL. jdp egH tUkhdk; kw;w ehLfisf; fhl;bYk; cr;rj;jpy; ,Ug;gNj khy;j;j]pd; nfhs;if jtwhdJ vd;gij ep&gpf;fpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,e;j tsHe;j ehLfs; jq;fsJ jtwhd rpj;jhe;jq;fs; %yKk; mjD}Nl FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lKk;> mjw;fhff; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l rhjdq;fSk;> mjD}Nl kf;fsplk; Vw;gl;l r%f khw;wKk;> FLk;g mikg;G rpwpaJk;> ,itfs; Vw;gLj;jpa jhf;fq;fs; jhd; (me;j r%fj;ij) kdpj ,dj;ij mopTg; ghijf;F ,l;Lr; nrhd;dJ vdyhk;.

 

3. FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL mjpNtfkhfg; gutpajd; fhuzpfs;

FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lk; ntw;wp ngw khy;j;j]; nfhz;L te;j kf;fs; njhiff; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; nghUshjhuf; nfhs;if kl;Lk; fhuzky;y. khwhf> mtuJ nfhs;ifia Mjhpj;j> mtuJ nfhs;ifapd;ghy; <Hf;fg;gl;ltHfNs khy;j;j]; - d; nfhs;ifia nray;ghl;Lf;Ff; nfhz;L te;jtHfs;. NkYk;> ,j; jpl;lk; ntw;wpfukhd xd;W> eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;ba xd;W vd;w epiyia Vw;gLj;jpajw;F ,d;Dk; rpy fhuzpfs; J}z;L Nfhyhf mike;jd.

mjhtJ> Inuhg;gpa kw;Wk; mnkhpf;f ehLfspy; Vw;gl;l njhopw;Gul;rp kw;Wk; nghUshjhuf; nfhs;ifia kl;LNk tho;f;ifapd; mbg;gil newpahff; nfhz;L Kjyhspj;Jt kw;Wk; fk;A+dp] nfhs;iffspd; vOr;rpAk;> EfH nghUs; fyhr;rhuk;> ehfhPf Nkhfk;> nrf;]; Mfpait jhd; tho;tpd; gpujhdk; vd;w rKjha tho;Tk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; mtrpak; jhd; vd;w Fuiy vOg;gpaJ.

,aw;ifahfNt xU r%fj;jpd; mikg;G kw;Wk; nghUshjhuk; vd;gJ> kdpj ,dj;jpd; Mz;> ngz; vd;w ,U gphptpdhpilNa gy;NtW njhlHGfisf; nfhz;ljha; mike;J ,Uf;fpd;wJ. kdpjdpd; Muk;g fhyj;jpy;> ,U ghyUNk czT Nghd;w NjitfSf;F rk gq;fspg;Gr; nrajdH. mg;Nghija gy;NtW r%fq;fspy; khdpl rkj;Jtk; Mz;> ngz; tpj;jpahrk; ghuhky; Ngzg;gl;lJ.

mjd; gpd; te;j epyg;gpuGj;Jtr; rKjhaj;jpy;> tsHr;rp vd;gJ mtHfsJ nrhj;jpd; ghy; njhlHGilajha; mike;jJ. ,e;j mbg;gilapd; tpjpg;gb> ngz;fSk; nrhj;Jf;fshff; fUjg;gl;L> mtHfspd; chpikfspd; epiy jho;e;Jk;> mtHfsJ eltbf;iffs; kpFe;j fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;Fs; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. Nkw;fz;l fl;Lg;ghLfis Kjyhspj;Jtk; rhHe;j njhopy; Kiw rKjhak; tsHj;Jk; ghJfhj;Jk; te;jJ. ,r; r%fk;> tPl;bYk; rhp> ntspapYk; rhp ngz;fis jho;e;j epiyapy; jhd; itj;jpUe;jJ.

NkYk;> 20 k; E}w;whz;bYk;> ,uz;L cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd;Dk; Nkw;fj;jpa njhopy;Kiw rKjhaj;jpy; caHgbg;G (White color) nfhz;l r%fk; kw;Wk; njhopy; epGzHfSf;Fk; Vw;gl;l gw;whf;Fiwia eptHj;jp nra;Ak; nghUl;L> ,J tiu tPl;Lf;Fs;NsNa ,Ue;J FLk;gg; guhkhpg;G> Foe;ij tsHg;G Nghd;wtw;wpy; <Lgl;bUe;j ngz;fis> tPl;Lf;F ntspNa mioj;J te;J> njhopw;rhiyfspYk;> mYtyfq;fspYk; ngz;fspd; gq;if mjpfkhf;fpd.

kdpj ,d mwptpay; kw;Wk; Ma;T KbTfspd;gb> tPl;Lf;F ntspNa MZk; ngz;Zk; fye;J jq;fis <LgLj;jpf; nfhz;l NghJ jhd;> ghypay; tptfhuq;fspy; kpfg; ngUk; jsHr;rpiaAk;> jhusg; Nghf;ifAk; Vw;gLj;jp> ngz;fspd; rPuoptpy; - ghypay; rkj;Jtk; vd;w Nghypj; Njhw;wj;ij cUthf;fpaJ.

,ijNah NguhrphpaH rphpy; N[hl; mtHfSk;> ngz;fs; jq;fs; Foe;ijfisAk;> tPl;L NtiyfisAk; ftdpj;Jf; nfhz;L tPl;bNyNa mlq;fpf; fple;jhy;> tho;f;ifj; juk; rpwpjsT ghjpf;fg;gl;l NghjpYk; $l cyfk; xU kfpo;r;rpfukhd ,lkhf tpsq;Fk; vd;gNj vdJ ek;gpf;if vd;whH.

,dp Gjpa njhopy;Kiwg; nghUshjhuKk;> mjd; nfhs;iffSk; Nkw;Fyfpd; r%f tho;it vt;thW rPuopj;jJ vd;gijAk;> mjpy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lKk; mjd; rhjdq;fSk; vt;thW gq;fhw;wpd vd;gijAk; ,dp thpthff; fhz;Nghk;.

 

4. njhopw;Gul;rp Vw;gLj;jpa r%f khw;wk;

Gjpjhff; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l ,ae;jpuq;fs; Inuhg;ghtpy; GjpanjhU njhopy;Kiw nghUshjhuj;ij cUthf;fpaJ. ,jd; %yk; ngUk; ngUk; Miyfs; cUthf;fg;gl;ld.

kf;fs; jhq;fs; Ntiytha;g;Gg; ngwTk;> Gjpjhfj; Njhd;wpAs;s EfHnghUs; fyhr;rhuj;jpy; jhq;fSk; ,izaTk;> jhq;fs; ,Jtiu tho;e;j fpuhkk; mjd; rhHG #o;epiyfs;> gof;ftof;fq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw cjwpj;js;sp tpl;L efuq;fis Nehf;fp FbNghf Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

,Jtiu jhq;fs; fl;bf; fhj;J te;j kuG topg;gof;ftof;fq;fs; xOf;fq;fs;> FLk;gg; ghuk;ghpaq;fs; Mfpa midj;ijAk; ,oe;J gzk; gz;zpdhy; NghJk; vd;w epiy mtHfspy; cUthfpaJ.

mj;Jld; efuq;fspy; Vw;gl;l ,lneUf;fb fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l> caHe;J tpl;l tPl;L thlifAk;> NkYk; jhd; rk;ghjpj;jijf; nfhz;L jd; trjpiag; ngUf;fpf; nfhz;lhy; NghJkhdJ vd;w Raeyf; nfhs;ifapd; fhuzkhf jha; gps;isfisAk;> jfg;gd; FLk;gj;ijAk;> ghukhdnjhU tprakhff; fUjj;jiyg;gl;l NghJ> FLk;g mikg;G me;j r%fj;jpy; Kjd;Kjyhfr; rPHFiya Muk;gpj;jJ.

mjd;%yk; Mz; jpUkzkpd;wp jd; tho;f;ifiaAk;> ngz; jpUkzk; nra;ahkYk;> jpUkzk; nra;jhYk; gps;is ngw;Wf; nfhs;shky; ,Uf;fTk;> thoj;jiyg;gl;ldH.

,Wjpapy; jpUkzk; ,d;wp thOk; Mz; jdJ cly; Rfj;ijj; jPHf;f tpiykhjHfis ehl Ntz;ba epiy. tpiykhJNth vspjpy; fHg;gk; jhpf;fhky; ,Uf;f FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL rhjdq;fis ehlNtz;ba epiy.

,g;gbahf vjw;fhfNth fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lr; rhjdq;fs; xU jPa topKiwfSf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ** vd;gJ jhd;> Kjd; Kjyhf kdpj rKjhaj;jpy;> ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghLk; mjd; Jiz rhjdq;fSk; Vw;gLj;jpa khngUk; rPuopthFk;.

**,d;iwa ek; ,e;jpahtpy; - tpgr;rhhpaplk; nry;Yk; NghJ> MZiw mzpe;J nry;YkhW> muRfs; tpsk;guk; nra;fpd;wd. FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdkhd> rhjdkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;ba MZiw> ,d;W tpgr;rhuj;ij tsHf;fTk; mjd; %yk; Vw;gLk; va;l;]; Nehiaj; jLf;fTk; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

NkYk; FLk;gg; gpd;dzapy; thOk; kf;fs;> jq;fsJ FLk;gj;ij jhq;fs; thOk; ,lj;jpy; Vw;gl;l Nghl;b fhuzkhf mtw;iwr; rkhspf;fTk; - mjw;fhf jq;fsJ FLk;g cWg;gpdHfspd; vz;zpf;ifia kl;Lg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sTk; - Fwpg;ghf Foe;ijg; Ngw;iwj; jLj;Jf; nfhs;sTk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lr; rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;j Muk;gpj;jhHfs;.

NkYk;> Mzpd; kPJ Vw;wg;gl;l mjpfkhd nghUshjhur; Rik> ,tHfshfNt typa Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhz;l EfHnghUs; fyhr;rhuk; Nghd;wit xU FLk;gj;jpy; MzpDila tUkhdk; kl;Lk; NghjhJ vd;w epiyia Vw;gLj;jp> mtw;iwr; rkhspf;f ngz;izAk; gzk; rk;ghjpf;Fk; #oYf;F cl;gLj;j Ntz;ba fl;lhak; Vw;gl;lJ.

FLk;gj;ijAk; gps;isfisAk; ftdpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j ngz;iz rk;ghjpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w nghUshjhuk; vd;w xd;iw kl;LNk Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;l epiyapy;> mtis tPl;bypUe;J ntspNaw;wp> tPjpf;F ,Oj;J te;J mtsJ ngz;ikiar; rPuopj;jJ.

mYtyfq;fspYk;> njhopw;rhiyfspYk;> tpkhdg; gzpg; ngz;zhfTk;> uhZtj;jpYk; Ntiyapy; mkHe;j ngz; Mz;fSld; rhpepfH rkkhf Ntiy ghHf;f Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gl;lJ. NkYk;> jhd; ngw;w Ntiyiaj; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;> jd;Dld; gzpGhpAk; Mzhy; ghypay; ghyhj;fhuk; Vw;gl;lhYk;> mijr; rkhspj;Jr; nry;y Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gl;lJ.

ngz;zpd; Nky; Vw;wg;gl;l nghUshjuhr; Rik> kfg; Ngw;Wf;Fg; gpd; Foe;ijf;Fg; ghY}l;l Ntz;ba mtrpak;> Foe;ijg; ghuhkhpg;G Nghd;wtw;wpw;fhf ePz;l tpLKiw vLf;f Ntz;ba epH;g;ge;j epiy Vw;gl;lJ. NkYk;> mjpYk; Fwpg;ghf ngz;fspd; moF xd;iwNa KjyPlhf ,l;L> Ntiyapy; mkHj;jg;gLk; mYtyf tuNtw;ghsH> tpkhdg; gzpg; ngz;> me;juq;fr; nrayhsH> Nghd;wtw;wpy; kfg;NgW xd;Nw mtHfsJ Ntiyia ,of;Fk; fhuzpfshf mike;J tpLtjhy;> ngz;fspd; ngz;ikiaAk; jhKk; jhahf Ntz;Lk; vd;w czHr;rpiaAk; ,aw;ifapNyNa mtHfSf;F cs;s ghypay; MirfisAk; $l kOq;fbf;fr; nra;J tpLfpd;wJ. ** mg;gbNa jpUkzk; MdhYk;> fHg;gk; jhpf;fhky; ,Uf;f khj;jpiufs; kw;Wk; fUj;jilr; rhjdq;fis cgNahfpf;f Muk;gpj;J tpLtjhy;> ngz;zpd; kdepiyapYk;> cly;epiyapYk; khw;wk; Vw;gl;L> gpd;dhspy; mtis ngUk; ghjpg;Gf;fSf;F ,l;Lr; nrd;W tpLfpd;wJ.

**ngz;fspd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpy; ,Jtiu Vw;gl;l Gwf;fzpg;Gfs; ePq;fp> ngz;fsplk; jw;nghOJ mjpf jd;dk;gpf;if fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jd; %yk; ,e;jpag; ngz;fs;> Rakhf fk;ngdpfis epHtfpg;gtHfshfTk;> Vd; tq;fpfisf; $l epHtfpf;Fk; msTf;F caHe;J cs;shHfs;. NkYk;> njhopy; ts efuhd ngq;f@hpy; Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; Fiwe;Js;sJ. Vnddpy;> ,sk; fk;g;A+l;lH Ntiy kw;Wk; mYtyfq;fspy; Ntiy nra;Ak; ngz;fs; Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tijAk;> tPl;Lg; nghWg;Gf;fisAk; fhl;bYk; jq;fsJ njhopYf;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLg;gJ jhd;. (Arab News Daily / Riyadh – India at Second Turning Point – Features Column – Sat, Aug, 16 – 1997)

,e;jpahTk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; gpd; tpisTfshy; fLikahd rPuopTfis re;jpf;Fk; fhyk; ntF njhiyT ,y;iy. me;je;j jiyg;GfspD}Nl ,e;jpa epiyAk;> mjdhy; Vw;gl;l tUk; rPHNfLfisAk; ,q;Nf Rl;bf; fhl;bNa cs;Nshk;.

 

 

r%f mtyq;fs;


1. r%fr; rkepiyr; rPHNfL :

gphpl;ldpd; Njrpa gpwg;G tpfpj fzf;nfLg;G Mizak; elj;jpa Ma;tpy;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; - rKjhar; rkepiyapy; Vfg;gl;l khw;wq;fisr; nra;J> rkepiy tpfpjj;ij rPHnfLj;Jf; nfhz;bUg;gij czHe;jdH.

NkYk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lr; rhjdq;fis cgNahfpg;gjpy; Nky; jl;L tHf;fKk;> eLj;ju tHf;fKk; Kd;dzpapy; ,Uf;ff; fz;lhHfs;. mLj;J> fPo;j;jl;L kf;fsplj;Nj FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lr; rhjdq;fis cgNahfpg;gtHfspd; vz;zpf;if kpfTk; Fiwthd epiyapy; ,Ug;gij fz;Lgpbj;jdH. ,e;jf; fPo;j;jl;L kf;fsplk; mjpf trjpAk; ,y;iy. mitfis miltjw;F msT fle;j MirfisAk; mtHfs; tsHj;Jf; nfhs;stpy;iy. NkYk;> Mz;fs; rk;ghjpf;fTk;> ciof;fTk; ngz;fs; tPl;Lg; nghWg;Gf;fisf; ftdpj;Jf; nfhz;Lk;> gioa ehfhPf gz;ghl;bd;gb tho;e;Jk; te;jdH. ,e;j fPo;j;jl;L kf;fsplk; trjpapd;ikAk;> Nghjh tUkhdKk;> FbapUf;fg; NghJkhd ,ltrjpapd;ikAk; Nghd;w gpur;idfs; ,Ue;jhYk;> mtHfs; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fis ehltpy;iy. jk; nghUshjuhj;ij Nkk;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s FLk;gj;jpy; gps;isfspd; vz;zpf;ifia mtHfs; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;s Kd;tuTkpy;iy. ,jd; fhuzkhf ,e;j fPo;j;jl;L kf;fspilNa Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; mjpfhpj;Jk;> mNj epiyapy; Nky;jl;L tHf;fk;> mjpfg; gps;isfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tij ehfhPfkw;w nray; vdf; fUjpAk; te;jjhy; mtHfsplk; Foe;ijg; NgW tpfpjk; Fiwe;J fhzg;gl;lJ.

mnkhpf;fhtpd; kf;fs; njhiff; fzf;nfLg;ghsuhf ,Ue;j NguhrphpaH thud; v];.jhk;]d; vd;gtH> gphpl;ld;> mnkhpf;fh> n[Hkdp> gpuhd;];> kw;Wk; RtPld; Mfpa ehLfspy; kf;fs; njhifia mtHfspd; njhopy;fspd; mbg;gilapy; gFj;jha;e;J> fPo;f;fz;l KbTf;F te;jhH.

mjhtJ> kf;fs; njhifia> $yp Ntiy nra;gtHshfTk;> mYtyf CopaHfshfTk; ghpj;J> mtHfspilNa cs;s Foe;ijg; Ngw;wpd; msitf; fzf;nfLj;jjpy;> mYtyf CopaHfis tpl> njhopyhsHfsplk; my;yJ $yp Ntiy nra;gtHfsplk; Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; mjpfkhf ,Ue;jJ. mLj;J iftpidf; fiyQHfs;> tptrhapfs; vdg; gphpj;J Ma;T nra;jjpy;> tptrhapfsplk; mjpff; Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; ,Ug;gijf; fz;lwpe;jhH.

,tHfspilNa fy;tpiaj; juk; gphpf;Fk; msT Nfhyhff; nfhz;L ghHj;jjpy;> mjpfk; Foe;ijg; NgW cs;stHfsplk; fy;tpAk;> Foe;ijfisg; gs;spf; $lk; mDg;GtJk; Fiwe;J fhzg;gl;lJ.

,jd; %yk; nts;isf; fhyH tHf;fk;> mjhtJ caH kl;lk; - fy;tpj; jFjpiaf; nfhz;ltHfspd; vz;zpf;if FiwthfTk;> fy;tpj; jFjp Fiwthfg; ngw;w r%fk; msTf;F mjpfkhfTk; fhzg;gLtJ vd;gJ r%fj;jpy; jpwDs;s fy;tpawpTs;s jiyikia> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; fzprkhd msT rpWfr; rpWf Fiwj;Nj te;Js;sJ vd;gijf; fz;lwpe;jdH. caHe;j fy;tpj; jFjpiaf; nfhz;l r%fk; mjpfk; gps;is ngWtij mrpq;fkhfTk;> ehfhPfkw;w nrayhfTk; fUjp> jkJ gps;isg; Ngw;iwf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;b> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwiag; gpd;gw;wpaNjahFk;.

NkYk;> kuG topahff; flj;jg;gLk;> ghuk;ghpaf; Fzhjpraq;fis Foe;ijg; gpwg;igf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jd; %yk; ey;y jiyik cUthf Ntz;ba r%fj;jpy;> fy;tpawptw;w jiyik cUthf VJthfpd;wJ. ,j;jifa r%f mikg;igf; nfhz;l r%fKk; ehLk; rpWfr; rpWf> jpwikaw;w jiyik %yk; jk; Gfio ,of;f Nehplyhk; vd;w vr;rhpf;ifia ,e;j NkiyehLfs; kpfr; jhkjkhf czuj; jiyg;gl;ldH.

 

2. nghWg;gw;w Nky;jl;L tHf;fk;

FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij mjpfk; filgpbf;Fk; caHe;j> eLj;ju tHf;fk; ve;jsT jhk; r%fj;jpw;F Mw;w Ntz;ba flikapypUe;J xJq;fp nghWg;gw;w epiyapy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gijf; fhz;Nghk;.

gbj;j> gz trjp cs;s ,e;j caHe;j tHf;fk; jhd; tUq;fhy jk; re;jjpapdUf;F rPuhd caH fy;tpiaAk;> mjw;fhFk; nrytpdq;fisr; rhptur; nra;a ,ayf; $ba r%fkhFk;. Vnddpy; ,d;W eLj;ju kw;Wk; fPo;jl;L kf;fshy; jq;fs; gps;isfSf;F caH fy;tp ngw;Wf; nfhLf;ff; $ba nghUshjhu trfpNah my;yJ jk; kf;fisg; gapw;Wtpf;ff; $ba msTf;F fy;tp mwpitNahkpfTk; Fiwe;j mstpNyNa ngw;Ws;sdH.

mg;gbNa fy;tp mwpitg; ngw;wpUe;jhYk;> jkJnjhopy; tpahghuj;jpy; gs;sp nry;Yk; gps;isfis <LgLj;j Ntz;ba nghUshjhuk; rhHe;j epHg;ge;j epiyapYk; eLj;ju kw;Wk; fPo;kl;l tHf;fk; cs;sJ vd;gJ ek; ehl;ilg; nghWj;jtiu epjHrkhd cz;ikahFk;.

Mf gz trjp> fy;tpawpT cl;gl midj;J trjpfisAk;> tha;g;GfisAk; ngw;w Nky;jl;L kf;fs; jq;fs; koiyfspd; vz;zpf;ifia mjpkhf;fp> ey;ynjhU caHe;j fy;tpawpitg; ngw;w r%fj;ij cUthf;f Ntz;ba epiyapypUe;J jtwp jk; r%fg; nghWg;igj; jl;bf; fopj;Nj te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,e;j caH tHf;fj;jpy; ehfhPfk; vd;w NghHitapy; rq;fk;> fpsg; vd;w me;j];J vDk; NghijAzHT fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,r; r%fj;jpy; jhAk;> je;ijAk; r%f me;j];J Ntz;b gps;isfis Mahtplk; xg;gilj;J tpl;L> rq;fk;> fpsg; vdr; nrd;W> FLk;gg; nghWg;ig kwe;j epiyapYk; Foe;ijg; ghukhhpg;G mw;w epiyapYk;> jk; gps;isfs; tsuf; fhuzkhfp tpLfpd;wdH.

,jd; %yk; jhad;G> fy;tp nfhz;L rPuhl;lg;gl Ntz;ba tajpy; mJ fpilf;fhj NghJ> mf; Foe;ijfsplk; kd ,Wf;fk; cz;lhfp ,d;W Nghij> kJ> tpgr;rhuk;> nfhiy Nghd;w nfhba Fw;wq;fspy; mjpfk; <LgLtJ> ,g;gb Nfl;ghuw;W tplg;gl;l FLk;gg; guhkhpg;G ,y;yhj Foe;ijfs; jhk; vd;gJ Muha;r;rp KbT.

mjpYk; ,e;j Nky;kl;lj;Jg; gps;isfsplk; mjpfk; gzk; Goq;FtJk;> ,sk; tajpy; mtw;iw vg;gb nryT nra;tJ vd;w tif njhpahky; mtw;iwj; jPa topapy; nrytpl;L jq;fis mopj;Jk; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

 

3. mnkhpf;fhtpy; ,sk; Fw;wthspfs; cUthff; fhuzk;

mnkhpf;fhtpy; ehs;NjhWk; ,sk; Fw;wthspfs; mjpfkhfpf; nfhz;Nl tUfpwhHfs;. 1970 y; 54>596 Mf ,Uw;j msT 1992 y; 1>04>137 Mf> ,uz;L klq;F $bAs;sJ. ,isQHfspd; vz;zpf;if Fiwthf cs;s r%fj;jpy;> nfhiyapd; msT 92 rjtPjk; $bAs;sJ. ve;j xU rf;jp ,t;tsT ,sk; Fw;wthspfis Vw;gLj;jpaJ? vd Ma;T nra;jjpy;> r%fj;jpy; FLk;g mikg;G Kiw rhpe;jJk;> mjdhy; r%ff; fl;Lg;ghL rpjwpaJk; fhuzkhFk; vd;w cz;ikiaf; fz;lwpe;Js;sdH.

xOq;fhd FLk;g mikg;G jhd; jq;fsJ gps;isfis fl;Lg;ghLfSld; tsHe;J nfhiy> kJ> Nghij tpgr;rhuk; Nghd;w gLghjfr; nray;fspy; <Lglhky; jLf;Fk; muzhf tpsq;FfpwJ. Vnddpy; xOq;fhd FLk;g mikg;G jhd;. jd; Foe;ijfspd; eltbf;iffis Nkw;ghHitapl;Lk; topjtWk; NghJ fz;bj;Jk; tUtjhy;> ,sk; tajpdH Fw;wthspfs; MtjpypUe;J jLf;fg;gLfpwhHfs;. FLk;g mikg;G xd;W ,y;yhj epiyapy;> ngw;NwhHfs; jq;fs; Foe;ijfis Nkw;ghHit nra;tJ vt;thW? ,jd; fhuzkhf jq;fs; gps;isfs; topjtWtjypUe;J> mtHfis ghJfhf;f ,ayhky;> ehl;by; ,sk; Fw;wthspfis mjpfhpf;fr; nra;J tpl;;lJ vd;w Muha;r;rp KbTf;F te;Js;sdH.

NkYk;> ,isQHfsplk; Nghijg; nghUs; cgNahfk; mjpfkhfp ,Ug;gJk;> ,sk; Fw;wthspfis mjpfhpf;fr; nra;Js;sJ. NkYk;> ,jD}Nl ,dthjKk;> nrf;]; fyhr;rhuKk; jhd; mnkhpf;fhtpy; mjpff; Fw;wk; epfof; fhuzkhfpd;wd.

 

4. ngWg;gw;w ,e;jpa Nky;kl;l tHf;fk;.

fPNo cs;s jfty; fij my;y. fle;j Vg;uy; 6-20> ,e;jpah LNl y; ntspahd nra;jp ,r; nra;jp ,e;jpa Nky;kl;l tHf;fj;jpd; mtyj;ij NjhYhpj;Jf; fhl;Ltjhf mike;Js;sJ.

md;Gs;s mk;kh!

eP ,y;yhky; kpfTk; f\;lhapUf;fpwJ. mdpYk;> ehDk; mg;ghitg; ghHf;fNt Kbtjpy;iy. mtH vg;nghOJk; gazk; nra;J nfhz;NlapUf;fpwhH. ,q;Nf nuhk;g Nghubf;fpwJ. mk;kh! eP jaT nra;J Fbg;gij epWj;jp tpl;lhy; ehk; vy;NyhUk; xd;whf thoyhk;. mJ nuhk;g [hypahapUf;Fk;. vdf;F ];$Ny gpbf;ftpy;iy. cld; gjpy; vOJ. - epiwa md;Gld; mQ;ryp

 

,uz;L tUlq;fshff; fLikahff; Fbj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j jpy;yp FLk;gj; jiytpahd gphpah rpq;if 11 taJ kfspd; ,f; fbjk; jhd; kPl;L te;jJ.

,g;nghOJ ehl;bd; nghpa kUj;Jtkidfspy; ,Uf;Fk; 10 Nehahspfspy; 3 NgH ngz;fs;. ngq;f@hpy; ,Uf;Fk; kdeyk; kw;Wk; euk;gpaYf;fhd Njrpa ikaj;jpy; (epk;`hd;];) Ie;J tUlq;fSf;F Kd; 10 ngz;fs; jhd; rpfpr;irf;F tUthHfs;. Mdhy; ,g;nghOJ khjk; 30-35 NgH tUfpwhHfs;. ,tHfs; midtUk; Fbahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfs;.

jpy;ypapy; ,Uf;Fk; kdtpay; epGzH lhf;lH mt;Nj\; rHkhtpd; $w;Wg;gb> Gjpa Afj;jpd; md;whlg; gpur;idfspd; mOj;jq;fs;> tPl;Lg; nghWg;G> mYtyf Ntiy Mfpait jUk; mOj;jq;fisr; rkhspf;f ,tHfs; Fbia ehLfpwhHfs;. Fbahy; NtiyAk;> FLk;gKk; kl;LNk ghjpf;fg;gLk; vd;wpy;iy. Fbg;gof;fKs;s ngz;fSf;F fUr;rpijT> gpwtpf; NfhshW cs;s Foe;ij gpwg;gJ Fiwg;gpurtk; Nghd;wit Vw;gl mjpfk; tha;g;Gs;sJ.

Nkw;fz;l nra;jp %yk; ehk; Nky;kl;lk; jd;id mopj;Jf; nfhs;tNjhly;yhky;> jd; Foe;ijfspd; tho;itAk; #dpakhf;fpf; nfhz;L tUfpwJ vd;Nw Ghpa KbfpwJ. ,e;jpahtpYk; FLk;g mikg;G Kiw rpije;J tUtijAk;> fy;tp md;G nfhz;L rPuhl;b tsHf;f Ntz;ba gps;isfis ,r; r%fk;> fphpkpdy;fshfTk; fy;tpia ntWf;Fk; Foe;ijfshfTk; Mf;ff; $ba #o;epiyiaj; jhd; Njhw;Wtpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ

 

5. EfHnghUs; Mirapy; eLj;ju tHf;fk;

,d;iwa r%f epiyapYk;> nghUshjhu epiyapYk;> kdepiy rk;ge;jg;gll tifapYk; epk;kjpapy;yhj tHf;fk; vJ vd;why;> ,e;j eLj;ju tHf;fk; jhd;. ,J jd;id fPo;j;jl;L tHf;fkhf Mfp tplhky; ,Uf;f xU Nghuhl;lj;ij elj;jpf; nfhz;L> mNj Ntisapy; jd;id caHju> Nky;jl;L tHf;fkhf fhl;bf; nfhs;tjpYk; risg;gjpy;iy.

,e;j eLj;ju tHf;fkhdJ> jhd; nfhz;l EfH nghUs; Mirapd; fhuzkhf> mjhtJ jd;id Nky;jl;L kf;fshf r%fj;Jf;F fhl;l Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nguhirapy;> mjpfkhd nghUshjhur; Rikia jd;dpy; Vw;wpf; nfhs;fpwJ.

,jd; %yk; Vw;gl;l nghUshjhu neUf;fbiar; rkhspf;f fztdk;> kidtpAk; rk;ghjpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w epHg;ge;j epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;L> FLk;gg; nghWg;ig mLj;J> nghUshjhuk; vd;w ,uz;lhtJ Rikiaj; jhq;f khl;lhky;> jkJ koiyfspd; vz;zpf;ifiaf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;fpwJ.

,jw;fhf FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;ilAk; my;yJ Foe;ijg; Ngw;iwj; js;sp itf;f ,e;j tHf;fk;> fl;lha KbTf;F js;sg;gl;L tpLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk;> jhd; typa Vw;Wf; nfhz;l EfHnghUs; Miria epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;s Foe;ijfisg; ghukhf - nrytpdkhf fUjj; jiyg;gl;L tpLfpwJ.

 

6. EfHnghUs; Mirapy; ,e;jpa eLj;ju tHf;fk;

$l;Lf; FLk;gq;fs; gphpe;J ,sk; jiyKiw fztd;-kidtp ciof;fj; jahuhfpwhHfs;. Mf> etPd fhyg; Nghf;fpd; tpisT : ,uz;L NgH rk;ghjpf;Fk; FLk;gq;fs;. efHg;Gw eLj;ju tHf;ff; $l;Lf; FLk;gq;fSf;Ff; $l ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;ltHfspd; rk;gsk; te;J NrHtjpy; xU fz;. ,e;jpah-LNl khHf; rHNt fhl;LtJ Nghy 88 rjtPjk; NgH mJ mtrpakhfp tpl;ljhfTk; nrhy;fpwhHfs;.

vf;I]];> Rq;fj; jPHit Fiwg;Gk;> Nghl;bAkhf re;ijapy; EfH nghUs;fisr; nfhz;L te;J rha;j;jpUg;gjhy; ,e;jpa eLj;ju tHf;fk; gztPf;fj;jhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,Ue;Jk; tho;f;ifj; juj;ij caHj;Jk; vijAk; thq;fpg; NghLtjpy;> Foe;ij $l FWf;Nf epw;fhJ> vd;fpwhH mDghkh. (,e;jpah LNl - khHf; Ngl;b fz;l egH).

fdTfs; nfhz;l ,e;jpahtpd; eLj;ju tHf;fk; jhd; gd;dhl;L> cs;ehl;L KjyPl;bd; J}z;by;> Mdhy; eLj;ju tHf;fNkh ehd;F tUlkhf thq;Fk; jpwd; tw;wp tho;f;ifj; juk; rhpe;jpUf;fpwJ.

Nfus murpd; tdj;Jiw Copauhd tp];thk;gudpd; khjr; rk;gsk; &.2>300.00. ,e;jr; rk;gsj;jpy; jhd; kidtp> %d;W gs;sp nry;Yk; Foe;ijfs;> khkdhH> khkpahH> jk;gp> jk;gpapd; kidtp vy;NyhiuAk; fhg;ghw;wpahf Ntz;Lk;. gps;isfSf;F bArd; tifapy; 250.00 &gha; nrythfpwJ. gbg;G ek; gz;ghl;bd; gpujhdk;. Mdh mJ ,d;ndhU Rikay;Nyh? vd;fpwhH mtH kidtp tre;jp. gpuhtplz;l; gz;by; &gha; 10 Mapuk; fld;> tPL fl;l &gha; 25 Mapuk; fld;. ,t;tsitAk; jd; rk;gsk;> jd; kidtpapd; ijay; tUkhdk; %yk; rhpf;fl;b tho;f;ifia elj;JfpwhH. Nkw;fz;l flndy;yhk; Kbe;jJk; fWg;G nts;is b.tp. thq;fj; jpl;lk;.

jhd; nfhz;l EfH nghUs; Mirf;F jd; Foe;ij $l FWf;Nf epw;fhJ vd xU FLk;gKk;> jd; gps;isapd; fy;tpj; Njitf;F nryT nra;tijr; Rikahff; fUJk;> mNj Ntisapy; b.tp. thq;Ftij xU yl;rpaf; fdthf vz;zpr; nray;gLk; xU FLk;gKk; jhd;> ,d;iwa ek; ,e;jpa eLj;ju tHf;fj;jpd; epiyf;F rhpahd vLj;Jf;fhl;Lfs;.

 

7. rKjhar; rkepiy ghjpg;Gk; mjd; tpisTfSk;.

ey;y caHe;j gz;Gs;s> mwpTs;s> jpwikAs;s fy;tpahsHfis>mwpQHfis> Ml;rpahsHfisr; r%fj;jpw;Fj; ju Ntz;ba tha;g;Gfisg; ngw;Ws;s Nky;jl;L tHf;fk; jk; nghWg;ig kwe;J Nghdjhy; ,d;W murpaypYk;> caH gjtpfspYk; ey;y Mnuhf;akhd gz;Gs;s murpay;thjpfSf;Fk; mjpfg; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. vt;thnudpy; kdrhl;rp kw;Wk; Raf; fl;Lg;ghL> xOf;fk; epiwe;j mjpfhu tHf;fk; ,d;W kpfTk; mhpjhfptpl;lJ. vq;F jpUk;gpDk; nfhiy> nfhs;is> yQ;rk;> Nkhrb Nghd;wtw;wpy; <LgLk; r%fj;ijj; jhd; fhz KbfpwJ.

,ijNa mnkhpf;fhtpd; Fw;wtpay; mwpQH vl;tpd; H. RjHNyz;l; (1885-1956) vd;gtH "WHITE COLLAR CRIME", vd;fpwhH. mjhtJ Nky;kl;l tHf;fk; GhpAk; Fw;wq;fpy; yQ;rk;> Coy;> Nkhrb> nghJkf;fs; njhiyNgrpia xl;Lf; Nfl;gJ> Nghyp]; mlf;Fkiw %yk; kf;fs; chpikiag; gwpg;gJ> nghUs;fSf;f mjpf tpiyia epHzapg;gJ> njhopw;rhiyia khRfis ftdpahJ tpl;L tpLjy; Nghd;wit mlq;Fk;. ,J Nghd;w Fw;wq;fSf;Fj; Jiz NghtJld;> jkJ Msifapd; NghJ jk; epiyia NkYk; epiyepWj;jpf; nfhs;s> r%fj;jpy; nghUshjhu me;j];J Ntz;b rl;lq;fisj; jtwhfg; gad;gLj;jp> fphpkpdy; eltbf;iffspy; ,wq;FfpwJ. ,tHfspd; ,e;jf; Fw;wq;fs; jhd; ehl;bd; nghUshjhu mbg;gilia kpfTk; ghjpf;ff; $baJ vd;fpwhH mwpQH vl;tpd; H. RjHNyz;l;.

cz;ikapNyNa ,e;j Nky;jl;L tHf;fk; jk; r%fg; nghWg;ig czHe;J> jk; kuG topf; flj;jg;gLk; Fzhjpraq;fisf; nfhz;l Foe;ijfis FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; fl;Lg;gLj;jhky; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy;> ngw;w gps;isfis rhptu fz;fhzpj;J guhkhpj;Jk; ,Ue;jpUe;jhy;> ey;y fy;tpahsHfis> xOf;fKs;s> jpwikahd> mjpfhu tHf;fj;ij ehL mjpf mstpy; ngw;wpUf;Fk;.

eLj;ju tHf;fk; jd;Dila EfH nghUs; Miria> jd;id Nky;jl;L kf;fshf r%fj;Jf;Ff; fhl;l Ntz;Lk; vd;w Nguhiria tpl;nlhopj;J> jhAk; je;ijAk; Ntiyf;Fr; nry;yhky;> je;ijapd; tUkhdk; mwpe;J jha; nryt nra;Ak; gof;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;gl;rj;jpYk;> jha; jd; FLk;gg; nghWg;GzHe;J> tPl;bypUe;J FLk;gg; nghWg;g> Foe;ijg; guhkhpg;G Mfpatw;wpy; jk; ftdj;ijr; nrYj;jp ,Ue;jhy;> ey;y fy;tpawpTs;s> xOf;fKs;s Foe;ijfis ehl;Lf;Fj; je;jpUf;f KbAk;. Njitaw;w FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij ehl Ntz;ba epHg;ge;j epiy NeHe;jpUf;fhJ.

,jw;F NeHkhwhf fPo;j;jl;L kf;fs; mjpfk; gps;isfisg; ngw;W> mtHfSf;F czT> cil> ,Ug;gplk;> fy;tp Nghd;wtw;wpy; rhptu mspf;f ,ayhky;> Nkw;gb caHju> eLj;ju kf;fis mz;b> czT> cil> nghUs;> ,Ug;gplk; Ntz;b vijahtJ nra;J mtw;iw mila Ntz;Lk; vd;w epHg;ge;jj;jpy; Nkw;gb Nky;jl;L> eLj;ju kf;fis> nghUshjhuk; rhHe;J tho Ntz;ba epHg;ge;j epiyapy; ey;yNjh> nfl;lNjh vJthdhYk;> ,tHfs; ,Lk; fl;lisf;F Mkhk; NghLk; $l;lq;fshfTk;> Ra rpe;jidaw;w $l;lkhfTk; tsHe;J tUtij ,d;iwa ekJ murpay;thjpfs; gpd;dhy; jphpAk; $l;lj;ij itj;Nj ehk; fzpj;J tpl KbAk;.

NkYk;> ,d;iwa ekJ murpay; mikg;gpy;> jiyfspd; vz;zpf;if jhd; jiyikia> mjpfhu tHf;fj;ij epHzak; nra;fpwJ> xUtdJ fy;tp> xOf;fk;> mwpT Mfpa gz;gfis itj;J> jiyikg; nghWg;Gf;F mtidj; NjHe;njLg;gjpy;iy.

xt;nthU r%fKk;> ,dKk;> jhd; jhd; jiyikg; nghWg;Gf;F tu Ntz;Lk;> mjpfhuj;jpw;F tu Ntz;Lk; vd;W Jbf;Fk; murpay; mikg;gpy;> ,e;j fy;tp mwpT Fiwe;j> mjpf vz;zpf;ifapy; cs;s fPo;kl;lk; jhd; jiyikia epHzapf;Fk; jFjpf;F te;J tpLfpwJ. Vnddpy;> thf;F tq;fpNa mtHfs; jhNd. ,e;j jFjpaw;w r%fk; epWTk; jiyikAk;> Ml;rpAk; vt;thW ,Uf;Fk; vd;gij ,d;iwa ek; ,e;jpahtpd; murpay; fsNk rpwe;j cjhuzkhFk;.

,e;jr; rKjha rkepiyr; rPHNfl;Lf;F ahH fhuzk;? vd;gij ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL> MjuTf; $l;lk; rpe;jpf;fl;Lk;!

19 Mk; E}w;whz;il mLj;J> 20 k; E}w;whz;Lfspy; njhopw; Gul;rpAk;> Kjyhspj;Jtk; kw;Wk; fk;A+dp]f; nfhs;iffSk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij Cl;b tsHj;jjd; %yk;> 20 Mk; E}w;whz;Lf;Fg; gpd; mwpthspfs; gQ;rj;ijj; jhd; Vw;gLj;jpaJ. mNj Neuj;jpy; vOj;jwptpy;yhj> fy;tpawptw;w> xOf;fkw;w rKjhaj;jpd; msT $bNa te;J nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwJ.

gphpl;ldpd; kpfg; nghpa mwpQuhf ,Ue;j> ngHl;uhz;l u];]y; (Mr. BERTRAND RUSSELL) vd;gtH rKjhar; rkepiyg; ghjpg;gpd; mtyj;ij ,t;thW tpsf;FfpwhH.

rKjhaj;jpy; gbj;j caHtHf;fj;jpd; msT Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wJ. mNj Ntisapy; gbg;gwptw;w> Vio> Fbfhu> gytPdkhd Mz;fSk;> ngz;fSk; nfhz;l mbkl;l r%fk; mstpy;yhky; $bf; nfhz;Nl tUfpwJ.

,jd; %yk; guk;giu guk;giuahf flj;jg;gLk; caH Fzhjpraq;fSk; rpWfr; rpWf> kfg;Ngw;iwf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;tjd; %yk; tbfl;lg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. tUq;fhyj;jpy; ,d;W ,Uf;Fk; mwpthspfs; vz;zpf;if $l ehis kpQ;rp ,Uf;Fkh vd;gJ re;NjfNk vd;fpwhH.

NkYk;> ,d;W ,tHfs; cw;gj;jp nra;jpUf;Fk; fphpkpdy;fs;> Fw;wthspfs;> fy;tp mwptw;w> Fbfhu> gytPdkhd kdJs;s Foe;ijfs; jhd; ehisa ngw;NwhHfs;.

,d;iwa Inuhg;gpa cyfk; ,e;j rKjhar; rkepiy tPo;r;rpapypUe;J tpLgl Ntz;Lkhdhy;> ngz;fs; kw;Wk; Foe;ijfs; tpraj;jpy; GjpanjhU nfhs;if Kiwia cUthf;f Ntz;Lk;. mjhtJ> gioa Kiwg;gbahd jpUkz ge;jq;fs; gpd;gw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ngz;fs; Foe;ijg; Ngw;iw r%fj;Jf;F nra;Ak; flikahff; fUj Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; %yk; Foe;ij ,y;yhj jd;ikAk;> mjw;F kiwKfkhj; J}z;Lk; fhuzpfisAk; fisa Ntz;Lk;.

ngHl;uhz;l; u];]y; mtHfspd; $w;W> Inuhg;gpa r%fj;jpy; GiuNahbg; NghapUf;Fk; mtyj;ijf; Nfhbl;Lf; fhl;ba tpjj;jpd; %yk;> rKjhar; rkepiyr; rPHNfl;bd; ghjpg;ig ehk; czHe;J nfhs;syhk;.

 

8. rKjhar; rkepiyg; ghjpg;gpy; ,e;jpah

,e;jpahtpy; tUkhd tpfpj mbg;gilapy; kf;fisj; juk; gphpj;jhy;> Nkw;fj;jpakakhd Nky;jl;L FLk;gq;fs; 1.2 Nfhb. (xU FLk;gj;jpw;F 5.5 egHfs; vd;gJ re;ij Ma;T mikg;Gf; fzf;F). mLj;J eLj;ju tHf;fk; ,uz;lhfg; gphpf;fg;gl;L VWKf tHf;fk; 5 Nfhbf; FLk;gq;fs;> mLj;j ehLk; tHf;fk;> epuhjuT tHf;fk; 4 Nfhbf; FLk;gq;fs;. ehLk; epiyf;F fPo;kl;l vy;NyhUNk eLj;ju tHf;fj;jpdH vdf; nfhs;syhk; vd;fpwhH> ,e;jpa nghUshjhu epGzH FO (NCAER). mjhtJ RkhH 67 Nfhbg; NgH: ,e;jpa kf;fs; njhifapy; 80 rjtPjk;.

kPjKs;s 20 rjtPjj;jpdH efHg;Gw> fpuhkg;Gw epuhjuTg; gphptpdH. gpiog;Gf;Nf ky;Yf;F epw;f Ntz;batHfs;. tpiy Vw;wj;jpdhy; eLj;ju tHf;fj;jpdH xl;L nkhj;jkhf mjpf trjp gilj;jtHfshfpw mNj Neuj;jpy; kf;fs; njhifapd; mbkl;l gphptpdH vz;zpf;if ngUFk; Mgj;Jk; cs;sJ. NCAER Gs;sp tpgug;gb Nky;jl;L tHf;fj;jpy; $Ljyhfr; NrHe;j FLk;gq;fs; 16 yl;rk; jhd;. Mdhy; & 18 Mapuj;jpw;Fk; Fiwe;j tUkhdKs;s fPo;kl;lg; gphptpy; $Ljyhf 70 yl;rk; FLk;gq;fs; NrHe;J tpl;ld. (Vg;uy; 6-20> 1995 ,e;jpah LNl.)

Mf> ,e;jpahtpYk; rKjhar; rkepiyapy; khw;wk; Vw;gl;L tUfpwJ. Gjpjhfj; jpwe;J tplg;gl;l gd;dhl;L KjyPLfs;> jpwe;j re;ijg; nghUshjhuj;jhy; jd; EfH nghUs; Mirapy; eLj;ju tHf;fj;jpd; tho;f;if trjp $b ,Ue;jhYk;> me;j tho;f;if trjp fld; %ykhfNth my;yJ jtiz Kiwapy; ngwg;gl;l nghUs;fspd; %ykhfNt Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhz;lJ. ,jd; %yk; ,e;j eLj;ju tHf;fk; jhd; epk;kjpiaj; njhiyj;J tpl;lJ. ,Ug;gpDk; mJ jd; EfHnghUs; Miriaf; if tpl;ljh? ,y;iyNa! khwhf Foe;ijiaAk;> Foe;ijapd; gbg;Gr; nryitAk; ghukhdjhf vz;zj; Jtq;fp tpl;lJ.

NkYk;> fPo;kl;l kf;fis NkYk; mjs ghjhsj;jpy; js;sp tpl;Ls;sjhy;> me;j r%fk; nra;tjwpahJ epw;fpwJ. ,e;j fPo;kl;l r%fk; Kd;Ndw muR vd;d jhd; rYiffs; nra;jhYk; mtHfs; caHtjw;F gy gj;jhz;Lfs; Mfyhk; vd;fpwJ Ma;T. Vnddpy;> czTg; nghUs; tpiyNaw;wk; ,tHfis Kd;Ndw tplhJ.

Mf> ,e;jpa Nky;jl;L tHf;fj;jpy; MZk; ngz;Zk; FbAk;> Fbj;jdKkhfTk;> FLk;gj;ij tpl njhopYk;> nghJ ey kd;wq;fSk; nghpJ vdTk;> FLk;gj;ij kwe;Jk; Foe;ijfis ghuhkhff; fUjpAk;> Nky;jl;L kf;fspd; Foe;ijfs; md;Gf;F Vq;fpatHfshfTk;> fy;tpia ntWg;gtHfshfTk;> fphpkpdy;fshfTk; MFk; epiyapYk; mLj;J eLj;ju tHf;fk; jdJ EfHnghUs; Mirapy; Foe;ijfisg; ghukhfTk;> Foe;ijf;F MFk; fy;tpr; nryTfis mjpfg;gbahd nryTfshfTk;> fPo;kl;lNkh cz;z czTf;Nf jLkhwpj; jphpAk; NghJ Foe;ijg; guhkhpg;ghtJ fy;tpahtJ vd;w hPjpapy; ,e;jpar; r%fk; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. ,jd; %yk; fy;tp vd;gJ midj:J kl;lj;jpYk; kWf;fg;gl;l xd;whf Mfp tpLtjhYk;> jdk; nghWg;Gf;fis czHe;J Nky;jl;L kl;lKk; kw;Wk; eLj;ju tHf;fK; jk; Foe;ijfspd; tho;tpy; fy;tpapy; xOf;fj;jpy; mf;fiw nrYj;jhjjhYk;> rKjhaj;jpy; fy;tpahsHfSf;Fg; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. Mf> Nky;kl;l kf;fs; jq;fs; ehfhPf tpisahl;Lf;F Foe;ij ghukhf ,Ug;gjhYk;> eLj;ju kf;fSf;F EfHnghUs; Mir Nkhfj;jhy; Foe;ij nrytpdkhff; fUjg;gLtjhYk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L KiwiaAk;> mjd; rhjq;fisAk; ehb jk; kfg;Ngw;iwf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;fpwJ. fPo; kl;lk;cz;z cztpy;yh tpl;lhYk;> VNjh tho;f;ifg; Nghul;lj;ij elj;jpf; nfhz;Nl> ,e;jpa r%fj;jpy; jd; vz;zpf;ifia mjpfg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. NkYk;> nghUshjhu jhuhskakhf;fy; ehl;bd; nkhj;j tUkhdj;;ijf; $l;b te;jhYk;> tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPNo thOk; kf;fis mjpfg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gij Kd;dNu ghHj;Njhk;. ,e;jpahtpy; 65 rjtPjk; kf;fs; tWikf; Nfhl;bw;Ff; fPNo thOfpd;whHfs;.

940 kpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifapy; ghjpg;NgH Viofs;. 60 rjtPjk; fy;tpawpT ,y;yhjtHfs;. 25 rjtPj kf;fs; khjk; xd;wpw;F 25 lhyHfSf;Fk; FiwthfNt rk;ghjpf;fpd;whHfs;. (Arab News – Riyadh – Aug 15 1997).

Mf> ,e;jpa Nky;jl;L tHf;fk; nra;a Ntz;baJ vd;dntd;why;> ehfhPf Nkhfj;jpy; jhd; filgpbj;J tUk; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwiaf; iftpl;L> ehl;Lf;F fy;tpawpTs;s re;jjpia mjpfk; cUthf;fpj; ju Ntz;Lk;. eLj;ju tHf;fk; jd; EfHnghUs; Miria tpl;nlhopj;J> Foe;ijg; Ngw;iw mjpfkhf;fp> jha; jd; nghWg;GzHe;J> tPl;bypUe;J FLk;gg; nghWg;G> Foe;ijg; ghuhkhpg;G Mfpatw;wpy; jk; ftdj;ijr; nrYj;jp> ey;y jpwikahd> xOf;fKs;s> fy;tpawpTs;s> Foe;ijfis ehl;Lf;F cUthf;fpj; jUtjd; %yk;> tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPNo thOk; fPo;j;jl;L kf;fspd; njhifia tpl> gbj;j fy;tpawpTs;s> xOf;fKs;s kf;fis mjpfg;gLj;j KbAk;. ,jd; %yk; ey;y xOf;fKs;s>gz;Gs;s Ml;rpahsHfisAk;> mjpfhhpfisAk; fhz KbAk;. ,jd; gpd;dzpapy; ehL Rgpl;rkile;J> ekJ fPo; kl;l rNfhjuHfisAk; Nky;kl;lj;jpw;F ,izahf nfhz;L nry;y KbAk;.

,dpNkYk;> ek; r%fk; jk; nghWg;GzHe;J nray;gltpy;iyahdhy;> ehl;by; eurpk;kuht;fSf;Fk;> `H\j; Nkj;jhf;fSf;Fk;> n[ayypjh Nghd;NwhHfSk;> gpNukhde;jhf;fSk;> mj;thdpfSk;> re;jpuhRthkpfSk; jhd; kpFe;jpUg;ghHfs;.

 

9. tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpg;G

,Jtiu r%fr; rkepiyapy;> njsptw;w tpfpjhr;rhuKk;> caHkl;l> eLj;juf; Fbkf;fs; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij filgpbj;jjd; %yk; Mnuhf;fpakhd> Jbg;Gs;s> xOf;fKs;s> fy;tp mwpTs;s r%fk; rpWfr; rpWf tbfl;lg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;Nl ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mNj Neuj;jpy;> fy;tp mwpT FiwthfNth> ,y;yhkNyh ,Uf;Fk; fPo;kl;lk; kpFjpahf cUthfp tUtijAk; mjd; ghjpg;GfisAk; fz;Nlhk;.

,dp> ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; vjpnuhypahf Foe;ijfSf;Fk;> tajhdtHfSf;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s rkepiyapYk; khw;wk; Vw;gl;L. me;j khw;wk; cyfpd; tsHe;j ehLfspy; nghUshjhuj;ij vt;thW ghjpg;gilar; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ vd;gij ,g;nghOJ fhz;Nghk;.

mjhtJ> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lj;ij mjp jPtpukhf nray;gLj;jpajd; %yk;> ehl;by; tajhdtHfSf;Fk;> Foe;ijfSf;Fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba rPuhd tpfpjhr;rhu msT ghjpf;fg;gl;lJ. Foe;ijg; gpwg;G fzprkhd msT Fiwf;fg;gl;L tpl;ljhy;> ehl;bd; Jbg;ghd nray;fSf;F Ntz;ba ,isa uj;jk; jilgl;Lg; Nghd mNj Ntisapy;> mJtiu ngw;NwhHfsha; ,Ue;j ,isQHfs; KjpNahHfshfp> jhk; Jbg;Gld; tho;e;j fhyj;jpy; jkJ vz;zpf;ifiag; Nghy my;yJ jkJ vz;zpf;ifia tpl mjpfkhd Foe;ijfis ehl;Lf;Fg; ngw;Wj; juhjjhy;> ,e;j tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if Mz;Lfs; flf;ff; flf;ff; $ba mNj Ntisapy; Foe;ijg; gpw;gGk; mNj mstpy; $lhjjd; tpisT> ,d;iwa Nkiyehl;Lr; r%fj;jpy; r%f> nghUshjhu mstpy; ngUk; NtWghLfisAk;> mopitAk; vjpHNehf;fp tUfpd;whHfs;.

xU kdpjd; jd; ,sikf; fhyj;jpy; jhd; kpfTk; Jbg;Gld; nray;gl KbAk;. mJ Nghyj;jhd; ehLk;. Jbg;Gs;s ,sk; ,uj;jq;fs; jhd; me;j ehl;ilg; nghUshjhu mstpYk; r%f msptpYk; ghJfhf;Fk; J}z;fs;. NkYk; ehl;by; Foe;ijfspd; rjtPjk; Fiwaf; Fiwa ,Jtiu cw;gj;jp nra;J tUk; nghUs;fspd; msitAk; Fiwf;f Ntz;b tUk;. cgNahfpg;ghsH vz;zpf;if FiwAk; NghJ Vw;gLk; cw;gj;jpf; FiwT> ehl;by; Ntiytha;g;igf; Fiwg;gNjhL> nghUshjhug; gpd;dilitAk; mjpfg;gLj;Jk;. ,Wjpapy; mJ ehl;bd; nghUshjhuj;jpd; Cw;Wf; fz;izNa milj;J tpLk;.

xU ey;y r%fj;Jf;F cap&l;lf; $baJ ,isQHfspd; gq;nfLg;NgahFk;. Vnddpy; ,isQHfs; epiwe;j gzpkidfs;> ,uhZtk;> njhopw;rhiy> Nghd;wtw;wpy; jhd; mjpf jpwikiaAk;> cw;gj;jpiaAk;> NeHj;jpiaAk; fhz KbAk;. Vnddpy;> ,isQHfshy; kl;LNk fbdkhd rthy;fs; epiwe;j gzpfisj; jpwk;gl kd cWjpAld; nray;gLj;j KbAk;. mijr; rkhspf;f ,isQHfspd; cly; gyKk;> thypgKk;> kd epiyAk; xj;Jiof;f Ntz;Lk;. mJty;yhky;> tajhd r%fk; %yk; cw;gj;jpiaNah fbdkhd gzpfisNah vjpHghHf;f KbahJ. mjw;F mtHfsJ taNahjpfk; ,lkspg;gjpy;iy. vdNt> nghUshjhuk; vd;gjd; mbg;gilapy; mtHfs; FLk;gj;ijNah my;yJ ehl;ilNah rhHe;j tho Ntz;ba epiyapy; cs;stHfs;. NkYk;> ,e;j Nkiy r%fq;fspy; FLk;g mikg;G rpjwpajd; fhuzkhf> ,j;jifa tNahjpfHfs; jdpikahfTk;> my;yJ KjpNahH ,y;yq;fspYk; tho Ntz;ba epiyapy;> mjw;fhFk; nrytpdq;fis jkJ Xa;T+jpak;> Nrkpg;Gs; %yk; kl;LNk epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;s Ntz;ba epiyapy; cs;sdH. NkYk; tajhdtHfs; vz;zpf;if $lf; $l mtHfSf;F mspf;Fk; ngd;rd; njhifapd; nkhj;j msT $bf; nfhz;Nl tUfpwJ. Nkw;gb Xa;T+jpak; my;yhJ> ,e;j tajhdtHfs; jkJ Nrkpg;igAk; fhyp nra;tjhy;> ehl;bd; nghUshjhuk; nrhy;y Kbahj msT tPo;r;rpiar; re;jpf;Fk; epiyf;f js;sg;gl;L tUfpwJ.

kdpjd; ,iwtd; toq;fpa mUl;nfhilapy; if itj;jjd; tpisit mDgtpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whd;. ,aw;ifia.. mij ,af;Fk; ,iwtid vjpHj;J Nghhplj; Jzpe;j kdpjd;> mjd; gpd; tpisTfis ,iwkiw Rl;bf; fhl;bAk; Nfshjjhy; mtd; mile;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; mtyq;fis> ehlfspd; epyikfis ,dp tphpthff; fhz;Nghk;.

Kjypy; ehk; ghHf;fg; NghtJ ehfhPfj;jpd; njhl;by;? mnkhpf;fhtpd; mty epiy!!!

 

mnkhpf;fh :

1990 y; vLf;fg;gl;l kf;fs; njhiff; fzf;nfLg;gpd;gb> epA+ahHf; efhpy; kl;Lk; 65 k; mjw;F NkYk; tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if 3>50>000 MFk;. 2050 k; Mz;by; mnkhpf;fhtpy; 90 k; mjw;F NkYk; tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if 48 kpy;ypaikj; jhz;b tpLk; vd vjpHghhf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

(The New York Times – Sunday Feb 23 1997. The News Given By> Executive Director, of DOROT, Mr. Vivian Fenster Ehlich – DOROT. A Service Agency For Aged).

mLj;J mnkhpf;fhtpd; mhpNrhdh khepyj;jpy; kl;Lk; ,d;Dk; 25 tUlq;fspy; tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if 1.1 kpy;ypad; MFk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

,e;j mhpNrhdh khepyj;jpy; cs;s Xa;T ngw;w tajhdthfs; 1995 y; nrytopj;j njhifapd; msT 13.6 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs; vd;W khepy nghUshjhu Mizaj;jpd; Kf;fpa mjpfhhp $wpdhH. (The New York Times – National Report . Sunday Feb, 16, 1997).

mnkhpf;fhtpd; Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; :

1995 y; -- 2.05

2025 y; -- 1.61

mjhtJ> 1995 y; xU FLk;gj;jpw;F> xU jk;gjpaUf;F 2.05 Foe;ijfs; ,Ue;jJ vdpy;> 2025 y; ,J 1.61 Mff; Fiwe;J tpLk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

 

gphpl;ld; :

gphpl;ldpy; 65 kpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifapy; 10 y; xU egH mjhtJ 6.5 kpy;ypad; egHfs; 70 k; mjw;F NkYk; tajhdtHfs;. ,Nj msT 2030 y; ,ej kf;fs; njhif 10 kpy;ypad; MFk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. mg;nghOJ 4 y; xU egH 85 k; mjw;F NkYk; tajhdtHfshf ,Ug;ghHfs; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ.

1970 y; 4>021 Mf ,Ue;j KjpNahH ,y;yq;fs; ,d;W 17>065 Mfg; ngUfp cs;sd. ,e;j vz;zpf;if 20>000 MfTk; ,Uf;fyhk; vdTk; ,jpy; kl;Lk; 50>000 KjpNahHfs; trpf;fpd;whHfs;. ,J my;yhJ KjpNahHfs; ,y;yk; my;yhJ jpdikapy; trpf;Fk; KjpNahHfspd; vz;zpf;ifiar; NrHj;jhy; ,d;Dk; mjpfkhd mstpy; ,Uf;Fk;. NkYk;> ,e;j gzp%g;Gg; ngw;w KjpNahHfs; jq;fs; FLk;gq;fisg; gphpe;Njh my;yJ FLkgr; #o;epiy ,y;yhj epiyapNyh jhd; KjpNahH ,y;yq;fis ehLfpd;wdH. NkYk; ,ej KjpNahH ,y;yq;fspy; Goq;Fk; xU tUlj;ija gz kjpg;G vt;tsT njhpAkh? 8 gpy;ypad; gTz;LfshFk;.

NkYk;. ,e;j ngUfp tUk; ,y;yq;fspy;> gzj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;L jq;fisf; ftdpf;f ehjpapy;yhky; jq;fis Nkhrb nra;J tUtjhf vOe;j GfhH> ,d;Dk; muRf;F ngUk; jiytypahf khwp tpl;lJ. ,jpy; elf;Fk; coy;> Nkhrb> gzj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhz;L KjpNahHfisf; ftdpg;ghuw;W tpl;L tpLtJ Nghd;wtw;iw Muha muR xU tprhuizf; fkp\id mikj;Js;sJ. (The Sunday Times, 31 Aug 97. How the Elderly Suffer Abuse from Carers and Exposed; Homes that fail the old)

 

rpq;fg;G+H

ntw;wpfukhd? FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;ljpd; %yk; rpq;fg;G+H Mrpa ehLfspNyNa mjpf tajhd KjpNahHfisf; nfhz;l ehlhf ,Uf;Fk;. ,d;Dk; 25 tUlq;fspy; ehl;bd; nkhj;j kf;fs; njhifapy; fhy;thrpg; NgH 60 k; mjw;F NkYk; taJ te;j KjpNahHfshf ,Ug;ghHfs;. rpq;fg;G+hpd; ,d;iwa kf;fs; njhif 3 kpy;ypad; MFk;.

NkYk;> r%f fl;Lkhdj; jpl;lk; (SOCIAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME) jw;nghOJ ,uz;Lf;F Nky; Ntz;lhk; vd;w Nfh\j;ij tpl;L tpl;L> Kbe;jijg; ngw;Wj; js;Sq;fs; vd;w Nfh\j;ij vOg;g Muk;gpj;Js;sJ.

 

gpNurpy;

gpNurpypd; kf;fs; njhif 158 kpy;ypad;fshFk;. ,jpy; 32 kpy;ypad; kf;fs; 2020 k; Mz;by; 60 k; mjw;F NkYk; tajhdtHfshf ,Ug;ghHfs;.

cyf kf;fs; njhifapy; tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;ifapy; 13 rjtPjk;> cyf mstpy; tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfk; cs;s ehLfspd; thpirapy; 5 tJ ,lj;ijAk; gpNurpy; gpbf;f ,Uf;fpwJ. jw;nghOJ 158 kpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifapy; 8 rjtPjk; egHfs; 60 k; mjw;F NkYk; tajhd epiyapy; cs;sdH.

1950 y; gpNurpypd; ruhrhp Mal;fhyk; 54.2 ypUe;J 63.5 Mf caHe;jJk; fhuzkhFk;. 1970 y; xU ngz; ruhrhpahf 5.8 Foe;ijfisAk;> mNj msT ,d;W 2.4 Mff; Fiwe;J tpl;lij cyfg; nghJ Rfhjhu mikg;G (WHO) ,J Fwpj;J gpNurpiy vr;rhpj;Js;sJ. ,g;nghONj jFe;j eltbf;if vOf;ftpy;iy vdpy;> ehl;bd; Rfhjhuk;> nghUshjhuk;> ghJfhg;G ,tw;wpy; gpd;dilitr; re;jpf;f Ntz;b tUk; vd jdJ WHO mwpf;ifapy; $wp cs;sJ. (ARAB NEWS – RIYADH – JAN 01-1997).

 

[g;ghd;

(Foe;ijg; gpwg;G ,wq;F Kfk; - tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if VWKfk;)

[g;ghdpy; Foe;ijfSf;Fg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. NghHf;fhy mbg;gilapy; Foe;ijg; gpwg;ig mjpfg;gLj;j Ntz;ba mtrpaj;ij nfhs;if tFf;Fk;> jpl;lkply; mjpfhhpfs; muRf;F Mnyhrid $wp ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

,jpy;> jha;khhfs; Foe;ijg; Ngw;iw milAk; NghJ Vw;gLk; rpy mnrsfhpaq;fis mwpe;J ,tw;iwf; fisa Ntz;Lk;> mjw;fhf muR nfhs;if tpjpfis tFf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ml;RNfh Kuhfp (ATSUKO MURAKI) vd;w gpujkH mYtyfj;jpd; ghypay; rkj;Jtk; (GENDER EQUALITY) mYtyfg; nghWg;G mjpfhhp muRf;F MNyhrid toq;fp cs;shH.

ngz;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;l fy;tp> mjdhy; ngwg;gl;l Ntiytha;g;Gfs; Nghd;wit jhd; Foe;ijg; gpwg;ig mjd; rjtPjj;ijf; Fiwj;Js;sd. gzpf;Fr; nry;Yk; ngz;fs; jpUkzk; nra;ahkYk;> jpUkzk; nra;a jhkjpg;gjhYk;> jpUkzk; MdhYk; Foe;ijg; gpwg;ig ghukhd nrayhf ,ilA+uhff; fUJtjhYk; Foe;ijg; gpwg;G Fiwe;Js;sJ.

Fwpg;G : ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; [g;ghdpy; fLikahd FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL ,Ue;jJ vd;gij epidtpy; nfhs;f)

,g;nghOJ ,e;jg; gpur;idiaj; jPHf;f ,J xd;Nw top. ngz;fs; ve;j NtiyAk; nra;ahky;> tPl;by; ,Ue;J nfhz;L Foe;ijfis Njrj;Jf;Fg; ngw;Wj; je;jhy; NghJkhdJ. ,jpy; cs;s rpukq;fis> jilfis ePf;fp> Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tij vspikahd> xU Njitahd nray; vd;gij kf;fsplk; fUj;J cUthf;f mjw;fhd #o;epiyfis ehk; Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwhH> A+hpNfh MrpNdh vd;w FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Mizaj;jpd; cjtp ,af;FeH.

Rfhjhu kw;Wk; kf;fs; ey;tho;T mikr;rfj;jpd; Gs;sp tpguk; jhd; ,tHfs; ,t;thW rpe;jpf;f itj;jJ. mjhtJ 2015 y; 4 y; xU egH 65 k; mjw;F NkYk; mjpf taJilNahuhf ,Ug;ghH. ,Nj msT 2049 y; %d;wpy; xUtH 65 k; mjw;F NkYk; mjpf taJilNahuhf ,Ug;ghH.

Vw;fdNt gl;n[l;by; Jz;L tpOe;J nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; epiyapy;> KjpNahHfSf;fhd ngd;rd; njhifapd; msT mjpfhpf;Fk; NghJ> ehl;bd; nghUshjhuj;ij mJ ghjpf;Fk; vd muR fUJfpwJ.

[g;ghdpd; ,d;iwa gpwg;G tpfpjk; r%f ey tho;itAk;> nghUshjhuj;ijAk; ghjpf;ff; $baJ kl;Lky;y> ngz;fs; Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tijj; jil nra;Ak; r%fk; xU caHe;j mwpthd r%fkhf ,Uf;fhJ vd;fpwhH epNfhd; nfa;]a; \pk;gd;> ,tH FINANCIAL DAILY vd;w gj;jphpf;ifapd; vbl;lH MthH.

NkYk; ,e;jg; gpur;idapy; jiyapl;L ehk; mij eptHj;jp nra;atpy;iyahdhy;> [g;ghd; xU kpfg; nghpa nghUshjhug; gpd;dilitr; re;jpf;Fk; vd mikr;rH nfha;Rk;> ,jd; jPtpuj;ijr; Rl;bf; fhl;b muir vr;rhpj;Js;shH.

NkYk;> [g;ghdpa r%fj;jpy; Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJ kl;Lky;y> jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;tJ $l kpfr; rpf;fyhd tprakhf cs;sJ. [g;ghdpag; ngz;fspy; 20 k; mjw;F rpwpJ Fiwthd taJila ngz;fspy; ghjpg; NgH ,d;Dk; jpUkzk; nra;ahkYk;> 30 k; mjw;Fk; rw;Wf; Fiwthd taJila ngz;fspy; 20 rjtPjk; ngz;fs; jpUkzk; ,d;wp jdpikapy; tho;fpwhHfs; vd;w Gs;sp tpguf; fzf;F> [g;ghd; muir NkYk; rpf;fyhf;fp cs;sJ.

(Fwpg;G : Nkw;fz;l [g;ghdpd; mtyq;fs; Vida ehLfshd gphpl;ld;> mnkhpf;fh> gpuhd;];> n[Hkdp> gpNurpy;> ,e;NjhNd\pah> (gpwg;G tpfpjk; 0 rjtPjk; ,Ug;gjhf nra;jpfs; $Wfpd;wd) M];jpNuypah> rpq;fg;G+H> rPdh kw;Wk; Vida Inuhg;gpa ehLfspd; epiyAk;> [g;ghdpd; epiyia xj;jpUf;fpd;wJ).

 

10. epthuzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; Ntjid

xU jtwhd nfhs;ifjapdhYk;> khWgl;Lg; nghd rPHFiye;J Nghd r%f mikg;gpdhYk; Vw;gl;l jhf;fj;jpd; tpisT ,t;tsT tNahjpfHfis> ,e;j ehLfspy; Vw;gLj;jp cs;sJ. mNj Neuk; ,isQHfspd; rjtPjk; Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;bUg;gjhy;> Jbg;ghd nray;fSf;Fk;> mwpQHfSf;Fk;> tpQ;QhdpfSf;Fk; ,e;j ehLfspy; Vfg;gl;l gQ;rk; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. vdNt> jhd; ,e;j ehlfs; kw;w tsUk;> ,uz;lhk; cyf ehLfspd; mwpQH ngUkf;fSf;F mjpf Cjpaj;ijf; fhl;b> mtHfspd; FbNaw;wj;jpw;F gl;Lf; fk;gsk; tphpj;J tuNtw;fpwJ. mjhtJ> rl;lg;gb FbNaWNthH kw;Wk; jpUl;Lj;jdkhf FbNaWNthH fdprkhd msT ,Ue;Jk;> ,it Nghjhky;.. mnkhpf;fh tUlj;jpw;F 55 Mapuk; ntspehl;ltHfis Fyf;fy; Kiwapy; NjHe;njLj;J> ntspehl;L kf;fisj; NjHe;njLj;Jf; FbakHj;jpf; nfhs;fpwJ. ,g;gb NjHe;njLf;fg;gl;l ,tHfSf;F gpui[fSf;F epfuhd jFjpia (GREEN CARD) toq;FfpwJ.

,jpy; fdlh ehlhdJ> Fwpg;ghf mwpQHfs;> gbj;j gl;lhjhhpfs;> tpahghhpfs; Nghd;wtHfs; Fwpg;gpl;l msT njhiffis fdlh tq;fpapy; KjyPL nra;J tpl;L> fdlhtpy; jq;fp njhopy; nra;aTk; Ntiy tha;g;Gg; ngwTk; mDkjpf;fpwJ.

jd; ehl;L kf;fspd; rjtpfpjk; rkepiy ngw;wpUg;gpd;> ,j;jifa ehLfs; Vd; ntspehl;ltiu mjpYk; Fwpg;ghf gbj;j mwpQH ngUkf;fspd; FbNaw;wj;ij mJ ehl Ntz;Lk;. Vnddpy;> mtHfspd; gioa fzf;nfLg;Gk;> Mz;lhz;L fhykhf mtHfs; filgpbj;J tUk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L KiwfspdhYk;> Foe;ijfspd; gpwg;igf; Fiwj;J> mjd; %yk; ey;y xOf;fKs;s> fy;tpahsHfspd; vz;zpf;ifiaAk; Fiwj;J tUtJk;> mjD}Nl tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpj;jJk;> Mf.. ,e;j ehLfspy; mwpthspfSf;Fg; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;ljd; fhuzkhf> ,e;j Nkiy ehLfs;> ,uz;lhk; cyf ehLfspd; mwpthspfisf; FbakHj;jpd; nfhs;tjd; %yk;> jk; ehl;il r%f kw;Wk; nghUshjhu tPo;r;rpapypUe;J fhg;ghw;wp tUtij ehk; ,d;Wk; fz;L tUfpd;Nwhk;.

,ijNah jhk;]d; vd;gtH> ,J gw;wp jkJ Mo;ej Muha;r;rpapd; Kbtpy;> ,e;j tajhdtHfspd; taJ caHe;jpUg;gJk;> mtHfspd; vz;zpf;if ,jdhy; mjpfhpj;jpUg;gJk; ehk; Fwpg;gpl;L Nehf;f Ntz;ba mk;rq;fshFk;. Vnddpy;> xU xOq;fw;w rkepiyaw;w khWghl;bdhy;> ,wg;G tpfpjKk;> gpwg;G tpfpjKk; khWgl;L> ,isQHfspd; vz;zpf;ifiaf; Fiwj;Jk;> tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;ifia mjpfhpj;Jk; ,Ug;gJ> nghUshjhuj;ijg; ghjpf;ff; $baJ. tajhdtHfsplk; ve;j tpj nghUsPl;liyNah> ciog;igNah vjpHghHf;f KbahJ. nghUshjhuk; <l;Ltjpy; mtHfshy; Fiwe;j msNt <Lgl ,aYk;.

,jd; %yk; ghjpf;fg;gl;l Nkiy ehLfs;> gpw ehl;L kf;fis jd; ehl;by; FbakHj;jpajd; tpisT vt;thW ,Uf;fpd;wnjdpy;> mnkhpf;fh Nghd;w me;epa ehl;by; thOk; A+jHfs;> Kf;fpakhf gjtpfs; Nghd;wtw;wpy; jkJ ,ilj;ijj; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhz;L> nkhj;j kf;fs;njhifapy; mw;g rjtPjNk ,Ue;J nfhz;L> me;j ehl;bd; Ml;rp mjpfhuj;jpy;> jiyikg; gjtpapy; ,y;iy vdpDk; mtHfsJ nrhy;Yf;F MLfpd;w> gzpa itf;fpd;w epiyikia cUthf;f Kbfpd;wJ. murpaypYk; jq;fsJ nry;thf;if jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> FbNaWk; kf;fspd; fyhr;rhuk;> kjk; Nghd;wit nrhe;j ehl;L kf;fspd; fyhr;rhuq;fNshL NtWgLtjhy;> FbNaWk; ntspehl;ltHfs;> nrhe;j ehl;L kf;fshy; mjpfkhd jhf;Fjy;fSf;Fk;> FbNaWgtHfis vjpHj;J mtHfis ehl;il tpl;Nl ntspNaw;wf; NfhhpAk; NghuhLk; epiyAk; cUthfp tUfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; Nkiy ehLfspy; murpay; Nghd;wtw;wpy; ];jpuj;jd;ikia Fiyf;Fk; epiyAk; cUthfp cs;sJ. Fwpg;ghf ,e;j vjpHg;G ,d mbg;gilapYk;> Nkhjy;fis cUthf;fp tUfpwJ.

cjhuzkhf> rkPgj;jpy; gpuhd;]; ehl;L kf;fs; ntspehl;ltHfis ntspNaw;wf; Nfhhp elj;jpa Nghul;lj;ijf; $wyhk;. mLj;J> mnkhpf;fh> n[Hkdp> M];jpNuypah> gphpl;ld; Mfpa ehLfspy; ntspehl;ltHfSf;F vjpuhf elf;Fk; Nghuhl;lq;fSk;> jhf;Fjy;fSk; vij czHj;Jfpd;wnjd;why;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; %yKk; mJ rhHe;j rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;jpajd; %yKk;> tpise;j r%fk; rkepiyia eptHj;jp nra;Ak; nghUl;L ntspehl;ltHfis FbakHj;jpajd; tpisthf Vw;gl;l cs;ehl;Lf; Fog;gk; vdyhk;.

,Wjpahf> Vd; ,e;j NkiyehLfs; ,t;tsT nghpa mtyepiyia Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhz;ld vd;gij Muha;e;jhy;> kpf Kf;fpakhd ehd;F fhuzq;fs; ekf;Fj; njspthFk;.

gpwg;G tpfpjk; fzprkhd msT Fiwe;Nj te;jJk;

mjpfg; ngz;fs; fUj;jil rhjdq;fisAk;> kUe;JfisAk; gad;gLj;jpaJk;> fUj;jil nra;J nfhz;lJk;.

ngz;fs; jpUkzk; ,d;wpAk;> jpUkzk; nra;Jk; Foe;ij ngWtij ,ilA+uhf> ghukhf vz;zpaJk; jpUkz taJ tuk;G fle;J jpUkzk; nra;jYk;

nghJthf cyfpy; Vw;gl;Ls;s kUj;Jt Kd;Ndw;wKk; ruhrhp kdpjHfspd; taJ tuk;ig mjhtJ Mal;fhyj;ij mjpfg;gLj;jp ,Ug;gJk;

Nghd;w Kf;fpa fhuzq;fshFk;.

cjhuzkhf> taJ tuk;G caHe;jpUg;gjw;F ekJ ,e;jpahit vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;>

1950 y; rhuhrhp xU ,e;jpadpd; MAl; fhyk; Mz; 32.4 MfTk;> ngz; 31.7 MfTk; ,Ue;jJ. 1992-93 fzf;nfLg;gpd;gb> Mz; 60.4 MfTk;> ngz; 61.2 MfTk; caHe;Js;sJ.

mNj Neuj;jpy; 1950 y; ,e;jpahtpd; Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; 39.9 (1000 NgUf;F) ,e;j tpfpjk; 1995-96 Gs;sp tpgug;gb 28.3 (1000 NgUf;F). gpwg;G tpfpjk; Fiwe;jpUg;gJk;> ,wg;G tpfpjk; Fiwe;jpUf;Fk; mNj Ntisapy;> ruhrhp ,e;jpadpd; MAl; fhyKk; $bAs;sJ.

,wg;G tpfpjk; :

1950 - y; 27.4 (1000 NgUf;F)

1995 - 96 –y; 9.0 (1000 NgUf;F) vd;w mstpy; Fiwe;Js;sJ.

,e;j khWgl;l tpfpjk; ,e;jpahtpYk; mjpf tajhdtHfis Vw;gLj;jp ,Uf;Fk; vd mwpa Kbfpd;wJ. Vnddpy; ek; ehl;bYk; ,jd; mtyq;fs; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;J tpl;ld vd;gij mjpfhpj;J tUk; KjpNahH ,y;yq;fis itj;Jk;> mjpy; ehs;NjhWk; Nfl;ghuw;W tplg;gLk; KjpNahHfspd; vz;zpf;if $b tUtJk;> ek; ehL filgpbf;Fk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lKk;> mjd; rhjdq;fSk;> jd;Dila rPuopit rpWfr; rpWf mopit Vw;gLj;jp tUfpd;wd vd;gijAk; mwpa Kbfpd;wJ.

,wg;G tpfpjf; FiwTk;> gpwg;G tpfpjf; FiwTk;> ehl;by; tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;ifia mjpfg;gLj;JtNjhL> gpwg;G tpfpjf; FiwT ,isQHfspd; vz;zpf;ifia Fiwj;J tpLk; vd;gJ epjHrdkhd cz;ikahFk;.

 

11. Fiwe;J Nghd gpwg;G tpfpjk; - ngz; rpRf; nfhiy

rpq;fg;G+H kf;fs; njhif Fiwe;J tUfpd;wJ. kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;j muR vLj;j eltbf;ifahy; tUlj;jpw;F 46>700 Foe;ijfs; gpwf;fpd;wd. Mdhy;> 56>400 Foe;ijfshtJ gpwf;f Ntz;Lk;. (czHT - nrg; 26 - mf; 02 - 1997).

rPdhtpy; ngz; Foe;ijfSf;Fg; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. 50 kpy;ypad; ngz; Foe;ijfs; gw;whf;Fiwia rPdh fz;Ls;sJ. Fwpg;ghf ngz;fs; fUTw;w gpd; Foe;ij Mzh my;yJ ngz;zh vd ];Nfd; Kiw %yk; fz;lwpe;J> ngz;zhf ,Ue;jhy; fUtpNyNa mopj;J tpLk; nray; mjpfhpj;J cs;sJ. vdNt> mj;jifa ];Nfd; ghpNrhjid Kiwiaj; jil nra;a rPdh Nahrid nra;J tUfpwJ. (yz;ld; gpgprp thndhypr; nra;jp mf;NlhgH 01-1997).

mjpf K];ypk;fisf; nfhz;l ehL ,e;NjhNdrpah. ,e;ehl;bd; Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; 0 Mfp cs;sJ. Vnddpy;> kf;fs; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;il filgpbg;gjhYk;> epNuhj; kw;Wk; fUj;jil khj;jpiufis mjpfk; cgNahfpg;gjhYk;> gpwg;G tpfpjk; Rj;jkhff; Fiwe;Js;sJ. (ISLAMIC VOICE – DEC 1996. By Dr. R.S.GUPTA. MO; BALDIYA – GUJARAT).

fle;j tajhdtHfspd; vz;zpf;if mjpfhpg;G> vDk; jiyg;gpy; ,il ,ilNa me;je;j ehLfspd; gpwg;G tpfpjk; Fiwe;J ,Ug;gijf; fz;Nlhk;. mjhtJ>

 

Foe;ijg; gpwg;G tpfpjk; :

ehLfs; Mz;L tpfpjk;%

mnkhpf;fh 1919 4.7

1955 2.4

1995 2.05

2025 1.61

 

[g;ghd; 1995 1.42

1.38

 

gpNurpy; 1970 5.8

2.4

,e;jpah 1950 3.99

1995-1996 2.83

,d;iwa epiyapy; xU FLk;gj;jpw;F ,uz;L Foe;ijfs; vd;w tpfpjj;jpy; ,Ue;jhYk;> mtHfspy; ,e;j tpfpjj;jpy; eilngWk; xt;nthU jpUkzKk; mjd; %yk; ngwf; $ba Fiwe;j mstpyhd Foe;ijfspd; msTk;> kdpj ,djij rpwpJ rpwpjhf mopf;ff; $badthfj; jhd; mikAk;. 30 tUl tpfpjj;jpy; xt;nthU guk;giu flf;Fk; NghJk;> kf;fs; njhifapy; Fwpg;gpl;l msT Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl tUtij ehk; fhz;fpNwhk;. cjhuzkhf> ,uz;L Foe;ijfSf;F Nky; Ntz;lhk; vdf; Nfh\k; vOg;Gk; ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhif 1000 vdpy;> 30 tUlq;fspy; ,e;j 1000 kf;fs; njhif ngw;nwLf;Fk; kf;fs; njhif 621 Mfk;. ,J 60 Mz;Lfspy; 386 MfTk;> 150 tUlq;fspy; 92 MfTk; Fiwe;J tpLk;.

cjhuzkhf ,d;iwa [g;ghdpd; gpwg;G tpfpjk; 1995 Gs;sp tpgug;gb 1.42 Mf 1000 k; NgH nfhz;l r%fkhff; fzf;fpl;lhy; 500 jk;gjpaH. ,e;j 500 jk;gjpapdH ngw;nwLf;Fk; Foe;ijfspd; vz;zpf;if 500X1.42 = 710 MFk;. ,e;j 710 k; 355 jk;gjpapduhdhy;> 355X1.42 = 504 MFk;. Mf> kf;fs; njhif gbg;gbahff; Fiwe;J> ,Wjpapy; Ra milahsk; ,y;yhj r%fkhf khwp tpLk; vd;gJ jhd; cz;ik.

kf;fs; njhiff; fzf;nfLg;ghsHfSk;> nghUshjhu mwpQHfSk; kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpapd; Gs;sp tpgjq;fis kl;Lk; itj;J> kf;fs; njhifapd; tsHr;rp epiyiaj; jPHkhdpg;gjpy;iy. khwhf> mij xl;b vof; $ba rjhf ghjfq;fisAk;> kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp kw;Wk; tPo;r;rpiaAk; fzf;fpl;L> nkhj;j tpfpjhr;rhuj;ijf; fzf;fpLfpwhHfs;.

cjhuzkhf> nkhj;j cs;gj;jpj;jpwd; vd;gJ 1 Gs;sp vdpy;> mJ epiyahd kf;fs; njhif tpfpjk;. 1 f;F Nky; 2 Gs;sp vdpy;> mJ kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fk;. 1 Gs;spf;Fk; FiwT vdpy; kf;fs; njhif tPo;r;rp. Mdhy; NkNy ehk; ghHj;j ehLfspd; kf;fs; njhif cw;gj;jpapy; tPo;r;rpiaj; jhd; fz;Nlhk;. mjhtJ fztd;> kidtp vd;w FLk;gk;> ,uz;L egH vdpy; 2 Gs;sp. mtHfSf;Fg; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ij ,uz;L> 2 Gs;sp. Mf nkhj;j tpfpjk; 2:2. ,J epiyahd Gs;sp tpfpjk;.

Mdhy; [g;ghdpd; ,d;iwa xU FLk;gj;jpd; gpwg;G tpfpjk; 1.42 vdpy;> nkhj;j gpwg;G tpfpjk; 2:1.42 vdf; fzf;fpl;lhy;> xU re;jjpf;Fk; ,d;ndhU re;jjpf;Fk; ,ilNa 0.58 rjtPjk; Gs;sp Jz;L tpOfpd;wJ. ,Nj epiy ePbj;jhy;> mJ kdpj ,d tsHr;rpapd; mwpFwpah? my;yJ moptpd; mwpFwpah? vd;gij repjpj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;baJ mwpT [Ptpfspd; nghUg;ghFk;.

 

ngz; rpRf; nfhiy

rPdh :

ngz; rpRf; nfhiyapy; ek;ikAk; kpQ;rp tpl;lJ rPdh. Vnddpy;> mq;F FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; KOikahf mKy;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. xU FLk;gj;jpw;F xU Foe;ij tPjk; kl;LNk ngw;Wf; nfhs;s mDkjp cz;L. mjw;F Nky; mtHfs; Foe;ij ngw;why;> murhq;f Ntiytha;g;G gwpNghFk;> thp mjpfk; fl;l Ntz;b tUk;. ,j;jifa ghjfkhd eilKiwfspdhy;> kf;fs; tpUk;gpNah tpUk;ghkNyh FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijf; filgpbj;J tUfpd;wdH.

,jpy; Ntbf;if vd;dntd;why;> Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;s mDkjpf;fg;gl;l me;j xU Foe;ijAk; Mz; Foe;ijahfNt Ntz;Lk; vd;W Mirg;gl;ljd; tpisT> fHg;gj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; rpR ngz; Foe;ijahf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; mij mopj;J tpl ehLfpd;wdH. ,jdhy; rPdhtpy; jw;nghOJ 50 kpy;ypad; ngz; Foe;ijfSf;Fg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;Ls;sJ.

,j;jifa tpghPj tpisTfs;> ehl;bd; r%f mikg;igg; ghjpf;Fk; vd mwpe;j rPdh muR FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij ePf;Ftjw;Fg; gjpyhf> fUtpy; ,Uf;Fk; Foe;ij Mzh my;yJ ngz;zh vdf; fz;lwpaf; $ba> ];Nfd; ghpNrhjid Kiwiaj; jil nra;ayhkh? vd Nahrid nra;J tUfpwJ.

,jd; tpisT FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jhy; tpise;j kuz mbahFk;.

 

,e;jpah :

,e;jpahtpYk;> ngz; Foe;ijfspd; vz;zpf;if ehSf;F ehs; Fiwe;J tUfpd;wJ vd;gij> gpujkhpd; 50 tJ Rje;jpu tpoh ciuapd; %yk; mwpa Kbfpd;wJ. NkYk; ,e;jpahtpy; mjpfkhd tujl;rizf;nfhLik ,Ug;gjhYk;> tWikapy; ngz; gps;isfis tsHj;jy;> fy;tp kw;Wk; jpUkzk; Nghd;wtw;wpw;F mjpfg;gbahd nryTfs; Mtjhy;> ngw;NwhHfs; ngz; Foe;ijfis tpUk;Gtjpy;iy. vdNt> jha; fHg;gk; MdTld;> ];Nfd; Kiwapy; ghpNrhjid nra;J> Foe;ij Mzh> ngz;zh vdf; fz;lwpe;J> ngz; Foe;ijahf ,Ue;jhy;> mf; fUit mopj;J tpLk; nfhLik epfo;fpwJ. vdNt> ,j;jifa ghpNrhjid nra;tij muR jil nra;a Kd; te;Js;sJ. NkYk;> ,j;jifa ghpNrhjidfis lhf;lHfs; nra;tij> rl;lKiwg;gb jil nra;tjw;F muR Kad;W tUfpwJ.

yz;ld; gpgprp nra;jp epWtdj;jpd; Ma;tpd;gb> ,e;jpahtpy; ehs; xd;Wf;F 3000 ngz; rpRf;fs; fUtpNyNa mopf;fg;gLfpd;wd. NkYk; tUlk; xd;Wf;F 1 kpy;ypaDf;Fk; mjpfkhd ngz; rpRf;fs; fUtpNyNa mopf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

From Dr. Zakir Naik Speech –" Religious Fundamentalism Astoumbling Block The Freedom of Expression" – Bombay Press Club Debate.

NkYk; jkpo;ehl;by; gpwf;Fk; 10 ngz; Foe;ijfspy; 4 ngz; rpRf;fs; fUtpNyNa mopf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

NkYk; fle;j 8-8-1997 jpdkzpapy;> ngz;fs; kPjhd nfhLik moptJ vg;NghJ?> ,d;W xU jfty; vDk; jiyg;gpy;> MWghjp GfNoe;jp vd;gtH vOjpa fl;Liuapy; fPo;fz;lthW Fwpg;gpLfpwhH.

mjhtJ> fUr;Nrhjidapy; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l 1000 ngz; rpRf;fspy; 995 rpRf;fs; mopf;fg;gl;L tpl;ld.

1981 ,e;jpa kf;fs;njhif fzf;nfLg;gpd;gb> Mz;> ngz; tpfpjkhdJ 1000 f;F 934 Mf ,Ue;jJ. 1991 y; 1000 Mz;fSf;F 929 ngz;fs; vdf; Fiwe;Js;sJ.

NkYk; jkpofj;jpy; 1971-81 k; Mz;Lfspy; jkpo;ehl;by; 17.50 rjkhf ,Ue;j kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp 1981-1991 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; 14.94 rjkhff; Fiwe;Js;sJ.

fUj;jilr; rhjdq;fs; vjw;fhff; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;ldNth mtw;iw epiwNtw;wg; gad;gltpy;iy. khwhf> Ntz;lhj fHg;gj;ijf; fiyf;fTk;> ngz; rpRf; nfhiyf;Fk; jhd; gad;gLfpwJ vdpy;> mj;jpl;lk; nray;gLtjd; Nehf;fk; re;Njfj;jpw;F ,lkspg;gjhf cs;sJ.

 

12. Foe;ij ,y;yhj; jhk;gj;aKk;> kztpyf;Fk;

NkiyehLfspy; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; KiwahdJ FLk;gg; ghrg;gpizg;ig mWj;njwpAk;> kz tho;itr; nraypof;fr; nra;Ak; fUtpahfr; nray;gLfpwJ.

xU FLk;gj;jpy; Foe;ij vd;gJ> fztDf;Fk; kidtpf;Fk; ,ilNa ghr; gpizg;ig cUthf;ff; $ba khngUk; rf;jpahfr; nray;gLfpwJ. NkYk; Foe;ijg; NgW ,y;yhj FLk;gj;jpy;> fztd; kidtpia tpl;Lk;> kidtp fztid tpl;Lk; vspjpy; gphpe;J> kztpyf;Fg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;F vspjhd topahf ,Uf;fpwJ.

kztpyf;Fg; ng ePjpkd;wq;fis mZf Ntz;b tUk; nghOJ> 1 epkplj;jpw;Ff; Fiwthd Neuj;jpy; 115 kz tpyf;Ffs; ele;j epfo;Tfs; yz;ldpy; ele;Js;sd. ,j;jifa kztpyf;Ffs; vj;jifa gpujpthjk; vJTk; ,y;yhky;> Foe;ijg; NgW ,y;iy vd;w fhuzj;ij kl;LNk fhl;b elf;Fk; kztpyf;Ffs; mjpfhpj;Js;sd. ,J vjdhy; tpise;jJ vdpy;> epr;rakhf FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fs; Vw;gLj;jpa kdepiy khw;wk; jhd; vdyhk;.

Vnddpy; mjpfk; Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tij ehfhPfk; vd;w NghHitapy; tpUk;ghjJk;> NkYk; Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJ jk; moFf;Fk;> ehfhPf tho;f;iff;Fk; ,ilA+whf mikAk; vd;w kdepiy nfhz;l r%fk;> Foe;ijg; Ngw;iw fUj;jil khj;jpiu kw;Wk; rhjdq;fs; %yk;> gpw;gLj;JfpwJ. my;yJ jtpHf;fpwJ. ,jdpilNa fztDf;Fk; kidtpf;Fk; ,ilNa Vw;gLk; rpW ryryg;Gk; kztpyf;fpy; KbtilfpwJ. Mf> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lKk;> mjd; rhHG rhjdq;fSk; ,d;DnkhU rKjha rPuopT Neha;f;F kf;fis ,l;Lr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

Dr. BERNARD A. BAUER vd;w kfg;NgW kUj;JtH Foe;ijg; NgW ,y;yhik gw;wpf; $Wk; nghOJ :

xt;nthU jhAk; Foe;ijg; Ngw;iw xU kpfg; nghpa rhjidahf vz;zpr; nray;gl Ntz;Lk;. mJ mtshy; kl;LNk epfo;j;jf; $ba mw;GjkhFk;. xt;nthU jhAk; Foe;ijg; Ngw;iw jk; jhHkPff; flikahff; fUj Ntz;Lk;. mJ ,aw;if cq;fSf;F ,l;l fl;lisahFk;. jha;ik kl;LNk Foe;ijg; NgW vd;w mw;Gjj;ij epfo;j;j KbAk;. xU ngz;zhdts; Mzplk; ,Ue;J Rje;jpuk;> Foe;ijaplk; ,Ue;J Rje;jpuk; vDk; Kof;fq;fis nghpa mstpy; Koq;Ftij tpl;L tpl;L> vd; tho;Tk; tsKk; midj;Jk; Foe;ijf;Nf vd;w jhHkPf ke;jpuj;ij cr;rhpf;Fk; Nghf;iff; iff; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

NkYk; Foe;ijaw;w kztho;T xU epiyaw;w kztho;T jhd;. jk;gjpfspilNa <Uliy xd;whf;FtJk;> fztDk; kidtpAk; jkJ czHTfis xUtUld; xUtH gfpHe;J xUtH kw;wtUf;fhf jkJ tho;it midj;Jf; nfhs;tJk; Md gz;Gfis KOikailar; nra;tJ mj;jk;gjpapdhpd; koiyr; nry;tq;fNs! xU ngz;zpd; kfg;NgW kl;LNk mtspd; ,jag; G+q;fhit G+j;Jf; FYq;fr; nra;Ak; ke;jpukhFk;.

NkYk> r%ftpay; Ma;thsHfspd; fUj;Jg;gb> jk;gjpfspilNa Foe;ijapy;yhj; jd;ik jhd; mtHfspilNa kztpyf;F mjpfhpf;f Kf;fpa fhuzkhf tpsq;FfpwJ vd;fpwhHfs;.

Mr.NgHd]; (BARNES)> Mr.&b (REUDI ) vd;w ,U mwpQHfspd; $w;Wg;gb> tpthfuj;J eilngWk; rjtPjj;jpy; %d;wpy; ,uz;L tpthfuj;J Foe;ijapy;yhj; jk;gjpfspilNaAk;> Ie;jpy; xU tpthfuj;J xNu xU gps;isiag; ngw;w jk;gjpfspilNaAk; eilngWfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; kztpyf;Ff;Fk; Foe;ijg; Ngw;Wf;Fk; ,ilNa VNjh kWf;ftpayhj njhlHG cs;sJ vd;W fUj;Jj; njhptpf;fpd;whHfs;.

Dr./gphPl;Nkd; (Dr.Freed Man) vd;gtuJ $w;Wg;gb> Foe;ij mjpfKs;s jk;gjpapdiuf; fhl;bYk;> kpff; Fiwe;j gps;isfSk; my;yJ gps;isfNs ,y;yhj jk;gjpfspilNaAk; jhd; mjpfkhd tpthfuj;Jfs; eilngWfpwJ.

NkYk;> NguhrphpaH nrhNuhfpd; vd;gtuJ $w;Wg;gb> Foe;ijapy;yhj; jhk;gj;ak; vd;gJ xU Jz;bf;fg;gl;l ,izg;GfSf;Fr; rkkhdJ. mtHfs; kdpj ,d tpUj;jpapd; nghWg;GfspypUe;J kl;Lk; jtwtpy;iy. mjw;Fk; Nkyhf> ghuk;ghpakhfj; njhluf; $ba FLk;g mikg;igAk;> fyhr;rhu ghuk;ghpaj;ijAk;> guk;giuf; Fzhjpraq;fisAk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; %yk; rpiuf;fpwhHfs;. NkYk;> Foe;ij ,y;yhj; jhk;gj;ak; xU kfpo;r;rpahd kz tho;itf; nfhLg;gjpy;iy. Fwpg;ghf tajhd fhyj;jpy; ,j;jifa jk;gjpapdH jdpikiaAk;> xU KOikaw;w jd;ikiaAk;> r%fj;jpy; G+uzkw;w xU ntw;wpl tho;f;ifiaAk; mtHfs; mila NehpLfpwJ.

NkYk;> Foe;ij mjpfkhf cs;s jk;gjpapdhpilNa jhd; ghrg; gpizg;igAk;> me;j ge;jj;ijAk; cWjp nra;af; $ba ,izg;Gg; ghykhf mf; Foe;ijfs; jpfo;tjhy;> ,j;jifa jk;gjpapdhpilNa tpthfuj;J> jw;nfhiy kdg;ghd;ik Nghd;wit Fiwe;J fhzg;gLfpwJ.

ve;j ehl;by; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; jPtpukhf filgpbf;fg;gLfpwNjh mq;F tpthfuj;jpd; msTk; jpLf;fplr; nra;Ak; mstpNyNa cs;sijf; fhzyhk;.

cjhuzkhf> gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; njhiff; fzf;nfLg;G Mizak; ntspapl;l mwpf;ifapy; 1910 y; 16 rjtPj jpUkzkhdtHfs; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;jp te;jhHfs;. Mdhy; 1940-42 y; ,J 74 rjtPjkhff; $baJ.

X];thy;l; ];td;]; mtHfs; gphpl;lidg; gw;wpf; $Wk; NghJ>

fle;j miu E}w;whz;Lfspy; tpthfuj;J vd;gJ itu]; Neha; Nghy r%fj;jpy; GiuNahbg; NghAs;sJ.

gpl;ldpd; tpthfuj;J msT :

Mz;L tpthfuj;J vz;zpf;if

1914 814

1924 3522

1928 4000

1946 35>874

 

NkYk; FLk;gtpay; ePjpkd;wq;fshy; jPHj;J itf;fg;gl;l tpthfuj;J vz;zpf;if :

1936 4057

1939 7955

1947 60754

Nkw;fz;lit gioa Gs;sp tpguq;fs;. ,dp Gjpa tpguq;fisAk;> gphpl;ld; cs;spl;l Vida INuhg;gpa ehLfspd; epiyiaAk; fhz;Nghk;.

INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;jpd; 15 ehLfspy; xt;nthU %d;W jpUkzj;jpy; xd;W tpthfuj;jpy; Kbfpd;wJ. Fwpg;ghf ngy;[pak;> RtPld;> Mfpa ,U ehLfspy; jpUkzk; MFk; jk;gjpfspd; vz;zpf;ifapy; ghjp tpthfuj;jpy; Kbfpd;wJ vd;W 1995 d; INuhg;gpa xd;wpaj;jpd; kf;fs; njhiff; fzf;nfLg;G mYtyfk;> ntspapl;l mwpf;if $Wfpd;wJ. tpthfuj;J mjpfk; MFk; ehLfspd; Gs;sp tpguk; :

gpd;yhe;J 49 %

gphpl;ld; kw;Wk; Nty;]; 45 %

nld;khHf; 41 %

,j;jhyp 10 %

fphP];> ];ngapd;> NghHr;Rf;fy; (jyh) 10 %

maHyhe;J gpg;uthp 27> 1997 y; jhd; tpthfuj;J mDkjp rl;lkhf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vd;gij epidtpy; nfhs;f.

fle;j 30 Mz;Lfspy; INuhg;gpa ehLfspy; tpthfuj;J MFk; msT $bf; nfhz;Nl te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. vdpDk; ,e;j rjtPjk; vy;yhk; mnkhpf;fhtpd; rtPjj;Jld; ghHj;jhy;> xU gb fPNo jhd;. (By Arab News Daily, K.S.A. oct. 01, 1997).

 

13. mnkhpf;fhtpy; tpthfuj;J epyik :

mnkhpf;fhtpy; 1890 y; 10 jpUkzj;jpw;F 1 tpthfuj;J (1:10) vd;w epiy ,Ue;jJ. ,Njepyik 1949 y; 1:1:58 Mf khwpaJ. ,Nj epyik 1949 y; 1:1.58 Mf khwpaJ. jpUkzj;Jf;Fk; tpthfuj;jpw;Fk; ,ilNa cs;s tpfpjkhdJ> tpthfuj;J mjpfkhdjhy; 1890 y; ,Ue;j epyikiaf; fhl;by; ,d;W rjtPjj;jpy; mjpf khw;wj;ijf; fhz KbfpwJ.,jd; %yk; 1870 y; 33.7 jpUkzj;jpw;F xU tpthfuj;J eilngw;wJ. 1915 y; 10.12 jpUkzj;jpw;F xU tpthfuj;Jk;> 1940 y; 6 jpUkzj;jpw;F 1 tpthfuj;Jk;> 1958 y; 3 jpUkzj;jpw;F xU tpthfuj;Jk;> ,g;nghOJ 1995 d; Gs;sp tpgug;gb> eilngWk; ,uz;L jpUkzj;jpy; xd;W tpthfuj;jpy; Kbfpd;wJ.

mjhtJ> ,e;j 1995 ,d; murpd; Gs;sptpgug;gb> ,uz;L jpUkzj;jpy; xd;W tpthfuj;jhFk; epiy jtpHe;J jhq;fshfNt gphpe;J thOk; jk;gjpapdiuf; fzf;fpy; nfhz;lhy;> jpUkzk; vd;w ge;jKk;> FLk;gk; vd;w mikg;Gk; mq;F ,d;Dk; capNuhL ,Uf;fpd;wjh? vd;w re;Njfk; vOfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> /Gy;ld; N[.rPd; vd;w mwpQhpd; $w;Wg;gb 30 ngUefuq;fspy; tpthfuj;J tpfpjk; gw;wp Ma;T nra;jjpy;> xt;nthU ,uz;L jpUkzj;jpy; xd;W tpthfuj;jpy; KbfpwJ. ehL jOtpa tpthfuj;J tpfpjhr;rhuk; vd;dntdpy;> xU tUlj;jpy; ele;j 2>285>500 jpUkzq;fspy; 600>000 tpthfuj;Jfs; eilngw;Ws;s epfo;thdJ vijf; fhl;Lfpwnjdpy; re;Njfkw;w tifapy;> jdJ jtwhd nfhs;ifj; jpzpg;ghy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghLk;> mjd; rhjdq;fSk;> ,jdpilNa vOe;j kf;fspd; kdepiyAk;> mnkhpf;f Njrj;ijr; rKjhar; rPuopthy;> jdf;Fs;Ns mOfp ehw;wnkLj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

,d;Dk; ,e;j mnkhpf;f NjrkhdJ> fztd; - kidtp vd;w cwitAk;> ngw;NwhH – Foe;ijfs; vd;w ge;jj;ijAk; Ngzpg;ghJfhf;ftpy;iyahdhy;> mJ ,U GwKk; gw;w itf;fg;gl;l nkOFtHj;jpf;Fr; rkkhFk;. vt;thW nkOF jd;idj; jhNd mopj;Jf;nfhs;fpwNjh> mJ Nghy ,tHfSk; mopit Nehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfs;. ,e;j mopthdJ ,tHfSf;F kl;Lky;y> ehisa re;jjpfspd; fyhr;rhur; rPHNfl;Lf;Fk;> Vd; me;j Njrj;jpd; mopTk; mjpy; jhd; cs;sJ.

NkYk; kf;fs; njhifg; Gs;sptpgug;gb> 1>096>000 jpUkzkhd Mz;fs; kidtp ,d;wpAk;> 1>526>000 ngz;fs; fztd; ,d;wpAk; tho;fpwhHfs;. jpUkzkhd ngz;fspy; 4 rjtPjg; ngz;fs; nfhLikahd tho;T tho;fpwhHs;. Mz;L xd;Wf;F tpthfuj;J tif tof;FfSf;F kl;Lk; ,e;j Njrk; 250 kpy;ypak; lhyHfs; nryT nra;fpwJ.

NkYk;> ,J njhlHghd tpthfuj;jpd; tpisthf mnkhpf;fhtpy; cs;s nkhj;jf; Foe;ijfspy; 25 rjtPjf; Foe;ijfs; ngw;NwhHfspd; cz;ikahd md;G fpilf;fhjtHfshf cs;sdH. Vnddpy;> ,e;jf; Foe;ijfs; xd;W jhiag; gphpe;Njh my;yJ je;ijiag; gphpe;Njh tho;fpd;wdH. ,jd; %yk; rhpahd md;G guhkhpg;G fpilf;fhjjhy;> ,f;Foe;ijfs; jtwhd ghijapy; nry;yf; $ba r%fkhf khwp tUfpd;wdH. NkYk; ,e;jg; gpur;idahdJ> etPd ehfhPfk; vw;gLj;jpa nfhs;is Neha; Nghy; cs;sJ.

 

14. ghypay; Fw;wq;fs;> nfhiyfs;> Neha;fs;

xU r%fk; mikjpaldk;> epk;kjpAlDk; MNuhf;fpaj;JlDk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkdpy;> me;jr; r%fk; ,iar;rk; nfhz;ljhfTk;> jhk; nra;Ak; nray; mj;jidf;Fk; kWik ehspy; gjpy; nrhy;ypNa Mf Ntz;Lk; vd;w nfhs;ifiaAk; nfhz;ljhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

NkiyehLfspy;> ek; ,e;jpahtpYk; $l MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba ,iwar;r czHT vd;gJ xU goikthjg; gz;ghf> nfhs;ifahf mtw;iwf; fUjj;jiyg;gl;ljd; tpisT> vJtiu tho;tpd; ,d;gq;fis mDgtpf;f KbANkh mtw;iw ve;jtopapNyDk; ngw;Wmtw;iw mila kdpjDf;F kl;Lk; ,iwtd; toq;fpAs;s me;jj; jdpr; rpwg;G mk;rkhd me;j ntl;f czHitf; $l cjwpj;js;sp tpl;lJ ,d;iwa r%fk;.

FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lKk;>mJ rhHe;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fSk;> xU FLk;gj;jpd; Foe;ijfspd; msitf; fl;Lg;gLj;j kl;Lk; gad;gltpy;iy. khwhf> jdJ $lh xOf;fj;ij> jtwhd clYwtpdhy; Vw;gLk; fHg;gk; jhpj;jy;> ghypay; Neha;fs; Nghd;wtw;wpypUe;J jd;idg; ghjfhj;jy;? Nghd;wtw;wpw;Fg; gad;gLj;jTk; jhd; me;j rhjdq;fs; mjpfkhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L tUfpd;wd. fs;sj; jdkhd tpgr;rhuk; nra;aTk;> mjd; %yk; Vw;gLk; ghy;tpid Neha;fspypUe;J ghJfhg;Gg; ngw;wplTk;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;JkhW> ntl;fk; nfl;l muRfs; kf;fsplk; tpsk;guk; $lr; nra;fpd;wd.

NfLnfl;l tpgr;rhuk; %yk; jhd; ,e;Neha; guTfpwJ vdj; njhpe;jpUe;Jk;> me;j tpgr;rhuj;ij jd; ,Uk;Gf; fuk; nfhz;L mlf;f tf;fpy;yhj muRfs;> Mz;fis epNuhj; cgNahfpj;J tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLkhW> mwpTiu $wp muRfs; tpsk;guk; nra;J> me;jr; rhjdk; kpf ,yFthff; fpilf;f trjpAk; nra;J je;Js;sd. NkYk;> ,J tiu Mz; kl;Lk; epNuhj; mzpe;jJ Nghf> ngz;Zk; mzpe;J nfhs;s Vw;w tifapy; epNuhj; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,ij ntspehl;by; ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;jhy;> me;j ngz; ciwapd; tpiy &gha; 260 MFnkd;W> nrd;idapNyNa xU epWtdk; me;jg; ngz; ciwiaj; jahhpf;f Muk;gpj;Js;sjhy;> mjd; mlf;ftpiy &gha; 6 f;Ff; fpilf;Fkhk;. NkYk;> ,ij 15 ngz;fSf;Ff; nfhLj;J Nrhjid NtW ele;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wjhk;. ehL njhopw; Jiwapy; Kd;Ndwpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;fpwhHfNs> mJ ,J jhdh vd;w re;Njfk; xt;nthU FbkfDf;Fk; vOfpwJ. jfty; : tpbay; nts;sp Vg;uy;-Nk 1997.

NkYk;> ,d;iwa ehfhPfg; ngz;Zf;Fk;> MZf;Fk; ,uTf; Nfspf;iffs;> eld muq;Ffs;> jpNal;lH> ,ir> el;rj;jpu N`hl;ly; thrk;> b];Nfhj;NJ Nghd;witfs; vy;yhk; etPd fyhr;rhu Afj;jpd; mj;jpahtrpaq;fshf khwp tpl;ld. ,tw;wpy; <LgLk; MZk; ngz;Zk;> jq;fs; $lh clYwit kiwf;f Nkw;fz;l FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fisAk;> mjw;fhd kUe;JfisAk; ehl Ntz;ba epiyapy; cs;sdH.

,jpy; mjpfk; ghjpf;fg;gLtJ ngz; ,dk; jhd;. Vnddpy;> kfg;NgW vd;w mw;Gjj;ij ,iwtd; ngz;zpd; jdpr; nrhj;jhf toq;fpAs;sjhy;> ngz; jhd; nra;Ak; jtiw kdjstpy; kiwj;jhYk; ehd;F khj fHg;gk; mtisf; fhl;bf; nfhLj;J tpLk;. fHg;gk; jhpg;igj; jLg;gjw;fhf> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;fhfj; jahhpf;fg;gl;l khj;jpiufs; kw;Wk; mghH\d; fpspdpf;Ffis ehl Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gLfpwJ.

,jd; %yk; cly;$W> kdeyk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; Vw;gLk; khWjy;fs;> ngz;zpd; cly;eyj;ij gpd;dhspy; ntFthfg; ghjpg;gilar; nra;fpd;wJ. NkYk;> ghy;tpid Neha;fs;> va;l;]; Nghd;w Neha;fSf;f Mshf Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gLfpwJ. NkYk;> epiyj;J tpl;l fHg;gj;ij fiyf;f top ,y;yhky;> jpUkzkhfhkNyNa fs;sf; Foe;ijfisg; ngw;nwLf;f Ntz;ba epiyAk; Vw;gLfpwJ.

NkYk;> ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fs; ,isQHfis mjpf mstpy; top nfLj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Vnddpy;> mit Gof;fj;jpy; jhuhskhff; fpilg;gjhYk;> rpdpkh> tPbNah> ,izaj; jsq;fs;> gj;jphpf;if Nghd;w Clfq;fs; ,s cs;sq;fspd; kdjpy;> tf;fpukkhf ghypay; Mirfisj; J}z;b tpLtjd; fhuzj;jhYk;> ,sikapd; Ntfj;jpy;> me;j ,isQd; my;yJ ,sk; ngz; jd; czHr;rpfSf;F tbfhy; Njb> me;j ,d;gj;ij mila Ntz;Lk; vd;w czHr;rpapd; ce;Jjyhy;> tpgr;rhuj;ij ehbr; nry;y Ntz;ba> mjpy; <Lgl Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gl;L tpLfpwJ. ,e;j epiy fy;Y}hp nry;Yk; ngUefu khzt khztpahpilNa mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. NkYk;> tajhdtHfis tpl ,isQHfsplk; jhd; , e;jg; ghypay; Neha;fs; mjpfk; fhzg;gLtJk; ,jd; fhuzq;fNsahFk;.

,J rk;ge;jkhd Ma;Tfspy; Kjypy; gphpl;lidg; ghHg;Nghk;.

 

fs;sf; Foe;ijfs; (Illegitimate Childrens)

gphpl;ld; :

gphpl;ldpy; xt;nthU Mz;Lk; 80>000 f;Fk; mjpfkhd fs;sf; Foe;ijfs; ngw;nwLf;fg;gLfpd;wd. gpwf;Fk; vl;Lf; Foe;ijfspy; xd;W fs;sf; Foe;ij. xU tUlj;jpy; 1 yl;rk; ngz;fs; jpUkzkhfhkNyNa fHg;gk; jhpf;fpd;whHfs;. jpdKk; 200-800 fUf;fiyg;G eilngWfpwJ. Nkw;fz;l jfty; 1947 y; cs;s epyik. 1963 Gs;sp tpgug;gb gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijfspy; 6.6 rjtPjf; Foe;ijfs; fs;sf; Foe;ijfs;. ,jpy; 5 rjtPj fs;sf; Foe;ijfs; 16 taJf;Fl;gl;l rpWkpfshYk;> 13 rjtPj fs;sf; Foe;ijfs; 20 taJf;Fl;gl;l ngz;fshYk; gpurtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.

rkPgj;jpy;> gphpl;ldpy; 15 taJg; ngz; fUTw;wij mwpe;J> mts; fUTw;wjw;Ff; fhuzkhdtH ahH vd mwpa Kw;gLk; NghJ> mtsJ tPl;bw;F mLj;j tPl;by; trpf;Fk; 11 taJr; rpWtd; jhd; vd;gij mwpe;jdH. mr;rpWkpapd; fHg;gj;ij> mtsJ ngw;NwhHfs; fiyf;ftpy;iy. me;jr; rpWkpaplk; Ngl;b fhZk; NghJ> Foe;ijiag; ngw;nwf; nfhLj;J tpl;L> ehd; gs;spf; $lk; nry;y ,Uf;fpNwd;. NkYk; mr;rpWtd; vdJ Foe;ijf;F ey;y je;ijahf ,Ug;Ngd; vd;W Ngl;baspj;Js;sdH.

vd;d ehw;wnkLj;j epiy ghHj;jPHfsh? ,J ehfhPfj;jpd; ntspg;ghNlh?

 

mnkhpf;fh

mnkhpf;f epiyNa kpfTk; ghpjhgkhdJ. ,e;jf; fs;s clYwT tptfhuk; mnkhpf;fhtpd; r%f xOq;fpd; MzpNtiuNa mirj;Js;sJ.

47 rjtPj Mz;fSk;> 50 rjtPjg; ngz;fSk; fs;s el;Gf; nfhz;L clYwtpYk; <LgLfpd;whHfs;.

jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd; fs;s clYwT :-

Mz; - 27-87

ngz; - 7-50

jpUkzj;jpw;Fg; gpd; fs;s clYwT :-

Mz; - 10-45

ngz; - 5-26

 

fUf;fiyg;G

xU tUlj;jpw;F 33>000 - 1>000>000. NkYk;> ,Nj tpfpjj;jpy; MZk;> ngz;Zk; jpUkz ge;jj;jpw;F Kd;Ng jk; fs;sj; jd;ikia ,oe;J tpLthHfshdhy;> tUq;fhyj;jpy; fd;dpj; jd;ik vd;gNj xU mjprakhdnjhU tprakhfg; Ngha; tpLk; vd;fpwhH> Nkw;fz;l Gs;sp tpguj;ijr; Nrfhpj;j lhf;lH. gpl;hpk; V.nrNuhfpd;. ,Nj Nghy; jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;Ng Vw;glf; $ba fs;s cwthdJ. xUtDf;F xUj;jp (,];yhj;ijg; nghUj;jtiu xUj;jpf;F xUtd; vd;w Nfhl;ghNl rhpahdJ) vd;w nfhs;ifiaj; jtpHj;J> gy; Mz;fSld; NrHe;J thof; $ba ghQ;rhyp tho;f;ifiaAk;> Xhpdr; NrHf;ifiaAk; r%fj;jpy; kype;J tpLtijg; gpd;dhspy; fhz KbAk; vd;fpwhH.

NkYk;> fpd;]p vd;gtuJ> Gs;sp tpgug;gb> gpwf;Fk; 5 Foe;ijfspy; xU Foe;ij $lh el;gpy; gpwe;j Foe;ij (Illegitimate Child) . gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijfspy; 4 rjtPjf; Foe;ijfisf; fd;dpg; ngz;fs; ngw;nwLf;fpd;wdH. fUthff; $ba 4 fw;gq;fspy; 1 fU fUf;fiyg;G nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

 

mnkhpf;ff; fy;Y}hp epytuk;

MZk;> ngz;Zk; NrHe;J gapYk; fy;Y}hpfspy; gapYk; khztHfspy; 15-20 rjtPjkhNdhH kl;LNk clYwT tpraj;jpy; <LglhjtHfshf cs;sdH. fle;j 15 Mz;Lfspy; fy;Y}hpg; gbg;G KbAKd;Ng clYwTg; gof;fj;ij Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhz;l khztHfspd; vz;zpf;if 50 rjtPjj;jpypUe;J 60 rjtPjkhff; $bas;sJ. khztpfspd; vz;zpf;if 25 rjtPjj;jpypUe;J 40 rjtPjkhff; $bAs;sJ.

 

,j;jifa fs;s clYwtpy; <LgLk; khztpfs;> fUj;jil khj;jpiufis cl;nfhz;L> fUf;fiyahky; gpurtpj;j Foe;ijfspd; rjtPjk; 1940 y; 8.4 MFk;. mNj 1961 y; 16 rjtPjkhff; $bAs;sJ. - Birth Control BY Mawdhudhi.

 

Fw;wq;fs;

FLk;g mikg;G vd;gJ jdJ tUkhdj;ij cwpQ;Rk; ml;ilg; G+r;rp vd;w fUj;ijf; nfhz;l r%fj;jpy;> jd; cly; grpia tpgr;rhuk; %yKk;> fs;s clYwT %yKk;> MZk; ngz;Zk; jPHj;Jf; nfhs;s KidAk; NghJ> jd; cly; grpf;F ,zq;fhj ngz;iz MZk;> Mizg; ngz;Zk; ghypay; gyhj;fhuk; nra;af; $ba epiy cUthfp> nfhiyfspy; $l ,e;j tptfhuk; KbtJz;L.

fztHfshYk; fhjyHfshYk; mbf;fg;gLtNj mnkhpf;fg; ngz;fs; fhag;gLj;jg;gLtjw;F KO Kjw; fhuzkhFk;. (Surgeon General Report)

xt;nthU 18 tpdhbfspYk; ngz;fs; ieag;Gilf;fg;gLk; rk;gtk; elf;fpwJ. nfhy;yg;gLk; ngz;fspy; 30 rjtPjk; NgH fztHfshNyh my;yJ fhjyHfshNyh nfhy;yg;gLfpd;wdH vd FBI $WfpwJ.

1991 k; Mz;L> tPl;by; 11 yl;rk; ngz;fs; jhf;fg;gLtjhf GfhH nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ vd 1992 mf;Nlhghpy; nrdl; ePjp fkpl;b fz;lwpe;jJ. ,J Nghd;w RkhH Kg;gJ yl;rk; Fw;wq;fs; GfhH nra;ag;glhkNyNa tplg;gl;Ls;sd vd fzf;fplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

mnkhpf;f uhZtj;jpy; gzpahw;Wk; ngz;fspy; 42 rjtPjk; NgH ghypay; gyhj;fhuj;jpw;F cs;shf;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

ehd;F ngz;fspy; %tH kPJ nfh^ukhd Fw;wk; ,iof;fg;gLfpwJ. Ithpy; xUtH jd; tho;ehspy; xU Kiw fw;gopf;fg;gLfpd;whH.

xt;nthU mnkhpf;fg; ngz;Zk;> jdJ tho;ehspy; Fiwe;jgl;rk; xU KiwahtJ fw;gopg;G Kaw;rpiar; re;jpf;fpd;whH.

fw;gopg;Gf;Fs;shFk; 13 taJg; ngz; gps;isfSf;Ff; Fiwtpy;iy. mJ Nghy; ghjpf;fg;gLk; 8 taJ Foe;ijfSf;Fk; $l Fiwtpy;iy. (epA+ ahHf; ilk;];. 13-06-1989)

nfhy;yg;gLk; ngz;fspy; %d;wpy; xU ghfj;jpw;F Nky; ,e;ehl;by; fztHfs; my;yJ fhjyHfspd; fuq;fshNyNa rhfpd;wdH. NkYk; tPl;by; elf;Fk; nfhLik jhd; ,e;ehl;by; ngz;fSf;F mjpfk; Mgj;J tpistpf;Fk; nfhLikfshFk;. ngz;fSf;F efu njUf;fis tpl tPL mjpf Mgj;jhdJ. US Surgeon General Dr.Antonia C.Novello. 20 Oct 1991.

1985-1990 Mk; Mz;LfSf;fpilNa 18-19 taJ ngz;fs; ngw;w Foe;ijfspy; ghjpf;F Nky; jpUkz cwtpd;wp ngwg;gl;l Foe;ijfshtH. Census Bureau Report, N.Y.Times 4 Dec 91.

jw;fhyj;jpy; eilKiwapypUf;Fk; xOf;fk; rk;ge;jkhd khw;wq;fspd; tpisthf ek; ,isa rKjhaj;jpdH xU fhyj;jpy; tpgr;rhhpfis cgNahfpj;Jf; nfhz;bUg;gJ Nghy; ,g;NghJ nra;aj; Njitapy;yhkyhfp tpl;lJ. A Government Report about Vienna, relayed by Reuters, Dawn, Karachi, 7 Jan 1952.

 

Neha;fs; :

Rje;jpukhd clYwTg; gof;fq;fspdhy;> cyfpd; caHju kUj;Jt trjp> MZiwfs;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fs;> mJ rhHe;j kUe;Jfs; ,Ue;Jk; $l> NkiyehLfspy; ghypay; Neha;fspd; jhf;fk; mjpfkhfNt fhzg;gLfpwJ. cjhuzkhf mnkhpf;fhtpy; epfOk; ehd;F kuzq;fspy; xd;W rpgpyp]; vDk; ghypay; Nehapd; fhuzkhf epfo;fpwJ vd Ma;Tfs; $Wfpd;wd.

NkYk;> ghypay; Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l Nehahspfspy; ghjpg;NgH ,isQHfs; MthH. vq;Nf ,Ue;J ,e;jg; ghypay; Neha;fs; ntspf;fpsk;Gfpd;wd vd;w Muha;r;rpia ehk; njhlu Ntz;ba Njitapy;iy. Vnddpy; vq;nfy;yhk; tpgr;rhuk; nfhb fl;bg; gwf;fpwNjh> mq;nfy;yhk; ghypay; Neha;fs; va;l;];> rpgpyp];> nfhNdhhpah Nghd;witfs; mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl jhd; ,Uf;Fk;.

1948-60 y; vLj;j Gs;sp tpgug;gb> nfhNdhhpah vDk; nfhba ghypay; Nehay; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfspy; 36 rjtPjk; Mz;fSk;> 28 rjtPjk; ngz;fSk; ,Ue;jdH. ,tHfs; 18-19 taJf;Fl;gl;ltHfs; vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. yptHG+y; vDk; efhpy; ,e; Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfspy; ghjpg;NgH 14-21 taJf;Fl;gl;ltHfs; MtH.

ghypay; Neha;fSf;Ff; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l kUe;Jfs; jk; tPhpaj;ij ,of;f Muk;gpj;J tpl;ld. mjd;gpd; 1970 fspy; va;l;]; f;fhd Kjy; mwpFwp njd;gl Muk;gpj;jJ. gpd; 1981 y; mnkhpf;fhtpy; Xhpdr; NrHf;if cila egHfsplk; ,e;j Neha; mjpfk; gutp ,Ug;gij> mnkhpf;fhtpd;> Neha; guty; fl;Lg;ghl;L ikak; (Disease Control Centre) fz;lwpe;jJ. mjd; gpd; 20-49 taJilatHfsplk; ,e;j va;l;]; itu]; fpUkpfs; mjpfk; gutp ,Ug;gij fz;lwpe;jdH. NkYk; ,e;j Neha; Foe;ijfisAk; $l tpl;L itf;ftpy;iy vd;w nfhLikiaAk; fz;Lgpbj;jdH.

 

va;l;]; gutpajd; %d;W fhuzpfs;

HIV Neha;f; fpUkpfs; njhw;Wjy;

AIDS Nehapd; guty;

r%f> fhyr;rhu> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; murpay; khw;wj;jpd; tpisTfs;> NkYs;s ,uz;L fhuzq;fSf;Fk; nghWg;ghFk;. CIMS – Sep-Dec-1993.

,e;jpahtpypUe;J ntsptUk; CIMS (Current Index of Medical Specialities) Fwpg;gpLk; ,e;j %d;whtj fhuzj;ijr; rpe;jpf;ff; flikg;gl;Ls;Nshk;.

ve;j r%fk; jdJ fhyr;rhu tpOkq;fis ey;y xOf;fj;jpd;ghy; mikj;Jf; nfhs;stpy;iyNah me;j r%fk; tPo;r;rpiar; re;jpf;Fk; vd;gj cWjp. me;j tifapy; NkiyehLfspy; FLk;g mikg;G rpjwpaJ> r%f mikg;G rpije;J xOf;fk; mjs ghjhsj;ij mile;jJ. ,jdhy; tpgr;rhuKk;> Xhpdr; NrHf;ifAk; ,jD}Nl FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghLk; mjd; rhjdq;Sk;> r%fj;jpy; kdpjHfspd; kdq;fspy; khw;wj;jpd; tpisT> kdpjHfsplKk; ,Ue;j> ,Uf;f Ntz;ba $r;r Rghtj;ijf; $l Rj;jkhf Jilj;njwpe;J tpl;lJ vdyhk;. mjdhy; Vw;gl;l AIDS Nghd;w ghypay; Neha;fspd; jhf;fj;jpd; tpisT> kdpj ,dj;ij mopTg; ghijapd; ghy; ,l;Lr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

 

va;l;]; guty; cyf mstpy;

1. clYwT %yk;

ngz;fspd; %yk; 60 rjtPjk;

Mz;fspd; %yk; 15 rjtPjk;

 

2. ,uj;jk; %yk;

,uj;jk; nrYj;Jjy; 5 rjtPjk;

Crpfs; 10 rjtPjk;

gr;ir Fj;Jjy; rpwpjsT

 

3. jha; %yk; Foe;ijf;F..! 10 rjtPjk;

fle;j [{iy 1992 y; cyf Rfhjhu mikg;G (WHO) ntspapl;l mwpf;ifapd;gb> cyfpy; 168 ehLfspy; 5 yl;rk; kf;fs; va;l;]; Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdH. Mdhy; ,e;j msT 1.7 kpy;ypadhf ,Uf;ff; $Lk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gl;lJ. ,jpy; 6 yl;rk; Foe;ijfs; va;l;]; fpUkpfshy; ghjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sdH.

1993 epytug;gb 10-12 kpy;ypad; kf;fSk;> 1 kpy;ypad; Foe;ijfSk; va;l;]; Nehahy; ghjpg;gile;Js;sdH. NkYk; 1995 y; 4 kpy;ypad; Nehahspfs; mjpfkhFthHfs; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gl;lJ.

NkYk;> `hHtHl; vd;w mfpy cyf Raepjp mikg;G kw;Wk; kf;fs; ey tho;Tj;jpl;l Ma;T ikaj;jpd; Ma;T Kbtpd;gb> 1995 y; cyfk; KOtJk; va;l;]; Nehahspfspd; vz;zpf;if msT 20 kpy;ypad;fshfTk;> NkYk; ,e;j msT 2000 k; Mz;by; 40-110 kpy;ypadhfTk; MFk; vdTk;> ,j;Jld; 10 kpy;ypad; Foe;ijfSk; va;l;]; Nehahspfshff ,Uf;ff; $Lk; vd kjpg;gpl;Ls;sJ.

,e;jpahtpy; tsHe;j ehLfspd; ju msTf;F va;l;]; Neha;f;fhd rpfpr;irf;Fr; nrythFk; njhif kl;Lk;; 9-15 yl;rk; &gha;fshFk;. ,t;tsT nrytopj;jhYk; va;l;]; fpUkpfspd; jhf;fj;jpypUe;J KOikahf tpLjiyila KbahJ.

NkYk; cyf va;l;]; Nehahspfspy; 21 rjtPjk; taJ te;NjhH> 42 rjtPjk; ngz;fs;> gy kpy;ypad; Foe;ijfs; xt;nthU tpdhbf;Fk; xU Gjpa va;l;]; Nehahsp cUthfpd;whH. Dr. Peter Piolot. UN AIDS – rkurk;.

 

va;l;]; ,e;jpa epytuk;

2000 Mk; Mz;L vjpHghHf;fg;gl;l va;l;]; Nehahspfspd; vz;zpf;if 50 yl;rk; MFk;. ,e;j msT

brk;gH> 31> 1996 tiu ghpNrhjpf;fg;gl;l rhk;gps;fs; : 29>37>345

cWjp nra;ag;gl;l rhk;gps;fs; : 49>527

va;l;]; ghjpf;fg;gl;l egHfs; : 3>080

ghrpbt; tpfpjk; 1992 y; 7.1 rjtPjk; - 1000 NgUf;F

1996 y; 16.9 rjtPjk; - 1000 NgUf;F

 

va;l;]; d; jiyefH gk;ghapd; epytuk; :

kuhl;ba Rfhjhu ikak; jUk; Gs;sp tpguk; :

va;l;]; NehAs;s tpiykhjHfsplk; njhlHG nfhs;Sk; Mz;fs; 6 NfhbNa 62 yl;rk;.

1 NfhbNa 48 yl;rj;J 58 Mapuk; NgH Kk;ig rptg;G tpsf;Fg; gFjpf;F te;J va;l;]; Nehahspfshfj; jpUk;GfpwhHfs;.

gk;gha; rptg;G tpsf;Fg; gFjpapy; cs;s ngz;fspy; 70 Mapuk; NgUf;F va;l;]; cs;sJ. mjhtJ 80 ngz;fspy; 61 ngz;fSf;F va;l;]; cs;sJ.

Kk;igapy; kl;Lk; kzpf;F 8 Mz;fs; tPjk; Nehahy; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

cyf ehLfspy; va;l;]; ghjpg;G ,e;jpahtpy; mjpfk;. Kk;igapy; kl;Lk; xU ehisf;F 2 yl;rj;J 40 Mapuk; NgH HIV itu]hy; ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wdH.

Kk;igapy; cs;s 80>000 tpiykhjHfspy; 40>000 NgH va;l;]; Nehahspfs;. cyfnkq;Fk; 150 yl;rk; Mz;fSk;> 120 yl;rk; ngz;fSk; va;l;]; Nehahspfshf ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. - Kk;igapy; cs;s thbah kfg;NgW kUj;Jtkid lhf;lH.FKj; ,q;fpy; ntspapl;l Gs;sptpguk;.

 

jPHTfs; gytpjk; :

lhf;lhpd; jPHT :

ghypay; fy;tpiag; gw;wp kf;fSf;F Nghjpg;gJ - lhf;lH FKj; ,q;fpy;

 

murpd; jPHT :

kf;fSf;F epNuhj;ij gad;gLj;j tpsk;guk; nra;tJ. mtw;iw kf;fSf;F vspjhff; fpilf;fr; nra;tJ

 

MZf;F kl;Lkh? ngz;Zf;Fk;?!!

Mz;fSf;F kl;Lk; jhd; epNuhj; (MZiwah?!) ngz;fSf;Fk; ghJfhg;G ciw te;J tpl;lJ. ntspehl;by; ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;jhy; xU ciwf;F &.260 Mfpd;wJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpahtpNyNa cw;gj;jp nra;tjhy; &.6.00 f;Ff; fpilf;fr; nra;a KbAk;. - va;l;]; fl;Lg;ghl;L kfspH mzpapdH.tpbay; nts;sp Vg;uy;-Nk 1997.

murpd; jpl;lq;fSk;> kUj;JtHfspd; MNyhridfSk; va;l;]; fl;Lg;ghl;L mikg;gpd; jPHTfSk; va;l;]; Nehiaj; jLf;f gad;glhJ vd;gJ njspT. NkYk;> ,tHfs; nrhy;Yk; ghypay; fy;tpAk;> FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fshfg; gad;gLk; Mz; epNuhj; - k;> ngz; ghJfhg;G ciwfSk;> ,w;iwg; gad;gLj;Jtjhy; va;l;]; fpUkpfspypUe;J ghJfhg;Gg; ngwyhk; vdpy;> ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fspd; gad;ghL jhd; vd;d? vjw;Nfh gad;gl Ntz;ba xd;W> r%fj;jpy; tpgr;rhug; gutYf;Fk;> r%fr; rPuopTf;Fk; jhd; mjpfk; gad;gl;Lf; nfhs;bUf;fpd;wJ vdyhk;.

,t;tsT tpsk;guq;fSk;> epNuhj; ciwia vspjhff; fpilf;fr; nra;Jk;> va;l;]; Nehapd; gutiyj; jLf;f Kbe;jjh? vy;yhk; Njhy;tp kak;!

 

15. tsHe;j ehLfSld; Nghl;b NghLk; ,e;jpah?!

,d;Dk; rpy Mz;Lfspy; ,e;jpah tsHe;j ehLfspd; gl;baypy; ,lk; gpbj;J tpLk;? Mk;!

gphpl;lDk;> gpypg;igd;]; ehLk; jq;fSf;Fs; xU xg;ge;jk; nra;J nfhz;ld. mjhtJ> rpWkpfsplk; nrf;]; itj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhfNt> gphpl;ldpypUe;J cy;yhrg; gazpfs; gpypg;igd;]; Nehf;fpg; gilnaLg;gijf; fl;Lg;gLj;jTk;> rpWkpfsplk; (nrf;];) clYwT nfhz;L> tpgr;rhuk; nra;a tUk; gphpl;ld; gazpfis fz;Lgpbj;J> ifJ nra;J jz;lid toq;fTk; ,U ehLfSk; $l;lhf> xg;ge;jk; nra;Js;sd. ,jw;fhf ,U ehLfspYk; Jg;gwpAk; epGzHfis ghpkhwpf; nfhs;sTk; ,e;j xg;ge;jk; top nra;fpwJ.

mLj;J [g;ghd;> rpWkpfsplk; cy;yhrk; fhz thUq;fs; vd nghJ ,lq;fspy; tpsk;gu NghHNl khl;b itj;J> tpgr;rhuk; nra;a miof;fpwJ.

,e;j tsHe;j ehLfspd; msTf;F ,e;jpahTk; tsu Ntz;lhkh?

Rw;Wyhg; gazpfspd; fhkg;grpf;F 40>000 rpWkpfs; tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLj;jg;gLfpwhHfs;.

,e;jpaf; Fw;wtpay; rl;lk; 18 taJf;F cl;gl;l rpWkpfis tpiyf;F thq;FtJk;> tpw;gJk;> tpgr;rhuj;jpy; <LgLj;JtJk; jz;lidf;Fhpa Fw;wk; vd;fpwJ. ,Ue;J vd;d nra;a? tsHe;j ehLfSld; ehKk; Nghl;b Nghl Ntz;lhkh? vd;d?!!

 

 

FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L KiwfSk;> mjdhy; Vw;gLk; kdepiy> cly;epiy ghjpg;GfSk;


 

,iwtd; jd; gilg;Gfs; mj;jidiaAk; Mz; vd;Wk;> ngz; vd;Wk; ,U NtW ghypay; jd;ik nfhz;ltHfshfg; gilj;Js;shd;. ,iwtdJ gilg;gpd; Nehf;fNk> kdpjDk; Vida [PtuhrpfSk; jkJ re;jjpfisg; ngUf;fp> me;jg; gilg;gpdq;fs; ahTk; ,g; G+Tyfpy; epiy ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk vd;gNjahFk;.

Vnddpy;> kdpjidg; gw;wp ,iwtd; Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ> G+kpapy; gpujpepjpahf kdpjidg; gilj;Js;Nsd; vd;fpwhd;. mj;jifa gpujpepjpapd; tho;T Njf;fkpy;yhky; eilngwNt #hpaDk;> re;jpuDk;> Vida Nfhs;fSk;> mtw;wpD}Nl fhw;Wk;> kioAk;> ntg;gKk; kw;Wk; jhtuq;fisAk; mjd; %yk; czT tiffisAk;> tpyq;fpdq;fisAk;> gwit ,dq;fisAk; ,iwtd; gilj;Js;shd;.

NkYk;> E}`; egp fhyj;jpy; nts;sj;ijf; nfhz;L ,e;jg; G+kpapy; tho;e;j kdpjHfis mopf;f ehba NghJ $l> jd;Dila gpujpepjpahf cz;ikahfr; nray;gl;ltHfisAk;> mtHfspd; tho;T Njf;fkpd;wp eilngwTk;> vy;yh tpyq;fpdq;fspYk;> jhtuq;fspYk; mjdjd; N[hbfis fg;gypy; Vw;wpf; fhg;ghw;wpdhd; ,iwtd;.

mjd; %yk; ,g;G+kpapy; kdpjDk; Vida [PtuhrpfSk;> jkJ re;jjpfisg; ngUf;fp eiy ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj ,iwtdpd; Nehf;fk;. ,jpy; ngz;iz nkd;ahdtshfTk;> Foe;ijg; Ngw;iwr; Rkg;gtshfTk;> jhk; ngw;w Foe;ijfisj; jdpf; ftdj;Jld; jd; md;igg; nghope;J> mJ jUk; rpwpa kw;Wk; nghpa njhe;juTfis frpj;Jg; guhkhpf;Fk; gz;igg; ngw;wtshfTk;> ,iwtd; gilj;Js;shd;. mjw;Nfw;wthNu mtsJ clYk;> kdKk;> ,d;d mikg;GfSk; ,aw;ifahfNt mike;Js;sJ.

NkYk;> MZf;Fhpa Mz;ik> MSik kw;Wk; ngz;Zf;Fhpa ngz;ik>jha;ik Nghd;w gz;Gspy; nraw;ifahf VNjDk; jilia Vw;gLj;Jk; NghJ> Njitapy;yhj rpy gpur;idfis mJ cly; mstpYk; kd epiyapYk; Vw;gLj;jp tpLfpwJ.

,J Nghy fUj;jil kw;Wk; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lr; rhjdq;fspd; gq;Fk;> mjhtJ> FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; fUj;jilr; rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jk; MzpDila me;j MSikia> Mz;ikiag; ghjpf;fpwJ. NkYk; ,e;jg; ghjpg;G jw;fhypf kyl;Lj; jd;ikia Vw;gLj;jf; fhuzkhf mikfpd;wJ. mjhtJ> MZiw mzpe;J xU Mz; jd; kidtpAld; $Lk; NghJ> mtd; vjpHghHf;Fk; me;j KO jpUg;jpia> me;j MZiw jLj;J tpLfpwJ.

,ijNa 1927 y; gphpl;ldpd;> Njrpa FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;L Mizak; ntspapl;l mwpf;if cWjp nra;fpwJ. xU Mz; jd; kidtpaplk KOj; jpUg;jpia mtd; milatpy;iy vdpy;> mtdJ czHr;rpf;F> ,aw;ifahdnjhU tbfhy; fpilf;ftpy;iy vdpy; mq;Nf mtdJ jpUkz ge;jk; vd;w mikg;gpy;> mtdJ vjpHghHg;G nfhs;isaplg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; jpUg;jpaw;w Mz;> jd; czHr;rpf;F rhpahd tbfhy; ehb> gpwkid Nehf;f Ntz;ba> mjhtJ tpgr;rhuk; ehbr; nry;y Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; mtd; jd;idg; ghypay; Neha;fSf;F cl;gLj;jp tpLfpd;whd;.

mJNghy ngz;Zf;F> kUj;Jt Nehf;fpy; fUj;jil rhjdq;fis - kUe;Jfisg; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ mtsJ cly;eyk; Ngzg;gLfpwJ. mJty;yhj Foe;ijg; gpwg;igf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf Ntz;b kl;Lk; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ> mtsJ KO cly; njhFjpAk;> euk;G kz;lyq;fSk; ghjpg;gilfpd;wd. ,jd; %yk; nfhba Neha;fSf;Fk;> kd tpahjpfSf;Fk; mts; Mshf NehpLfpwJ. cz;ikapNyNa mtsJ fztDld; fpilf;f Ntz;ba jhk;gj;a ,d;gj;ijAk; mts; ,oe;J tpLfpd;whs;.

NkYk;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;J; NghJ Foe;ijg; gpwg;G jLf;fg;gLfpwJ. mijaLj;J> MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; ,Uf;f Ntz;ba jhHkPfg; gz;G> ghrk;> ,aw;ifahd jhk;gj;a mikg;G Nghd;wtw;iw kOq;fbj;J tpLfpwJ. NkYk; cly; RfNk gpujhdk; vd;w kdepiyia ,UthplKk; Njhw;Wtpj;J tpLfpwJ. mJNghyNt> ngz; kfg;NgW va;JtJk;> mjd; %yk; mtsJ jha;ikg; gz;Gfs; G+hpg;gile;J> jha;ik ngWtjd; %yk; mtsJ ngz;ik KOikailtJk;> me;jf; fhyq;fspy; fztDk; kidtpAk; gu];guk; jq;fs; Rfq;fis tsUk; rpRTf;fhf jpahfk; nra;tJk;> Foe;ij gpwe;j gpd;g> mf; Foe;ij kPJ md;G nghoptJk;> jq;fsJ eyd;fis> Rfq;fis me;j Foe;ijfSf;fhfj; jpahfk; nra;tJk; Mfpa kdpjg; gz;Gfis> ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fs; Jilj;njwpe;J tpLfpd;wd. FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jk; MzplKk;> ngz;zplKk; cly; neUf;fk; ,Uf;Fk; msTf;F kd neUf;fk; ,Uf;fhJ vd;gJ Ma;Tfs; $Wk; cz;ikahFk;.

NkYk;> ,d;W eilKiwapy; Gof;fj;jpy; ,Uf;Fk; FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;L rhjdq;fs;> kUe;Jfs; vJthf ,Ug;gpDk; mtw;iwj; njhlHe;J gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ mijg; gad;gLj;Jgthpd; me;jpk fhyj;jpy; kpfg; nghpa euk;gpay; ghjpg;GfSf;F mJ top tFj;J tpLk;. NkYk; kd ,Wf;fk;> vspjpy; Nfhgilj;y;> kd mikjpapd;ik> Fiwe;j ,uj;j mOj;jk;> J}f;fkpd;ik> ,Uja gytPdk;> %isf; NfhshW> Kiwaw;w khjtplha; Nghd;w 28 tpj Neha;fSf;Fk;> NkYk; fUj;jil rhjdq;fis mjpfk; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ> fHg;gg;ig nraypoe;Jk; kw;Wk; Qhgfkpd;ik> typg;G Neha;> ,uj;j xOf;F Nghd;w Neha;fSk; Vw;gl fhuzkhf mike;J tpLk;. NkYk;> ngz;zpd; clypay; njhFjpapy; Vw;gLk; khw;wk; jha;ik milAk; jd;ikiaAk; mtsJ fUg;ig ,og;gNjhL> mg;gbNa fHg;gk; jhpj;jhYk;> gpurt ehspy; mts; fLikahd typiaAk;> RftPdj;ijAk; mila NehpLk;.

xU ngz; jdJ ,sikg; gUtk; fle;J> ngz; vDk; me;j];ij milAk; NghJ mtsJ mj;jid euk;Gj; njhFjpfSk;> ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfSk;> mtisj; jha;ik vDk; gz;Gf;Fj; jahH nra;fpd;wd. ,e;j nray;ghLfs; mts; jhahFk; jFjp nfhz;l fhyk; tiu xU rq;fpypj; njhlH Nghy;> kUj;Jtf; fzf;Fg;gb 28 ehs; nfhz;l xU Row;rpahf nray;ghl;by; ,Ue;J nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;.

,e;j ,urhadr; nray;ghl;by;> kdpjd; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw xU nraw;ifahd jilia cz;L gz;Zk; NghJ> mj;jid urhadj; njhFjpfSk; KO khw;wk; miltJld; Njitapy;yhj vjpH tpisTfis Vw;gLj;j fhukhfpwJ. rPuhd Ntfj;jpy; nry;Yk; uapy; jilNaJk; ,y;yhj tiu ghJfhg;ghdJ> ,ilNa 1 Ko ,Uk;Gj; Jz;L FWf;fpl;lhYk;> nkhj;j uapYk; tpgj;Jf;Fs;shtJ Nghyj; jhd;> ,e;j kdpjdpd; euk;Gj; njhFjpAk; ghjpg;gilAk; vd;gJ cz;ik.

NkYk;> kdpjDf;Fj; Njitahd nrf;]; jd;ikia kl;Lk; ,e;j ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfs; Rug;gjpy;iy. khwhf> kdpjDf;F MSikiaAk;> RWRWg;igAk;> trPfuj;ijAk;> moifAk; mit jUfpd;wd. ,e;j ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd;> mtw;wpw;NfAhpa nray;ghLfis KO mstpy; nra;a tplhJ> jilia Vw;gLj;Jk; NghJ> mtw;wpd; gad;ghNl mHj;jkpy;yhj xd;whfp tpLfpwJ.

 

1. FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;L Kiwfs;

1 jw;fhypf fUj;jil Kiw (Reversible Method)

2 epue;juf; fUj;jil Kiw (Irreversible Method)

 

jw;fhypf fUj;jil Kiwfs; :

fOTk; Kiw (Douche)

khjtplha; ehisf; fzf;fpl;L clYwT nfhs;Sk; Kiw (Rhythm Method)

clYwtpd; cr;rj;jpy; Mz;Fwpia ntspapy; vLj;J> ngz;zpd; cWg;Gf;F ntspNa tpe;ij ntspNaw;Wjy; (Withdrawal or Coitus Interptus – in Arbic "AZL")

ngz;zpd; cWg;gpy; ghAk; tpe;ij mopf;Fk; khj;jpiufs; (Spermicides, Suppositories, Foaming Tablets etc.,)

epNuhj; my;yJ MZiwfs; (Condoms)

ngz;Ziw (Diaphragm)

fHg;gg;igfspy; nghUj;jf; $ba fUj;jil rhjdq;fs; (Intra – Uterus Devices (IUD), eg : Loop, Coil etc.,)

GNuhn[];Nlh[d; khj;jpiufs; (Projestogen Pills)

GNuhn[];Nlh[d; Crp kUe;J (Projestogen Injection)

Vida khj;jpiufs; (The Pills)

 

fOTk; Kiw (Douche)

,J eilKiwapy; ,y;iy.

 

khjtplha; ehisf; fzf;fpl;L clYwT nfhs;Sk; Kiw (Rhythm Method)

,k;Kiwg;gb khjtplha; Mdjd; gpd; cs;s xU thuKk;> khjtplha; Muk;gpf;F Kd; cs;s xUthuKk; clYwT nfhs;s ghJfhg;ghd fhyq;fshFk;. ,e;j fhyq;fspy;> khjtplha Md gpd; cs;s xU thuj;jpy; rpid Kl;il> tpe;Jld; NrHe;J fUj;jhpg;gjw;F jFjpaw;w epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;. mjhtJ> mg;nghOJ jhd; fU Kl;ilahdJ tsHepiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;. mLj;J> khjtplha;f;F Kd; cs;s xU thuj;jpy; rpid Kl;ilahdJ Kw;wpYk; KjpHtile;J> fUj;jhpg;gjw;Fz;lhd jFjpia ,oe;jpUf;Fk;. vdNt> kUj;Jt Nehf;fpy;> ,e;j fhyq;fspy; clYwT nfhs;Sk; NghJ> fUj;jhpg;gjw;F tha;g;G mjpfk; ,y;iy vd;W nrhy;yyhNk jtpu> fUj;jhpg;gjw;F tha;g;Ng ,y;iy vd;W $wp tpl KbahJ. ,e;j ,U thuq;fSf;Fk; ,e;j ,U thuq;fSf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l ehl;fs; fUj;jhpg;gjw;F mjpfk; tha;g;G cs;s ehl;fshFk;.

,e;j Kiw MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;Fk; ghJfhg;ghdJ. Mdhy; me;j ghJfhg;ghd ehl;fis fzf;fpLtJ vd;gJ ,ayhj xd;W. NkYk; ,e;j Kiwapy;> ,iwtd; tpjpj;jij ahuhYk; khw;w ,ayhJ.

 

ntspNaw;Wjy; (Withdrawal or Coitus Interptus – in Arbic "AZL")

,e;j Kiw ,];yhj;jpy;> ngUkhdhH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfshy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l Kiw vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;f.

,e;j Kiwg;gb> clYwtpd; cr;rj;jpd; nghOJ ntspNaWk; tpe;ij ngz;zpd; gpwg;GWg;gpw;F cs;Ns nrYj;jp tplhky;> ngz;zpd; cWg;gpypUe;J Mz; Fwpia ntspapy; vLj;J> tpe;ij ntspapy; nfhl;b tpLtjhFk;. ,e;j Kiw MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; kpfg; ghJfhg;ghd KiwahFk;.

 

ngz;zpd; cWg;gpy; ghAk; tpe;ij mopf;Fk; khj;jpiufs; (Spermicides, Suppositories, Foaming Tablets etc.,)

,e;j tif khj;jpiufis clYwTf;F Kd; ngz; cWg;gpd; cs;Ns nrYj;jp tpLk; NghJ> clYwtpd; nghOJ ntspahFk; tpe;ij> ,e;j khj;jpiufspy; fye;Js;s ,urhadg; nghUs;> tpe;jpy; fye;Js;s capuZf;fisf; nfhd;W tpLfpd;wJ. ,jd; %yk; ngz; fUTwhky; jil nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

Mdhy; ,j;jifa khj;jpiufs; ngz; cWg;gpy; eikr;riyAk;> mhpg;igAk;> rpy Neuq;fspy; jPr;Rl;lhy; Vw;gLk; vhpAk; czHitAk; (Burning Sensation) nfhLf;Fk;.

 

epNuhj; my;yJ MZiwfs; (Condoms)

,J Mz;fs; mzpaf; $baJ. ,J clYwtpd; NghJ> ntspapLk; tpe;ij Mz; cWg;gpy; mzpe;jpUf;Fk; ciw jLj;J jd;Ds; Nrkpj;Jf; nfhs;tjhy;> ngz; fUtWtJ jLf;fg;gLfpwJ.

NkYk;> MZiw mzpe;J clYwT nfhs;tjhy;> MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;fk; fpilf;f Ntz;ba KO jpUg;jpiaj; jil nra;J tpLfpd;wJ. NkYk;> ,tw;iw mjpf mstpy; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ> kdhPjpahf MZk;> ngz;Zk; rpy khWghLfisAk;> top jtwy;fisAk; re;jpf;f NehpLk; vd;gij Kd;dNu tpsf;fpAs;Nshk;.

 

ngz;Ziw (Diaphragm)

,J ug;guhy; nra;ag;gl;l> nefpYk; jd;ik nfhz;l> jiyf;F mzpAk; njhg;gp Nghd;w mikg;igf; nfhz;lJ. ,ij ngz;zpd; cWg;gpy;> clYwTf;F Kd; mzptpf;ff; $ba fUj;jil rhjdk; MFk;. NkYk;> clYwtpd; NghJ ntspapLk; tpe;ij> ngz; cWg;gpy; mzpe;jpUf;Fk; ,e;j rhjdk; jLj;J> ngz; fUTWtijj; jil nra;fpwJ. Mdhy; clYwTf;Fg;gpd; Fiwe;jJ 6 kzp NeukhtJ mzpe;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> ,ij mzptpf;f kUj;JtH my;yJ eH]; MfpNahUila cjtp mtrpak;.

NkYk;> ,g;nghOJ etPd ngz;Ziw rhjdq;fs; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;L> tpiutpy; kf;fspd; cgNahj;jpw;F tutpUf;fpd;wd.

NkYk; ,Jtiu ghHj;j MW tpjkhd fUj;jil KiwfSk; gad;ghl;by; gy;NtW tpjkhd Kiwfisf; nfhz;lhYk;> fHg;gg;igapy; tpe;J NrHe;J fUj;jhpg;gijj; jil nra;af; $ba Kiwfshd ,tw;iw itj;J Nehf;Fk; NghJ> ehafk; (]y;) mtHfs; mDkjpj;j rk;kjk; je;j eilKiwahd m];y; (3 tJ Kiw) I xj;J ,Uf;fpwJ.

Vnddpy;> m];y; Kiwapy; ngz;zpd; fU Kl;ilAk;> Mzpd; tpe;jZTk; NrHe;J fUj;jhpg;gjw;F Kd;Ng> tpe;jZthdJ ngz;zpd; cWg;Gf;F ntspNa ntspNaw;wg;gLfpwJ.

,Nj Kiwapy; jhd; Nkw;nrhd;d MW KiwfSk; mike;Js;sd. vdNt> Nkw;nrhd;d ,e;j Kiwfs; nray;ghl;by; NtW NtW tpjkhf mike;jpUe;jhYk;> egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) mtHfs; fhl;bj; je;j top Kiwahd m];y; f;F xg;ghf mike;Js;sJ vdyhk;.

 

fHg;gg;igfspy; nghUj;jf; $ba fUj;jil rhjdq;fs; (Intra – Uterus Devices (IUD), eg : Loop, Coil etc.,)

fUg;igapy; nghWj;jf; $ba ,e;j rhjdq;fs; fUj;jhpg;gij jil nra;fpd;wd. ngz; Kl;ilAk;> Mz; tpe;Jk; NrHe;j gpd; fUj;jhpg;gijAk;> fHg;gg;igapy; epiy nfhs;tijAk; jil nra;fpwJ. NkYk;> ,e;j rhjdq;fspypUe;J ntspahfpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; ,uhrhadk; (Chemical Compound) tpe;jZit nraypof;fr; nra;fpwJ.

rpyNtisfspy; ,ijAk; kPwp fHg;gk; Vw;gl;L tpLtJz;L. ,t;thW fHg;gk; Vw;gLk; NghJ> fUthdJ fUtiwf;F ntspNa tsu Muk;gpf;fpd;wJ. ,jw;F ECTOPIC (at a site outside of womb) PREGNANCY vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;thW Vw;gLk; fHg;gq;fs;> 4-6 khjq;fspy; fUr;rpijT cz;lhtjw;F mjpfkhd re;jHg;gq;fs; cz;L. fU cz;lhfhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhfNt mzpag;gl;l rhjdq;fs; mjd; Ntiyia rhptur; nra;ahky;> fUitAk; cz;lhf;fp> fUr;rpijitAk; Vw;gLj;Jkhdhy;> mjd; gad;ghL vd;d vd;gJ xU Nfs;tpf; Fwpahdnjhd;W!*

* Abortion, Birth Control & Surrogate Parenting. By Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim (Quoted from South African Family Medical Advisor, Cape Town, The Reader’s Digest Association of South Africa (pty) Limited., 1983, 254)

NkYk;> ,e;jf; fhg;gH b vd;w fUj;jilr; rhjdkhdJ vd;w rpW cNyhff; Fr;rpAld; nfhz;lJ. NkYk;> ,e;j rhjdk; fHg;gg;igapy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> fHg;gg;igapy; ,Uf;Fk; jputj;Jld; ,ize;J fhg;gH jputj;ij nkJthf ntspNaw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;. ,jdhy; fHg;gg;igapy; fhg;gH jputk; #o;e;jpUf;Fk; NghJ> clYwtpd; NghJ ntspNaWk; tpe;jpy; cs;s mZf;fis ,e;j fhg;gHjputk; mopj;J tpLfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,J xU cNyhff; Fr;rpahy; nra;ag;gl;bUg;gjhy;> fHg;gg;igapy; Gz; Vw;gLj;jp Jiwfis cz;lhf;f epiwa re;jHg;gq;fs; cz;L. ,jdhy;> fHg;gg;igapypUe;J ,uj;jk; ntspNawp> ,uj;j xOf;F Vw;gl mjpfk; tha;g;G cz;L.

vdNt> ,j;jifa fUj;jilr; rhjdq;fs;> ngz;Zf;F ve;jtpj jPq;ifAk; tpistpf;fhJ vd mWjpapl;Lr; nrhy;y KbahJ. ,jd; gad;fs; mjpfk; ,Ue;jhYk;> Fiwthd vjpHtpisT $l kpFe;j Mgj;jhdnjhd;whfNt cs;sJ. NkYk;> ,r;rhjdq;fs; mzpe;Jk;> fHg;gk; jhpg;gJ vd;gJ 2 - 3 rjtPjk; jhd; ,Uf;Fk; vdyhk;. mJ 1 rjtPjk; ,Ue;jhYk; $l> ghjpg;G vd tUk; NghJ> mJ ngz;Zf;F kpFe;j Mgj;ij juty;yjhfty;yth mike;J tpLfpwJ. 4-6 khjq;fspy; fHg;gk; fiyAk; NghJ> mts; kpFe;j rpukj;jpw;Fk;> mjpfkhd ,uj;j xOf;F> ,Jkl;Lky;y mtsJ capUf;Nf $l mJ Mgj;jhf Kbayhk;.

NkYk;> fhg;gH b Vw;gLj;Jk; Gz;> ,dp mts; jha;ik miltij epue;jukhfj; jLf;ff; $ba xd;whf my;yth mike;J tpLk;.

vdNt> ,itAk; ,];yhk; vjpHghHf;Fk; me;j jFjpia vl;ltpy;iy vd;Nw nrhy;yyhk;.

GNuhn[];Nlh[d; khj;jpiufs; (Projestogen Pills) kw;Wk; GNuhn[];Nlh[d; Crp kUe;J (Projestogen Injection)

,d;W fUj;jilf;fhf mjpf mstpy; gad;gLj;jg;gLtJ> ,e;j khj;jpiufisj; jhd;. Mdhy; ,e;j khj;jpiufs; kw;Wk; Crpfspd; gpd;tpisTfis mjpfk; NgH mwpa tha;g;gpy;iy. NkYk;> ,d;W eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; fUj;jil khj;jpiufSk; CrpfSk; 100 rjtPjk; fUj;jilf;F cj;juthjk; ju ,ayhj fhuzj;jhy; mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;jpAk;> mtw;iwAk; kPwp fU cz;lhfp tpl;lhy;> Vw;gl;l fHg;gj;ijf;fiyg;gjw;F> kUj;Jtkidfis ehl Ntz;ba mtrpak; Vw;gLfpwJ. mJ mtrpaj;jpYk; mtrpaKk;> mtruKk; $l. mt;thW fUf;fiyg;G nra;atpy;iy vdpy;> gpwf;Fk; Foe;ij CdKlDk;> mjpf FiwghLfSlDk; gpwf;ff; $ba tha;g;G mjpfk; cz;L.

fUj;jil khj;jpiu nray;gLk; Kiw :

taJ te;j ngz;zpDila khjtplha;f; fhykhd 28 (+ or - 2) ehs; Row;rpapy;> khjtplha; Vw;gl;l 14 tJ ehs; jha;ik mila mjpfk; tha;g;Gs;s ehl;fshFk;. ,e;j khjtplha;r; Row;rpapd; NghJ gpl;A+l;hp (Anterior Pitutory) vd;w ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpapypUe;J ntspahFk; FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) vd;w `hHNkhd;> ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;gpd; xU ghfkhd fpuh/gpad; ghypf;fpy; (Graffian Follicle) - I KjpHtilar; nra;fpwJ. NkYk; gpl;A+l;hp (Anterior Pitutory) vd;w ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpapypUe;J ntsptUk; ,d;Dk; xU `hHNkhdhd LH (Leutenizing Hormone) vd;w `hHNkhd; fU cz;lhFk; Neuj;jpy;> ,e;j fpuh/gpad; /ghypf;fpiy (Graffian Follicle) j; J}z;b> fU tsHr;rp my;yJ rpidg; gpbj;jiy tpiuthf;FfpwJ. NkYk; Fallopian Tube y; ,Uf;Fk; fUKl;ilia tpe;jZthdJ mile;J> fUf;nfhs;fpwJ. fUf;nfhz;l Kl;ilahdJ> gpd; vd;w epiyia mile;J> fUTw;w ehspypUe;J 21-23 tJ ehs; fUg;igapy; epiy nfhs;fpwJ. ,e;j epiy nfhs;Sk; gb epiy 35k; ehs; Kbtilfpd;wJ.

Nkw;fz;l fU tsHepiyfisj; jil nra;tNj fUj;jil khj;jpiufs; gq;fhFk;. ,e;j fUj;jil khj;jpiufspy; vd;w ,U Ntjpg; nghUs;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. ,it fUj;jhpg;igj; jil nra;af; $ba kUe;JfshFk;.

,e;j khj;jpiufs; ,Utpj epiyfspy; fUj;jhpg;igj; jil nra;fpd;wd.mitahtd :

1. Combination Method

2. Sequential Method

Combination Method d; gb ,e;j khj;jpiufs;> FSH, (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) `hHNkhd; Rug;ig mjpfg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;> ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;gpy; xd;whd fpuh/gpad; ghypf;fpy; (Graffian Follicle) I KjpHtilar; nra;Ak; mNjNtisapy;> rpidg; gpbg;gjw;F Ntz;b rpid Kl;iliaj; J}z;Lk; LH (Leutinizing Hormone) d; Rug;ig kl;Lg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;> rpid Kl;il KjpHtilAk; nraiy Jhpjg;gLj;jpAk; tpe;Jk;> ngz;zpd; fU Kl;ilAk; ,ize;J fUj;jhpg;gjw;Fj; Njitahd jFjpia fU Kl;il ngwhjjhy;> fUj;jhpg;G epfo;tJ jilgLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; fUj;jil epfo;fpwJ.

mLj;J> Sequential Method gb> v];l;Nuh[d; (Estrogen) MdJ> FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) `hHNkhDila Rug;ig kl;Lg;gLj;JfpwJ. mNjNtisapy; LH (Leutinizing Hormone) `hHNkhDila Rug;ig mjpfg;gLj;JfpwJ. FSH `hHNkhDila Rug;G Fiwtjdhy; ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;gpy; xd;whd> Graffian Follicle d; tsHr;rp FiwfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; rpid Kl;ilapy; KjpH tsHr;rp jilgLtjhy;> fUj;jil epfo;fpwJ.

NkYk; ,e;j khj;jpiufspd; Kf;fpa gq;F vd;dntdpy;> gpl;A+l;hp (Anterior Pitutary) vd;w ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpapypUe;J> ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jpf;F ,dtpUj;jp cWg;Gfisj; jahH nra;af; $ba FSH kw;Wk; LH `hHNkhDila Rug;Gfspy; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;JtNj. ,tw;iwj; njhlHe;J xU ngz; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; NghJ> mts; fPo;f;fhZk; Neha;fSf;F Mshf Ntz;ba epiy Vw;gLfpwJ. NkYk;>, e;j fUj;jil khj;jpiufisg; gad;gLj;jpAk;> fUj;jhpj;J tpl;lhy;> mf; fUit tsu tpLtij tpl mopj;J tpLtNj NkyhdJ vd;gNj kUj;JtHfspd; VNfhgpj;j fUj;jhFk;. Vnddpy;>mg;gbg; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijfs;> Cdj;Jld; gpwf;f mjpfk; tha;g;Gs;sJ vd;gJ jhd; mjd; fhuzkhFk;.

NkYk;> ,e;j fUj;jil khj;jpiufs;> cgNahfpf;Fk; ngz;Zf;F fPo;f;fhZk; Neha;fSld; nkhj;jk; 28 k; mjpfkhd Neha;fis Vw;gLj;Jtjhff; fz;lwpag;gl;Ls;sJ.

,ja Neha;fs;

kd ,Wf;fk;

<uy; Neha;fs;

ngz; ,d cWg;gpypUe;J mjpfk; ,uj;jk; ntspNaWjy;

typg;G Neha;fs;

xw;iwj; jiytyp

clypy; GNuhl;Bd; mstpy; khWghL Vw;gLjy;

the;jp

rpWePH mjpfk; gphpjy;

Kiwaw;w khjtplha;

NkYk; ghY}l;Lk; jha;khHfs;> ,k; khj;jpiufis cgNahfpf;Fk; NghJ> ghy; Rug;gpDila msT FiwtJld;> cl;nfhs;Sk; khj;jpiufspy; fye;Js;s v];l;Nuh[d;> kw;Wk; GNuh[];bNuh[d; Mfpa Ntjpg; nghUs;fs; rpwpjsT ghYld; fye;J Ruf;ff; $ba epiyAk; cUthfyhk;. ,jd; %yk; ghy; mUe;Jk; Foe;ijf;Fg; gpd; tpisTfs; cz;lhf tha;g;Gs;sJ.

2. epue;ju fUj;jil Kiwfs; :

epue;ju fUj;jil Kiwfs; gw;wp ,dpf; fhz;Nghk;.

Mz; :

1. th]f;lkp (Vasectamy)

ngz; :

1. Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy; (Tubal Ligation)

2. fHg;gg;igia ePf;Fjy; (Hysterectomy)

3. Nyg;uh];Nfhgpf; (Laprascopy)

 

th]f;lkp : (Mz;)

Mzpd; ,d tpUj;jpf;F Njitahd tpe;jZf;fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; cWg;Gf;fSf;F tpjH (Testis) vd;W ngaH ,e;j tpjuhdJ> Mzpd; kHk cWg;gpw;Ff; fPNo gyhf; nfhl;il tbtpy; ,Uf;Fk; ,e;j tpjUf;Fk;> Mzpd; kHk cWg;gpw;Fk; ,ilNa th]; bgud;]; vd;w Foha; ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j th]; bgud;]; (Vas Deferens) jhd; tpe;jZit tpjhpypUe;J> Mzpd; kHk cWg;gpw;F vLj;Jr; nry;Yk; Fohahfr; nray;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Vas Deferens Fohiaj; Jz;bj;J tpLtjd; %yk;> Mzpd; tpjhpypUe;J flj;jg;gLk; tpe;jZ jilgLtjd; %yk; Mz; epue;ju kyl;Lj; jd;ikia mila KbfpwJ.

Mdhy;> ,d;W Jz;bf;fg;gl;l me;j th];bgud;]; (Vas Deferens) Fohia kPz;Lk; ,izj;J epue;ju kyl;Lj; jd;ikia Nghf;Ftjpy; xU rpy kUj;JtHfs; ntw;wp fz;Ls;shHfs;.

NkYk;> th]f;lkp nra;J nfhs;tjhy;> cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLk; tpe;jZthdJ> flj;jg;gl top ,y;yhky; nfl;bahfp> (SPERM GRANULOMA) vd;w Nehia cz;lhFk;.

ngz; :

Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy;

ngz;zpd; ,d tpUj;jp cWg;Gf;fspy; xd;whd /ngy;Nyhgpd; Fohia Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy; my;yJ Jz;bj;jy; %ykhf> ngz;zpd; fUKl;il cw;gj;jpia jil nra;ag;gLfpwJ my;yJ cw;gj;jpia epue;jukhf ,y;yhkyhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

ngz;zpd; khjtplha; Kbe;jTld; fUg;igapypUe;J cw;gj;jpahFk; fU Kl;ilfs; ,e;j /ngNyhgpad; Foha; topahf fHg;gg; igf;F flj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F ,e;j fUj;jil Kiw %yk;> /ngNyhgpad; Fohia Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ Jz;bj;jy; (,e;j Kiwfs; Foe;ij gpwe;jTld; nra;ag;gLfpwJ) %yk;> tpe;jhdJ ngNyhgpad; Fohia mile;jhYk;> mq;F fU Kl;ilfs; ,y;yhjjhy;> fUj;jhpg;gJ jilgLtjd; %yk; fUj;jil epfo;fpwJ.

rpy Ntisfspy;> Jz;bf;fg;gl;l ,e;j ngNyhgpad; Foha;fs;> mw;Gjkhd Kiwapy; kPz;Lk; ,ize;J fUj;jhpg;gpw;Fj; jahuhfp tpl;l epfo;TfSk; epfo;e;Js;sd vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ. ngNyhgpd; Foha; ePf;fg;gl;l gpd;G kPz;Lk; fUj;jhpj;jjd; fhuzkhf> rpfpr;ir mspj;j kUj;JtHfs; tof;Ffisr; re;jpg;gJk; cz;L.

fHg;gg;igia ePf;Fjy;

,e;j Kiw %yk; KO fHg;gg; igiaak; ePf;fg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; ,e;j Kiw kpf ePz;l mWit rpfpr;iriaAk;> ,uj;jg; Nghf;F Nghd;w Mgj;jhd epiyfisAk; nfhz;lJ. vdNt> ,jw;F mNefk; ngz;fs; rk;kjpg;gjpy;iy. ,Ue;Jk; ,g;nghOJ kUj;Jt fhuq;fisf

khwhf> fHg;gg;igapy; Gz; my;yJ fl;b Nghd;wtw;wpy; epue;ju Jd;gq;fis milgtHfSf;F kl;LNk ,e;j mWit rpfpr;ir gaDs;sjhFk;.

Mdhy; ,d;W rpy fy; neQ;rk; nfhz;l kUj;JtHfshy;> Nehahspfsplk; gzk; fwf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w xNu Nehf;fj;Jld; ,e;j mWit rpfpr;ir cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. fHg;gg;igapy; Gz;> rpwpJ rpfpr;ir vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; Fzg;gLj;j ,ayf; $ba Neha;fisAk;> ,e;j rpy kUj;JtHfs;> ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;iz mWit rpfpr;irf;F cl;gLj;jp> gzk; gz;zpf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;. NkYk;> ,e;j mWit rpfpr;ir KjpNahHfSf;F nra;jhy; xusT ghjpg;Ng vw;gLk;. Mdhy; ,sk; ngz;fSf;Fr; nra;Ak; NghJ> mtdJ> ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; gad;ghl;by; jil Vw;gLj;Jtjhy;> mts; epue;ju euk;gpay; Neha;fSf;Fk;> mjpfkhd cly; cghijfSf;Fk; cl;gl Ntz;b tUk;.

Nyg;uh];Nfhgp (Laprascopy)

,e;j Kiwg;gb> /ngNyhg;gpad; FohahdJ rf;jp tha;e;j fjpHfshy; Rlg;gl;L> fU Kl;il nry;Yk;ghijahdJ %lg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j Kiw kpf vspjhd Kiw vdyhk;. fU Kl;ilapd; cw;gj;jpapYk;> mtw;iw ntspNaw;WtjpYk; ghij jilgLtjhYk;> ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; gq;fpy; kiwKfkhdnjhU jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wd vdyhk;.

NkNy ehk; fz;l MZf;Fhpa th]f;lkp> ngz;Zf;Fhpa Kbr;rpLjy; my;yJ gpizj;jy;> fHg;gg;igapy; ePf;Fjy;> Nyg;uh];Nfhgpf; Kiwfs; Mfpa midj;Jk; VNjDk; xU tifapy;> cly;$wpy; ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; nray;ghl;by;> VNjDk; xU jilia> jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;JgitfshfNt cs;sd vdyhk;.

ve;jtpj gpd;tpisTfs; kw;Wk; ehskpy;yhr; Rug;gpfspd; nray;ghl;by; jil ,y;yhky;> fUj;jil rhjdq;fSk; mjd; kUe;JfSk; gq;fhw;Wtjpy;iy.

vdNt> fUj;jil nra;J nfhs;Sk; MZk;> ngz;Zk; VNjDk; xU tifapy; ghjpg;giltJ epjHrdk;.

,];yhk; toq;Fk; kUe;jpay; nfhs;if

K];ypk; vd;gtd; Rj;jkhdtdhfTk;> Neha; nehbaw;wtdhfTk;> jplfhj;jpuKs;stdhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,];yhk; tpUk;GfpwJ. ,jw;fhf> mtd; cl;nfhs;Sk; kUe;Jfs; vg;gbg;gl;litahf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vdTk; tiuaiw nra;J fhl;bAs;sJ.

mjhtJ> xU kdpjd; jd; cly; eyj;Jf;fhf cl;nfhs;s Ntz;ba kUe;jpd; mbg;gil Fzhjpraq;fs; vt;thW ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkdpy;>

1) mtdJ cly;eyj;ij mJ ghJfhj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

2) Neha;fis Vw;gLj;Jk; fpUkpfspypUe;J ghJfhj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

3) mk; kUe;Jfs; gpd; tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jhky mtidg; ghJfhj;jy; Ntz;Lk;

(By Imam Ibn al Qayyim al Jawziyyah – Al Tibb al Nabawi)

,jw;fhf> ,khk; ,g;Dy; ifa;apk; my; [t;]pa;ah mtHfs; %d;W FHMd; trdq;fis vLj;Jf;fhl;lhf jUfpd;whHfs;.

mjhtJ> ukshd; khjj;jpy; Nehd;G Nehw;f flikahdtH> Neha; tha;g;gl;bUe;jhNyh my;yJ gazj;jpypUe;jhNyh mtH NehapypUe;J epthuzk; ngw;wTlNdh my;yJ gazj;jpypUe;J jpUk;gpaTlNdh tpLgl;l Nehd;Gfis mtd; gpd;tUk; ehl;fspy; G+Hj;jp nra;J nfhs;sl;Lk; (2:185)

,e;j trdk; %yk;> Nehd;G Nehw;gJ flik vd;wpUe;jhYk;> mtuJ cly;eyj;ijAk;> typikiaAk; fhf;Fk; nghUl;L. mtH Nehd;G Nehw;gjpypUe;J ,iwtd; tpjptpyf;F my;yJ rYif mspj;Js;shd;. vdNt> Nehd;G Nehw;wpUg;gtH NkYk; eyptilahkYk;> gazj;jpy; ,Ug;gtH grpapd; kpFjpahy; cly; njk;gpoe;J> NrhHTf;F Ml;glhkYk; ,Uf;f ,e;j tpjptpyf;F cjtp nra;tjhy;> mq;Nf mtuJ cly; eyk; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

,uz;lhtjhf>

`[; fphpiafspy; jiy Kb ePf;FtJ xd;whFk;.

cq;fspy; vtH NehahspahfNth my;yJ mtuJ jiyapy; (mtUf;F) njhe;jutspf;ff; $baNjh ,Ue;jhy; (me;epiyapy; jiy Nuhkj;ij fise;J tpbd;) mjw;F (%d;W) Nehd;Gfs; Nehw;wy; my;yJ (MW ViofSf;F czT) jHkk; nra;jy; my;yJ `j;A (XH ML) nfhLj;jy; (VjhtJ xd;W) ghpfhukhFk;. (2:196)

Mf> jiyKb ePf;FtJ vd;gJ ,iwtdhYk;> mtdJ J}jH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfshYk;> eilKiwg;gLj;j Vtg;gl;l xd;whf ,Ue;jhYk;> Neha; tha;g;gl;bUg;gtUf;Fk;> jiyapy; Gz;> nghLF Nghd;witfs; ,Ue;jhy;> Kbia kopf;Fk; NghJ> Vw;gLk; jPq;fpypUe;J mtUf;F ghJfhg;G mspf;fTk; ,iwtdhy; rYif mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; %yk;> jPq;Ffs;> Neha;fs; NkYk; Vw;glhky; guthky; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

%d;whtjhf>

xUtH Neha; tha;g;gl;bUg;gpd;> jz;zPH nfhz;L xSr; nra;tjd; %yk; mtuJ Neha;> NkYk; mjpfhpf;Fk; vdpy;> mtH jak;kk; nra;J nfhs;sl;Lk;.

ePH vd;gJ xU Rj;jkhd nghUs;. mJ jhDk; Rj;jkhdJ> mijf; nfhz;L xUtH xSr; nra;Ak; NghJ> xSr; nra;gtUk; Rj;jkhfpwhH. Mdhy; Rj;jg;gLj;jf; $ba ePiu Nehahsp gad;gLj;Jk;NghJ> vjpH tpistpd; fhuzkhff NkYk; mtH eyptilaf; $Lk;. Nkw;fz;l gpd; tpisTfspypUe;J kdpjidg; ghJfhf;fNt mj;jifa epiyapy; cs;stHfis> kz;izf; nfhz;L jak;kk; nra;J> jk;ikr; Rj;jg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sk;gb ,iwtd; rYif mspj;Js;shd;. Mf> ePhpd; %yk; Vw;gLk; gpd;tpisTfspypUe;J mtdj cly;eyk; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

njhOif vd;gJ ,iwtdhy;> K];ypk;fs; kPJ fl;lhaf; flikahf;fg;gl;l xd;W. mj;jifa njhOiff;F Kd; xUtH jz;zPH nfhz;L xSr; nra;J nfhs;tJ flikahFk;.

Mdhy; Rj;jg;gLj;jf; $ba jz;zPuhdJ> Nehahspf;F NkYk; Nehia mjpfhpj;JtpLk; vDk; epyik ,Ug;gpd;> me;j Nehahsp kz; nfhz;L jak;kk; nra;J nfhs;s ,iwtdhYk;> ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfshYk; mDkjpaspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; %yk; me;j Nehahsp> NkYk; ghjpf;fg;gLtjpypUe;J jtpHe;J nfhs;fpd;whd;.

,jd; %yk; jd;Dila gpujpepjpahfpa ,e;j kdpj r%fj;jpd; kPJ ,iwtd; nfhz;Ls;s fUizia mwpe;J nfhs;tNjhL> jd;id tzq;Fk; jd; mbahd;> vg;nghOJk; MNuhf;fpaj;Jld;> Neha; kw;Wk; mjd; tpisTfspypUe;J ghJfhg;Gg; ngw;wtdhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd ,iwtd; tpUk;Gtij mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

Mdhy;> kdpjdhy; fUj;jilf;fhff; fz;Lgpbf;fg;gl;l rhjdq;fs;> kUe;Jfs;> ,];yhk; tpUk;Gk; kUe;Jfspd; mbg;gilf; nfhs;if my;yJ gz;GfspypUe;Jk; khWgl;bUg;gij ehk; ,jw;F Kd; mtw;wpd; jPq;Ffis ehk; tpsf;fpatw;wpypUe;J mwpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.

vdNt> kdpjDf;F ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fs; r%f mstpYk;> cly;ey tifapYk; ed;ikia mspf;ftpy;iy. khwhf> jPikfs; jhd; mjpfk; cs;sd.

NkYk;> ,tw;wpy; gad;fSk; cz;Nl vdyhk;. kUj;Jt Nehf;fpy;> fUj;jil nra;tjdhy; nra;ag;gLk; egUk; cly; eyk; Ngzg;gLk; vdpy; ,t;thW nra;tij ,];yhk; mDkjpf;fpwJ.

vt;thnudpy;> K];ypk;fSf;F gd;wpapd; ,iwr;rpia cz;gij ,iwtd; jLj;jpUf;fpd;whd;.

Mdhy; fLikahd gQ;rk; my;yJ cz;z cztpy;yhky; capH NghFk; epiy my;yJ mtw;iw cz;jd %yk; capH gpioj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;w epiy ,Ug;gpDk; my;yJ epHg;ge;jk; fhuzkhf cz;z Nehpl;lhy; jtW ,y;iy> ,iwtd; mjidf; Fw;wk; gpbf;f khl;lhd; vd;W jpUkiw $Wfpd;wJ.

vdNt> fPo;f;fz;l tpjpg;gb> capH gpiog;gjw;fhfNth> NkYk; Neha; guthky; jL;ggjw;fhfNth FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL nra;J nfhs;tJ ,];yhj;jpdhy; MFkhf;fg;gl;l my;yJ mDkjpf;fg;gl;l xd;W.

Mdhy;> ,d;iwa FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fs;> nghUshjhu Nehf;fpy; my;yth nray;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. vdNt> ,iwtd; ,tw;iw mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

NkYk;>

egpNa! ,tHfs; kJitAk;> #jhl;lj;ijAk; gw;wpAk; tpdTfpwhHfs;. ePH $Wk;> ,it ,uz;Lk; ghtkhditfshFk;. NkYk; ,tw;wpy; rpy ed;ikfSk; cs;sd. Mdhy; mtw;wpd; ed;ikfisf; fhl;bYk; jPikfs;jhd; mjpfk; cs;sd. (2:219)

vdNt> ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fs; mjd; Jiz rhjdq;fs;> kUe;Jfs;> cyfpay; Nehf;fpy; ed;ik jUgdthf ,Ug;gpDk;> mJ jUk; ed;ikfis tpl jPikfs; jhd; mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd vd;gij Nkw;fz;l Ma;Tfs; %yk; ehk; mwpe;J nfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,iwtd; jd; jpUkiwapy; $Wfpd;whd; :

kdpjHfNs! (cq;fs; ,iwtd;) G+kpapy; cq;fSf;F mDkjpaspj;jtw;wpypUe;J cz;Zq;fs;> gUFq;fs;. (2:168)

vdNt> ,iwtd; mDkjpaspj;jtw;wpypUe;J cz;gJk;> gUFtJk; cly;eyj;Jf;F vt;thW cfe;jNjh mJNghyj;jhd; Vida fhhpaq;fSk; ,iwtd; mDkjpaspf;fhj eilKiwfs; mj;jidAk; r%f kw;Wk; kdpj ,d mopTf;fj; jhd; kdpjid ,l;Lr; nry;Yk; vd;gJ cWjp. (,iwtd; ek;ikg; ghJfhg;ghdhf!)

 

fUf;fiyg;G my;yJ fUr;rpijT (ABORTION)

fUf;fiyg;G my;yJ fUr;rpijT vd;gJ kpfg; goikahdnjhU KiwahFk;. mghH\d; vdr; nrhy;yg;gLk; ,e;jf; fUf;fiyg;G Kiw ,uz;L tifahFk;.

D and C (Dilatation and Curretage)

Vacuum Aspiration Method MfpadthFk;.

,e;j Kiwfs; 20 thu fhy msTk;> mjw;Fk; Fiwe;j fhy msTs;s fUitf; fiyf;f Nkw;fz;l Kiwfs; gpd;gw;wg;gLfpd;wd.

Fwpg;gpl;l fhy msitj; jhz;b tpl;l fHg;gj;ijf; fiyf;f fUg;igiar; Rw;wpAs;s Amniotic Fluid I ntspNaw;wp> mjw;Fg; gjpyhf cg;GePH fiuriyr; nrYj;Jtjd; %yk;> Fiwg;gpurtk; Vw;gl;L (Miscarriage) fUthdJ gpz;lkhf ntspj;js;sg;gLfpwJ.

Nkw;fz;l mghH\d; (D and C (Dilatation and Curretage),Vacuum Aspiration Amniotic Fluid Removal) Mfpa Kiwfs; %yk;> mghH\d; nra;ag;gLk; nghOJ> ngz;Zf;F mjpf ,uj;j xOf;F kw;Wk; rpWePuf ghjpg;GfSk; mjpfk; Vw;gl tha;g;Gs;sJ. NkYk; mjpf ,uj;jg; Nghf;F> mg;ngz;zpd; capiug; Nghf;Fk; fhuzpahff; $l mikayhk;.

NkYk;> jpUl;Lj;jdkhfr; nra;J nfhs;sg;gLk; Bd; V[; mghH\d;fs;> rhpahd guhkhpg;G ,d;wp> mg;ngz;Zf;F Neha;f;fpUkpfs; njhw;wTk;> NkYk; fUg; gpz;lk; ntspj;js;sg;gl;lgpd;> rhpahd mstpy; ,uj;jk; ntspNawp Rj;jg;gLj;jg;glhky; rhpahff; ftdpf;fg;glhky; tplg;gLkhdhy;> gpd;dhspy; mJNt> mtsJ jha;ikiag; gwpf;Fk; fhuzpahff; $l mikayhk;.

NkYk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; kw;Wk; mjd; rhjdq;fSk;> khj;jpiufSk; CrpfSk; fUf;fiyg;gpd; (mghH\d;) msitf; Fiwj;Js;sjhfr; nrhy;yg;gLfpwJ. Mdhy; vq;nfy;yhk; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lk; filgpbf;fg;gLfpwNjh NkYk;> mjd; rhjdq;fSk;> khj;jpiufSk; jhuskhf;fg;gl;Ls;sNjh mq;nfy;yhk; fUf;fiyg;gpd; msTk; mjpfkhfj; jhd; cs;sJ.

Vnddpy;> fUj;jhpf;fhky; jLg;gjw;fhfg; gad;gLk> Kd;jLg;G khj;jpiufspd;jd;ik gw;wp jfty; (Pamphlet – Information List) rPl;by;> gpd;tpisTfs; (Contra-indications) gFjpapy;> Kjy; jftNy fHg;gk; jhpf;f tha;g;Gs;sJ vd;gNjahFk;. vdNt> fHg;gk; jhpf;fhky; ,Ug;gjw;fhf ,tHfs; gad;gLj;Jk; khj;jpiufisAk; kPwp fHg;gk; jhpj;J tpLk; NghJ> mghH\d; nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;baJ fl;lhakhfpwJ.

NkYk;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; 8 rj ngz;fs; jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;Dk; 20-25 rj ngz;fs; jpUkzj;jpw;Fg; gpd;Dk; fUf;fiyg;G nra;J nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

[g;ghid vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> 1950 y; 21.5 rjkhfTk;> 1955 y; 25 rjkhftk;> fUf;fiyg;gpd; tpfpjk; $baJ. Prof. Sauvy mtHfsJ $w;Wg;gb 1.7 kpy;ypad; Foe;ij gpwe;Js;s mNj Neuj;jpy; 1.2 kpy;ypad; fUf;fiyg;Gk; ele;Js;sJ.

NkYk; vd;w jpdg; gj;jphpf;ifapd; Ma;tpd;gb> fUj;jiliag; gad;gLj;Jk; FLk;gq;fspy; jhd; mjpf mghH\d;fs; eilngWfpwJ. fUj;jiliag; gad;gLj;jhj FLk;gq;fis tpl 6 klq;f mjpfk; mghH\d;fs;> fUj;jilia my;yJ FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwiag; gad;gLj;Jk; FLk;gq;fspy; jhd; epfo;fpd;wJ.

gphpl;ldpy; ,e;j tpfpjk; 8.27 klq;F mjpfk; cs;sJ.

Bd; V[; fUf;fiyg;gpy; ,e;jpa epiy

,e;jpahtpy; ,g;nghOJ Bd; V[; ngz;fSf;F ,uT lhd;]; ghHl;bfs;> Nll;bq;]; vy;yhk; ehfhPfj;jpd; ntspg;ghlhfj; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;Js;sd. ,e;jpahtpy; jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;Ng fUj;jhpf;Fk; 14 taJg; ngz;fspd; vz;zpf;if> efuq;fspy; mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl tUfpd;wd. ,uz;L khjf; fUitf; fiyj;Jf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ> ,e;j ehfhPf kq;iffsplj;jpy; jpNal;lhpy; rpdpkhitg; ghHj;J tpl;Lj; jpUk;GtJ Nghy fhiyapy; mghH\d; nra;J tpl;L khiyapy; te;J tpLfpd;whHfs;.

by;ypapy; 1991 y; 278 Mf ,Ue;j Bd; V[; mghH\d; fle;j 1994 y; 676 Mff; $baJ. ekJ jkpo;ehl;ilAk; ,J tpl;L itf;ftpy;iy. 1994 y; nrd;idapy; kl;Lk; 16>000 mghH\d;fs; ele;jjpy; 20 rjtPjk; jpUkzkhfhj Bd; V[; ngz;fs;.

gk;ghapy; cs;s gHy; nrd;lH vd;w fpspdpf;fpy; Mz;bw;F 25>000 fUf;fiyg;Gr; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. ,jpy; 15 rjtPjk; jpUkzkhfhj Bd;V[; ngz;fs;.

mirl; vd;w Mq;fpyg; gj;jphpf;if elj;jpa Ma;tpy; fHg;g gaj;jhy; nrf;i]j; jtpHf;ftpy;iy. fHg;gkhdhy; ,Uf;fNt ,Uf;fpwJ mghH\d; vd;W me;jg; ngz;fs; $wpajhf> mirl; d; Ma;T $WfpwJ.

kpfr; rq;flkhf epiyapy; mghH\d; xU vspa jPHthfj; Njhd;wpdhYk;> cly; hPjpahfTk; czHTg; G+HtkhfTk; mJ gy jOk;Gfis Vw;gLj;jp tpLfpwJ.

nrd;id kfg;NgW epGzuhd lhf;lH ehuhaz nul;b> Bd; V[; Mz;> ngz;fsplk;> nrf;]; cwT itj;Jf; nfhs;shNj vdr; nrhy;y ehk; ahH? (gpd;Nd> vg;gb gzk; rk;ghjpg;gJ?! ,j;jifa Nf];fis ek;gpj;jhNd Vuhskhd fpspdpf;FfSk;> kUe;Jf; filfSk; gpiog;G elj;Jfpd;wd. M-H) Mdhy;> mjw;Fg; gjpyhf cly; cwT> fUj;jil gw;wp nrd;]; fy;tp mspf;fyhk; vd;fpwhH.

jkJ FLk;g tho;f;iff; fy;tpj; jpl;lj;jpd; xU gFjpahf> Nkhp ];lhg;]; vd;fpw FLk;g ey fpspdpf;Ffs;> jw;fhypf fUj;jil khj;jpiufs;> fhz;lk;fs; (epNuhj;) gad;gLj;Jk; tpjk; Fwpj;J tpsf;Ffpd;wd. (,e;jpah LNl - Vg;uy; 6-20> 1995)

vd;d mhpa Nrit?! fhz;Nlhk;fs; (epNuhj;) fUj;jil khj;jpiufs; Nghd;wtw;iw cgNahfpj;Jk; Bd;V[; my;yJ jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fs; fHg;gk; jhpg;gJ mjpfhpj;J tUtJ vijf; Fwpf;fpwJ vdpy;> ,e;jpahtk; jdJ jtwhd nfhs;ifapdhy; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lk; kw;Wk;mjd; rhjdq;fshy; rPuopit vjpHNehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lKk;> mJ rhHe;j khj;jpiufSk;> fhz;Nlhk;fs; (epNuhj;) Nghd;witfs; khHf;nfl;by; jhuhskhff; fpilg;gjhy;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;bw;fhf ,itfs; gad;gLtij tpl tpgr;rhuk; ngUftk;> Bd;V[; fHg;gq;fs; mjpfhpf;fTk; jhd; gad;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd vd;gJ cz;ikahFk;.

,e;jpa muR> ,dpNkYk; ,e;j tptfhuj;jpy; tpopg;GzHT fhl;ltpy;iy vdpy;> mnkhpf;fh> gphpl;ld; Nghd;w tsHe;j ehLfspd; thpirapy; ,e;jpahTk; kpd ,dr; rPuoptpy; Kd;dzpapy; epw;Fk; vd;gJ epr;rakhfp tpLk;.

 

 

ghfk; 2

jtwhd rpj;jhe;jk;


,jw;F Kd; cs;s jiyg;Gfspy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lKk; mJ rhHe;j kUe;JfSk; Vw;gLj;jpa rKjha khw;wk;> rKjha mopT Nghdw;tw;iw mjw;Fhpa fhuzq;fSld; ghHj;Njhk;. NkYk;> khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfshy; nrhy;yg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;> kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf czTg; gw;whf;FiwAk;> ,lg; gw;whf;FiwAk; Vw;gLk; vd;gd Nghd;w jtwhd rpj;jhe;jq;fs; gw;wp ,dp ehk; fhzg;NghFk; mj;jpahaq;fs; %yk; njspthf;FNthk;.

mwptpay; Kiwg;gb Muha;e;j mj;jid Ma;TfSk;> mjd; ntspg;ghlhf mikAk; jPHT my;yJ Nfhl;ghL (THEORY) fs; Nghd;witfs; kdpj ,dj;Jf;F ed;ik gaf;Fk; vd;Nwh> kdpjid kdpjdhf xOf;f tpOkq;fis Ngzr; nra;gtdhf cUthf;fp tpLk; vd;Nwh $w ,ayhJ. 17 k; E}w;whz;by; tho;e;j khy;j;j]; vd;W nrhy;yf; $ba mwpQd;? jd; tPl;L miwapy; cl;fhHe;J nfhz;L> fz;iz %bf; nfhz;L Nghl;l fzf;if kl;Lk; itj;Jf; nfhz;L> ,e;j mwptpay; kdpjd;> X! vd XykpLfpd;whd;. mtd; jd;idr; Rw;wpAs;s Nguz;lj;ijAk;> jd;idr; Rw;wp tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; Vida [PtuhrpfisAk;> gilj;J mj;jidf;Fk; xU epajpia toq;fp> guhkhpj;J tUk; Vf ,iwNahdhfpa ty;y my;yh`;tpd; Mw;wiy mtdJ Czf; fz; fzpf;fj; jtwp tpl;lJ. New;W jhd; xU ,y;yhikapypUe;J my;yJ G+[;aj;jpypUe;J Njhd;wpaijAk;> jd;Dila ,t;tsT nghpa cUtj;ij mw;g tpe;jpypUe;J ntspahf;fp ,Ug;gijAk; kdpjd; ftdpf;fj; jtwp tpl;lhd;.

kdpjdpd; vz;zpf;if ,Nj epiyapy; tsHe;J nfhz;Nl Nghdhy;> ,dp kdpjd; tho ,g;G+kpapy; ,lk; ,Ug;gJ vd;w jtwhd thjj;ij vOg;Gfpd;whd;. mtd; vOg;Gk; thjk; jtwhdJ!

NkYk;> gy;fpg; ngUFk; kf;fs; njhifahy; nghUshjhug; ghjpg;G Vw;gLfpwJ vd;fpwhd;. ,g;gbr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Nl Kjyhspj;JtKk;> fk;A+dp]Kk; mtdplk; Njitaw;w EfHnghUs; Miria cz;lhf;fp> mtdplk; Njitaw;w gzr;RikiaAk; my;yJ nghUshjhug; gw;whf;FiwiaAk; mjpfg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Nl tUtijAk;> NkYk; ,e;jr; Rikfs; ahTk; ,tdJ EfHnghUs; Mirahy; tpise;jJ vd ,tid ,e;j ,af;fq;fs; rpe;jpf;ff; $l tpLtjpy;iy. khwhf> ,e;jr; Rikfs; mjpfg;gbahd Foe;ijg; Ngw;why; te;jJ vdr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Nl> cz;ik epiyia ,e;j mwpQHfs; njhpe;Jk; kiwg;gJ Vd;?

NkYk;> mjpfg;gbahd kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;jhy; czTg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;fpwhd;. ,e;j thjk; vt;tsT jtwhdJ!! ,j;jid Nguz;lj;ijAk; gilj;J ghpghypf;Fk; me;j Vf ,iwNahdhfpa my;yh`;tpd; ty;yikapy; my;yth ,e;j mw;g kdpjd; re;Njfk; nfhz;L tpl;lhd;. kdpjdJ fzf;F jtwhdJ!! cyfpay; Nehf;Ff; nfhz;lJ. kdpjd; jhd; nfhz;Ls;s gFj;jwpitf; nfhz;L XusNt tpra Qhdq;fis vl;l KbAk; ,e;j miuFiw tpra QhdKs;s kdpjd; NghLk; fzf;F jtwhdJ. ,iwtd; NghLk; fzf;fpd; Kd; kdpjd; mw;gj;jpYk; mw;gk;. ,iwtdpd; mUl;nfhil ,g; Nguz;lk; KOtJk; gutpAs;sJ. mjd; %yk; kdpjd; cl;gl midj;J [PtuhrpfSk; gad;ngWfpd;wd. kdpjd; jtpu midj;J [PtuhrpfSk; mjw;nfd jtwhJ ed;wp nrYj;Jgitahf cs;sd. vdNt> mit epk;kjpNahL ehis vd;d? vg;gb? vd;w Rik ,y;yhJ tho;fpd;wd. Mdhy; kdpjd; ed;wp kwe;jtdhfTk;> Vf ,iwtdJ newpKiwfspdpd;Wk; gpwo;e;jtdhfTk;> jd;Dila gpbthjj;jhy;> mfk;ghtj;jhy; rPuopitj; jhNd Njbf; nfhz;lhd;. mj;jifa rPuopTfspy; xd;W jhd; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lk;.

FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj;jpl;lk;> ntWk; nghUshjhu kUj;Jt epiyfspy; kl;Lk; kdpjDf;F ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy. mjpYk; Nkyhd kdpj ehfhPfj;jpy; xOf;ff; fl;Lkhdj;jpy; my;yth ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jp cs;sJ.

,dp> ,e;j mwpQHfs; $Wk;> tho;thjhug; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;gJ gw;wp ghHg;Nghk;.

m) tho;thjhug; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLkh?

kdpjd; trpf;Fk; ,e;j G+kpapd; trpg;gplkhdJ my;yJ nfhs;sthdJ Fwpg;gpl;l mstpy; jhd; cs;sJ. NkYk;> mjpy; cs;s tsq;fSk; Fwpg;gpll msNt cs;sd. NkYk;> tsHe;J tUk; kf;fs; njhifapd; ngUf;fk;> ,e;j Fwpg;gpl;l msNt cs;s tsq;fis gq;F NghLk; NghJ> gw;whf;Fiw vd;gJ jtpHf;f ,ayhj xd;whf Mfp tpLk; vd;fpd;wdH ,e;j mwpQH? ngUkf;fs;. ,jd; %yk; xt;nthU kdpjDk; rpy> gy nrsfhpaq;fisr; re;jpf;f NehpLk;. ,t;thwhd Kiwapy; kdpjd; ghjpf;fg;gLtijj; jLf;f Ntz;Lnkdpy;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhifiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;JtJ mtrpak; vd;fpd;wdH.

,iwtd; $Wfpd;whd; :

epr;rakhf ehk; xt;nthU nghUisAk; (epHzapf;fg;gl;l) mstpd;gbNa gilj;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. (my;FHMd; 54:49)

,t;TyifAk;> mjpy; cs;s [Ptuhrpfs; mj;jidiaAk; gilj;Jg; ghpghypj;J tUk; Vf ,iwtd; jd; gzilgFSf;F vd;d vd;d Ntz;Lk;> mit ve;j mstpy; Njit vd;gd Nghd;w tho;thjhu trjpfis ,e;j cyfk; epiyngw;wpUf;Fk; ehs; tiuAk ;mtw;Wf;fhd Vw;ghl;ilr; nra;Nj itj;jpUf;fpd;whd;. me;j Vf Nghf ,iwtd; jhd; ,e;j KOg; Nguz;lj;jpd; #j;jpujhp. mtdJ jpl;lq;fs; nray;ghLfs;> midj;Jk; mZtpd; mZtsT $l Fiwaw;wit. mtdJ mUl;nfhilfis mwpahJ> mjpy; nghjpe;Js;s NgUz;ikfis ftdpahky;> jd; kdk; Nghd Nghf;fpy; tho;thdhfpy;> e\;lk; milag; NghtJ kdpjNdad;wp NtW ahH?

,iwtd; fzf;fw;w caphpdq;fis ,e;j G+kpapy; gut tpl;Ls;shd;. mtw;wpy; VjhtJ xU caphpia my;yJ rpy caphpdq;fis kl;Lk;> mtw;wpd; caphpdg; ngUf;fj;jpy; ve;j mopitAk; Vw;gLj;jhJ cw;gj;jp nra;a tpl;Nlhkhdhy; kl;Lk; NghJk;> ,e;j G+kp KOtJk; me;j Fwpg;gpl;l caphp my;yJ mjd; ,dk; kl;LNk ,ej G+kp KOtJk; epiwe;jpUf;Fk;.

cjhuzkhf> jhtu ,dj;jpy; SISYMBRIUM SOPHIA vd;w jhtuj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. ,jd; xt;nthU fpis ,dKk; 3/4 kpy;ypad; tpijfisf; nfhz;lJ. ,e;j ,dj;jpd;> xU fpis ,dj;jpd; tpijia kl;Lk; Kiwg;gpf;fr; nra;Nthkhdhy;> %d;W tUlj;jpy; ,g;G+kp KOtJk; ,e;j jhtuk; kl;LNk epiwe;jpUf;Fk;.

el;rj;jpu kPd; (STAR FISH) xU jlitf;F ,U E}W kpy;ypad; Kl;ilfis ,LfpwJ. mNj vz;zpf;ifapy; mj;jid Kl;ilfSk; FQ;Rfshfg; nghhpe;jnjdpy;> mjdJ %d;whtJ my;yJ ehd;fhtJ jiyKiwapy; fly;KOg;gug;Gk; el;rj;jpu kPd; kl;LNk epiwe;jpUf;Fk;.

kdpjd; xU Kiw ntspNaw;Wk; tpe;J (SEMEN) d; %yk; 300-400 kpy;ypad; ngz;fisf; fUj;jhpf;fr; nra;a KbAk;. ,g;G+kp KOtJk; kdpjHfshf epuk;g gy E}W kpy;ypad; Mz;fs; Njitapy;iy. khwhf xU Mz; NghJk;. xU rpy tUlq;fspNyNa ,g;G+kpia kdpjHfspd; $l;lq;fshf epug;gp tplyhk;.

NkYk;> gwit ,dq;fs;> kw;Wk; tpyq;fpdq;fs; Nghd;w caphpdq;fs; Fiwe;j fhy mstpy; epiwe;j re;jjpfisg; ngUf;ff; $bait. Mdhy;> mtw;wpd; cw;gj;jpapd; msT xU fl;Lf; Nfhg;Gf;Fs; jhd; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mitfs; gy;fpg; ngUFtij itj;J> kdpjd; fzf;fpl;lhNdahdhy;> mitfSk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lj;ij Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w KbTf;F tu Ntz;b tUk;?!!

,j;jidiaAk; xUq;Nf fl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUg;gtd; Vf ,iwtd; md;Nwh!! me;j Vf ,iwtdhfpa my;yh`;tpd; gilg;ghw;wiy fz; nfhz;L ghHf;f kWf;fpd;whd;. mtdJ rlthjk; mtdJ fz;iz kiwj;J tpl;lJ. kdpjd; jd; gFj;jwpit itj;J> Fwpg;gpl;l msNt rpe;jid kw;Wk; jpwdha;T nra;a ,aYk;. mtdhy; ,ayhjij vd;WNk mtd; xg;Gf; nfhs;tjpy;iy. mtid kPwpr; nry;Yk; eilKiwfSf;F ,iwtdJ topfhl;Ljiy ehLtjpy;iy. ,iwtd; jd;Dila gilg;gpdq;fSf;F vJ Njit> vg;nghOJ Njit> vd;d Njit vd;gdtw;iw mtd; ed;fwpe;jtd;. gy bhpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifapd; msTf;F kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp vl;bdhy; $l midj;Jf;Fk; czT Gfl;lf; $ba u`;khd; my;yth mtd;!! mtd; jd; gpujpepjpahfpa ,e;j kdpjid G+kpapy; epiy ngw;wpUf;fr; nra;a Ntz;ba fhynky;yhk;> ,e;j kdpj ,dj;Jf;Fk;> kw;w Vida gilg;GfSf;Fk; Njitahd mj;jidiaAk; epiy ngw;wpUf;fr; nra;thd;.

,dp nghUshjhuKk;> tho;thjhuKk; kf;fs; njhif tsu tsu vt;thW tsHe;Nj te;Js;sj vd;gijf; fhz;Nghk;.

M) cyf kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpAk;> czT cw;gj;jpAk;> jdpegH tUkhdKk;

Mz;L - kf;fs; njhif (Nfhbapy;)

1650 - 50

1850 - 100

1930 - 200

1975 - 400

1995 - 573

fp.gp. 1650 Kjy; 1995 giu cs;s 345 tUlq;fspy; kf;fs; njhifahdJ mghpjkhf tsHe;Js;sJ. mJTk; 1930 – 1995 f;F ,ilg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; cs;s 60 Mz;Lfspy; 373 Nfhbahf kf;fs; njhif tsHe;Js;sJ.

,e;j msT caHe;Js;s kf;fs; njhifapdhy; kl;Lk;> cyfpy; tho;thjhuk; fpilf;fhky; cz;z czT ,y;yhky;> ,Uf;f ,lk; ,y;yhky; kf;fs; nrj;J kbe;jjhfNth my;yJ ,l neUf;fbapd; fhuzkhf mnrsfhpaq;fis mile;jjhfNth ek;khy; mwpa Kbatpy;iy. NkYk; ,t;tsT nghpa kf;fs; njhiff;F trpg;gplk; je;Jk;> czT je;Jk; ,d;Dk; kdpjd; FbapUf;f Vfg;gl;l epyk; fhypahfTk;> tUfpd;w ehl;fspy; czTg; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;lhYk;> epk;kjpahfr; rhg;gplf; $ba msTf;F czT jhdpaf; ifapUg;G ngUk;ghYk; midj;J ehLfsplKk; cs;sNj. ,e;jf; ifapUg;G Nghf> Vio ehLfSf;F czTfisj; jhdk; nra;af; $ba ehLfs; cs;sJ.

1995 y; ,e;jpuh fhq;fpu]; Ml;rpapd; nghOJ> epjp mikr;rH kd;Nkhfd;rpq; $wpa tptuq;fisf; ftdpf;f.

jw;Nghija czTg; nghUs; ifapUg;G 3 Nfhb ld;fs;. 2 Nfhb ld;fs; ,Ue;jhNy NghJk; NkYk; 66 Mapuk; Nfhb me;epar; nrythzp ifapUg;G cs;sJ. fLk;; twl;rpNa te;jhYk;> tpiyia fl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUf;f KbAk;. (jfty; : ,e;jpahLNl khHr; 21 - Vg;uy; 5> 1995)

NkYk; ekJ ,e;jpag; gpujkH 1997 nfd;a tp[aj;jpd; nghOJ> gpujkH F[;uhy; mtHfs; nfd;ahTf;F 1000 ld; czTg; nghUl;fis> twl;rp epthuz cjtpahfr; jUtjhf mwptpj;jhH. ,j;jifa mstpy; xU ehL ghjpg;gilAk; NghJ> kw;w ehLfs; jkJ ifapUg;gpy; cs;s czTg; nghUl;fisf; nfhz;L cjtp tUtJ ,d;iwa cyfpy; mjpfk; ele;J tUk; epfo;TfshFk;.

NkYk;> ,d;iwa ,e;jpa kf;fs; njhif 100 Nfhbf;Fk; mjpfk;. ,e;j 100 Nfhbf;Fk; mjpfkhd kf;fSk; cz;gjw;F Ntz;ba cztpd; ,Ug;G Nghfj; jhNd> kPjpia nfd;ah Nghd;w twl;rpapy; ghjpg;gpw;Fs;shFk; ehLfSf;F cjtpahfTk; > ,d;Dk; Vida ehLfSf;F czTg; nghUl;fis Vw;Wkjp nra;Jk;> ehL me;epar; nrythzpia <l;bf; nfhs;fpwJ.mjhtJ> fle;j 1994 y; nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F ,e;jpah Vw;Wkjp nra;j mhprpapd; msT vd;dntdpy;> 2>78>000 ld;fshFk;. (mug; epA+]; - rdp> Mf];L 16-1997)

NkNy ehk; Fwpg;gpl;l nrsjp mNugpah Nghf ,d;Dk; Vuhskhd ehLfSf;F ,e;jpa Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; czTg; nghUl;fspd; msitr; NrHj;jhy;> ekJ Njitf;F mjpfkhfNt czT cw;gj;jp Mtij mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

fle;j 1898 y; gphpl;ldpd;> gphpl;b\; mNrh]paidr; NrHe;j jiytH> rH tpy;ypak;]; f;&f;]; vd;gtH xU fUj;ij ntspapl;lhH. mjhtJ> gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; nfhif ,Nj mstpy; tsHe;J nfhz;Nl ,Ue;jhy;> ,d;Dk; 30 Mz;Lfspy;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g ek;kplk; NfhJik cw;gj;jp ,Uf;fhJ. ,jdhy; gphpl;ld; kpfg; ngUk; czTg; gw;whf;Fiwiar; re;jpf;Fk; vd;whH. rH tpy;ypak;]; f;&f;]; mtHfs; $wpagb> gphpl;ld; czTg; gw;whf;Fiwiar; re;jpj;jjh?

1934-38 y; 0.94 nkl;hpf; ld;/Vf;fH Mf ,Ue;j gphpl;ldpd; NfhJik cw;gj;jp 1956 y; 1.26 nkl;hpf; ld; /Vf;fH Mff; $baJ.

1995 y; gphpl;ldpd; nkhj;j NfhJik cw;gj;jp 14>300>000 nkl;hpf; ld; Mf caHe;jJ.

NkYk;> czT cw;gj;jpapd; msthdJ> tsHe;J tUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g caHe;J nfhz;Nl jhd; te;jNj xopa> tsHe;J tpl;l kf;fs; njhif fhuzkhf ahUk; gl;bdp fplf;ftpy;iy vd;gJ ,d;iwa epjHrd cz;ikahFk;.

fp.gp. 1780 y; gphpl;ldpd; kf;fs; njhif 8 kpy;ypad;.

1815 y; --- 18.5 kpy;ypad;

1911 y; --- 45.2 kpy;ypad;

1996 y; --- 65 kpy;ypad;

Mf> rH tpy;ypak; f;&f;]; mwpf;if ntspapl;l 1898 Kjy; 1997 tiu rhpahf xU E}w;whz;L fle;J tpl;l epiyapy;> gphpl;ldpd; czT cw;gj;jp mjpfhpj;J> kf;fs; midtUk; czTg; gw;whf;Fiw ,y;yhky; tho;tJ> Nkw;fz;l khy;j;j]; rhHGthj mwpQHfspd; $w;iw ngha;ahf;Ffpwjy;yth?

,Nj rk fhyj;jpy; mnkhpf;fhtpYk; mHn[z;bdhtpYk; kpj kpQ;rpa NfhJik cw;gj;jpapd; fhuzkhf Vw;gl;l tpiyr; rhpitf; fl;Lg;gLj;j> me;j muRfs; kpj kpQ;rpa NfhJikia ld; fzf;fpy; flypy; nfhl;bAk;> vhpj;Jk; mopj;jdNu> mij cyfk; kwe;J tpl;ljh? jtwhdnjhU rpj;jhe;jf; nfhs;iffisf; ifapy; J}f;fp itj;Jf; nfhz;L> rpW gps;isfspd; mOifia mlf;f G+r;rhz;b tUtjhff; fw;gidahff; $WNthNk> mijg; Nghy; ,e;j mwpQH? ngUkf;fs; ngaH njhpahj CUf;F top nrhy;ypf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpwhHfs;.

NkYk; 1950 y; ,e;jpahtpd; kf;fs; njhif 361.1 kpy;ypad; MFk;. 1997 y; 965 kpy;ypad; Mff; $bAs;sJ. NkYk;> 2002 gpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifia tpl mjpfk; Mfp tpl;lJ.

,jpy; tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPNo fdprkhd msT> mjhtJ 65 rjtPj kf;fs; tho;e;jhYk;> ,ejpah czT cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwitf; fz;Ls;sJ. mNj Nghy jdp egH tUkhdKk;> Mz;Lf;F Mz;L $bf; nfhz;Nl jhd; tUfpd;wJ.

vt;thnudpy;> ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j czT cw;gj;jp 1950 y; 50.8 kpy;ypad; ld;. 1995-96 y; 185 kpy;ypad; ld;dhf czT cw;gj;jp caHe;Js;sJ vijf; fhl;Lfpd;wnjdpy;> kf;fs; njhif cau cau cw;gj;jpAk; caHe;J nfhz;L jhd; te;Js;sJ.

Mdhy; ,e;j cw;gj;jp rhpahd mstpy; gq;fplg;glhkYk;*> ghJfhf;fg;glhkYk;> cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; msTf;F Vw;g jhdpa gjdply; trjpapy;yhikAk;** Mfpa fhuzq;fshy; czTg; nghUs; tPzbf;fg;gLtjhy; jhd; ghjpg;Gk; e\;lKk; Vw;gLfpwNj xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijf; filgpbj;jjhy; my;y. (*, ** tpiuakhFk; cw;gj;jp vDk; jiyg;gpy; fhz;f (ghfk; 2 y; 6)

,e;jpaHfspd; tUl tUkhdk; &ghapy;..

juk; tUkhd kjpg;G ,e;jpa &ghapy;

1985 - 1986   1992 - 1993

fPo;j;jl;L &.9000/-fPNo 18>000/-fPNo

jho;eLj;jl;L 9000/- - 18>000/- 18>000/- - 36>000/-

eLj;juk; 18>001/- - 30>000/- 36>001/- - 56>000

caHeLj;juk; 30>001/- - 42>000/- 56>001/- - 78>000/-

Nky;juk; 42>000 NkNy 78>000 NkNy

- Mjhuk; : ,e;jpa LNl> Vg;uy; 6-20 - 1995.

kf;fs; njhif $ba mNj mstpy; ruhrhp ,e;jpadpd; tUl tUkhdKk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. vdNt ,tHfs; fz;L gag;gLk; tho;thjhuk; ghjpf;fg;Lk; vDk; gpuikAk; jtW vd;gJk; ep&gzkhfpwJ.

NkYk;> khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfs; $Wk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ jhd; ehl;by; tho;thjhuKk;> ehl;by; nghUshjhuKk;> njhopy; tsHr;rpAk; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

vt;thnwdpy;> ,d;iwa Foe;ij jhd; ehisa EfHNthH. ,d;iwa njhopy; tsHr;rpAk;> njhopw;rhiyfSk;> ,d;iwa kf;fspd; Njitfis epiwNtw;Wk; msT cs;sd vd itj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. mjhtJ 100 Nfhb kf;fspd; EfH nghUs; kw;Wk; czTj; Njitia epiwT nra;Ak; nghUl;L mike;Js;sd. Nkw;gb 100 Nfhb kf;fs; njhifia> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; 100 my;yJ 150 Mz;Lfspy; Fiwf;fpNwhk; vdpy;> Fiwe;J tpl;l kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g cw;gj;jpiaAk; Fiwf;f NehpLk;. cw;gj;jp FiwAk; NghJ> njhopw;rhiyfisAk;> cw;gj;jpahsHfisAk;> njhopyhsHfisAk; Fiwf;f NehpLk;. ,jd; %yk; ehl;bd; njhopy; tsKk;> re;ijg; nghUshjhuKk; ntFthfg; ghjpf;fg;gLk;. mj;Jld; Ntiy ,y;yhj; jpz;lhl;lKk; Vw;gLk;. ,jd; %yk; ehl;bd; nghUshjhuKk; r%f epiyAk; ntFthfg; ghjpf;fg;gLk;.

NkYk;> ,uz;L cyfg; NghHfSf;Fg; gpd;dhy;> gpuhd;];> gphpl;ld;> n[Hkdp Nghd;w ehLfspy; Vw;gl;l kf;fs; njhiff; FiwT> Fwpg;ghf mjpf Mz;fs; ,we;jjd; fhuzkhf> gpwg;G tpfpjk; ntFthff; Fiwe;J NghdJ.

,e;j gpwg;G tpfpjj;ijAk;> ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhifiaAk; rhp nra;tjw;fhf> ntspehl;L kf;fis FbNaw;Wtjw;F> jk; FbNaw;wr; rl;l tpjpfspy; Vfg;gl;l khWghLfisr; nra;J> Rje;jpukhd FbNaw;wj;jpw;F top nra;jJ. Mdhy;> ,d;W mt;thW FbNawpa gy;NtW kf;fspd; ,dk;> ehL> nkhop> epwk;> fyhr;rhuk; fhuzkhf> ,e;jf; FbNawpa kf;fs; nrhe;j ehl;L kf;fSld; NtWgl;L epw;fpwhHfs;. ,e;j NtWghlhdJ> ,e;j muRfSf;F ngUk; jiytypahf cs;sJ. Vnddpy;> FbNawpa kf;fs; kPJ> cs;ehl;L kf;fs; mjpfkhd jhf;Fjy;fspy; <LgLfpwhHfs;. NkYk> Ntiy tha;g;G Nghd;wtw;wpy; cs; ehl;L kf;fSf;Fk;> ntspehl;by; ,Ue;J FbNawpa kf;fSf;Fk; Vw;gLk; Nghl;bahdJ> cs;ehl;L kf;fs; muRf;F vjpuhfTk;> ntspehl;ltHfsi ntspNaw;wf; NfhhpAk; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <LgLk; #oy; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jdhy; nghUshjhug; ghjpg;Gk;> ehl;bd; ];jpuj; jd;ikapy; gpur;idiaAk;> ghjpg;igAk; Vw;gLj;jp tUfpwJ vdyhk;.

,Nj Neuj;jpy; kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf cw;gj;jp ngUf Ntz;ba epHg;ge;jk;> kdpjid tpiuthd cw;gj;jpf;F mtidj; J}z;LfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; Ntiy tha;g;G> njhopy; tsHr;rp ngUFtNjhL> ehl;bd; nghUshjhuKk; caUk; mNjNtisapy;. ehl;bd; ghJfhg;Gk; gyg;gLj;jg;gLk;.

New;W tiu ek; ehl;by; xU khL xU ehisf;F 10 ypl;lH ghy; fue;jhy; Mr;rhpak;. Mdhy; ,d;W xU ehisf;F 40 ypl;lH fuf;Fk; fyg;G ,d khLfs; te;J tpl;ld. NkYk;> M];jpNuypah> nld;khHf;> `hye;J Nghd;w ehLfspd; khLfs; xU ehisf;F 90 ypl;lH ghy; fwf;Fk; jpwDilait. Nkw;gb ehLfspypUe;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;j khLfSf;F> mNj rPNjh\;z epiyia nraw;ifahf cUthf;fp> nrsjp mNugpahg; ghy; gz;izfspy;> mNj 90 ypl;lUf;Fk; Fiwtpy;yhj ghiy cw;gj;jp nra;fpwhHfs;. mNj Nghy Nkw;gb ehLfspd; khLfs; <Dk; fd;whdJ> 8 khjj;jpNyNa rpidf;Fj; jahuhfp tpLfpd;wJ. mNj Nghy jpdk; xd;Wf;F ek;ehl;Lg; gz;izfspd; Nfhopfs; xU Kl;il jhd; ,Lk;. ,d;W xU ehisf;F ,uz;L Kl;il ,Lk; Nfhopfs; te;J tpl;ld.

mNjNghy> 1 fpNyh fj;jhpf;fha; gwpf;f 10 nehbfspy; fha; gwpf;f Ntz;ba epiy Ngha;> ,d;W xU nehbapNYNa 10 fpNyh fj;jhpf;fha; gwpf;Fk; msTf;F cyfj;jpy; njhopy; El;gk; tsHe;Js;sJ.

Kd;G ney; mWtil nra;a 6 khjk; fhj;jpUe;jJ Nghf> ,d;W 90 ehl;fspy; mWtil nra;af; $ba ,dq;fis kdpjd; fz;Lgpbj;Js;shd;.

vdNt> kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf> mtw;iwr; rkhspf;f Ntz;bajd; nghUl;L vOe;j ce;Jjy;fs; kdpjid Gjpa Gjpa fz;Lgpbg;Gfis nra;aj; J}z;baJ. mjw;F Vw;whw; Nghy;> Genetic Engineering Nghd;w GJg;GJ mwptpay; Jiwfs; Vw;gl;L> tptrhaj; JiwapYk;> fhy;eilj; JiwapYk; tpaj;jF khw;wq;fisr; nra;J tUfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ve;ne;j ehLfs; kf;fs; njhifia mjpfkhfg; ngw;Ws;sNjh> me;j ehLfs; ghJfhg;gpYk; jd;dpiwitg; ngw;Ws;sd. mNj Neuj;jpy; Fiwthd kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l [g;ghd;> ijthd;> Fitj;> nrsjp mNugpah Nghd;w ehLfs; jq;fs; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf mnkhpf;fh Nghd;w ehLfspd; uhZt tPuHfisf; $ypf;F mkHj;j Ntz;ba epHg;ge;j epiyapy; cs;sdH. vdNt xU ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhif jhd; me;ehl;bd; ngUQ; nry;tk;. kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf tsq;fSk; ngUFNk xopa> me;ehl;il mopTf;F ,l;Lr; nry;yhJ.

,) jdp egH tUkhdf; fzpg;G - Gjpa Kiw

rHtNjr ehza epjp mikg;gpd; fzf;fPl;bd;gb cs;ehl;Lg; gz kjpg;gpd; mbg;gilapy; thq;Fk; rf;jpia Kf;fpakhd fhuzpahff; nfhz;L kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; nkhj;j cs; ehl;L cw;gj;jp kjpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. ,g;Gjpa fzf;fPl;bd;gb ,e;jpahtpy; ruhrhp jdpegH tUkhdk; 1>250 lhyuhf caHe;Js;sJ. Kd;dH ,J 1150 lhyuhf ,Ue;jJ. NkYk; ,f; fzf;fPl;L Kiwia tsUk; ehLfs; mq;fPfhpg;gjpy;iy. Vnddpy;> mitfSf;F cyf tq;fpapd; rpwg;Gf; fld; cjtp fpilf;fhJ. xU ehl;bd; ruhrhp tUkhdk; 765 lhyUf;F Nky; ,Ue;jhy; cyf tq;fp epjp cjtp mspf;fhJ vd;gNj ,jd; fhuzkhFk;.

<) fy;tp ,y;yh Foe;ijfSk;> Njrj;jpd; tsHr;rpAk;?

NkYk; ,e;jpahitg; nghUj;jtiu 30 Nfhbg; NgH fy;tp ,y;yhjtHfshf cs;sdH. ,tHfspy; ngUk;ghNyhH Foe;ijj; njhopyhsHfshf tho;itj; njhlq;fpatHfs;. cyfj; njhopyhsH eyf; fofk;> NtW rpy nghJ ey mikg;GfSld; ,ize;J elj;jpa Ma;tpy;> fy;tp fw;w xUtH 50 Mz;Lfspy; 12 yl;rk; &gha; rk;ghjpf;f tha;g;G cs;sJ. fy;tp ,y;yhjtH vj;jid Mz;Lfs; cioj;jhYk; ,e;j tUkhdj;ij vl;l KbahJ. (,e;jpad; vf;];gpu]; 01.07.1997 jkpopy; rhiy ,se;jpiuad; - rkurk; Mf];L 16-31-1997) vd;gJ njspthfj; njhpate;Js;sJ. ,e;jpahtpy; RkhH 2 Nfhbf; Foe;ijfs; gs;spf; fy;tp ,y;yhjjhy;> gilg;ghw;wYf;fhd kd tsHr;rpia ,oe;J tpLfpd;whHfs;. Fiwe;j $yp NtiyfSf;Fk;> ,tHfs; gad; jUtjhy;> ,e;ehl;bd; murpay;thjpfSk;> Miy mjpgHfSk; me;jf; Foe;ijfspd; koiy ehl;fspy; fy;tp ngWtjpypUe;J jLg;gjd; %yk;> ,e;jpa ehl;bd; njhopyhsHfspd; jpwidj; jLg;gNjhL> jdp egH tUkhdj;ijAk; mtHfs; ghjpg;gilar; nra;J tpLfpd;whHfs;.

,e;j jdpegH tUkhd ghjpg;ghdJ Njrj;jpd; nkhj;j tUthiag; ghjpf;ff; $bajhf cs;sJ. ,J Nghd;w epiyfspy;> fz; Kd; midtUf;Fk; njhpe;J elf;Fk; ,j;jifa mepahaq;fis muRk;> murpay;thjpfSk; jq;fs; yhg Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf kl;LNk mt;tg;nghOJ Fuy; nfhLf;fpwhHfs;.

ehl;bd; jdpegH tUkhdk; caHtjhy;> FLk;g tUkhdk; caUk; mNjNtisapy;> nghUshjhu Nehf;Fld;> nghUshjhug; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;L tpLk; vDk; gaj;jpy; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij filgpbf;f Ntz;ba mtrpaKk; ,y;yhky; Mfp tpLk;.

Vnddpy; ,d;W nghUshjhug; gw;whf;Fiw jhd; FLk;gj;jpy; Foe;ijfspd; vz;zpf;ifia kl;Lg;gLj;jj; J}z;Lk; KO Kjw; fhuzpahf mike;Js;sJ vd;gJ midtuhYk; xg;Gf; nfhs;sg;gl;l cz;ikahFk;. vdNt> kf;fis fy;tp fw;w rKjhakhf cUthf;Ftjd; %yk; ehl;bd; nghUshjhuk; caUNk xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; cauhJ vd;gJ ,d;W ep&gzkhfp tUk; cz;ikahFk;.

brk;gH> 02> 1997 y; ntspahd ,e;jpah LNl gj;jphpf;ifapy; gf;fk; 46 y; ntspahdnjhU nra;jpapy;> jkpo;ehL jpiug;glj; Jiw khztHfs; vLj;j> ntd;j l;hPk; fk;]; l;& vd;w lhf;Fnkz;l;hp jpiug;glj;jpy;> gbg;gwptpy;yhj hpf;\h njhopyhspf;F thpirahff; Foe;ijfs;. mtdJ kfs; gs;spf;Fr; nry;y Ntz;ba tajpy;> $yp Ntiyf;Fr; nry;y NehpLfpwJ. jd; je;ij xU Foe;ijNahL epWj;jpapUe;jhy; FLk;gk; vg;gb ,Ue;jpUf;Fk; vd me;j 10 taj rpWkp epidg;gjhf me;jg; glj;jpy; nrhy;yp ,Uf;fpwhHfshk;.

,e;jpar; rl;lg;gb> midj;J FbkfDf;Fk; fy;tp fw;f chpikaspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. me;jf; fy;tpf;fhf Ntz;b ,e;j ehL ve;j mstpy; nryT nra;Js;sJ. rpiyfSf;Fk;> tpohf;fSf;Fk;> ntl;b ge;jhf;fSf;Fk; kl;Lk; gzk; ,Uf;fpwJ. Mdhy;> Muk;gf; fy;tp trpjpia ehl;by; tp];jhpf;f kl;Lk; gzk; ,y;iy. ,d;W vj;jid gs;spf; $lq;fs; fl;blk; ,y;yhkYk;> MrphpaHfs; ,y;yhkYk; ele;j nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. fzf;fpy;yhjit.

NkYk;> ,j;jifa Foe;ijfis nfhj;jbikfshfg; gad;gLj;jTk;> $yp Ntiyf;F mkHj;jTk; rl;lk; jil nra;jpUe;Jk;> ,d;W Foe;ijj; njhopyhsHfs; ehl;by; ngUff; fhuzk; vd;d? mj;jifa Foe;ijj; njhopyhsHfisg; gad;gLj;Jk; murpay; KjiyfisAk;> gzf;fhu KjyhspfisAk; ,e;j Njrk; vd; nra;jJ? me;jf; Foe;ijapd; fy;tp kWg;Gf;F ahH fhuzk;? Vd;? me;jj; jfg;gd; Nky; kl;Lk; KOg; gopiar; Rkj;JfpwPHfs;. Chpy; ve;jj; jfg;gDk; gps;is ngwhtpl;lhy; cq;fSf;F (murpay;thjpfSf;F) jhd; ey;yJ. fy;tpf;F vd xJf;Fk; gzj;ij rpiyfSf;Fk;> rpdpkhf; $j;jhbfSf;Fk; thwp ,iwf;fyhNk!

mJ Nghfl;Lk;> xU Foe;ijAld; kl;Lk; thOk; Mapuf;fzf;fhd njhopyhsHfs; epiy kl;Lk; vd;d thOfpwjhk;. me;j xU Foe;ijapd; fy;tpj; Njitf;F ,e;j muR vd;d nra;Js;sJ. GOj;Jg; Nghd rj;JzTk;> cOj;Jg; Nghd ghy; khTk; jhdh? ,d;W vq;F jpUk;gpDk; fy;tp vd;gJ filr; ruf;fhf fhz;ntz;l; Kjy; gy;fiyf;fofk; Kjy; gutp tpl;lNj> ,e;j epiyapy; xNu xU Foe;ij ngw;w fPo; epiy kf;fs; vd;d jd; Foe;ijia fhz;ntz;byh gbf;fg; Nghl;L tpl;lhd;?

ePq;fs; nra;tnjy;yhk;> me;jg; gpQ;rpd; kdjpNy eQ;irf; fyg;gJ jhd;. jd;Dld; gpwe;J tpl;l jd; jq;if> jk;gpfshy; jhNd ekf;F ,e;jr; rpukk; vd;w cstpay; jhf;fj;jhy;> me;jg; gpQ;Rf; Foe;ij jd; jk;gp jq;iffisNa vjphpfshf epidf;f itf;fj; jhd; ,J Nghd;w glq;fs; gad;gLNk xopa> mjdhy; vOk; gpur;idia vs; KidasTk; jPHf;fg; gad;glhJ.

Nky;kl;lj;Jf;F Ntz;Lnkd;why; tjtjntd;w ,Uf;Fk; Foe;ijfs; mehfhPfkhfj; Njhd;wyhk;. Mdhy; fPo;epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; kf;fSf;f mJ jhd; nghf;fp\Nk. Vd; vdpy; ,e;j Nky;kl;l kf;fshy; Vw;gl;l epHthff; NfL> Kiwaw;w Ml;rp Nghd;tw;why; tpiythrp caHT. EfHnghUs; thp Vw;wk; Nghd;wtw;wpdhy; mtdJ nghUshjhur; Rikiag; gd;klq;fhf;fpf; nfhz;L tUfpwJ. ,tw;iw vyyhk; mtd; <L nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;why;> mjpff; Foe;ijfSk;> mjd; %yk; tUkhdKk; fpilf;f mtd; top Njbf; nfhs;fpwhd;. ,tw;iw vy;yhk; jPHf;f> fPo;f;Fbkfdpd; epiy cau Ntz;Lnkd;why;> MSk; tHf;fk; Kjypy; rPuila Ntz;Lk;. Mzp NtNu gOjile;J epw;Fk; NghJ> fpisfisf; Nfhgpj;Jg; gad; ,y;iy..! jpiug;glf; fy;Y}hp ez;gHfNs!!!

NkYk; r%fj;jpd; fPo; kl;lkhdJ mjpf gps;isfisf; nfhz;ljhf cs;sJ vd;gJ mtHfisg; nghUj;jtiu xU rhjfkhd tprak; jhd;. Vnddpy;> jd; epyj;jpd; gad;ghLfSf;fhd $yp Ntiyfs; kw;Wk; jd; njhopy;fSf;fhd $yp NtiyfSf;F gpwiu $ypf;F mkHj;Jk; NghJ Vw;gLk; nghUshjhu e\;lj;jpypUe;J ghJfhf;f> jd; gps;isfis mjw;Fg; gad;gLj;jp> nghUshjhu tpiuaj;jpypUe;J mtd; jd;idg; ghJfhj;Jf nfhs;fpwhd;. mjdhy;> mjpff; Foe;ijfis mtd; Rikahff; fUJtjpy;iy. ,j;jifa epiyapy;> muR me;j fPo; kl;lf; Fbkfd; Nky; fUiz nfhz;L> mtdJ gps;isfSf;F rhpahd Kiwapy; ,ytrf; fy;tp toq;Fkhdhy;> fPo;f;Fb kfdpd; nghUshjhuk;..> jd; fy;tp fw;w Foe;ij %yk; cau tha;ag;gpUf;fpwJ. ,j;jifa fPo;f;Fb kfdpd; nghshjhu tsHr;rp jhd; ehl;bd; cz;ikahd nghUshjhu tsHr;rpahf mikAk;. Vnddpy;> ehl;bd; 60 rjtPjk; NgH ehl;bd; ruhrhp tUkhdj;Jf;Fk; fPo;epiyapy; cs;stHfs;.

2. ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;?

FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk; khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfspd; mLj;j thjk;> kf;fs; njhif tsu tsu ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;..? Vnddpy;> G+kp vd;gJ xU Fwpg;gpl;l msT nfhz;l tho;tplkhFk;. mjhtJ> G+kpapd; nkhj;jg; gug;gsT 57>168>000 rJu iky;fs;. ,jpy; 1995 d; fzf;Fg;gb kf;fs; njhif 573 NfhbahFk;.

Nkw;gb cs;s G+kpapd; gug;gsNthL> kf;fs; njhifiaAk; fzf;fpl;lhy; 9-10 Vf;fH gug;gstpy; xU kdpjd; trpf;fpd;whd;. mjhtJ xU rJu iky; gug;gstpw;F 100f;Fk; rw;W mjpfkhd NgH trpf;fpwhHfs;. fpl;lj;jl;l 6-7 fhy;ge;J ikjhdq;fs; msTs;s ,lj;jpy; xU kdpjd; trpf;fpd;whd;. xU fhy;ge;J ikjhdk; vd;gJ xd;wiu Vf;fH gug;gsT nfhz;ljhFk;.

rpy E}w;whz;LfSf;F Kd;dhy; kdpjd; FbirapYk;> khb tPly;yhj tPl;bYk; trpj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jhd;. Mdhy; ,d;Nwh> tpQ;Qhd tsHr;rpAk;> njhopy; El;gKk; tsHr;rp mile;J tUk; epiyapy;> kdpjd; ,d;W mLf;F khbfspy; trpf;f Muk;gpj;J cs;shd;. ,jd; %yk; ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw vt;tsT Vw;gl;lhYk;> mtw;iw vy;yhk; rkhspf;Fk; msTf;F ,d;iwa njhopy; El;gk; Kd;Ndwp cs;sJ.

,d;iwa Kd;Ndwpa ehLfspy; Kjd;ikahd mnkhpf;fhtpd; epA+ahHf; efhpy; 1 rJu iky; gug;gstpw;F 22>000 NgH ve;j mnrsfhpaq;fSk; ,y;yhky;> cyfpd; Kjy; ju trjpfNshL tho;fpd;whHfs;.

NkYk; rPdhtpd; nkhj;jg; gug;gstpy; 10 rjtPjk; epyk; kl;LNk cgNahfj;jpy; cs;sJ. Nkw;F Mg;hpf;fhtpy; 62 rjtPj tptrha epyq;fs; tptrhak; nra;ag;glhky; jhpR epyq;fshf cs;sd. mjhtJ> 1>150>000>000 Vf;fH epyq;fs; jhpR epyq;fs;. gpNurpy; jdJ nkhj;j tpis epyj;jpy; (2>000>000>000 Vf;fH) 2.25 rjtPjj;ij kl;LNk tptrhaj;jpw;fhfg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ. NkYk; gpNurpy; jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 29.21 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; tptrhaj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ.

[g;ghd; jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 13.97 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; tptrhaj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ. fdlh jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 8 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; tptrhaj;jpw;fhfg; gad;gLj;JfpwJ.

tptrhak; nra;jJ Nghf> vQ;rpAs;s ,lq;fs; fhLfshfTk;> ghiy epyq;fshfTk;> kiyfs; kw;Wk; jhpR epyq;fshfTk; fplf;fpd;wd. ,t;tsT ,lq;fs; Nghf kPjKs;s ,lq;fspy;> mjhtJ kf;fs; jw;nghOJ FbapUf;Fk; gFjp Nghf> kf;fs; FbapUf;fj; jFjpahd ,lq;fs; ,d;Dk; epia cs;sd. NkYk; gy mLf;Fkhbf; FbapUg;G trjpahdJ> kf;fs; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; gug;gsitf; Fiwj;Js;sJ vdyhk;. NkYk;> NkNy cs;s jfty; %yk;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhif %yk;> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;gJ ntWk; G+r;rhz;b fhl;Lk; NtiyNaad;wp NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;f KbAk;?!

,dp rpy ehLfspy; cs;s [d neUf;fbiag; ghHg;Nghk;.

 

vz;

ehL

[dneUf;fb (xU rJu fp.kP.fspy;)

1

mnkhpf;fh

57.67

2

M];jphpah

214.71

3

fphP];

109.3

4

gphpl;ld;

319.17

5

nkf;]pNfh

85.29

6

,e;jpah

695.3 Per/Sq. mile

7

[g;ghd;

852.5 Per/Sq. mile

8

,];Nuy;

777.41

9

vfpg;J

646.44

10

M];jpNuypah

3.6

11

ghfp];jhd;

423.24

12

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16.75

13

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652.52

14

kNyrpah

353.64

15

rPdh

314.6 Per/Sq. mile

16

nejHyhe;J (`hye;J)

1>055.2 Per/Sq. mile

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NkYk;> nejHyhe;jpy; xU rJu iky;gug;gstpy; ,t;tsT egHfs; trpj;Jk;> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw vd;w gpur;id ,y;yhky; tho;fpwhHfNs jtpu> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw fhuzkhf ahUk; flypy; tpOe;J jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhs;stpy;iy. khwhf> fliy kf;fs; trpf;Fk; ,lkhfTk;> tpis epykhfTk; khw;wpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs; vd;gJ jhd; cz;ik epiyahFk;.

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NkYk;> nejHyhe;jpYk;> [g;ghdpYk; ,t;tsT [d neUf;fb ,Ue;Jk;> gpwg;G tpfpjk; Fiwe;J tpl;lij mwpe;J [g;ghd; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij iftpLtjw;F cz;lhd eltbf;iffis vLj;J tUfpd;wJ. Mdhy; ek; ,e;jpa mwpT [PtpfNsh? kf;fs; njhif ngUFfpwJ vd XykpLfpd;whHfs;. NkYk; kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp jhd; xU ehl;il njhopy; tsHr;rpapYk;> nghUshjhu tsHr;rpapYk;> ehl;bd; ghJfhg;gpYk; Kd;Ndw;wk; fhzr; nra;Ak;. mJ my;yhj FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lk;> xU Njrj;ij mopTg; ghijf;Fj; jhd; ,l;Lr; nry;Yk;.

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khtl;lk;

nkhj;j kf;fs; njhif 1rJu fp.kP.

[dneUf;fb (xU rJu fp.kP.fspy;)

1

nrd;id

21>811

55>638>318

2

fd;dpahFkhp

945

1>591>174

3

jpUts;@H

588

4>653>593

4

jQ;rhT+H

594

2>138>845

5

kJiu

525

3>449>662

6

flY}H

596

2>122.759

7

ehif

518

2>387>864

8

nguk;g@H> jpUr;rp> f&H

371

4>114>323

9

rptfq;if

263

1>074>989

10

GJf;Nfhl;il

284

1>322>494

11

,uhkehjGuk;

268

1>135>887

,jpy; nrd;idapy; jhd; mjpfgl;r kf;fs; njhifahf 21>811 NgH xU rJu fp.kP.f;Fs; tho;fpwhHfs;. ,Nj msT kf;fs; njhif jhd; mnkhpf;fj; jiyefH epA+ahHf; efhpy; tho;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy;> mJ tsHe;j ehLfspy; Kjd;ikahdJ. Mifahy;> ,t;tsT kf;fSk; ve;jtpj mnrsfhpaq;fisAk; milahky; tho;fpwhHfs;. Mdhy; nrd;idiag; nghUj;jtiu kf;fs; gytpj mnrsfhpaq;fSld; tho ahH fhuzk;? kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fkh? fpilahJ. ,jd; KO Kjw; fhuzk; muNr jhd;. vy;yh Kf;fpa njhopyfq;fSk;> njhopw;rhiyfSk;> mYtyfq;fSk; jiyefhpy; ,Ug;gJk;> murpd; rhpahd jpl;lkply; ,y;yhikAk; jhd; ,jd; fhuzkhFk;.

Vnddpy;> ,t;tsT kf;fs; njhifAk; ngUff; fhuzk;> fpuhkq;fspypUe;J kf;fs; Ntiytha;g;Gj; Njb ,lk; ngaHe;jjhYk;> NkYk; fpuhkq;fspy; fy;tp> Ntiytha;g;G> Rfhjhuk; Nghd;w mbg;gil trjpfs; kWf;fg;gLtjhYk; jhd; nrd;id ,t;tsT nghpa kf;fs; njhifiag; ngw;Ws;sNj jtpu> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;il filgpbf;fhky;> risf;fhky; ngw;Wj; js;spajhy; myy vd;gij FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuT mwpT [Ptpfs; rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHg;gJ ey;yJ.

fpuhkq;fspd; mbg;gilj; trjpfs; nra;ag;gLk; vd;gd Nghd;w murpd; jpl;lq;fs;> jpl;lq;fshfNt cs;sdNt jtpu nray;ghL vd;gJ kpff; FiwNt. mg;gbNa fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; mbg;gil trjpfs; nra;ag;glhkYk;> nra;ag;gltpUf;Fk; trjpfSf;F xJf;fg;gLk; epjpfs; KOikahfr; nrytplg;gLfpwjh? vd;why; ,y;iy. fhz;l;uhf;lH Kjy; vk;.vy;.V.> vk;.gp.> tiu nfhs;isabj;jJ Nghf> jpl;lq;fSf;Fg; Ngha;r; NrHtJ vd;dNth> ntWk; 20 rjtPjk; jhd; ,Uf;Fk;. Vnddpy;> NuhL Nghlf; nfhl;lg;gLk; ry;ypf; fw;fs;> NuhL Nghlg;gl;ljhf gzk; ngwg;gl;l gpd; mit NuhLfs; Nghlg;glhkNyNa ms;spr; nry;Yk; mtyk; ek; jkpo;ehl;by; jhd; mjpfk; elf;fpwJ vdyhk;.

,JNghy> MSk; tHf;fKk;> mjpfhu tHf;fKk; nra;fpd;w jtWfs; jhd;> rKjha mtyq;fisj; Njhw;Wtpf;fpd;wd. Nghlg;gLk; jpl;lq;fs; mwpthHe;j KiwapYk; njhiyNehf;Fk; nfhz;ljhf ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpYk;> Nghlg;gLk; jpl;lq;fSf;F xJf;fg;gLk; gzk; KOikahff me;je;jj; jpl;lq;fSf;Fr; nrytplg;gLkhdhy;> ehL ,e;jsT tsHr;rpj; jiliag; ngw;wpUf;fhJ.

NkYk;> ,e;jpa ehl;bd; tsHr;rpf;Ff; FWf;Nf epw;gtHfs; ,e;j ehl;Lg; gbg;ghspfSk;> mjpfhhpfSk;> murpay;thjpfSk; jhd; vd;W nrhd;dhy; gyH tpag;gilayhk;. Mdhy; mJ jhd; cz;ik. gy;NtW cyf epWtdq;fs; ,e;jpahtpd; tsHr;rpg; gzpfSf;Ff; fldhf toq;fpa 1100 Nfhb lhyH (38>000 Nfhb &gha;) gad;gLj;jg;glhky; mg;gbNa Klq;fpf; fplf;fpwJ. mwptpay; gbg;Gk;> Gjpa Gjpa jpl;l eltbf;ifg; gbg;Gk; gbj;jtHfs;> ,e;jpahtpy; cyfj;jpNyNa ,uz;lhtJ ngUe;njhifapduhf ,Uf;fpwhHfs; vd;w Gs;sp tpguk; jug;gLfpwJ. Njb te;J fpilj;j 38>000 Nfhb &ghiag; gad;gLj;jj; njhpahky; mOf;fg;gbag; Nghl;L tpl;L> gioa gQ;rg;ghl;ilNa ghbf; nfhz;L ,Uf;Fk; ek;Kila gbg;ghspfs; gw;wp vd;d jhd; nrhy;tJ? (tzpf kzp> 7-4-97. rkurj;jpy; NguhrphpaH rhiy ,se;jpiuad;. Mf];L 16-31> 1997)

NkYk;> vq;nfy;yhk; njhopy; tsHr;rpAk;> Ntiy tha;g;Gf;fSk; mjpfk; cs;sdNth me;je;j khtl;lq;fspy; jhd; kf;fs; njhif neUf;fk; mjpfk; fhzg;gLfpwJ. gpw khtl;lq;fshd ,uhkehjGuk;> GJf;Nfhl;il> rptfq;if Nghd;w twz;l khtl;lq;fspy; kf;fs; njhif Fiwthf ,Ug;gjw;Ff; fhuzk;> njhopy; tsHr;rpAk;> tptrhaKk; kpff; Fiwe;j msNt fhzg;gLtJk;> mjd; %yk; Ntiy tha;g;G ,y;yhj epiyapdhy; jhd;> kf;fs; njhif neUf;fk; Fiwthff; fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,J Nghd;w twz;l gFjpfspypUe;J Ntiy tha;g;Gj; Njbr; nry;NthHfshy; jhd;> nrd;id Nghd;w efuq;fspy; kf;fs; njhif neUf;fk; mjpfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wNj xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij filgpbf;fhjjhy; my;y.

NkYk; 1971-81 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; jkpo;ehl;by; 17.50 rjkhf ,Ue;j kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp 1981-91 Mk; Mz;Lfspy; 14.94 rjkhff; Fiwe;Js;sJ. fle;j gj;jhz;Lfspy; ,e;jpah KOtJk; kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp tpfpjk; 23.5 rjkhFk;.

nghJthf ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;L tpLk; vd;W FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuT ,af;fq;fs; NghLk; $g;ghLfs; jtwhdit. fz;%bf; nfhz;L fjWtJ Nghyj;jhd;> tutu ekJ ,e;jpa fy;tpahsHfSf;F Rarpe;jid vd;gJ ,y;yhkyhfp tpl;lJ. ntspehlL mwpQd;? vtdhtJ vijg; gw;wpahtJ tha; jpwe;J tpl;lhy; NghJk;> mij Ma;Tf;F cl;gLj;jhky; Vw;Wf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ ek;Kila gof;fkhfp tpl;lJ. ,e;jpah jd;id mbikj; jiyapypUe;J tpLtpj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk;> ek; kf;fs; ,d;Dk; Kjyhspf;F iffl;Lk; Nrtfd; gof;fj;jpypUe;J kPz;ljhfj; njhpatpy;iy.

,e;jpahtpy; 5 rjtPj epyg;gpuGf;fsplkpUe;J cs;s 46 rjtPj epyj;ij> Jz;L epyq;$l ,y;yhj 30 Nfhb kf;fSf;F tpepNahfk; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. (tzpf kzp> rkurk; [dthp 1-15> 1997)

,e;jpahtpy; 5 rjtPj epyg;gpuGf;fsplk; ,Uf;Fk; 46 rjtPj epyj;jpd; %yk; 30 Nfhbg; NgH gad; ngwyhk; vdpy;> gad; ngWk; 30 Nfhbg; NgUk;> kPjk; cs;s 65 Nfhbg; NgUf;F tho;thjhuk; czT> ,Ug;gplk; Nghd;w midj;Jj; NjitfisAk; epiwNtw;w KbAk;. vdNt> kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;jhy; ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw vd;w thjk; Kw;whf mbgLfpwJ. NkYk; ,jd; %yk; ,e;jpahtpy; tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;Ff; fPNo thOk; 65 rjtPj kf;fspy; 30 rjtPj kf;fis KOtJk; tWikf; Nfhl;Lf;F NkNy nfhz;L te;J tplyhk;.

NkYk; tsHr;rpj; jpl;lq;fSf;fhf xJf;fg;gLk; epjpfs;> nfhs;isaplg;glhky;> KOg; gzKk; chpa Kiwapy; nrytplg;gLkhdhy;> mij mLj;J> fpuhkg;Gw Nkk;ghl;by; rpwg;Gf; ftdk; nrYj;JNthkhdhy;> NkYk; Gjpa Gjpa njhopy;fis fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; Jtq;Ftjw;Fz;lhd mbg;gil trjpfisr; nra;jy; Nghd;w gzpfisr; nra;Nthkhdhy;> Ntiy tha;g;G gutyhf;fg;gLk; mNj Neuj;jpy;> kf;fs; xNu ,lj;jpy; FOkp nehpry; Vw;gLj;JtijAk; jtpHf;f KbAk;. ,jd; %yk; efuq;fspy; Vw;gLk; ,lg;gw;whf;FiwAk; jtpHf;f KbAk;. ,jd; %yk; FbapUg;G> Nghf;Ftuj;J Nghd;wtw;wpy; nehpriyj; jtpHf;Fk; mNj Ntisapy;> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwahy; VWk; tPl;L thlif Nghd;wtw;iw fl;Lf;Fs; itj;jpUf;f KbAk;.

Mf> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gl;L tpLk; vd ,tHfs; Gyk;GtJ mHj;jkw;w thjkhFk;. efuq;fspy; ,j;jifa ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwfs; Vw;glf; fhuzk;> muRk;> mjpfhu tHf;fKk; jhNd xopa> FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij filgpbf;fhjjhy; myy vd;gJ Nkw;fz;l Ma;tpd; %yk; njhpa tUfpd;wJ.

 

3. jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;l gad;glhj epyq;fs;

(LAND RECLAMATION PROCESS)

LAND RECLAMATION PROCESS vd;gJ vjw;FNk; gad;glhj epyq;fshf ghiy> rJg;G epyq;fs;> iftplg;gl;l Ruq;fq;fs;> Fg;ig nfhl;lg;gLk; gad;glhj ,lq;fs;> ghiwfSk; fw;fSk; epiwe;j epyq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw kdpjd; gad;gLj;Jk; msTf;F rPHjpUj;jp tpis epyq;fshfNth> FbapUg;GfshfNth> G+q;fhf;fshfNth kdpjdpd; cgNahfj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ. Nkw;fz;l ,e;j KiwahdJ NkiyehLfspYk;> nrsjp mNugpah Nghd;w ghiy epyq;fisf; nfhz;l ehLfspYk; mjpfk; gad;gLj;jp> mj;jifa epyq;fspd; %yk; mjpfg; gadile;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;whHfs;.

nejHyhe;J (`hye;J) vd;gJ INuhg;gpa ehLfspy; kpfr; rpd;dQ;rpwpa> Fiwe;j gug;gsitf; nfhz;l> fly; kl;lj;jpw;Ff; fPNo cs;s ehlhFk;. ,q;F 1932 y; ZUIDER ZEE vd;w fl;Lkhdj; jpl;lj;jpd; %yk; fliy xl;b 29 fp.kP. (18 iky;) msT cauhkhd jLg;Gr; RtH fl;lg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %yk; fpl;lj;jl;l 200>000 n`f;NlH (500>000 Vf;fH) fliy xl;ba epyk; rhFgbf;F Vw;w tpisepykhf khw;wg;gl;lJ.

mNj Nghy fpof;Fg; gphpl;ldpy;> fliy xl;ba rJg;G epyq;fis Nkk;gLj;jp> Kjypy; cg;G ePiu cwpQ;rp thOk; jhtuq;fis rpy tUld; gapH nra;J kz;zpy; cg;Gr; rj;ij rpwpJ rpwpjhf ,aw;ifahd Kiwapy; Nghf;fp tpl;L> jw;nghOJ mtw;iw ey;y tpisepykhfg; gad;gLj;jp tUfpwJ.

mLj;J> 1930 y; ,j;jhypapd; PONTINE MARSHES jpl;lj;jpy;> Nuhk; efUf;f njd;Nkw;Nf 70 fp.kP. njhiytpy; cs;s rJg;G epyk; rPH nra;ag;gl;L fpl;lj;jl;l 75>000 n`f;NlH (mjhtJ 195>000 Vf;fH) gug;gsT tpisepykhf khw;wg;gl;lJ. Nkw;fz;l jpllq;fs; ehl;Lf;F tpis epyq;fisAk;> FbapUf;fj; Njitahd epyq;fis kl;Lk; jutpy;iy. khwhf> rJg;G ePH Njf;fj;jpy; Vw;gLk; nfhRj; njhy;iy xopj;J kNyhpah Nghd;w Neha;fisAk; fl;Lg;gLj;j cjtpaJ.

NkYk;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; fPo; nfhyuhNlh ejpj; jpl;lj;jpd; (The Lower Colarado River Project) %yk; ghiyg;G+kpahd fypNghHdpahtpd; ,k;gPhpay; gs;sj;jhf;F (Imperial Valley of California) ,d;W cyfpd; mjpf tpisr;riyj; jUk; epykhf khw;wg;gl;L cs;sJ.

NkYk;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; iftplg;gl;l epyr; Ruq;fq;fspy; efhpd; Fg;igfisf; nfhz;L epug;gp mtw;iw kPz;Lk; tpis epykhfNth my;yJ fl;Lkhdg; gzpfSf;Nfh gad;gLj;jg;gLk; msTf;F jpUj;jpaikf;fg;gl;L tUfpd;wJ.

[g;ghid vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> flypy; kpjf;Fk; epyq;fis Vw;gLj;jp mjd; %yk; tptrhag; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;whHfs;.

mLj;J nrsjp mNugpahthdJ> jdJ nkhj;jg; gug;gstpy; 75 rjtPjj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhd epyq;fs;> ghiy epyq;fshFk;. ,e;jg; ghiy epyq;fs;> ntspehLfspy; ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;l tptrhaj;jpw;F Vw;w kz; %yk; rPHjpUj;jg;gl;L> ey;y tpis epykhf khw;wg;gl;L tUfpd;wd. NkYk;> kdpjf; fopTfis> Neha;gug;ghj msTf;Fg; gjg;gLj;jp> tptrha cukhfTk;> md;whlk; ntspNaWk; fopT ePHfisr; Nrkpj;J> mtw;iw Rj;jk; nra;J> tptrhaj;jpw;F me;jj; jz;zPiug; gad;gLj;JtJ Nghd;w Gjpa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fis gad;gLj;jpAk;> ,d;W NfhJik cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwitg; ngw;Ws;shHfs;. NkYk;> nrsjp mNugpah jdJ fha;fwpj; Njitapy; 80 rjtPjj;ij jdJ ehl;bNyNa cw;gj;jp nra;J nfhs;fpwJ. NkYk; 20 rjtPjj;ijj; jhd; ,wf;Fkjp nra;J nfhs;fpwJ.

NkYk;> ghfp];jhdpd; rpe;Jg; gpuNjrj;jpy; murpd; 138>000 Vf;fH gad;gLj;jg;glhj epyq;fs; epykpy;yhj tptrhapfSf;F 1997 y; Gjpjhfg; nghWg;Ngw;w eth]; n\hPg; murhy; toq;fg;gl;lJ.

Mf> ek; ehl;by; uh[];jhd; Nghd;w khepyq;fspy; cs;s ghiyg;gFjpfspy; ,g;nghOJ jhd;> tptrhaj;jpw;F gad;gLk; tifapy; khw;w Kaw;rpfs; ele;J tUfpd;wd. Gjpjhf fhLfs; tsHg;Gj; jpl;lq;fs;> gRikg; Gul;rp> Njf;Fg; gz;izfs; mikj;jy;> fha;fwpg; gz;izfs; mikj;jy; Nghd;wtw;wpw;fhf gad;glhj epyq;fs; gad;ghl;Lf;Ff; nfhz;L tu rkPg fhykhfj; jhd; Kaw;rpfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;L tUfpd;wd.

kf;fspd; gad;ghl;by; ,y;yhj epyq;fshd ghiy> rJg;G> ghiwg; G+kpfs; Nghd;wtw;iwr; rPHgLj;jp gad;ghl;Lf;Ff; nfhz;L tUjy; %yk; jhuhskhf ,lg; gw;whf;Fiwiar; rkhspf;Fk; mNjNtisapy;> tpis epyq;fspd; gug;gsTk; mjpfhpg;gNjhL> Ntiy tha;g;Gf;fisAk; ,j;jifa epyq;fs; mjpfg;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

NkYk; rJg;G> ghiy> ghiw epyq;fs; ek; ehl;by; Vuhskhf gad;ghl;by; ,y;yhkNyNa ,Uf;fpd;wd. mtw;iw rPHjpUj;jp gad;ghl;Lf;F nfhz;L tUtjd; %yk; kw;w ehLfisg; Nghy ehKk; ek; ,lg; gw;whf;Fiwia mjpfhpj;Jk; ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwia vspjhfj; jPHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.

Mf> Nkw;fz;l Ma;Tfs; %yk;> kf;fs; njhif ngUfg; ngUf ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;glhJ vd;gijAk;> mg;gbNa ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLtjhf itj;Jf; nfhz;lhYk;> nejHyhe;J> mnkhpfhf> ,j;jhyp> [g;ghd;> gphpl;ld;> nrsjp mNugpah Nghd;w ehLfs; gad;gLj;Jk; njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; mj;jifa ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwia ehKk; jPHj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;gij mwpa Kbfpd;wJ. Mf> ,k;KiwAk; khy;j;j]; MjuT thjk; mbgl;Lg; Nghfpd;wJ.

4. czTg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;!?

,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vDk; thjj;ij mLj;J ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L jpl;l MjuT mwpT [Ptp?! fs; $WtJ vd;dntd;why;> kf;fs; njhif $lf; $l czTg; gw;whf;Fiw> Vw;gLk; vd;gNj. ,jdhy; kf;fs; grpapd; fhuzkhf kba Ntz;ba epiy tUk; vd;fpd;wdH. ,e;j thjKk; ngha;ahdJ vd;gij ,iwaUshy; ep&gpg;Nghk;.

rhpahd Ma;T KbTfspd;gb> G+kpapd; nkhj;jg; gug;gstpy 10 rjtPj epyj;jpy; jhd; tptrhak; nra;ag;gLfpwJ. kPjp 90 rjtPj epyq;fs; tptrhak; nra;ag;glhky; tplg;gl;bUf;Fk; fhLfs;> Gy;ntspfs;> kw;Wk; ghiy epyq;fshFk;. ,tw;wpy; 70 rjtPj epyq;fs; gaphpl Vw;w epyq;fshFk;. ,j;jifa epyq;fs;> ,d;Dk; tptrhak; nra;ag;glhkNyN tplg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd.

NkYk;> ,e;j 10 rjtPj epyq;fspy; tpisr;ryhfg; ngwg;gLk; czT jhdpaq;fis rhpahd Kiwg;gb ghJfhj;Jk;> rhpahd tpfpjj;jpy; gq;fPLk; nra;Nthkhdhy;> cyfpy; vtUk; grpNahL ,Uf;f khl;lhHfs;. NkYk;> ,d;W 13.2 kpy;ypaDf;Fk; mjpfkhd rJu fp.kP. fspy; tptrhak; eilngWfpwJ. NkYk; 13.5 kpy;ypad; rJu fp.kP. fis Gjpa tpQ;Qhd njhopy; Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;jp> jhpR epyq;fis mitfis tptrhak; nra;a Vw;w epyq;fshf khw;wg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fSk;> FWfpa fhy rhFgb KiwfSk;> Gjpuhf cUthf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; jpUj;jg;gl;l (Reclamation Land Project) epyq;fspd; %yKk;> ,d;iwa kf;fs; njhifiag; Nghy ,uz;L klq;F msT kf;fs; njhif $bdhYk; gQ;rk; Vw;glhky; rkhspf;f KbAk;. mijNa jhd;> tptrhag; nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jp msTk;>mtw;wpd; Gs;sp tpguq;fSk; ep&gpf;fpd;wd.

ekJ ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j czTg; nghUs; cw;gj;jp 1950 Kjy; 1997 tiu :

1950

50.8 kpy;ypad; ld;

1995-1996

185 kpy;ypad; ld;

1997

20 Nfhb ld; (200 kpy;ypad; ld;)

,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j cs;ehl;Lg; nghUs; cw;gj;jp (Gross Domestic Products)

1950

19 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

1995-1996

281 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

,e;jpa kf;fs; njhif

1950

361.1 kpy;ypad;

1997

965 kpy;ypad;

tUk; Mz;Lfspy; vjpHghHf;fg;gLk; kf;fs;njhif

2010

1>172>101>000 (1172 kpy;ypad;)

2025

1>383>115>000 (1383 kpy;ypad;)

,e;jpahtpd; kf;fs; njhif tsHe;J tUfpd;w mNjNtisapy; czT cw;gj;jpAk; tsHe;J nfhz;L jhd; te;jpUf;fpwJ. mNj Nghy Njrj;jpd; cs;ehl;Lg; nghUs; cw;gj;jpAk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. 1950 k; Mz;Lfspy; ve;jsT epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;NjhNkh mNj msT epyj;jpy; jhd; ,d;Wk; tptrhak; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;. mNj Neuj;jpy; mNef tptrha epyq;fis> efhpd; ngUf;fk; fhuzkhf FbapUg;Gfshf mopj;Jk; ,Uf;fpNwhk;. ,e;j epiyapy;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g czT cw;gj;jp nra;jhf Ntz;Lk; vd;w epHg;ge;jj;jpd; fhuzkhf gRikg; Gul;rp fs; Vw;gl;L> me;j epHg;ge;jj;ijr; rkhspf;f Gjpa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;L> mjd; %yk; tpisr;rYk; ngUfp tUtij Nkw;fz;l Gs;sp tpguq;fs; %yk; fhzyhk;. khy;j;j]; mgpkhdpfs; $WtJ Nghy> ,e;jpahtpd; kf;fs; njhif $lf; $l> gQ;rk; Vw;gltpy;iy> gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gltpy;iy. NkYk; ,e;jpah czTg; nghUs; jl;Lg;ghl;bdhy; ve;j ehl;bYk; ifNae;jpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;ftpy;iy. khwhf> cyf ehLfs; gytw;wpw;F czTg; nghUl;fisAk; cs;ehl;L cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fisAk; tUle;NjhWk; VWKfkhfNt Vw;Wkjp nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

cjhuzkhf> nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F kl;Lk; ,e;jpah Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; nghUl;fspd; kjpg;Gfs; Mz;Lthhpahf>

1990-1992

1.80 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

1995-1996

2.39 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

1997

3.40 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;

nrsjp mNugpahtpw;fhd ,e;jpahtpd; Kf;fpa Vw;Wkjpg; nghUl;fs; Njapiy> fhgp> mhprp> gy tif krhyhg; nghUl;fs;> njhopw; rhjdq;fs;> tptrhaf; fUtpfs; kw;Wk; vyf;l;uhdpf; nghUl;fs;. NkYk; ,e;j Vw;Wkjpapd; msT Kd;igf; fhl;bYk; 42.29 rjtPj msT ,e;j Mz;L (1997) mjpfkhFk; vd vjpHghHf;fg;gLfpwJ. Mf> ehk; cjhuzj;jpw;Ff; fhl;Lk; ,e;j xU ehl;bw;F kl;Lk; ,e;j epiy my;y. nghJthf>ek; ,e;jpahtpd; Vw;Wkjp msT ,d;wsTk; mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;L jhd; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

mjhtJ> 1950 y; ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j Vw;Wkjp 1.26 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;. 1995-1996 y; 30.3 gpy;ypad; lhyHfs;. ,t;tsT nghpa rhjidia vt;thW epfo;j;j Kbe;jJ vd;gijg; gw;wp> 1997 y; 7 tJ cyf czT jpd tpohtpy; Ngrpa kj;jpa tptrha mikr;rH kp];uh mtHfs; NgRk; NghJ> ,t;thW Fwpg;gpl;lhH. mjhtJ> 1947 y; mjw;F Kd;Dk; ,e;jpah gphpl;ldplkpUe;J czTg; nghUs;fis ,wf;Fkjp nra;J nfhz;bUe;jJ. 1960 f;Fg; gpd;dhy; gRikg; Gul;rp> mjd; gpd;dzpapy; ,Ue;j mnkhpf;f cjtp kw;Wk; mjpf tpisr;riyj; jUk; tpj;Jf;fspd; gad;> rYif mbg;gilapy; tq;fpf;fld; Nghd;wit ,e;jpahit czTj; Njitapy; jd;dpiwT milar; nra;jd.

NkYk;> Kd;dhs; kj;jpa tptrha mikr;rH kp];uh NgRk; nghOJ> ehk; mjpf tpisr;riyj; juf; $ba tpj;Jf;fis gad;glj;jTk;> mjw;fhd Muha;r;rpfisAk; KLf;fp tpl Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;fhd epjpia nghJkf;fsplk; ,Ue;Jk; jdpahH epWtdq;fsplkpUe;Jk; ngWtjw;Fhpa #oiy Vw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ekJ gRikg; Gul;rpahdJ 30 rjtPj epyq;fspy; jhd; nray;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. ,ij 70 rjtPjkhf Mf;fpdhy; ,e;jpaHfs; midtUk; grpapd;wp ,Ug;gNjhL> gQ;rj;jhy; thLk; ehLfSf;Fk; ehk; cjt KbAk; vd;w fUji;j ntspapl;Ls;shH. Nkw;fz;l mikr;rhpd; fUj;J> kf;fs; njhif $lf; $l gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;gijj; njhptpf;ftpy;iy. khwhf> 1947 f;Fg; gpd; ekJ kf;fs; njhif $ba mNj tpfpjj;jpNyNa> czT cw;gj;jpAk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. NkYk;> ,Uf;Fk; epyq;fis xOq;fhf ehk; gad;ghl;by; nfhz;L tUNthkhdhy;. Gjpa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;JNthkhdhy; ehk ,d;Dk; mjpff cw;gj;jpiaf; fhzyhk; vd;gijj; jhNd mikr;rhpd; ciuapypUe;J ehk; ngWfpd;w gbg;gpidahff; nfhs;s KbAk;.

rpy ehLfspd; czT cw;gj;jpAk; kf;fs; njhifAk;

ehLfs;

kf;fs; njhif

[d neUf;fb

rJu fp.kP

rJu iky;

NfhJik

mhprp

cUisf; fpoq;F

nkhj;jk; rhFgb nra;ag;gLk; epyk;

mnkhpf;fh

258>300>000

-

-

53>915>000

7>006>000

18>970>000

 

gphpl;ld;

65>000>000

319.17

 

14>300>000

-

6>700>000

43.23

gpNurpy;

152>000>000

59.28

 

3>077>000

9>503>000

2>214>000

29.21

nkf;]pNfh

90>000>000

85.29

 

4>115>000

354>000

999>000

50.66

,e;jpah

965>000>000

267

695.3

54>522>000

110>945>000

15>254>000

55.07

rPdh

1>165>771>000

-

314.6

96>003>000

187>450>000

-

43.33

[g;ghd;

124>800>000

-

852.5

860>000

12>005>000

3>700>000

13.97

,];Nuy;

-

777.41

-

160>000

-

225>000

27.92

`hye;J

15>193>000

-

1>055.2

916>000

-

-

53.68

gpypg;igd;];

64>600>000

652.52

-

-

9>670>000

65>000

30.7

ghfp];jhd;

122>400>000

423.24

-

14>505>000

4>903>000

750>000

32.32

NkNy cs;s ml;ltizapy; cyfpd; gy tpjkhf jl;g ntg;g epiyfs;> #o;epiyfs; nfhz;l ehLfisAk; mjd; kf;fs; njhifAk;> [dneUf;fbAk;> nghJthf kf;fs; czthf cl;nfhs;Sk;> mhprp> NfhJik> cUisf; fpoq;F Nghd;wtw;wpd; cw;gj;jpAk;> jkJ nkhj;j tpisepyq;fspy; vt;tsT epyj;ij tptrhak; nra;ag; gad;gLj;jp tUfpd;wJ vd;w jftiyAk; ,e;j ml;ltizapy; cs;s ehLfSld;mtw;wpd; kf;fs; njhifNahL> mtw;wpd; cw;gj;jpiaAk; ed;whf xg;gPL nra;J nfhs;sTk;.

,e;j ekJ xg;gPl;L Ma;tpy; mjpf kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l ,e;jpahitAk;> rPdhitAk; vLj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;.

,e;jpahthdJ jdJ kf;fs; njhifahf 965 kpy;ypaidAk;> rPdhthdJ jdJ kf;fs; njhifahf 1>155 kpy;ypaidAk; ngw;Ws;sJ.

ehLfs;

kf;fs; njhif

NfhJik

mhprp

,e;jpah

965>000>000

54>522>000

110>945>000

rPdh

1>165>771>000

95>003>000

187>450>000

,e;jpahthdJ jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 55.07 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;J tUfpwJ. mNj Nghy rPdhthdJ jdJ nkhj;j tpisepyj;jpy; 43.33 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;J tUfpd;wJ.

Nkw;fz;l ,e;j cw;gj;jpfs; ,e;j ,U ehl;L kf;fspd; czTj; Njitia epiwT nra;gitfshf cs;sd. jtpu> Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; msTf;F czTg; nghUs;fs; kpFjkhfNt tpisfpd;wd vd;gij ehk; mwpayhk;. rPdhtpd; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g czT cw;gj;jp mjpfkhf ,Ug;gijAk;> mNj Nghy ehk; Rl;bf fhl;bAs;sgb. me;je;j ehLfspd; kf;fs; njhiff;F vw;g czT cw;gj;jp mike;jpUg;gijAk; fhzyhk;.

NkYk; tptrha cw;gj;jpapy; jiyrpwe;J tpsq;Fk; xU rpy ehLfspy; fle;j Mz;Lfspy; NfhJik cw;gj;jpapy; Vw;gl;Ls;s khw;wj;ijf; fhz;Nghk;.

ehLfs;

nkl;hpf; ld; / Vf;fH

1934-38

nkl;hpf; ld; / Vf;fH

1956

nld;khHf;

1.23

1.63

`hye;J

1.23

1.45

gphpl;ld;

0.94

1.26

vfpg;J

0.81

0.95

[g;ghd;

0.76

0.85

ghfp];jhd;

0.34

0.30

,e;jpah

0.24

3.29

jfty; : ngHj; fz;l;Nuhy;. mGy; m/yh nksJ}jp

,q;Nf ftdpf;f Ntz;baJ ,iwtdJ fUizapdhy; czT cw;gj;jpapd; tpfpjKk; $bNa te;Js;sJ. NkYk; ,e;jpahitg; nghWj;jtiu 1934-38 y; 0.24 nkl;hpf; ld; - Vf;fH ,Ue;j NfhJik cw;gj;jp 1956 y; 3.29 nkl;hpf; ld; - Vf;fH Mf caHe;jpUf;fpd;wJ.

NkYk; ,d;W cyfpNyNa NfhJikia mjpfkhff cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; %d;W ehLfspy; ,e;jpah ,uz;lhk; ,lk; tfpf;fpwJ.

rPdh

95>003>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

,e;jpah

54>522>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

mnkhpf;fh

53>915>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

`hye;J

916>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

 

mLj;J mhprp cw;gj;jpapYk; ,e;jpah cyf mstpy; ,uz;lhk; ,lk; tfpf;fpwJ.

rPdh

187>450>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

,e;jpah

110>945>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

[g;ghd;

12>005>000 nkl;hpf; ld;

ghfp];jhd;

4>903>000 nkl;hpf;ld;

NkNy cs;s Gs;sp tpguq;fspy;> ,e;j ehLfs; ahTk; Fiwe;j gug;gstpy; mjpfk; kf#y; nra;Ak; ehLfshFk; vd;gJk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

Mf kf;fs; njhifg; ngUf;fj;jpd; mstpy; czTg; nghUs;fspd; cw;gj;jpAk; ,iwaUshy; ngUfpNa te;Js;sijf; fhz Kbfpd;wJ. NkYk; ,e;jpahitg; nghWj;jtiu 965 kpy;ypad; kf;fspd; grpj; Njitiag; Nghf;Fk; msTf;Fk;> mjd; gpd; czTg; nghUs; ,Ug;G kpr;rkhfNt ,Ug;gij ehk; Kd;dNu ghHj;j nra;jpapd; %yk; ehk; kPz;Lk; ,q;nf Qhgfg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ ey;yJ.

mjhtJ> 1995 y; epjpaikr;ruhf ,Ue;j kd;Nkhfd; rpq; $wpajhtJ> ,d;iwa czTg; nghUs; ifapUg;G 3 Nfhb ld;fshFk;. 2 Nfhb ,Ue;jhNy NghJkhdJ. fLikahd twl;rpNa te;jhYk; $l tpiy Vw;wk; tuhky; rkhspf;f KbAk; vd;W nrhd;dij ehk; rpwpJ rpe;jpj;jhy; xU cz;ik GydhFk;. kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpahdJ> czTg; nghUs; gw;whf;Fiwia Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy vd;w cz;ik njhpa tUk;.

NkYk;> 1994 y; nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F mhprp Vw;Wkjp nra;j ehLfisAk; msitAk; fhz;Nghk;.

 

,e;jpah

2>78>000 ld;fs;

mnkhpf;fh

1>76>000 ld;fs;

jha;yhe;J

1>28>000 ld;fs;

ghfp];jhd;

48>000 ld;fs;

,e;j ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;l mhprpapd; msthdJ> 1985 y; ,Ue;jij tpl 33 rjtPjk; mjpfkhFk;. mug; epA+]; - rdp> Mf];L> 16-1997 gf;fk; - 2.

,e;jpah jdJ nkhj;j cw;gj;jpapy;>mjhtJ 965 kpy;ypad; kf;fspd; grpj; Njit Nghf kPjp cs;s mhprpapy;> nrsjp mNugpahtpw;F kl;Lk; 1994 y; Vw;Wkjp nra;j mhprpapd; msT 2 yl;rj;J 78 Mapuk; ld;fshFk;. mjpYk; 1985 y; ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gl;l msit tpl 33 rjtPjk; mjpfKkhFk;. ,J jtpu vida ehLfSf;Fk; ,e;jpah Vw;Wkjp nra;Ak; msitAk; NrHj;jhy;> ekJ ,d;iwa czTg; nghUs; cw;gj;jpahdJ> ,d;Dk; xU ,e;jpah msT kf;fs; njhiff;Fk; $l ehk; cztspf;fyhk;. mijNa jhNd NkNy ehk; ghHj;j Gs;sp tpguq;fs; njhptpf;fpd;wd. mjhtJ ehd;F ehLfshd ,e;jpah> mnkhpf;fh> jha;yhe;J> ghfp];jhd; Mfpaitfs; NrHe;J nrsjp mNugpah vd;w ehl;bd;> kf;fs; njhifapd; mhprpj; Njitiag; G+Hj;jp nra;fpd;wd. nrsjp mNugpahtpd; NjitahdJ 1985 y; ,Ue;jij tpl 33 rjtPjk; mjpkhdhYk; $l> mtw;iwAk; ,e;j ehLfs; rkhspj;J> Nkw;fz;l mhprpj; Njitia cw;gj;jp nra;J mDg;Gfpd;wd.

RUq;ff; $wpd;. ,e;jpahtpd; ,d;iwa kf;fs; njhif ,uz;L klq;fhf Mtjw;F ,d;Dk; 34.31 tUlq;fs; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapNyNa. ehk; ekJ czT cw;gj;jpiag ngUf;fp> fpl;lj;jl;l 35 tUlj;jpw;F gpd; epfog; NghFk; czTj; Njitf;fhd FwpaPl;lil 1997 ypNyNa rhjpj;J tpl;Nlhk;. vy;yhg; GfOk; ,iwtDf;Nf vd cr;rhpf;f Ntz;ba cjLfs;> KDKDg;Gf; fhl;Lfpd;wd vd;why;> mtHfspd; (mwpT [Ptpfspd;?) mwpahikNaad;wp NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;f KbAk;.

NkYk; 1997 y; Nuhkpy; ele;j If;fpa ehLfs; rigapd; czT cr;rp khehl;by; Ngrpa Nghg; mtHfs;> gpd;tUk; fUj;ij ntspapl;lhHfs;.

cyf kf;fSf;Fj; Njitahd msTf;Fk; mjpfkhfNt czTg; nghUfs; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;L tUfpd;wd. rkPgj;jpy; czT cw;gj;jp ,uz;L klq;F mjpfhpj;Js;sd. jpdkzp : 18> mf; 1997.

 

5. rhjidapYk; Nrhjid + Ntjid

,jw;F Kd; ehk; ghHj;j tpguq;fspd; %yk; ,e;jpah czT cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwT ngw;W tpl;lJ vd;whYk;> cyf tptrha Kd;Ndw;wj;jpd; Gs;sp tpguq;fNshL xg;gPl;L Nehf;Fifapy; ekJ cw;gj;jp kpf kpff; Fiwthf ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;gij ehk; kpf NtjidAld; Rl;bf; fhl;l Ntz;b cs;sJ.

mjhtJ> rPdhtpd; nkhj;jg;gug;gstpy; 10 rjtPjk; jhd; cgNahfj;jpy; cs;sJ. me;j 10 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;tjw;F Vw;w epyj;jpy; 43.33 rjtPjj;ij kl;LNk cgNahfpf;fpd;wJ. NkYk;> 1>165 kpy;ypad; kf;fs;> 95>003>000 nkl;hpf; ld; NfhJikiaAk;> ,d;Dk; 187>450>000 nkl;hpf; ld; mhprpiaAk; cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;whHfs;. Mdhy; ,e;jpahthdJ jdJ nkhj;j tpiy epyj;jpy; 55.07 rjtPj epyj;jpy; tptrhak; nra;Jk; rPdhtpd; cw;gj;jp msTf;F ek;khy; nry;y ,aytpy;iy. ,e;jpahthdJ 54>522>000 nkl;hpf; ld; NfhJikiaAk;> 110>945>000 nkl;hpf;ld; mhprpiaAk; cw;gj;jp nra;J> rPdhit tpl gpd;jq;fpa epiyapNyNa cs;sJ. ,ijNa> 18 mf; 97 y; jpdkzp apy; ntspahd nra;jp ,t;thW cWjp nra;fpd;wJ.

mjhtJ> 102 Nfhb kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l rPdh 49 Nfhb ld; czTg; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ. 96 Nfhb kf;fs; njhif nfhz;l ,e;jpah 20 Nfhb ld; czTg; nghUs;fis cw;gj;jpia ,e;j Mz;L jhd; vl;bAs;sJ. rPdh xU Vf;fUf;F 2 ld; ney; cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ.

NkYk;> `hye;J> nld;khHf;> [g;ghd;> Nghd;w ehLfs; Gjpa Gjpa tpQ;Qhd njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp> Gjpa tpj;Jf;fisAk;> Gjpa tptrhaf; fUtpfisAk; cUthf;fp> mjd; %yk; mjpf tpisr;riyf; fhz;gNjhL> mtw;iwr; Nrfhpg;gjpy; ,ae;jpuq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;mjpf Nrjhuk;> ,og;G Mfpatw;iwj; jLg;gJld;> cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l czTg; nghUl;fis rhpahd tpjj;jpy; etPd mwptpay; njhopy; El;g Kiwfspd;gb ghJfhg;gjd; %yk; epiwe;j tUthiaAk;> czT cw;gj;jpapy; jd;dpiwitAk; mile;Js;sd.

ehLfs;

tptrhaj;jpy; <LgLk; nkhj;j egHfs;

Total Agri. Work Force

tptrhag; nghUs; ,wf;Fkjp mnkhpf;f lhyhpy;

tptrhag; nghUs; Vw;Wkjp kjpg;G mnkhpf;f lhyhpy;

Gyhy; kw;Wk; tptrha czTg; nghUs; ,wf;Fkjp

Food & Animals Imported in American Dollars

Gyhy; kw;Wk; czTg; nghUs; ,wf;Fkjp

Food & Animals Exported in Americal Dollars

tptrhaj;jpy; <LgLk; egHfs; rjtPjj;jpy;

,e;jpah

217>730>000

1>209>700>000

3>173>400>000

896>800>000

1>126>700>000

66.2 %

`hye;J

221>000

17>962>800>000

30>927>500>000

12>168>300>000

21>168>300>000

3.5 %

`hye;J vd;gJ INuhg;gh fz;lj;jpy; cs;s kpfr; rpd;dQ;rpwa ehlhFk;. mjhtJ> 15>193>000 (mjhtJ> 1 NfhbNa 51 yl;rj;J 93 Mapuk;) kf;fs; njhif nfhz;lnjhU ehL. ek; jkpof kf;fs; njhifapy; 4 y; 1 gq;F nfhz;lJ. jkpof kf;fs; njhif 1991 y; 5 NfhbNa 56 yl;rj;J 38 Mapuj;J 318 NgH. 12>850 rJu iky; gug;gsT nfhz;l rpwpa ehL jhd; nejHyhe;J vd;wiof;fg;gLk; ,e;j `hye;J ehL.

Fwpg;ghf ,q;Nf ehk; ftdpf;f Ntz;baJ vd;dntd;why;> ,e;j `hye;jpd; ,wf;Fkjpia ek; ehl;NlhL xg;gplhky;> ,U ehLfspd; Vw;Wkjp msit xg;gpLtJ ehk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l jiyg;gpw;F rhyr; rpwe;jjhFk;. vd;dntdpy;> jkpo;ehl;il tpl kpfr; rpwpanjhU ehlhdJ> tptrhak; kw;Wk; jdJ czTg; nghUs; cw;gj;jpapy; vt;tsT rpwe;J tpsq;Ffpd;wJ vd;why;> 1991 y; `hye;jpd; tptrhag; nghUs; Vw;Wkjp 30>927>500>000 lhyuhf ,Uf;f> ,e;jpahtpd; epiyNah 3>173>400>000 lhyuhf ,Ue;Js;sJ. vd;d ghpjhgk;! mNj Nghy Gyhy; kw;Wk; czTg; nghUs; Vw;Wkjpapy; `hye;J 21>168>300>000 lhyuhff ,Uf;f> ,e;jpahtpd; Vw;WkjpNah ntWk; 1>126>700>000 Mf ,Ue;Js;sJ.

xU rpd;dQ;rpW ehL> tptrha cw;gj;jpapy; ,e;jpahit tpl 10 klq;Ff;F Nky; vt;thW rhjid Ghpa Kbfpd;wJ vd;gijr; rpe;jpf;f Ntz;lhkh? ,j;jifa rhjidia mtHfshy; vt;thW epfo;j;j Kbe;jJ. vy;yhk; njhopy; El;gk;> Gjpa> Gjpa tpQ;Qhdj; njhopy; El;gk;! mj;Jld; fbd ciog;G. ,d;W tiu Muha;r;rpapy; me;j ehL Kd;dzpapy; epw;fpwJ. czTg;nghUs; Vw;Wkjpia mLj;J tpijfisAk; ntspehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjp nra;J> me;epa tUthia <l;bf; Ftpf;fpwJ.

tptrha mikr;rH kp];uh mtHfspd; $w;Wg;gb> ekJ nkhj;j tpis epy;j;jpy; 30 rj epyj;jpy; jhd; gRikg; Gul;rp Vw;gl;Ls;sJ.mtw;iw 70 rjkhff; $l;l Ntz;Lk; vd;gij mikr;rH ,q;F $w tutpy;iy. Vnddpy;> ek; ehl;by; tptrhak; nra;af; $ba epyq;fspy; ePHg;ghrd trjpAs;s epyq;fspy; ePHg;ghrd trjp ngw;Ws;s epyq;fspd; rjtPjk; RkhH 26.3 rjtPjk; jhd;. ,e;j 26.3 rjtPj ePH trjp ngw;Ws;s ,lq;fspy; jhNd gRikg; Gul;rpiaf; fhz KbAk;. kPjk; ,Uf;Fk; 73.7 rjtPj epyj;Jf;Fj; Njitahd ePH trjpf;F vd;d nra;a ,Uf;fpd;nwhk; vd;gijj; jhd; mikr;rH kp];uh mtHfs; $w kwe;J tpl;lhHfs;?! mtuhy; vt;thW $w KbAk;. ,e;jpa murpay;thjpfs; vy;yhk; Njrj;jpy; eyd; fhf;Fk; nfhs;ifthjpfs; my;yth?

K];ypk;fs; kl;Lk; jhNd Njr eydpy; mf;fiw ,y;yhjtHfs;? ntl;fk; nfl;l murpay;thjpfs; ,tHfs;.,tHfs; jq;fis ,d mbg;gilapYk;> [hjp mbg;gilapYk; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ Nghf khepy mstpYk; jq;fisg; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;L tpl;lhHfs;. (2002 mf;NlhgH y; ele;j jkpof> fHehlf fhtphp ejp ePHg; gq;fPL tptfhuk;). vj;jidNah Kiw fHehlfhtpYk;> kj;jpa murpYk; xNu fl;rpfs; Ml;rpf;F te;Js;sd. me;j Neuj;jpy; fhtphp ejpePHg; gq;fPl;L gpur;idia kpf ,yFthff; Kbj;jpUf;fyhk;. Mdhy; ,tHfs; Njr eydpy; mf;fiw nfhz;ltHfs; my;yth? mjdhy; ,d;Dk; ,Ogwp ePbj;Jf; nfhz;Nl NghfpwJ. jkpofj; jQ;irapy; %d;W Nghfk; tpise;j ,lq;fs; ,d;W xU Nghfj;Jf;Nf my;yhl Ntz;bajpUf;fpd;wJ. ,e;jpahtpd; new;fsQ;rpak; ,d;W ,e;jpahtpd; gpr;irg; ghj;jpukhf khw ahH fhuzk;? jq;fis ,d mbg;gilapYk;> [hjp mbg;gilapYk; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ NghjhJ vd;W khepy mbg;gilapy; gphpj;Jf; nfhz;l tf;fpu kdpjHfs; jhNd. ,t;thW jq;fisj; jhq;fNs ,e;jpad; mopj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; epiiapy; ,tHfs; vd;iwf;F> rPdhtpd; 1 Vf;fUf;F %d;W ld; ney; cw;gj;jpAk;> vd;w rhjidf; FwpaPl;il vl;l KbAk;. rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHf;f Ntz;batHfs; vy;yhk; %is kOq;fpaHfshf Mfp tpl;l epiyapy;> jq;fs; ,ayhikiaAk; tf;fpuj;ijAk; ntspf; fhl;l kdkpy;yhky; Njr kf;fisg; ghHj;J> ehk; ,UtH> ekf;F ,UtH> gpd; ehk; ,UtH> ekf;F ,UtH> ,g;nghOJ ehNk Foe;ij ekf;Nfd; Foe;ij vd;W $g;ghL Nghlj; njhlq;fpAs;shHfs;.

murpay;thjpfshYk;> mjpfhtHf;fj;jhYk; ,e;jpahtpd; tsHr;rpg; gzpf;F nrytplg; gl Ntz;ba ejpfs; nfhs;isaplg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUg;gJ Nghjhnjd;W ,e;jpa kf;fspd; fUtiwiaAk; ,tHfs; fhag;gLj;jf; Jzpe;J tpl;lhHfs;! ntl;fk; nfl;l n[d;kq;fs;!!

fq;ifiaf; fhtphpAld; ,ize;J tpl;lhNy NghJk;> ,e;jpah nghd; tpisAk; G+kpahf khwp tpLk;. vd;iwf;Fk; ,e;jpa murpay;thjpfshy; ,e;j rhjidiar; nra;a KbahJ. nra;aTk; khl;lhHfs;!! mj;jifa rhjidia K];ypk;fs; kl;LNk rhjpf;f KbAk;. Vnddpy;> cz;ikahd ,iwf; nfhs;ifiag; gpd;gw;Wk; K];ypk;fsplj;jpy; ,dNtWghL> [hjp NtWghL> khepy NtWghL> nkhop NtWghL Nghd;w vjidAk; fhz KbahJ. ,j;jifa NtWghL fhl;lhj r%fj;ij mikg;gjpd; %yk; kl;LNk ,j;jifa gpur;idfisj; jPHf;f KbAk;.

fle;j 1997 y; Nuhkpy; ele;j I.eh. rigapd; cyf czT khehl;by; Ngrpa Nghg; mtHfs; fPo;f;fz;l fUj;ijj; njhptpj;Js;shHfs;.

njd;fpof;F Mrpa ehLfspd; rpy gFjpfs;> Mg;hpf;fh Mfpa gFjpfspy; czTg; gQ;rk; mjpfk; cs;sJ. czTg; nghUs;fspd; cw;gj;jpia mjpfhpf;f murpay;> nghUshjhu epiyfspy; rhpahd mZFKiw Njit vd;w fUj;ij ntspapl;Ls;shHfs;.

,e;jpahitg; nghUj;jtiu mtH $wpa fUj;Jf;fs rhpahdit. ,e;jpaHfs; ejp ePHg; gq;fPl;by; murpay; tpj;ijfis ntspg;gLj;jhkYk;> tptrha tsHr;rpg; gzpfSf;F xJf;fg;gLk; epjpia KOikahfr; nrytpl;Lk;> rhpahd mstpy; jpl;lkpl;L nray;gLthHfshdhy;> ehKk; `hye;jpd; czHe;jgl;r cw;gj;jpiaf; fhz KbAk;.

NkYk;> %d;whtJ cyf ehLfspy; czT cw;gj;jpia mjpfhpf;f tptrhaj; Jiwapy; mjpf KjyPLfisr; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd I.eh.rigapd; czT kw;Wk; tptrha mikg;gpd; jiyikr; nrayhsH [hf;yP]; bNahg; typAWj;jpAs;shH.

NkYk;> Nuhkpy; mike;jpUf;Fk; I.eh.rigapd; tptrha kw;Wk; czT mikg;gpd; ,e;jpag; gpujpepjp (FAO) gPl;lH Nuh] nef;fH (Peter Rosenegger) NgRk; nghOJ> Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fis tptrhapfSf;Fg; gapw;Wtpf;f mjpf KjyPL nra;jy;> mjw;fhd fl;Lkhd mikg;ig cUthf;Fjy;> czitg; gjg;gLj;Jjy; Nghd;wtw;wpd; %yk;> ehl;bd; czTj; Njitg; gw;whf;Fiwia eptHj;jp nra;a ,aYk; vd mwpTWj;jp cs;shH.

vd;gJ xU ehl;bd; tptrha cw;gj;jpg; nghUspd; msitf; Fwpf;fg; gad;gLk; cyf mstpy; epWtg;gl;Ls;s xU FwpaPL MFk;.

SNU ,e;jf; FwpaPl;bd;gb> [g;ghd; ehlhdJ xU Vf;fUf;F 6-7 SNU czTg; nghUs;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;wJ. ,ijNa xU rJu iky;fSf;Ff; fzf;fpl;lhy;> 4000 SNU czTg;nghUs;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpwJ vdTk; nfhs;syhk;. Mf xU rJu iky; gug;gstpy; tpistpf;fg;gLk; czTg; nghUs; xU rJu iky; gug;gstpy; thOk; 4000 NgUf;F cztspf;f KbAk;. (By Birth Control. Abul A’la Maududi. Noted from STAMP. DUDLEY. OUR DEVELOPING WORLD. p.120.)

,d;W ek; ,e;jpahtpy; xU rJu iky;fSf;F 695.3 egHfs; trpf;fpd;whHfs;. Mf> ,e;jpahTk; [g;ghidg; Nghy 6-7 SNU czTg;nghUl;fis xU Vf;fUf;F tpistpf;Fkhdhy;> ,e;jpahitg; Nghy; 6 klq;F ,e;jpahTf;F cztspf;f KbAk;.

rpy ehLfs; jq;fsJ tpisepyq;fspy; caH njhopy; El;g Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;> vt;thW Kd;Ndw;wk; mile;Js;sd vd;gij fPNo cs;s ml;ltiz ekf;F njspthf;Ffpd;wJ. mjhtJ> ,e;jpahit tpl kpff; Fiwe;j msNt gug;gsitf; nfhz;l [g;ghd; 21 yl;rj;J 20 Mapuk; buhf;lHfisAk;> 12 yl;rj;J 80 Mapuk; mWtil ,ae;jpuq;fisAk; gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;Jtjpy; me;j ehL ve;jsT Kd;dzpapy; ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gJ njspthFk;. ,jdhy; jhd; mtHfshy; ,e;jsT rhjidia vl;l Kbfpd;wJ. Mdhy; ,e;jpahNth kpff; Fiwe;j mstpNyNa Gjpa njhopy; El;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp tUtjd; %yk; cw;gj;jpapy; kw;w ehLfis tplg; gpd; jq;fpAs;sJ vdyhk;.

 

ehLfs;

tptrhaj;jpw;Fg; gad;gLk; buhf;lHfs;

mWtil ,ae;jpuq;fs;

ghy;fwf;Fk; ,ae;jpuq;fs;

,e;jpah

988>070

2>950

jfty; ,y;iy

[g;ghd;

2>120>000

1>280>000

157>000

`hye;J

197>000

5>580

39>000

buhf;lHfs; %yk; epyj;ij MokhfTk;> tpiuthfTk; co KbAk;. mJNghy mWtil ,ae;jpuq;fs; %yk;> jhdpaq;fis tPzhf;fhky; Fiwe;j Neuj;jpy; mWtiu nra;J Kbf;f KbAk;. ,jhdy; NeuKk;> gz tpuaKk;> kdpj ciog;Gk; kpQ;Rk; mNj Ntisapy;> cw;gj;jpapd; msT $lf; fpilf;f top gpwf;fpwJ.

Mdhy;> Nkw;fz;l Gs;sp tptuq;fis vy;yhk; jpl;lkpl;Nl ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuTf; $l;lk; kiwj;J tpl;L> jkJ rlthjf; nfhs;ifia kl;Lk; Kd;dpWj;JfpwJ. ,tHfs; midtUk; ,iwtdpd; fUizia mwpahj kilaHfspd; $l;lq;fNs jtpu NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;f KbAk;. khy;j;j];thjpfs;> kf;fs; njhif tsu tsu ,lj;NjitAk;> czTj; NjitAk; mjpfhpf;Fk; vd;W mjd; gpur;idapd; xU gf;fj;ij kl;Lk; tpsf;fpdhHfNs xopa> mjw;Fj; jPhthf ,iwtd; mUsp ,Uf;Fk; czT ,Ug;gplk; mjw;fhd tho;thjhuq;fisAk; mtw;iw miltjw;F kdpjDf;F mUspapUf;Fk; Mw;wiyAk; ,e;j Gul;Lthjf;fhuHfs; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw kwe;J tpl;lhHfs;.

,ijNa> Nfhypd; f;shHf; vd;gtH jkJ POPULATION GROWTH AND LIVING STANDARDS. P. 100 E}ypy; ,t;thW Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH.

khy;j;j]; rhHG thjf; $l;lj;jhHfshd ,tHfs; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; jtwhfg; gpur;rhuk; nra;fpwhHfs;. Vnddpy; ,tHfs; kjq;fSf;F vjpuhd nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;ltHfs;. ,tHfs; nrhy;Yk; thjq;fs; KOtJk; mwptpay; rhHGilajd;W> ntWk; fw;gidf; Nfhl;ghLfNsahFk;. NkYk; mwptpayhsHfs; cz;ikapNyNa mtw;iw mZfp Muha;thHfnsd;why;> ,J xU Gul;Lthjf; nfhs;if vd;gij epr;rak; ,dk; fz;L nfhs;shky; ,Uf;ftpayhJ. khy;j;j]; rhHGthjpfSf;F kf;fs; njhif gw;wpa ve;j mwpTk; mtHfSf;F fpilahJ. NkYk; cyf mstpy; nghUshjhu mbg;gilapy; mike;Js;s kf;fs; njhif g;wpa tpguq;fis kl;Lk; rpwpJ mwpe;J nfhz;bUf;fpwhHfNs xopa> cz;ikapNyNa kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpapd; mbg;gilapy; cs;s rpwpjsT cz;ikfs; $l mwpahjtHfs;.

Nkw;fz;l tpguq;fSf;Fg; gpd;Dk;> kf;fs; njhif tsh;r;rpapy; ,lg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;> czTg; gQ;rk; Vw;gLk; vd;W nrhd;dhy;> mj;jifa Gul;Lthjk; Vw;Gilajhf ,Uf;Fkh? kdpjd; ,iwtd; jdf;F toq;fpa rpe;jdh rf;jpiag; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j G+kpahdJ kdpjdpd; trpg;gplj;jpw;fhfNt ,iwtdhy; gilf;fg;gl;lJ. vdNt> me;j ,iwtd; tsUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;gNt jdJ mUl;nfhilfis tprhyg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;Nl ,Ug;ghd;. vdNt> ek; Kd; jtwhfg; gpur;rhuk; nra;Ak; khy;j;j]; thj mwpT [Ptp?fspd; thjj;ij xJf;fpj; js;StNjhL> mtHfis kdpj ,dj;jpd; JNuhfpfshfTk; nghJ kf;fSf;F ,dk; fhl;l Ntz;baJ cz;ikahsHfspd; flikAkhFk;.

 

6. tpiuakhFk; cw;gj;jp

,e;j khy;j;j]; rhHGthj FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L gpur;rhufHfs;> kf;fs;njhif ngUfg; ngUf czTg; gw;whf;fiw Vw;gLk; vd;W nrhy;gtHfs; cw;gj;jpahFk; nghUs;fis ghJfhj;J> czTg; gw;whf;Fiwiaj; jPHf;f jpuhzpaw;wtHfshf cs;sdH. jtwhdnjhU thjj;ij epahag;gLj;jj; Jbf;fpwhHfNs xopa> cz;ikapNyNa me;jg; gpur;idapy; ftdKld; mZfp> mijj; jPH;g;gjw;Fz;lhd top Kiwfis Muha ,tHfs; Kd;tutpy;iy vd;gijj; jhd; fPo;f;fz;l nra;jpfs; ep&gpf;fpd;wd.

cjhuzkhf> ek; ,e;jpahtpy; ele;J tUk; gpd;tUk; epfo;Tfis ftdKld; MuhAq;fs;.

fPo;f;fz;l ,e;j epfo;T kfhuh\;buh khepyj;jpy; ele;jnjhU rk;gtkhFk;.

,k;khepyj;jpd; xU ehisa ghy; cw;gj;jp 36 yl;rk; ypl;lHfs;. ,jpy; 29 yl;rk; ypl;lH ghiy kl;LNk gjdpl trjp nfhz;lJ kfhuh\;buhtpd; ghy; gjdpLk epiyak;. kPjp cs;s 7 yl;rk; ghiy gjdpl trjpapy;yhky; xHyp flw;fiuapy; nfhl;b tpLfpd;whHfs;. ,t;thW tPzbf;fg;gLk; ghypd; msT> xU tUlj;jpw;F 2>555 yl;rk; ypl;lHfshFk;. ghk;Ngapy; kl;Lk; xU ehisf;F 59000 ypl;lH ghy; tPzbf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. (rz;Nl tPf;yp> brk;gH 12-18> 1993)

,e;jpaf; Foe;ijfs; rhpahd Cl;lr; rj;jpd;wp> jk; koiy tho;ti eufkhf;fpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy;> tPzbf;fg;gLk; ,e;j ghypd; msT gw;wpAk;> ,t;tsT ghy; cw;gj;jp vt;thW epfo;e;jJ vd;gjAk; ,e;j khy;j;j]; rhHG thj FLk;gf; fl;LghL MjuthsHfs; rpe;jpf;f Ntz;Lk;.

mLj;J>

NghJkhd ghuhkhpg;G ghJfhg;G trjpfs; ,y;yhj fhuz;jhy; xt;nthU Mz;Lk; 23>000 Nfhb &gha; kjpg;Gs;s fha;fwpfs;> goq;fs;> mOfp tPzhfpd;wd. ,J ,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j fha;fwp kw;Wk; go cw;gj;jppapy; 50 rjtPjkhFk;. (jpdkzp> 27-5-1997)

,e;jpahtpd; nkhj;j ney; cw;gj;jpapy; 10 rjtPjj;ij vypfs; jpd;W mopj;J tpLfpd;wd. (rkurk;> 16-30> [{d; 1997)

jQ;irapy; FWit rhFgbapd; NghJ 350 f;Fk; mjpfkhd ney; nfhs;Kjy; epiyaq;fs; mikf;fg;gl;ld. nfhs;Kjy; nra;ag;gl;l 5 yl;rk; ld; ney;iy ghJfhf;f trjpapy;yhky; rhiy Xuq;fspy; Jzp Nghl;L %lg;gl;Ls;sJ. (jpdkzp 18 mf;NlhgH> 1997)

,e;jpahtpd; ghpjhg epiyia tpsf;f Nkw;fz;l ehd;F nra;jpfisj; jtpu NtW vJTk; Njitapy;iy.

tUlk; xd;Wf;F 2>555 ypl;lH ghYk;> 23>000 Nfhb kjpg;Gs;s fha;fwp kw;Wk; goq;fSk;> ,e;jpa ney; cw;gj;jpapy; 10 rjtPjKk; ghJfhf;f trjpapy;yhky;> yl;rf;fzf;fhd czT jhdpaq;fs; tUle;NjhWk; tPzbf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; mNjNtisapy;> cz;z cztpd;wp khq;nfhl;ilfisj; jpd;W capiu kha;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; rf gpui[ia Ntbf;if ghHj;Jf; nfhz;LkpUf;fpd;w #o;epiy jhd; ,e;jpa Njrj;jpd; ghpjhg epiyahf ,Uf;fpwJ.

NkYk; jQ;irapd; FWit rhFgbf;Fg; gpd;> mf;NlhgH> etk;gH (1997) khjq;fspy; jkpofk; KOtJk; fd kio nga;jJ. ghJfhf;f trjpapy;yhky; rhiy Xuk; mLf;fp itf;fgl;bUe;j ney; %l;ilfspd; fjp vd;dthFk; vd;gij ehk; nrhy;yp tpsq;f Ntz;bajpy;iy.

,t;thW kw;w kw;w khepyq;fspYk; ,JNghy tpzbf;fg;gLk; cw;gj;jpiaf; fzf;fpy; nfhz;lhy;> ,e;jpahtpd; xU Mz;L gl;n[l; msT gzk; tPzbf;fg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ vd;gJ GydhFk;.

khy;j;j]; thjpfs; tsUk; kf;fs; njhifg; gpur;idiar; rkhspf;f FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fSf;F nryT nra;tjw;Fg; gjpyhf> ,Uf;Fk; tpis nghUs; cw;gj;jpiag; ghJfhf;f Mtd nra;jhNy NghJkhdJ> vt;tsT kf;fs; njhif ngUfpdhYk; rkhspj;J tplyhk;.

NkYk;> jkpofj;jpy; 1996 brk;gH khjk; Kw;gFjpapy; njhlHr;rpahfg; nga;j kioapdhy; 780 Vhp> Fsq;fs; cilg;ngLj;J tpl;ld. NkYk; 1997 mf;NlhgH> etk;ghpYk; ,Nj epiyik jhd;. ,e;jpahtpd; tpis epyq;fspy; 26.37 rjtPj epyq;fs; jhd; ePHg;ghrd trjpiag; ngw;Ws;sd. ,e;j eppiyapy;> ,aw;ifahff; fpilf;Fk; kio ePiur; Nrkpj;J itj;J> KO tpis epyq;fspYk; ePHg;ghrd trjpia Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLf;f tf;fpy;yhky; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy;> ,tHfs; vd;iwf;F rPdh> [g;ghd; kw;Wk; `hye;J ehLfspd; mjpfg;gl;r cw;gj;jpf; FwpaPLfis vl;bg; gpbg;g KbAk;?! fz;Zf;F vl;ba tiuAk; fhdy; ePNu!!

,t;tsT gpur;idfisAk; vspjhfj; jPHg;gjw;Fz;lhd rhj;jpaf; $Wfs; mj;jidiaAk; xUq;Nf ngw;wpUf;f> ,tw;iw vy;yhk; jPHg;gjw;F nryT nra;tij tpl;L tpl;L> vk; ngz;fspd; fw;gg; igiar; #iwahLtjw;F nryT nra;Ak;> ,e;j khy;j;j]; thjpfs; kdpj eydpy; mf;fiw nfhz;ltHfsh? my;yJ gpur;idapd; cz;ik epiyia Muha;e;J> mjw;Fj; jPHthf tpsq;Fk; ,];yhkpar; rl;lq;fSk; mij tOthJ gpd;gw;wj; Jbf;Fk; K];ypk;fs; kdpj ,dj;jpd; kPJk;> mjd; eydpd; kPJk; mf;fiw nfhz;ltHfsh? vd;gij eLepiyahsHfs; rpe;jpf;fl;Lk;.

 

7. fz;nfl;l gpd;..!?

,jw;F Kd; cs;s jiyg;Gfspy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; gpd;dzpapy; vOe;j r%f mtyq;fisAk;> khy;j;j]; rhHG thj mwpQHfspd; jtwhf rpj;jhe;jq;fisAk; mjw;Fhpa fhuzq;fSld; ehk; njspthf;fpNdhk;. ,dp tUk; mj;jpahaj;jpy;> ,jw;fhd ,];yhj;jpd; topKiwfs; gw;wp Muha;Nthk;. mjw;F Kd;!!

,e;j FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijg; gw;wp cz;ikapNyNa ,e;j mwpT [Ptpfs; jk; Ra czHNthL Muha;e;jpUg;ghHfshdhy;> ehk; ,t;tsT njspthf;f Ntz;ba mtrpakpUe;jpUf;fhJ. Vnddpy; ve;nje;ej ehLfs; ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij Kd;dpUj;jpaNjh mej ehLfs; vy;yhk; ,e;j jpl;lj;ij vd;Nwh %l;il fl;b itj;J tpl;ld. Vnddpy;> mjdhy; vOe;j gpur;idfs; kw;Wk; Kjyhd; kw;Wk; ,uz;lhk; cyf Nghhpd; mopTfs; vy;yhk; xd;W Nru Njrj;jpd; kf;fs; njhif xNuabahff; Fiwe;J tpl;lij czHe;J> kf;fs; njhif ngUf;fj;jpw;fhf kf;fSf;F gy rYiffisAk; ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; ju Kd; te;jd.

cjhuzkhf> ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; gphpl;ldpd; cs; Jiw nrayH> n`HgHl; khhP]d; (HERBERT MORRISON) vd;gtH fPo;fz;l fUj;ij ntspapl;lhH. mjhtJ ,d;wpUf;Fk; epiyapy;> gphpl;ldpd; xt;nthU FLk;gKk; jdJ kf;fs; njhifapy;> 25 rjtPj msT caHj;j Ntz;Lk;. mg;nghOJ jhd; gphpl;ld; ,d;wpUf;Fk; epiyia jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s KbAk; vd;w gphpl;ld; muRf;F mwpTWj;jpdhH.

NkYk;> mjpff; Foe;ijfs; FLk;gj;jpy; nghUshjhur; Rikia mjpfhpf;Fk; vd;w fUj;J vOe;j nghOJ> xt;nthU FLk;gj;jpd; gps;isfspd; msT tpfpjhr;rhug;gb Cf;fg;gb> thptpyf;F> tPL fl;l cjtp> fy;tp> kUj;Jtk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; rYif Nghd;w cjtpj; jpl;lq;fis NtW mwptpj;jd.

,jw;F xUgb NkNy gpuhd;]; nray;gl;lJ. FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL rhjdq;fs; gw;wp tpsk;guq;fis gpur;rhuk; nra;tJ Fw;wk; vd rl;lk; nfhz;L te;jJ. NkYk; kUj;JtHfs; NeubahfNth my;yJ kiwKfkhfNth $l FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL gw;wp mwpTWj;jNth mjd;gb nray;gLj;jNth ahiuAk; J}z;lf; $lhJ vd;gd Nghd;w rl;lq;fis ,aw;wpd.

n[Hkdpapy; ,Ue;J ntspte;j xU nra;jpg; gj;jphpf;if jdJ ehl;bd; kf;fs; njhif Fiwe;J tUtJ Fwpj;J> ,t;thW jdJ fUj;ij ntspapl;lJ.

,Nj epiyapy; n[Hkdp nrd;W nfhz;bUe;jhy; xU ehs; n[HkdpahdJ> Rj;jkhf Jilj;njwpag;gl;l kyl;Lj; jd;ik nfhz;l ehlhf khwp tpLk;.

mjd; gpd; n[Hkdp murhdJ> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL gw;wpa tpsk;guk;> mJ rhHe;j fy;tp Kiwfs; mj;jidiaAk; rl;lg;gb jil nra;ag;gl;lJ vd mwptpj;jJ. mYtyfk; kw;Wk; njhopw;rhiyfspy; Ntiy nra;tjw;F ngz;fSf;F jil tpjpj;jJ. Foe;ij ,y;yhj; jk;gjpfSf;f mjpf thpAk;> Foe;ij cs;s jk;gjpfSf;F thpr; rYifiaAk; toq;fpaJ. jpUkzkhfhj ,isQHfis jpUkzk; nra;a Cf;Ftpg;gjw;fhf> 1934 y; 10 kpy;ypad; gTz;l; epjpia jpUkzf; fldhf> 6 yl;rk; ,isQHfSf;F toq;fpaJ.

,j;jhypapd; KNrhypdp murhdJ xUgb NkNy Ngha;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lg; gpur;rhuk; mJ rhHe;j midj;Jk; rl;lg;gb jil nra;jJ. NkYk;> mJ gw;wp NgRtJ> nray;gLtJ> mjw;F Mjuthf elg;gJ Nghd;witfis Fw;wkhf mwptpj;jJ. kPwp elg;gtHfSf;F xU tUl rpiwj; jz;lid my;yJ mguhjk; my;yJ ,uz;Lk; vd;w rl;lj;ij ,aw;wpaJ. NkYk;> kUj;JtHfs; $l ,e;jr; rl;lj;jpypUe;J tpjptpyf;F mspf;fg;gltpy;iy.

Mf> ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; jkf;F xj;JtuhJ vd vd;Nwh tPrpnawpe;J tpl;lnjhU nfhiyfhuj; jpl;lj;ij Vd; ,e;j tsUk; ehLfs;> jq;fs; jiyapy; J}f;fp itj;J MLfpd;wd vd;why;> xd;W Nkw;fpypUe;J tUk; thilf; fhw;W $l cd;djkhdJ vd;w nfhs;if. mjhtJ> Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; jq;fs; fhydp ehLfspy; Vw;gLj;jptpl;Lg; Nghd jhf;fq;fs; vd;Wk;> tsUk; ehLfspd; v[khd tpRthrk; vd;W nfhs;syhk;.

mLj;J> ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa ehLfs; Kjyhk; ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; xU cz;ikia czHe;jd. vd;dntdpy;> ve;jsT kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rp milfpd;wNjh> me;jsT me;j ehl;bd; rf;jp gw;wp cyf muq;fpy; czug;gLfpd;wJ.

mjhtJ> Kjyhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg; gpd; 1916 y; gphpl;ld;> Njrpa gpwg;G tpfpjj;ij Muha xU fkp\id epakpj;jJ. ,jpy; gzpahw;wpa gphpl;ldpd;> kUj;Jt Rfhjhu mikr;rfj;jpd; jiyik kUj;Jtuhd> rH [hH[; epA+nkd;> fPo;f;fz;l fUj;ij ntspapl;lhH. mjhtJ. gphpl;ldpd; gpwg;G tpfpjk; ,Nj mstpy; Fiwe;J nfhz;Nl nry;Ykhdhy;> gphpl;ld; ,d;wpUf;Fk; cyf ty;yuR vd;w gl;lj;ij ,oe;J> cyfpd; ehyhe;ju rf;jpahf Mfp tpLk; vd;w vr;rhpf;ifia tpLj;jhH.

Mf> ,e;j FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;bd; ghjfq;fis ed;whfNt ,e;j NkiyehLfs; czHe;Jk; fzpj;Jk; tpl;ld. Mdhy;> ,tHfs; Muk;gj;jpy; ,j;jpl;lk; gw;wp kf;fsplk; Vw;gLj;jpa kdkhw;wk;> mjD}Nl vOe;j r%f> fyhr;rhu>gz;ghl;L khw;wq;fs;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL vd;w Kiwapy;> Foe;ijg; gpwg;igf; Fiwf;fhky;> r%fj;jpy; Vw;gl;L tpl;l kd khw;wq;fSk;> fyhr;rhu rPHNfLfSk; ,tHfis mwpahkNyNa Foe;ijg; gpwg;igf; Fiwj;J te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

,dp ,e;j Nkw;fj;jpa muRfs; vd;d jhd; Kad;whYk;> r%f khw;wj;ijAk;> cz;ikahd kdpj ehfhPfj;jpd; ghy; kf;fis kPl;nlLff;fr; nra;tJk;> mjd; ghy; kf;fspd; ftdj;ij jpUg;GtJ vd;gJk; ,ayhj fhhpak; vd;w KbTf;f te;J tpl;ldH. MfNt> ,uz;lhk; cyfg; NghUf;Fg;gpd; kf;fs; gpwg;G tpfpjj;jpy; Vw;gl;l khw;wk; mNj epiyapy; njhluhky;> kPz;Lk; gpwg;G tpfpjk; ghjhsj;ij Nehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,tw;iw kPl;nlLg;gJ Nkw;Fyf ,]q;fshy; ,ayhj xd;whfTk; Mfp tpl;lJ. ,jD}Nl> tsUk; ehLfs; jq;fs; kf;fs; njhifiag; ngUf;fpa tz;zk; cs;sd. NkYk;> nghUshjhuj;jpYk; tsUk; ehLfs; Kd;Ndwpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. ,e;j epiyapy;> ,d;W %d;whk; cyf ehLfshf> Vio ehLfshf ,Uf;Fk; ,e;jpah Nghd;w ehLfs; ,d;Dk; rpwpJ ehspy; nghUshjuhj;jpy; Kd;Ndwpa ehLfshfTk;> Ms;gyj;jpYk;> ,uhZt gyj;jpYk; kpf caHe;j epiyf;F Ntfkhf tpiue;J nfhz;bUg;gJk;> ty;yuR vDk; jFjpia ,d;Dk; rpy Mz;LfspNyNa mile;J tpLk; vdf; fzpg;Gk; ,e;j Nkw;FyF mwpT [Ptpfshy; czug;gl;L> mjd; ntspg;ghLfs; mq;nfhd;Wk; ,q;nfhd;wkhf ntsp te;J nfhz;bUg;gJk;> cyf murpay; epiyia ed;F Muha;gtHfSf;Fg; GydhFk;.

,d;iwa rHtNjr ehza epjp mikg;gpd; Gjpa fzf;fPl;bd;gb> ,e;jpag; nghUshjhuk; cyfpy; mnkhpf;fh> [g;ghd;> rPdh> n[Hkdp kw;Wk; gpuhd;]; f;F mLj;jgbahf Mwhk; ,lj;jpy; cs;sJ.

,e;j epiyapy; ,e;j tsHe;j ehLfs; jq;fsJ> ty;yuR ehLfs; vd;w gl;lj;ijj; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s kiwKfkhf tsUk; ehLfsplk; nfhs;ifj; jpzpg;G kw;Wk; murpay; epHg;ge;jj;ij Vw;gLj;jp> tsUk; kf;fs; njhifia Fiwf;fr; nra;a mwpTWj;Jfpd;wd. ,jw;F JUg;Gr;rPl;lhf cyf tq;fp iag; Nghd;w epjp mikg;Gfisg; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wd. NkYk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lk; tsUk; ehLfspy; ntw;wpfukhfr; nray;gl ,e;j cyf tq;fp %yk; epjpAjtp nra;fpd;wd.

Nkw;fz;l midj;Jk; ek; murpay;thjpfSf;Fk; njhpAk;. mwpT [PtpfSf;Fk; njhpAk;. Mdhy; njhpe;jpUe;Jk; ,tHfs; ,jd; NfLfis kiwg;gJ vd;gJ v[khd tpRthrkhftd;wp> NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;Fk;!! ,tHfs; tapW tsHf;f vk; ngz;fs; jq;fs; fHg;gg;igiaf; fhag;gLj;j Ntz;Lkh? rpejpf;f Ntz;baJ mwpthspfspd; Ntiy? ,j;jpl;lj;ij xJf;fpj; js;s Ntz;baJ nghJkf;fspd; flik!!

 

ghfk; 3

FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL - ,];yhkpag; ghHitAk; mjd; rl;lq;fSk;


1. ,];yhj;jpd; ghHitapy; kdpjd;!

,d;iwa etPd mwptpay; fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; mj;jidAk; kdpj Fyj;jpw;F ed;ik nra;aNt fz;L gpbf;fg;gl;Ls;sd vd;w thjk; jtwhdJ. mj;jifa fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; ed;ikahditah? my;yJ jPikahditah? vd;gij> ,itDk;> mtdJ J}jUk; fhl;bj; je;Js;s topKiwfis ciu fy;yhfg; gad;gLj;jpj; jhd; mtw;iwj; jPHkhdpf;f KbANk jtpu> mitfs; mwptpay; fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; vd;gjw;fhf mitfs; kdpj Fyj;jpw;F ed;ik nra;gitahfj; jhd; ,Uf;Fk; vd;w KbTf;F clNd te;J tpl KbahJ. mj;jifa fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; kdpj tho;tpy; xOf;f tpOkq;fisg; Ngzr; nra;J tpLk; vd;Wk; ek;g KbahJ. mitfs; mwptpay; fz;Lgpbg;Gfs; vd;w xNu thjj;jpw;fhf> ePjp newpKiwfisg; Gwe;js;sp tpl;L> mtw;iw kdpj tho;tpy; mky;gLj;jTk; KbahJ. mt;thW nra;tJ kdpj ,dj;jpd; rPuopTf;Fj; jhd; top tFf;FNk my;yhJ> kdpjid kdpjdhf thor; nra;J tplhJ.

ePjp newp KiwfSk;> xOf;fq;fSk; ,];yhj;NjhLk;> mjd; kjf; Nfhl;ghl;NlhLk; gpz;zpg; gpide;jit. xOf;f tpOkq;fisAk;> ,];yhj;ijAk; jdpj;jdpNa gphpj;Jg; ghHf;f ,ayhJ. mg;gbg; gphpj;Jg; ghHf;f KbahJ. mJ jhd; ,];yhj;jpd; fUf; nfhs;ifahFk;. mJ jhd; ,iwf; fl;lisAk; $l.

,];yhj;jpd; epajpg;gb> ek;Kd; njhpfpd;w ,e;j gpugQ;rKk; mjd; fhl;rpfSk;> xU J}a nja;tPf Nehf;fj;jpw;fhfg; gilf;fg;gl;lJ vd;w ek;gpf;ifapd;ghy; rhHe;jjhFk;. ,it ahTk; tPZf;fhf ,iwtdhy; gilf;fg;gltpy;iy. xt;nthd;Wk; xt;nthU epajpapd;gb gilf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mt;thNw> xt;nthU CapUk; mJ gilf;fg;gl;ljd; Nehf;fj;ij> mit epiwNtw;wpNaahf Ntz;Lk;.

NkYk;> kdpjd; vd;w ,e;j caphpdk; jhd; ,e;jg; gpugQ;rj;jpy; ,iwtdJ Kf;fpa gilg;G. mtdJ jFjpAk;> me;j];Jk; kw;w vy;yh caphpdq;fis tplTk; rpwe;jJ. Vnddpy;> ,g;G+kpapy; kdpjdpd; epiy vd;dntdpy;> ,iwtdJ fl;lisfis rpuNkw; nfhz;L nray;gLj;Jgtd; vd;w epiyapy; ,Uf;fpd;whd;.

(egpNa!) ,d;Dk; ckjpul;rfd; kyf;Ffsplk;> ehd; G+kpapy; (vd;Dila) gpd;Njhd;wiy (Mjik) epr;rakhf Mf;fg; Nghfpd;Nwd;. (my;FHMd; 2:30)

NkYk;> kdpjDf;fhf G+kpapy; cs;stw;iwAk;> thdq;fspy; cs;stw;iwAk; trg;gLj;jpj; je;Js;shd; ,iwtd;.

(kdpjHfNs!) thdq;fspy; cs;stw;iwAk;> G+kpapy; cs;stw;iwAk;> epr;rakhf my;yh`; cq;fSf;F trg;gLj;jpj; je;jpUf;fpd;whd; vd;gijAk;> mtd; jd; mUl;nfhilfis (mtw;wpy;) ntspg;gilahdtw;iwAk;> kiwthdtw;iwAk; cq;fs; kPJ epiwthf;fpapUf;fpd;whd; vd;gijAk; ePq;fs; ghHf;ftpy;iyah? (31:20)

,jd; %yk; kw;nwy;yh kjq;fisAk; tpl ,];yhk;> kdpjid xU jdpg;gl;l me;j];Js;s caHgilg;ghf fUJfpwJ.

kdpjdpd; gilg;igg; gw;wp FHMd; Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ>

epr;rakhf ehk; kdpjid kpf mofhd gilg;ghfg; gilj;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. (my;FHMd; :95:04) vd;fpwJ.

NkYk; ,];yhk; kdpjid ed;ikapd;ghy; VTfpwJ. rf kdpjDf;F cjtp thoTk; gzpf;fpwJ.

mj;Jld;> my;yh`;it - mtDf;fhfNt tzf;fj;ijf; fyg;gw;wjhf Mf;fpatHfshfTk; (midj;J jPa topfis tpl;Lk; ePq;fp ,];yhj;jpd;ghy;) rha;e;jtHfshf mtHfs; my;yh`;it tzq;Ftjw;fhfTk;> njhOifia mtHfs; epiwNtw;Wtjw;fhfTk;> [fhj;ij mtHfs; nfhLg;gjw;fhfTNk jtpu (NtnwjidAk;) mtHfs; (mjpy;) fl;lisaplg;gltpy;iy. ,d;Dk; ,J jhd; Neuhd khHf;fkhFk;. (98:06)

Mdhy; me;j Neuhd top vJ vd mwpTWj;jhky;> fw;Wf; nfhLf;fhky; kdpjidf; fz;izf;fl;b fhl;by; tpl;lJ Nghy; ,iwtd; tpl;Ltpltpy;iy. ,iwtd; fhl;bj; je;Js;s me;j Neuhd topiag; gpd;gw;wpdhyd;wp ght kPl;rp ,y;iy. NkYk;> kdpjd; ,aw;ifapNyNa ghtg;gl;ltd; (original Sin) vd;w jj;Jtj;ij ,];yhk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy;iy. khwhf> xt;nthU Mj;khTk;> mjdjd; nray;fSf;Fg; nghUg;ghFk; vd;W mwpTWj;Jfpd;wJ.

 

2. kdpjDf;Fs;s Rje;jpuk;

Rje;jpuk; vd;w thHj;ijia vLj;Jf; nfhz;Nlhkhdhy;> me;jr; Rje;jpuj;ij KOikahfg; ngw;wtd; my;yh`; xUtNd. Mdhy; rpy tiuaiwfSf;F cl;gl;L kdpjDk; rpy Rje;jpuq;fisg; ngw;Ws;shd;. Vnddpy;> Mjk; (miy) mtHfis ,iwtd; gilj;j NghJ> kw;nwy;yh caphpdq;fis tplTk;> kyf;Ffis tplTk; jdpj;Jf; fhl;ba rpe;jdh rf;jpia kdpjDf;F ,iwtd; toq;fpdhd;. mjd; %yk;> ,iwtdJ rl;l jpl;lq;fis Vw;W elf;fTk;> elf;fhjpUf;fTk; kdpjd; Rje;jpuk; ngw;Ws;shd;. ,iwtd; kdpjid> ,aw;ifapd; rl;l jpl;lq;fSf;F gzpe;J elf;FkhW gzpj;Js;shd;. me;jf; fl;lisfSf;Fg; gzpe;J elf;Fk; NghJ> thdtHfspd; juj;ij milfpd;whd;. mtw;iw kPWk; NghJ kpUfj;jpYk; Nftykhdtdfh khwp tpLfpd;whd;.

,iwf;fl;lis kPWgtHfsi jpUkiw ,g;gbf; $WfpwJ :

epr;rakhf kdpjd; kpf;f mepahaf;fhud;> kpf;f ed;wp nfl;ltd;. (my;FHMd; 14:34)

kdpjdJ> xt;nthU nray;fSk; mtdJ gjpNtl;by; gjpT nra;ag;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. mtdJ xt;nthU jtWfSf;Fk; kWikapy;gjpy; nrhy;yf; flikg;gl;ltd;. kdpjDf;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s topfhl;Ljy;fSk;> nghWg;GfSk;> xOf;f tpOkq;fSk;> ,t;Tyfpy; mtd; thOk; fhyj;jpy; ,iwtDf;Fk; mtdJ fl;lisfSf;Fk; gzpe;J> ,iwj;J}jH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfspd; topfhl;Ljy;fspd;gb jk; tho;it mikj;Jf; nfhs;tjd; %yk;> mtd; jdJ ,iwtdhfpa my;yh`; ,Uf;fpd;whd;. mtd; jhd; ek;ikg; gilj;jhd;. mtdplNk ek; kPl;rp ,Uf;fpwJ vd;w rj;jpa rhl;rpf;fhd NjHTf; fsj;jpy; ntw;wp ngw;wtdhfpd;whd;.

 

3. kdpjdJ nghWg;Gf;fs;

kdpjd; vd;gtd; xU rKjha tpyq;F Mthd;. mtdhy; jdJ tho;it jhdhfNth> jdpj;Njh mij;Jf; nfhs;s ,ayhJ. kdpjd; vd;gtd;> kdpjr; rKjhak; vd;w $l;L tho;tpy; XH mq;fkhf ,Uf;fpd;whd;.

K`k;kJ egp (]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs;> xt;nthUtUk; ghJfhtyH MthH. mtH jd; ghJfhtYf;F cl;gl;l midj;Jf;Fk; nghWg;ghdtH MthH. (Gfhhp)

NkYk; ,];yhj;ijg; nghWj;jtiu> Jwtwk; vd;gJ fpilahJ> vdNt kdpjd; Jwtwk; Nkw;nfhs;tij jil nra;tjd; %yk;> jd; nghWg;Gf;fspypUe;J jtpHe;J> tho;f;ifg; gpur;idfspypUe;J tpyfp tho;fpd;w tho;f;ifia tpl;Lk; mtid ,];yhk; jLf;fpd;wJ. Nkw;fz;l gpur;idfspypUe;J xJq;fp> kWikapy; ntw;wp ngWtjw;Fz;lhd vspa topahf kdpjd; Jwtwj;ijf; iff; nfhs;s KbahJ.

NkYk;> kdpjdJ cz;ikahd ntw;wp vd;gJ> mtd; Mw;Wk; ew;gzpfspypUe;Jk;> mtdJ ew;nray; Kiwfspd; %yk; fzpf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;j cyfpy; mtd; nray;gLj;Jk; ew;nray;fNs> kWikapy; mtid ntw;wp ngw;w kdpjdhf milar; nra;tjw;Fz;lhd ey;topahFk;. me;j ey;topia miltjw;F> ,t;Tyfpy; Vuhskhd ,lHghLfs; te;J mtdJ Rje;jpuj;ijg; gwpf;fTk; $Lk;. mtdJ Rje;jpuj;ijg; gwpf;Fk; fl;Lg;ghLfis jdJ ed;ikf;Nf> jdJ r%fj;jpd; ed;ikf;Nf vdf; fUJk; NghJ mtd; tho;tpy; ntw;wp ngw;w kdpjdhfpd;whd;.

mij tpLj;J me;jf; fl;Lg;ghLfis jdf;F ,lg;gl;l mbikr; rq;fpyp vdf; fUJthdhfpy;> mtdJ gilg;gpd; Nehf;fk; mq;Nf ntw;wp ngwhJ. ,iwtdpd; fl;lisfisAk;> ,aw;ifapNyNa me;jf; fl;lisfspd; gpd;dzapy; cs;s G+uzj;Jtj;ijAk; rpe;jpf;fNt mtDf;F rpe;jdh rf;jp toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mj;jifa epiyfisr; rpe;jpj;J> kjpj;J elg;ghdhfpy;> ,g;G+yfpy; kdpjid> ,iwtd; jd;Dila gpujpepjp vd;w me;j];ijf; nfhLj;J> kw;nwy;yh gilg;gpdj;ijAk; tpl Nkyhd gilg;ghfg; gilj;jjw;fhf ed;wp nra;jtdhthd;. mJtiu kdpjd; mikjpahd tho;itg; ngWthd;. mij kPwp> ,aw;ifia vjpHj;J> ,iwf; fl;lisfis kPwp elg;ghdhfpy;> kdpjDf;F ,k;ikapYk;> kWikapYk; e\;lk; vd;gijj; jtpu NtW vd;dthf ,Uf;f KbAk;!?

 

4. ,iwr; rl;lq;fs;

,iwr; rl;lq;fs; vd;gJ Neuhf topiaf; fhz;gpf;ff; $baitfs; MFk;. mit> kdpjDf;F ed;ik vJ!> jPik vJ! vdg; gphpj;J mwptpf;Fk; ,iwr; rl;lj; njhFg;Gk;> topfhl;Ljy;fSk; MFk;. mj;jifa rl;lq;fisf; nfhz;lJ jhd; ,iwNtjkhfpa jpUf;FHMd; MFk;.

jpUf;FHMidg; gw;wp ,iwtd; Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ>

jd; mbahH (K`k;kJ mtHfs;) kPJ (mrj;jpaj;jpypUe;J rj;jpaj;ijg; gpwpj;jwptpf;Fk;) /GHfhid – mJ mfpyj;jhHf;F mr;r%l;b vr;rhpf;if nra;af; $bajhf ,wf;fp itj;jhNd> mj;jifNahd; kpf;f ghf;fpaKilatd;. (my;FHMd; 25:01)

jpUf;FHMd; egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) mtHfSf;F> [pg;hPy; (miy) vDk; thdtH J}jH %yk; ,iwtdhy; ,wf;fpaUsg;gl;lJ. me;jj; jpUf;FHMd; jhd; ,iwtdJ fl;lisfisf; nfhz;l %y E}yhFk;. mjpy; jhd; %yr; rl;lq;fSk; mj;Jld; mjD}Nl rpy tpjptpyf;FfSk; cs;sd. jpUf;FHMdpy;> kdpjdJ tho;tpaYf;F Ntz;ba midj;J topfhl;Ljy;fSk;> rl;lq;fSk;> mbg;gilf; nfhs;iffSk; cs;sd.

NkYk;> jpUf;FHMdpy; ,iwtd; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whd; :

ehk; vk; jpUj;J}juhfpa K`k;kjpw;F jpUf;FHMid kl;Lk; mUstpy;iy. mj;Jld; Qhdj;ijAk; toq;fpAs;Nshk; vd;fpwhd;. mj;jifa Qhdg; Ngio jhd;> jpUj; J}jH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfspd; nrhy;Yk; nraYk;> eilKiwAk; nfhz;l egp nkhopj; njhFg;Gfs; MFk;.

vdNt> jpUf;FHMdpy; cs;s rl;lq;fSf;F Nkyjpf tpsf;fk; ngw egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) mtHfspd; tho;tpay; eilKiwfshd>egpnkhopj; njhFg;Gfs; (`jP];) %yk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;.

NkYk;> ,iwtd; jd; jpUkiwapy;> vdf;Fk; (my;yh`;Tf;Fk; ) vd; J}jUf;Fk; fPo;gbe;J elq;fs;. (3:32)

vdNt> ehk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l ,e;j jiyg;Gfis ,iwtopfhl;Ljy;fis> ,iwtdj J}jH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfspd; eilKiwfisAk;> NkYk; mwpQH ngUkf;fspd; fUj;Jf;fisAk; nfhz;L Muhag; GFNthk;.

 

5. jpUf;FHMd; xU kUj;Jt E}y; my;y!

ekJ jiyg;ig Muha;tjw;F ehk; ciufy;yhfg; gad;gLj;Jk;> jpUkiwahdJ XH kUj;Jt E}y; my;y. khwhf> kdpj ,dj;Jf;F NeHtop fhl;lf; $baJk; kdpjd; capH thof; $ba ,t;TyfpYk;> mtd; kuzpj;j gpd; cs;s kWik tho;f;ifapd; ntw;wpf;fhd Maj;jg;gbfis toq;ff; $ba Md;kPf topiaf; fhl;lf; $bajhFk;. ,ijNa> jpUkiw $WfpwJ :

egpNa! ePH $WtPuhf! (,t;Ntjk;) tpRthrq; nfhz;ltHfSf;F NeHtopahfTk;> (cly; kw;Wk; kdNeha;fis) Fzg;gLj;jf; $bajhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. (jpUf;FHMd; 41:44)

 

6.kdpjd; ,iwtdJ gpujpepjp

,iwtd; kdpjidg; gw;wpf; $Wk; NghJ>

mtd; jhd; (cq;fSf;F Kd; ,Ue;jtHfSf;F) gpujpepjpfshfg; G+kpapy; cq;fis Mf;fpdhd; (6:165)

kdpjdhdtd; xd;W ,itDila fl;lisfis Vw;W> mtw;iw ,g;G+kpapy; nray;gLj;Jk; ,iw mbikahfTk;> ,uz;lhtjhf> jdf;F Kd;dhs; ,j;jifa ,iwtdJ fl;lisfis Vw;W ele;J tpl;L topfhl;br; nrd;W tpl;l cj;jk egpkhHfs; kw;Wk; mtHfs; top ele;j ek; Kd;NdhHfspd; gpujpepjpfshfTk; nray;gl Ntz;ba epiyapy; ,Uf;fpd;whd;.

vdNt> jdJ mbikahfpa ,e;j kdpjd;> jd;Dila fl;lisfis mtd; rpuNkw; nfhz;L epiwNtw;Wtjw;F ey;y cly; eyk; kpf;ftdhfTk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ ,iwtdJ vjpHghHg;G. ,iwtDila ,e;j vjpHghHghHg;ig G+Hj;jp nra;a Ntz;ba epiyapy; cs;s kdpjd;> jhd; ,t;Tyfpy; Mw;w Ntz;ba ,iwg; gpujpepjpj;Jtg; gzpfSf;F KOj; jFjp cs;std; vd;gij ep&gzk; nra;tJ jiyaha flikahfpwJ.

mjw;F kdpjdJ eyj;ijAk;> cly; eyj;ijAk; Ngz Ntz;baJ mtrpakhfpd;wJ. NkYk;> me;j kd eyj;ijAk;> cly; eyj;ijAk; ,iwtd; toq;fpAs;s mwpTWj;jy;fspd;gb mikj;Jf; nfhs;sTk; Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; %yk; ,iwtd; jd;idg; gilj;jjd; Nehf;fj;ij epiwNtw;wpf; fhl;l Ntz;Lk;.

,ijNa u#y; (]y;) mtHfs; ,t;thW $wpdhHfs; :

gykpy;yhj ek;gpf;ifahsid tpl gyKs;s ek;gpf;ifahsid ,iwtd; kpfTk; Nerpf;fpd;whd;. (K];ypk;)

Nkw;fz;l egp nkhop typAWj;JtJ vd;dntd;why;> xU kdpjd; jd;Dila MNuhf;fpaj;jpy; mjpff; ftdk; vLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> vg;nghOJk; MNuhf;fpakhf ,Uf;f Kaw;rpj;Jf; nfhz;Lk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> ,q;Nf MNuhf;fpak; vd;gJ cly; eyk;> kdeyk;> kw;Wk; rKjha eyk; nfhz;ljhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> mr;rKjhak; NehapypUe;J kl;Lk; ePq;fpajhf ,Uj;jy; $lhJ. mij tpl jsHe;j> KJikahd nray;ghLfsw;w rKjhakhfTk; ,Uj;jy; $lhJ.

mj;jifa eyj;ij vt;thW Ngz Ntz;Lk; vd ,iwkiw $WfpwJ vd Muha;e;jhy;>

kdpjHfNs! G+kpapYs;stw;wpypUe;J (cz;z) mDkjpf;fg;gl;l ey;ytw;iw cz;Zq;fs;. NkYk; i\j;jhdpd; mbr;RtLfisg; gpd;gw;whjPHfs;. epr;rakhf mtd;> cq;fSf;F gfpuq;fkhd tpNuhjpahthd;. (2:168)

,jd; %yk ,iwtd; vij cz;z Ntz;Lk; vij cz;zf; $lhJ vd;W mwpTWj;Jtjd; %yk;> jd; mbikapd; MNuhf;fpaj;jpy; ,iwtd; ve;jsT mf;fiw nfhz;bUf;fpwhd; vd;gJ Ghpa tUk;.

mjhtJ> ,we;j gpuhzpfspd; khkprk;>,uj;jk;> gd;wpf; fwp kw;Wk; ,iwtdJ ngaH nrhy;yp mWf;fg;glhj gpuhzpfspd; khkprk; Nghd;witfs; ,iwtdhy; cz;z jil nra;ag;gl;litfs;. NkYk; ,itfis cz;gjd; %yk; vd;d vd;d jPikfs; cz;lhfpd;wd vd ,d;iwa mwptpay; cyfKk; xg;Gf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. kdpjd; Nky;> mtdJ MNuhf;fpaj;jpd; Nkyk; mf;fiw nfhz;Ls;s khHf;fk; vJntd;why;> Vf ,iwNahdhfpa my;yh`; mUspa khHf;fkhd ,];yhk; xd;NwahFk;.

mJNghyNt> ,];yhk; kJitAk;> #jhl;lj;ijAk; jil nra;Js;sJ. ,t;tpuz;Lk; jhd; ,d;W kpfg; nghpa rKjha rPuopTf;Fk;> nghUshjhu rPuopTf;Fk; kf;fis Ml;gLj;jpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ.

,Jtiu czitAk;> Fbg;igAk; vt;thW Ngzp cly;eyj;ijf; fhg;gJ vd mwpTWj;jpa ,iwtd;> mLj;J rKjha tho;f;ifapy; $l;L tho;f;ifapy; mtdJ nray;ghLfs; vt;thW mika Ntz;Lk; vdTk; mwpTWj;Jfpd;whd;.

ghJfhg;gpd;ik> cjtpapy;yhj epiyAk; xU kdpjDf;F mikjpaw;w epiyia cUthf;Fk;. me;j mikjpaw;w epiyapypUe;J kdpjidg; ghJfhf;f> ,iwtidj; Jjpg;gjd; %yk; me;j kd mikjpiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;SkhW ,iwkiw kdpjDf;F mwpTWj;JfpwJ.

vj;jifNahnud;why;> mtHfs; (nka;ahfNt) tpRthrq; nfhz;lhHfs;> ,d;Dk; my;yh`;it epidT $HtJ nfhz;L mtHfSila ,jaq;fs; mikjp ngWfpd;wd. (Vndd;why;) my;yh`;it epidT $Htjhy; ,jaq;fs; epr;rakhf mikjp ngWk; vd;gij mwpe;J nfhs;tPuhf! (my;FHMd; 13:28)

,d;iwa epiyapy;> kdpjdpd; kd mikjp nfLtJ jhd; Vuhskhf Fw;wq;fSf;Ff; fhuzkhfp tpLfpd;wJ vd;gJ Ma;Tfs; $Wk; cz;ikahFk;. vdNt> kdpjd; jdf;F ,lHfs;> Jd;gq;fs; NeUk; nghOJ> jd;Dila ,ayhikia> ghJfhg;gpy;yhj jd;ikia> cjtpf;F vd;W rhpahdnjhU epiy ,y;yhikiaf; Fwpj;J Vq;fhky;> mjw;F tbfhyhf Fw;wr; nray;fspy; <Lglhy;> ,iwtid me;j fd Neuj;jpy; Jjp nra;tjd; %yk;> mtDf;Fj; Njitg;gLk; kd mikjp> cjtp Mfpa midj;ijAk;> xUq;Nf ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;. Jjp nra;tj vd;gJ kzpfis cUl;bf; nfhz;L jpahdj;jpy; ,Ug;gjd;W. khwhf> ,iwkiwapd; topfhl;liy me;j rkaj;jpy; epidT $HtJ> vd;gjd; %yk; kd mikjp ngWtjhFk;.

cjhuzkhf> kJ mUe;JgtHfsplk; ePq;fs; Vd; Fbf;fpwPHfs;? vdf; Nfllhy;> mtHfs; jtwhJ nrhy;Yk; fhuzk; vJntd;why;> tPl;by; gpur;id>mYtyfj;jpy; gpur;id> mjdhy; vOe;j kdf; Fog;gj;ijAk;> cly; NrhHitAk; Nghf;fpf; nfhs;sj; jhd; Fbf;fpd;Nwd; vd;ghHfs;.

Mdhy; ,t;thW mtH Fbg;gjw;F Kd; vdjpiwtd; kJ mUe;jtijj; jil nra;jpUf;fpd;whd; vd;w ,iwkiw trdj;ij epidT $Htjd; %yk;> mtuJ nraypypUe;J tpLgl;Lf; nfhs;tNjhL> mtdJ MNuhf;fpaKk; ghJfhf;fg;gLfpwJ.

kdpjd; jd;idj; jdpj;Jg; gphpj;J thOk; NghJ jhd; Nkw;nfhz;l kdepiy> cly;epiyr; NrhHTfSf;F cldbahf Ml;gl;L tpLfpd;whd;. Mdhy;> ,];yhkhdJ> kdpjid jdpg;gl;ltdhf mtdstpy; tho mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

,];yhkpa mikg;Gk; mjd; rKjha tho;Tk; rNfhjuj;Jtj;jpd; fPo; fl;lg;gl;lnjhU njhFg;ghFk;. ,ijg; gw;wp vk;ngUkhdhH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfs; Fwpg;gpLk; nghOJ>

,e;j K];ypk; rKjhakhdJ (ck;kj;) xU cly; Nghd;wJ. me;j clypd; VjhtJ xU ghfk; NehAWkhdhy;> KO clYk; mjd; typia czHtJ Nghy> ,e;j ,];yhkpa ck;kj;jpy; VjhtJ xU K];ypkpw;F Vw;gLk; Jd;gk;> mJ midj;J K];ypk;fSf;Fk; Vw;gl;l Jd;gkhFk; vd;whHfs;. (Gfhhp)

vdNt> xt;nthU K];ypKk; jd; rf K];ypKila eyj;jpy; mf;fiw nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; %yk; xt;nthU K];ypKk; jhd; jdpikapy; tho;gtd;> cjtpaw;wtd; vd;w kNdhghtk; nfhs;tij mbNahL jil nra;fpwJ. ,jd; %yk; ,];yhkpa rKjhakhdJ cly; mstpy; kd mstpy; MNuhf;fpakhd rKjhakhf jpfo Kbfpd;wJ.

mNj Nghy cly; ,r;irfs; vd;gJ kdpjDf;Fk;> Vida [PtuhrpfSf;Fk; ,iwtd; nghJthf ,aw;ifahdnjhU nrayhfg; gilj;Js;shd;. tpyq;Ffisg; nghWj;jtiu> mitfsJ cly; ,r;irfisg; nghWj;J> mtw;iwj; jdpj;Jf; nfhs;s ve;j tiuaiwAk; tFf;fg;glhjit. mNjNghy> mtw;wpdpilNa cly; ,r;irfs; Vw;gLtJ vd;gJ fhyepiyfis (Season) g; nghWj;J mikfpd;wd.

Mdhy;> kdpjd; tpyq;fpypUe;J NtWgl;ltd;. kdpjDf;nfd;Nw jdpahd gpuj;Nafkhd cly; cwTr; rl;lq;fs; ,iwtdhy; tFj;jspf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. mNjNghy> cly; ,r;irf;fhd ce;Jjy;fs; vy;yh fhyepiyfspYk;> ve;j Neuj;jpYk; vof; $ba epiyapy; kdpjdpd; ,aw;if mikg;G cs;sJ. NkYk; kdpjd; jd;Dila cly; ,r;irfis jpUkz ge;jj;jpd; %yk; kl;LNk jPHj;Jf; nfhs;s flikg;gl;Ls;shd;. mjd; %yk; kl;LNk Foe;ijg; Ngw;iw mtd; mile;J nfhs; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> me;j kz tho;T> xUj;jpf;F xUtd; vd;w Nfhl;ghl;bd;gb mika Ntz;Lk;.

,e;j jpUkz ge;jj;jpd; %yk; tpisAk; rKjhak;jhd;> xU mikjpahd r%f tho;Tf;F mbj;jskhf mikAk;.

mNjNghy FLk;gj;jpy; fztDf;nfd;W rpy nghWg;GfSk;> kidtpf;nfd;W rpy nghWg;GfSk; gfpHe;jspf;fg;gl;Ls;sd. fztd; tho;f;iff;F Ntz;ba tho;thjhuk; trjp Nghd;wtw;wpw;F njhopy; nra;J nghUshjhuk; jpul;lTk;> kidtpahdts; fztDf;Fk;> gps;isfSf;Fk; Ntz;ba gzptpilfs;> FLk;gg; guhkhpg;G> Foe;ij tsHg;G Nghd;w gzpfspy; <LgLjy;> vd mtutHf;F vw;w gzpfis kdepiy> cly;epiy jFjpfisf; nfhz;L ,];yhk; gphpj;Jj; je;Js;sJ.

,jd;%yk;> njhopy; kw;Wk; Ntiyapd; fhuzkhf Jtz;L tUk; fztid> ,d;Kfj;Jld; tPl;by; ,Uf;Fk; kidtp tuNtw;W cgrhpg;G toq;Fthdhdhy;> mtd; Vd; FbiaAk;> jd;Dila ,r;iriaj; jPHj;Jf; nfhs;s tpgr;rhuj;ijAk; ehl Ntz;Lk;?! fztd; kidtpiaf; Fwpg;gwpe;Jk; kidtp fztDila Fwpg;gwpe;Jk; elg;ghHfshdhy;> FLk;gk; vd;gJ mikjpg; G+q;fhthfj; jpfOk;.

Nkw;fz;l nray;Kiwfisf; nfhz;l FLk;g mikg;G rpjwpajd; fhuzkhfTk;> mj;jifa rKjha tho;T rpwf;f top tFf;fg;glhjjd; fhuzkhfj; jhd; ,d;iwa NkiyehLfs; Kd;dH ehk; ghHj;j rPuopTfis mile;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd.

 

7. jpUkzKk; mjd; Nehf;fKk; :

jpUkzKk; mjd; Jha Nehf;fKk; ,d;iwa Nkiyehl;Lr; rKjhaj;jpy; czug;glhkNyNa ,Uf;fpd;wJ. Mdhy; ,];yhk; jpUkzk; gw;wpa jdJ nfhs;ifapy; caHe;j epiyiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. NkYk;> jpUkzk; vd;w ge;jj;ijj; jtpHj;J FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL my;yJ fUj;jil gw;wpr; rpe;jpf;f ,ayhJ. vdNt> jpUkzj;jpd; cz;ikahd Jha Nehf;fj;ij mwptjd; %yk;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lj;jpd; epiy gw;wp ehk; xU KbTf;F tu ,aYk;.

,iwtd; ,aw;ifahfNt vy;yh capHfsplj;jpYk; ghypay; czHr;rpfis Vw;gLj;jp ,Uf;fpd;whd;. kdpjd; jdJ rKjha tho;tpy; jdJ ghypay; czHr;rpfis ntspg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s> mtw;wpd; Njitfis epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;s jpUkzk; vd;w ge;jj;ijf; filgpbj;Jf; nfhs;SkhW> ,iwtd; Mjp gpjh Mjk; (miy) Kjy; ekf;Ff; fw;Wj; je;j topKiwahFk;.

jpUkzk; vd;w ,e;j ge;jk; MZf;Fk; ngz;Zf;Fk; ,ilNa Vw;gl;L tpl;l gpwF> ,J tiu mtHfSf;fpilNa ,Ue;j ghypay; jilfs; tpyf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,J tiu mtHfs; ,UtUf;Fk; ,ilNa Fw;wkhff; fUjg;gl;l xU nray;> jpUkz ge;jj;jpw;Fg; gpd; rl;lg;gb mDkjpaspf;fg;gl;l nrayhf khwp tpLfpd;wJ. ,ijaLj;J> jpUkz ge;jk; %yk; ,ize;j ,UtUk;> jq;fsJ ghypay; czHr;rpfis> jhq;fs; my;yhj %d;whtJ eghplj;jpNy itj;Jf; nfhs;tJk;> ,j; jpUkz eilKiw %yk; jil nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. (jpUkzj;jpw;F Kd;dhy; gpwhplj;jpy; ghypay; cwT itj;Jf; nfhs;tJ ,];yhj;jpy; jz;lidf;Fhpa nrayhFk;).

vdNt> jk;gjpfs; ,UtUk; rKjhak; vd;Dk; mikg;gpy; fztd;-kidtp vd;w ge;jj;jpy; FLk;gkhfp> jkJ ,y;yw tho;tpd; gadhf> jk; czHTfis MFkhd topapy; itj;Jf; nfhz;ltHfshfTk;> me;j ,izg;gpd; gadhf jk; re;jjpfisg; ngUf;fp> kdpjd; vd;w caphp> ,e;j cyfk; cs;s fhyk; tiu jk; ,dj;ij ,g; G+Tyfpy; epiy epWj;Jtjw;Fz;lhd ,iw Vw;ghlhf ,e;jj; jpUkz ge;jk; jpfo;fpd;wJ.

,q;Nf FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL my;yJ fUj;jil vd;gJ> me;j ,iw Vw;ghl;il cjhrpdk; nra;J> jk; koiyfspy; vz;zpf;ifia xU tiuaiwf;Fs; itj;Jf; nfhs;s kdpjd; fz;Lgpbj;j Vw;ghlhFk;.

cq;fspy; tho;f;ifj; Jiz ,y;yhjtUf;Fk; (mt;thNw> tho;f;ifj; Jizthpy;yhj) cq;fSila Mz; mbikfs;> ,d;Dk; mbikg; ngz;fspypUe;J ey;nyhOf;fKs;stHfSf;Fk; jpUkzk; nra;J itAq;fs;. (jpUkiwf; FHMd; 24:32)

,jd; %yk; jpUkzk; vd;w ge;jj;ij midtH kPJk; ,iwtd; flikahf;fp itj;Js;shd; vd;gijAk;> ,];yhj;jpy; Jwtwk; ,y;iy vd;gijAk; mwpe;J nfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ.

,ijNa> egp (]y;) mtHfs;> xUtd; my;yJ xUj;jp jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;thuhfpy;> mtd; my;yJ mts; vd;Dila eilKiwiag; NgzpatHfshthHfs;. (Gfhhp)

NkYk;> ,iwg;gpujpepjpahfpa ,e;j kdpjd;> jpUkzk; vd;w ge;jk; %yk;> ,iwtd; mtDf;F toq;fpa> kdpj cw;gj;jp vDk; jd;ik %yk;> ,g; G+Tyif capNuhl;lKs;s fskhf epiyj;jpUf;fr; nra;a tpUk;Gfpd;whd;. mj;jifa capNuhl;lKs;s fsj;jpw;F> MNuhf;fpakhd kdpj cw;gj;jpia r%fk; ngw;wpUg;gJ mtrpakhfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> jpUkzk; vd;gJ ,U cly;fs; ,ize;J jk; ,r;iriaj; jzpj;Jf; nfhs;Sk; nray;ghL kl;Lk; my;y. khwhf> jpUkzj;jpd; %yk; ,iwr;rl;lk; fhl;ba topapy; jk; czHTfis gq;fpl;Lf; nfhz;ltHfshfTk; Mfp tpLfpd;whHfs;. NkYk;> jpUkzk; vd;w nray;ghL koiyfspd; tutpdhy; kl;LNk G+uzj;Jtk; milfpd;wJ. me;jg; G+uzj;Jtj;jpw;F vjphpilahd xd;W jhd; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL my;yJ fUj;jil MFk;.

 

8. nghUshjhu Nehf;fk;?

,d;iwa ehfhPf cyfpy; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL vd;gJ kUj;Jt Nehf;fpy; my;yhky;> r%fg; nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; ehfhPfk; vd;w NghHitapy; mike; Nkw;fj;jpa fhyr;rhuj;jpd; gpd;dzpfs; jhd;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijAk;> mjw;Fj; Jizahf mjd; rhjdq;fisAk; gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;w kdepiyia kf;fs; kdjpy; Vw;gLj;jpd. ,e;j Nkiy ehl;Lf; fyhr;rhuKk;> mtHfsJ ghHitfSk;> vz;zq;fSk; FLk;g mikg;gpy; ngw;NwhH vDk; jFjpahdJ jk; kPJ Njitapy;yhj nghWg;Gfisr; Rkj;jf; $baJ vd;w kdepiyiaj; Njhw;Wtpj;jJk; xU fhuzKkhFk;.

kdpjdJ tho;f;if vd;gJ gyjug;gl;l gpur;idfSk;> ,lHghLfSk; epiwe;j xd;W. kdpjdJ tho;tpy; Vw;gLk; ,e;j ,lHghLfis vjpHj;J epd;W tho kdpjd; JzpT ngWtij tpl;L> jdJ ryd Gj;jp kw;Wk; Raeyk; fhuzkhf mjdpdpd;Wk; xJq;fp> vd;Wk; vg;nghOJk; jd; Raeyk; xd;iwNa Fwpf;Nfhshff; nfhz;L> kdpjd; vd;w epiyapy; jdf;Fs;s nghWg;Gfis epiwNtw;w kdkpy;yhky;> mj;jifa nghWg;Gfspy; ,Ue;J jtpHe;J tho> ,aw;ifr; rl;lj;jpy;> ,iwtdJ epajpapy; if itf;f Muk;gpj;J tpl;lhd;. kdpjdJ ,j;jifa nray;fs; ,iw epajpia vjpHj;J NghH njhLg;gjw;Fr; rkkhFk;. ,j;jifa nray;fspdhy; ,d;iwa kdpj ,dk;> mopTg; ghijia Nehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ vd;gij [g;ghd;> rPdh> mnkhpf;fh> gphpl;ld; Nghd;w tsHe;j ehLfspy; Foe;ijfspd; gpwg;G ntFthff; Fiwe;J tpl;ljd; fhuzkhf> taJ KjpHe;NjhHfspd; vz;zpf;if caHe;J> ,isajiyKiwapdUf;Fg; gQ;rk; Vw;gl;L tpl;ljd; fhuzkhfj; jq;fsJ jpl;lj;ij jhq;fNs nehe;J nfhz;L> kPz;Lk; koiyfis mjpfk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;SkhW kf;fisj; Jhz;b tUfpd;wJ. Mdhy;> gps;is ngWtijNa ntWj;J tpl;l me;j Nkiy ehl;Lr; r%fk;> murhq;fj;jpd; Ntz;Lnfhis Vw;Wf; nfhs;Sk; kdepiyia tpl;Lk; ntF Jhuj;jpw;Fr; nrd;W tpl;lij me;j ehLfspd; elf;fpd;w elg;Gfs; njhptpf;fpd;wd.

,d;W ek; ehl;ilg; nghWj;jtiu> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lj;ij> nghUshjhu Nehf;fpy; jhd; filgpbf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mjpfk; gps;is ngw;why;> FLk;gr; nryT mjpfhpf;Fk;> nrhj;Jg; gq;fPL mjpfkhFk; vd;gJ Nghd;w fhuzq;fSk;> mjpfk; gps;is ngw;why; md;id cly;eyj;jpw;Ff; NfL vd;gd Nghd;w thrfq;fSk; jhd;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij Mjhpf;f kf;fisj; Jhz;Lfpd;wJ. Mdhy; md;idapd; cly;eyj;jpw;Ff; NfL vd;W nrhy;yf; $batHfs;> kUj;Jt trjpNa my;yhj me;j Ke;ija fhyq;fspy; tho;e;j kf;fs; vt;thW jq;fsJ re;jjpfisg; ngUf;fpf; nfhs;s Kbe;jJ. ,ae;jpuq;fSk;> thfdq;fSk; ,y;yhj me;j fhyj;J kf;fs; vt;thW jq;fsJ tho;f;ifia elj;jpdhHfs; vd;gijAk; ,e;j r%fk; rpe;jpj;Jg; ghHg;gJ ey;yJ. nghUshjhu Nehf;fpy; ghHj;jhy;> ,iwtd; $Wfpd;whd; :

tWikf;Fg; gae;J cq;fs; Foe;ijfisf; nfhy;yhjPHfs; (6:151)

mtHfis nfhiy nra;tJ ghtkhFk;. (17:31)

kdpjHfNs> cq;fsJ nghUshjhuk; ghjpf;fg;gLk;> tWik epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gLNthk; vdg; gae;J jq;fs; Foe;ijg; Ngw;iwf; Fiwj;Jf; nfhs;shjPHfs;. Vndd;why;> cq;fSf;Fk;> cq;fisg; Nghd;w midtUf;Fk; czT Gfl;lf; $batd;> tho;thjhuk; toq;ff; $batd; ehd; vd;fpd;whd; ,iwtd;. xU jha;g; gwitahdJ jd; FQ;Rfspd; Nky; vt;tsT mf;ffiw nfhz;L czT Njb mjw;Fg; Gfl;Lfpd;wJ. ,iwtd; jd;Dila jFjpfis ek; Kd; te;J fhz;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjpy;iy. Gwitapdq;fSk;> tpyq;fpdq;fSk; jq;fsJ re;jjpfisf; fhg;ghw;w Ntz;Lk; vd;w Jbg;Gld; ,iltplhJ czTf;Fk;> ,Ug;gplj;jpw;FKz;lhd Nghl;bapy; jk;ik <LgLj;jpf; nfhz;L> Kaw;rpfisr; nra;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wd. Mdhy; kdpjNdh mj;jifa Kaw;rpfisr; nra;ahky;> Nrhk;Ngwpj;jdkhf> gpur;idfspypUe;J xJq;fp thoNt Mirg;gLfpd;whd;.

kdpjDk; Vida [PtuhrpfSk; tho;tjw;nfd;Nw gilf;fg;gl;l ,e;j G+kapy;> tho;thjhuk; ,d;wp ntWkNd mj;jid caphpfisAk; gilj;J cyt tpltpy;iy. MitmitfSf;Fhpa Vw;ghl;ilAk; nra;Nj itj;jpUf;fpd;whd;.

thdq;fspypUe;J kio ePiu ,wf;fp> mjd; %yk; ,we;J fple;j G+kpia Gw;fshYk;> nrbfshYk; capHg;gpf;fr;nra;fpd;Nwhk;. ML khL tpyq;fpdq;fspYk;> cq;fSf;F gbg;gpid cz;L. Vnddpy; mtw;wpy; cq;fSf;F (ghy;) Fbg;Gk; cz;L. fdp tHffq;fis juf; $ba NghPr;ir> jpuhl;ir> i]j;Jhd; ,d;Dk; gytiff; fdpfspypUe;J mtd; cq;fSf;fhf Kisg;gpf;fr; nra;fpd;whd;. ,d;Dk; ,uitAk;> gfiyAk;> #hpaidAk;> re;jpuidAk; cq;fSf;F trg;gLj;jpj; je;Js;shd;. (mt;thNw) el;rj;jpuq;fSk; mtDila fl;lisg;gbNa trg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. epr;rakhf ,jpYk;> epidT $wf; $ba $l;lj;jhUf;F (jFe;j) mj;jhl;rpfs; ,Uf;fpd;wd. (jpUkiwf;FHMd;).

Mf> ,j;jid tho;thjhuKk; kdpjd; vd;w jd; caH gilg;Gf;fhf> ,iwtd; Vw;gLj;jp ,Uf;Fk; Vw;ghLfs; MFk;. kdpjNdh mtw;iwj; jd; gad;ghl;by; nfhz;L tUtjw;Fhpa Kaw;rpfisr; nra;aj; jtwp> mjd; nghWg;GfspypUe;J jtpHe;J jhd;> ehd; vd;w Raey kdpjdhf tho Mirg;gl;ljd; tpisT jhd; ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fSk;> mjd; %yk; vOe;j gpur;idfSk; MFk;. gpur;id vdj; njhpe;j gpd;Dk; kdpjd; ,iw epajpia Njbg; gpbj;J jd; tho;tpy; filgpbf;f Kaw;rp nra;fpwhdh ,y;iyNa!! Vnddpy; mtd; filgpbf;Fk; Nkw;fj;jpaf; fyhr;rhuk; nfhs;iffs; ahTk; nghUshjhu Nehf;F nfhz;lit. mq;Nf kdpjdJ kdj;ijj; jpUj;Jk; Md;kPfj;jpw;F Ntiy fpilahJ. Kdpjdpd; tho;T Koikaila Ntz;Lnkdpy;> mq;Nf mtdJ tho;tpy; Md;kPfk; epiyngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. me;j Md;kPfk; ,];yhj;jpd;ghw;gl;ljhd ,Ue;J tpl;lhy;> mtd; ,t;Tyfpy; KO jpUg;jp ngWtNjhL> ,wg;gpw;Fg; gpd; cs;s kWikapYk; ntw;wpailAk;epiyf;F caHj;jg;gl;L tpLfpd;whd;.

NkYk;> ,];yhkpa mikg;gpy; [fhj; vd;w rKjha thp> trjp gilj;j midtH kPJk; flikahdnjhd;whf ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. ,jdhy; nghUshjhuk ,d;wp my;yy;gLk; ViofSk;> KjpNahHfSk;> NehahspfSk; cjtp ngWtH.

NkYk;> nghUshjhu gaj;jhy; koiyfisf; Fiwf;f Ntz;ba mtrpaKk; ,j;jF epiy nfhz;l rKjhaj;jpw;Ff; fpilahJ. Vnddpy;> je;ijahy; ,ayhj epiyapy;> Foe;ijfSf;fhd nghWg;G murpd; kPJ rhHe;J tpLfpd;wJ. mf;Foe;ijf;fhd czT> ,Ug;gplk;> fy;tp> kUj;Jtk; Nghd;w midj;Jk; murhy; mj;jifa Viof; Foe;ijfSf;F toq;fg;gLk; vd;w cj;juthjKk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

ekJ ehl;by; gpujkH> Kjy;tH epthuz epjp cz;Nl vdyhk;. GhuSkd;w cWg;gpdHfSf;Fk; rl;lkd;w cWg;gpdHfSf;F nryT nra;ag;gLk; mNj msT cjtp> rhjhuz mbj;jl;L kf;fSf;F nra;ag;gLfpd;wjh? ,y;iyNa!!

Mf> nghUshjhu gaj;jhy; koiyfisf; Fiwg;gJ vd;gJ> ,iwtdJ mUl;nfhilapy; re;Njfk; nfhz;l epiyiaj; jhd; Njhw;Wtpf;Fk;. mj;jifa nghUshjhug; gak; ,];yhk; my;yhj r%fj;jpy; jhd; Vw;gLk;. Vnddpy; mq;Nf rKjha mikg;G vd;gJ ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;ifapd;ghy; fl;lg;gltpy;iy. cyfhjha mbg;gilapy; mike;j nfhs;ifapd; ghy; mike;jjhFk;. VdNt jhd; ,j;jifa rKjhaq;fs; jk; tho;tpy; rPuopit kl;LNk epj;jk; epj;jk; re;jpj;Jf; nfhz;L> epk;kjpia ,oe;J jtpf;fpd;wd.

 

9. ,];yhkpa FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiw

jpUkiw vd;d nrhy;fpd;wJ :-

FLk;gf;fl;Lg;hgl;L Kiwia eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;Lkhdhy;> ,d;W eilKiwapy; cs;s fUj;jil Kiwfspy; VjhtJ xd;iwg; gpd;gw;wpj; jhd; eilKiwg;gLj;j KbAk;. ,q;Nf ve;j epiyapy; ,];yhk; fUj;jilia Mjhpf;fpd;wJ vd;Wk;> NkYk; ve;j epiyapy; ,j; jpl;lj;NjhL Kuz;gLfpd;wJ vd;gijAk;> mjd; fhuzq;fisAk; fhz;Nghk;.

jpUkiwf; FHMdpy; tUk; ,uz;L trdq;fisg; nghJthfr; Rl;bf; fhl;b> ,iwtd; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;l eilKiwiaj; jil nra;Js;shd; vd rpy khHf;f mwpQHfs; fUj;Jj; njhptpj;Js;shHfs;. me;j trdq;fshtd :

.. .. .. tWikf;fhf (mijg; gae;J) cq;fs; Foe;ijfis ePq;fs; nfhiy nra;Jk; tplhjPHfs;.. (6:151).

(kdpjHfNs!) ePq;fs; tWikiag; gae;J> cq;fs; Foe;ijfisf; nfhiy nra;ahjPHfs;. MtHfSf;Fk; cq;fSf;Fk; ehNk czit (tho;f;ifj; Njitfis) toq;Ffpd;Nwhk;. epr;rakhf mtHfisf; nfhiy nra;tJ> ngUk; Fw;wkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. (17:31).

Nkw;fz;l ,uz;L trdq;fSk; tWikf;Fg; gae;J> nghUshjhu ghjpg;G Vw;gl;L tpLk; vdg; gae;J Foe;ijfisf; nfhiy nra;ahjPHfs; vd;w fUj;ijj; jhq;fp epw;fpd;wJ.

NkYk; Nkw;fz;l ,uz;L trdq;fSf;Fk; rpy mwpQHfs; Nkyjpf tpsf;fq;fs; $Wk; NghJ> nghUshjuhk; ghjpf;fg;gLk; vd;W fUjp jq;fspd; kfg;Ngw;iwj; jLj;Jf; nfhs;tJ vd;gJ> rpRf; nfhiyf;F epfuhdNj vd;w fUj;ijj; njhptpf;fpd;whHfs;.

Mdhy; Nkw;fz;l trdj;jpd; %yk; mj;jifanjhU nghUis ehk; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhYk;> md;iwa mNugpahtpd; %lg; gof;fkhf ,Ue;j capUld; ngz; Foe;ijfisg; Gijf;Fk; gof;fj;ijj; jLj;J epWj;jNt ,iwtdhy; ,t;trdk; mUsg;gl;lJ vd;gJ njspT. NkYk; ,d;Wk; ,g;gof;fk; ek; ehl;bYk; njhlHe;J tUfpd;wJ.

VdNt. ,t;trdk;> nghJthf md;iwa %lg;gof;ftof;fj;ijj; jhd; jil nra;a ,wq;fpaNj xopa> ,d;iwa eilKiwahd xl;L nkhj;jkhf kfg;Ngw;iwj; jil nra;tjw;F gad;gLk;> fUj;jilf;fhd jilf;F Mjuthf ehk; vLj;Jf; nfhs;s ,ayhJ ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

,q;Nf fUj;jil rhjdq;fspd; gad;ghL vd;gJ rpRf; nfhiyf;F khw;wkhd nray;ghl;il cilaJ. Vw;fdNt ehk; Rl;bf; fhl;bAs;s ,uz;L trdq;fspd;gb> rpRf; nfhiy vd;gJ Vw;fdNt fUthfp> G+kpapy; capUld; gpwe;J tpl;l Foe;ijiaf; nfhy;tjhFk;. Mdhy; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL kw;Wk; fUj;jil rhjdq;fspd; gad;ghL vd;gJ> ngz;zpd; Kl;ilAk;> Mzpd; tpe;jZTk; ,izAk; Kd;Ng jilia Vw;gLj;jp> xU caphp my;yJ rpR tsUk; Kd;Ng jil nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. Mf> Nkw;fz;l ,e;j nray;ghL rpRf; nfhiy vdpy;> clYwtpd; nghOJ ntspNaw;wg;gLk; kpy;ypad; fzf;fhd tpe;jZtpy;> xNu xu tpe;J jhd; rpid Kl;ilia fUj;jhpf;fr; nra;a cjTfpwJ. kPjk; cs;s midj;J tpe;jZTk; nrj;J tpLfpd;wJ. ,q;Nf> nrj;j tpe;jZf;fSk; fUKl;ilia rpidg;gLj;jj; jFjp gilj;jitNa vDk; NghJ> nrj;J tpl;l tpe;jZf;fspd; fhuzkhf> ,aw;ifahy; tpise;j ,e;j nray;ghl;il rpRf; nfhiy vd;W KbT fl;lKbAk? Vnddpy;> ,we;J tpl;l mj;jid tpe;fZf;fSk;> ,we;J tpl;l Foe;ijfs; my;yth?

vdNt> Nkw;fz;l ,uz;L trdq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; FLk;gf;fl;LghLk; mjd; rhjdq;fSk; jil nra;ag;gl;litNa vd;w KbTf;F tu ,ayhjjhfp tpLfpd;wJ

,uz;lhtjhf> jpUkiwapd; %yk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l fUj;J tpsf;fq;fSk;> ,aw;ifahdnjhUfUj;jjil Kiwiaf; fhz Kbfpd;wJ.

jha;khHfs; jq;fSila Foe;ijfSf;F (mit gpwe;jjpypUe;J) ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; tiu G+uzkhfg; ghYhl;Lthhfs;. (2:233).

Nkw;fz;l trdk; %yk;> Foe;ijfSf;F ,uz;L KO tUlk; ghYhl;LtJ - ,uz;L KO tUlk; ghYhl;LkhW jha;khHfSf;F ,iwtd; mwpTWj;Jfpd;whd;.

NkYk;> xU ngz;Zf;F kfg;Ngw;Wf; fhyk; vd;gJ xd;gJ Kjy; gj;J khjq;fs; MFk;. Foe;ij gpw;ejij mLj;J ghYhl;Lk; fhyk; ,uz;L tUlq;fs; (24 khjq;fs;) MFk;. Mf kfg;NgW kw;Wk; ghYhl;Lk; fhyk; nkhj;jk; 33-34 khjq;fs; my;yJ rw;Nwwf;Fiwa %d;W tUlq;fs; vdf; fzf;fpl;Lf; nfhs;syhk;. Mf xU Foe;ijf;Fk; ,d;ndhU Foe;ijf;Fk; ,ilNa> %d;whz;Lfs; ,ilntsp ,Uf;fl;Lk; vd;w kUj;Jt cyfpy; mwpTiuf;Nfw;g ,iw topfhl;Ljy; mike;Js;sJ. ,JNt ,aw;ifahdnjhU FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lkhfTk; mike;Js;sJ. NkYk;> rpy kUj;Jtf; Fwpg;Gfspd; gb> ngz;zpd; clypay; $w;Wg;gb> Foe;ijfSf;F ghYhl;Lk; fhyq;fspd;NghJ> fUTWjYf;fhd tha;g;G vd;gJ kpfTk; Fiwthd re;jHg;gq;fspy; jhd; epfOfpd;wJ.

VdNt> Nkw;fz;l Kiwapd; %yk; ,iwkiwahdJ> ,aw;ifahdnjhU topKiw %yk;> ,aw;ifahdnjhU fUj;jil Kiwf;F tha;g;Gf; nfhLf;fpd;wJ vdyhk;. Mf> Nkw;fz;l ,U tpsf;fq;fSk; fUj;jilf;F> mJ rk;ge;jkhd tpsf;fj;jpw;F FHMdpd;Mhuq;fshf ,Ue;jhYk;> ,iwtd; jd; jpUkiwapy; NeubahdnjhU jilia fUj;jilf;F vjpuhfg; gpwg;gpf;ftpy;iy.

khwhf>

cq;fs; kidtpaH cq;fSf;Fhpa tpis epyq;fs;. MfNt> cq;fs; tpis epyq;fSf;F ePq;fs; tpUk;gpathW thUq;fs;. (2:223). (njhlUk;.. ,d;\h my;yh`;)

cq;fs; kidtpaH cq;fSf;Fhpa tpis epyq;fs;. MfNt> cq;fs; tpis epyq;fSf;F ePq;fs; tpUk;gpathW thUq;fs;. (2:223). vd;wy;yth jpUkiw $wp epw;fpd;wJ.

NkYk;> ,e;j trdj;jpw;F `dgp kj;`gpd; ,khkhd mGgf;fH my; [];]h]; vd;gtH tpsf;fkspf;Fk; nghOJ> cq;fs; kidtpahplk; vt;thW tpUk;gpathW nry;fpwPHfNsh> mJ NghyNt ePq;fs; tpUk;gpdhy; m];y; nra;J nfhs;sTk; chpik ,Uf;fpwJ vd;W $Wfpd;whH.

Mf> ghYhl;Ljy; gw;wpAk;> kidtpAld; $Ljy; gw;wpAk; $Wk; jpUkiw> fUj;jil gw;wp Neubahd jiliag; gpwg;gpf;fhky;> mikjpiaj; jhd; gjpyhfj; jUfpd;wJ. vdNt> jpUkiwia mLj;J> ehk; tpsf;fk; ngw Ntz;ba top Kiwahd jpUj; JhjH K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfspd; tho;tpay; (`jP];) njhFg;Gfis Muha;tJ rpwe;jjhFk;.

Nkw;fz;l Ma;Tf;F Kd; xU nraiy MFkhdjh ,y;iyah vd vt;thW juk;gphpg;gJ vd;gijAk;> khHf;f mwpQHfshd ,khk;fs; vt;thW juk;gphpj;J tifg;gLj;jpAs;sdH vd;gijAk; mwpe;J nfhs;tJ> ey;y Ghpe;JzHit Vw;gLj;jty;yJ.

`yhy; - MFkhdJ> ve;jj; jilAk; ,y;yhjJ

kd;Jg; - MFkhdJ> nghJthd mDkjpiag; ngw;wJ

Kgh/ - mDkjpaspf;fg;gl;lJ. Mdhy; mtw;iwr; nra;a Cf;Ftpf;fg;glTk; ,y;iy>

nra;a Ntz;lhk; vd;w jilAk; ,y;iy

kf;&`; - nghJthf tpUk;gj;jfhjJ> ntWf;fj;jf;fJ

`uhk; - KOtJkhf rl;lg;gb jil nra;ag;gl;lJ. ,aw;iff;F KuzhdJ.

Nkw;fz;l tpsf;fq;fis kdjpw; nfhz;L> fPo;f;fhZk; tpsf;fj;jpy; njspT ngWNthk;.

 

2. egpnkhop (`jP];)fs; vd;d nrhy;fpd;wd

,];yhj;jpd; Muk;g fhyj;jpw;F Kd;Ng> mjhtJ egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) mtHfspd; fhyj;jpw;F Kd;Ng mNugpahtpYk;> mjidr; Rw;wpapUf;Fk; ghurPfk;> Nuhk;> Mfpa ehLfspYk;> m];y; vd;w FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiw gpd;gw;W te;jpg;gij `jP];fs; %yk; mwpe;J nfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ. m];y; vd;gJ> clYwtpd; cr;rj;jpy; MzpypUe;J ntspg;gLk; tpe;ij ngz;zpd; cWg;Gf;Fs; nrYj;jp tplhky;> ngz;zpd; cWg;Gf;F ntspNa nfhl;b tpLtjhFk;. mjhtJ> ,jid kUj;Jt Kiwapy; Coitus Intereptus vd;W $WthHfs;.

,e;j m];y; gw;wp `jP]; njhFg;Gfspy; fhzg;gLk; tpguq;fs; gw;wp ehk; ,g;nghOJ Ma;T nra;Nthk;.

 

`jP]; vz;: 01

[hgpH (uyp) mtHfs; $Wfpd;whHfs; :

ehq;fs; egp (]y;) mtHfs; fhyj;jpy; FHMd; ,wq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;j rkaj;jpy;> m];y; nra;J nfhz;bUe;Njhk;. ,e;jr; nra;jp egp (]y;) mtHfSf;F njhpe;Jk; vq;fis mtHfs; jLf;ftpy;iy.

 

`jP]; vz;: 02

[hgpH (uyp) mtHfs; mwptpf;fpd;whHfs;:

vdf;F xU mbikg; ngz; ,Uf;fpd;whs;> mts; fHg;gk; mile;J tpLthNsh vd mQ;Rfpd;Nwd; vd;W egp (]y;) mtHfsplk; xU kdpjH $wpdhH. mjw;F egp (]y;) mtHfs;> eP tpUk;gpdhy; m];y; nra;J nfhs;! M (Mdhy;) mtSf;nfd;W tpjpf;fg;gl;lJ mtis mile;Nj jPUk; vd;W egp (]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs;. (K];ypk;> m`;kJ> mG+jhT+J).

 

`jP]; vz;: 03

mG+ ]aPj; (uyp) mtHfs; $Wfpd;whHfs; :

egp (]y;) mtHfsplk;> A+jHfs; m];y; nra;tij xU rpwpa mstpyhd rpRf; nfhiy vd;fpwhHfs; vdf; $wg;gl;lJ. mjw;F egp (]y;) mtHfs;> mt;thW mtHfs; $WtJ jtwhdJ> my;yh`; vijAk; gilf;f ehb tpl;lhndd;why;> mjpypUe;J ahUk; mjidj; jLj;J epWj;j KbahJ.

NkYk;> ,e;j `jP]; fPo;f;fhZk; KiwapYk; rpy Ehy;fspy; (,];yhj;jpy; jhk;gj;ak;) fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

egp (]y;) mtHfsplk; m];y; gw;wpf; $wg;gl;lJ. mg;NghJ egp (]y;) mtHfs;> cq;fspy; xUtH vjw;fhf ,ijr; nra;fpd;whH. gilf;fg;gl Ntz;ba ve;j capiuAk; ,iwtd; gilf;fhky; ,Ug;gjpy;iy vd;W $wpdhHfs;. (jpHkpjp)

 

`jP]; vz;: 04

ckH ,g;D my; fj;jhg; (uyp) mwptpf;fpd;whHfs;:

jd; kidtpapd; Kd; mDkjpapd;wp xU fztd; m];y; nra;tij egp (]y;) mtHfs; jLj;Js;shHfs;.

 

`jP]; vz;: 05

c]hkh ,g;D i]j; (uyp) mwptpf;fpd;whHfs;:

xU kdpjH egp (]y;) mtHfsplk; te;J> ehd; vd; kidtpaplkpUe;J m];y; nra;J tUfpd;Nwd; vd;whH. vjw;fhf m];y; nra;fpwha;? vd;W egp (]y;) mtHfs; Nfl;lhHfs;. mjw;F mtH> vd; Foe;ij tpraj;jpy; ehd; mQ;Rfpd;Nwd; vd;W mtH $wpdhH. (mjhtJ> vd; kidtp Kjy; Foe;ijf;Fg; ghYhl;Lk; rkaj;jpy; kidtpAld; cwT nfhz;L mts; kPz;Lk; fHg;gpzpahdhy;> Kjy; Foe;ijf;F VJk; NfL Vw;gLNkh? vd;W mtH mQ;rpdhH). mg;NghJ egp (]y;) mtHfs;> ,J VJk; NfL jUk; vd;why;> Nuhk;> ghurPf kf;fSf;Ff; NfL nra;jpUf;FNk?! vd;W $wpdhHfs;. (K];ypk;> m`;kJ).

,jw;F Kd; ehk; fz;l Ie;J `jP]{fspYk; m];y; nra;tjw;Fz;lhd jilia ehk; fhz Kbatpy;iy. NkYk;> egp (]y;) mtHfspd; fhyj;jpNyNa mtHfs; ed;whf mwpe;jpUe;j epiyapNyNa m];y; nra;tJ eilKiwapy; ,Ue;Jk;> egp (]y;) mtHfs; m];y; nra;tijj; jil nra;atpy;iy.

`jP]; vz; 4 d; gb xUtH jd; kidtpaplk; mDkjp ngw;W m];y; nra;a mDkjp vDk; epge;jidapd; mbg;gilapy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

`jP]; vz; 2 d; gb> xUtH m];y; nra;jhYk;> ,iwtd; jd;Dila gilg;ig cUthf;Ftjw;F> me;jj; jk;gjpfs; %yk; ehb tpl;lhndd;why;> mij ahuhYk; jLj;J epWj;jp tpl KbahJ vd;w ,iwtdJ gilg;gpd; ty;yikiaf; $wp epw;fpwJ.

`jP]; vz; 5 y; xUtH jd; Kjy; Foe;ijapd; ghy;Fb Neuj;jpy;> jd; kidtpaplk; cwT nfhs;tjhy;> jd; kidtpaplk; jha;g;ghy; tw;wp Kjy; Foe;ij ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shFNkh vdg; gae;J m];y; nra;fpd;Nwd; vdr; nrhy;ypAk;> egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) mtHfs; &k;> ghurPf kf;fis cjhuzk; fhl;b> m];y; nra;ahky; ,Ue;jhYk; ghjpg;G tuhJ vdf; $Wfpd;whHfNsh xopa> m];y; nra;tNj $lhJ vdj; jil nra;atpy;iy.

Nkw;fz;l 5 tJ `jPi]Ak;> fPo;f;fhZk; ,e;j `jPi]Ak; $wp rpy cykhg; ngUe;jiffs; m];y; nra;tJ $lhJ vd;fpd;whHfs;.

 

`jP]; vz; : 6

[{jhkh gpd;j; t`;g; (uyp) mwptpf;fpd;whHfs; :

egp (]y;) mtHfs; xU FOtpdUld; mkHe;jpUf;Fk; nghJ ehDk; ,Ue;Njd;. mg;NghJ egpfs; (]y;) mtHfs;> ehd; fpyh (xU ngz; jd; Foe;ijf;Fg; ghY}l;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; fhyj;jpy; jd; fztDld; clYwT nfhs;sy;) itj; jil nra;ayhnkd;W ,Ue;Njd;. Mdhy;> &k;> ghurPf kf;fisf; ftdpj;j nghOJ> mtHfsJ Foe;ijf;F VJk; jPq;F Neutpy;iy. mjdhy; fpyh itj; jil nra;atpy;iy vd;whHfs;. gpd;dH egp (]y;) mtHfsplk; m];y; gw;wp tpdtg;gl;lJ> mJ xU rpwpa mstpyhd rpRf; nfhiy (Foe;ijia capUld; Gijg;gjw;Fr; rkkhFk; vd rpy E}y;fspy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ - Minor Infanticide) vd;whHfs;.

m];y; nra;tNj $lhJ vdf; $Wk; mwpQHfs;> ,e;j ,uz;L `jP];fis (5>6) Nkw;Nfhs; fhl;Lfpd;whHfs;.

5 tJ `jP]hdJ> m];y; nra;ahkypUe;jhYk; Foe;ijf;Fg; ghjpg;G tuhJ vd;W $Wtjd; %yk;> m];y; nra;tij egp (]y;) mtHfs; kiwKfkhfj; jil nra;Js;shHfs; vd;w Njhw;wj;ijAk;> mLj;J `jP]; vz; 6 y; m];y; nra;tJ Foe;ijia capUld; Gijg;gjw;Fr; rkkhdJ my;yJ rpwpa mstpyhd rpRf; nfhiy vd;W $Wtjd; %yk; ,uz;lhtjhf xU kiwKfj; jiliaAk; ehk; fhz Kbfpd;wJ vd;w fUj;ij rpy mwpQH ngUkf;fs; Kd; itf;fpd;whHfs;.

NkYk;> 6 tJ `jP]; gw;wp> ,khk; ,g;D `[H mtHfs;> ]`P`; Gfhhp `jP]; E}Yf;fhd mtuJ Gfo;kpf;f tpsf;f ciuahd /gj;`{y; ghhp - apy; nfhLj;Js;s tpsf;fj;ijg; ghHg;Nghk;.

Nkw;fz;l 6 tJ `jPi] mwptpf;Fk; [{jhkh gpd; t`;g; vd;gtH gytPdkhdtH vd;fpwhHfs;.

Vnddpy;> epiwa `jP];fspy; egpfs; ehafk; (]y;) mtHfs; A+jHfSf;F khw;wkhf elq;fs;> vdf; $wp ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> `jP]; vz; 3 y; A+jHfspd; epiyg;ghl;il kWj;j egp (]y;) mtHfs;> `jP]; vz; 6 y; vt;thW MNkhjpj;jpUg;ghHfs; vd;w thjj;ij Kd; itf;fpd;whHfs;. (Ahmed Ali Bin Hager Al Asqalani, Fath Al Bari, Riyadh – Al Maktabah Al Salafiyyah, n.d) 9:309 – Abortion, Birth Control, and Surrogate Parenting By Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim).

NkYk;> [{jhkh vd;gtH ngahpy; tUk; `jP];fs; uj;J nra;ag;gl Ntz;bait vd;W kw;w khHf;f mwpQHfSk; $Wtjhf ,g;D `[H mtHfs; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whHfs;.

,g;D `];k; mtHfspd; $w;Wg;gb Nkw;fz;l 6 tJ `jP]hdj> Nkw;fz;l Kjy; %d;W `jP];fisj; jil nra;tjhf cs;sJ vd;W Fwpg;gpLtjhf ,g;D `[H mtHfs; $Wfpd;whHfs;.

NkYk; rpRf; nfhiy my;yJ Foe;ijia capUld; Gijj;jy; vd;gJ vz;zKk;> mjDld; nraYk; rhHe;jJ. NkYk; m];y; vd;gJ vz;zj;ijr; rhHe;jJ. mjhtJ> m];y; nra;tjhy; ve;j capUk; (rpRTk;) nfhy;yg;gLtjpy;iy. NkYk;> ,jd; %yk; ,iwtdJ gilg;ghfpa %d;whtJ capH vJTk; ghjpf;fg;gLtjpy;iy. vdNt> me;j nraypd;> mjhtJ m];y; nra;tjd; vz;zj;ij Kd;dpl;L> ,ij xU rpwpa rpRf; nfhiyf;F xg;ghdJ vd;w KbTf;F tu KbANk xopa> rpRf; nfhiy jhd; vd mWjpapl;Lf; $w KbahJ.

NkYk; ,khk; f];]hyp mtHfs; ,J gw;wpf; Fwpg;gpLk; NghJ> kiwKf \pHf; (\pHf; fgp) Nghy> ,JTk; xU kf;&`; Md tpraNk MFk;. Mdhy; rl;lg;gb jil nra;ag;gl;l xd;wy;y vd;fpwhHfs;.

(Abu Ahmed Muhammed Al Ghazali, Ihya Ul Ulum, (Cairo: Al Matba’ah al Azharriyah a Misiriyyah, 1302 AH) 2:52.

Mf> mwpQH ngUkf;fspd; fUj;Jf;fSld; ek; epiyg;ghl;ilAk; itj;J Nehf;Fk; nghOJ> fPo;f;fhZk; KbTfs; fpilf;fpd;wd.

m];Yf;fhd kiwKf mDkjp

m];y; nra;tij jLg;gjw;fhd kiwKfj; Njhw;wk;

m];y; vd;gJ Foe;ijia capUld; Gijg;gjw;Fr; rkk; my;yJ rpwpa mstpyhd rpRf; nfhiyf;Fr; rkk;

kiwKf \pHf; Nghy> m];y; vd;gJ kf;&`; Md tprak;.

NkYk; Nkw;fz;l ehd;F KbTfspy;> rhpahd `jP]; Mjhuq;fspd;gb m];Yf;fhd kiwKf mdkjpf;Fj; jhd; mjpf juk; cs;sJ. vdpDk;> kw;w `jP];fSld; ,izj;Jk;> mwpQH ngUkf;fspd; fUj;Jf;fNshLk; xg;gpl;L Nehf;Fifapy;> ,];yhk; Neubahf m];y; nra;tijj; jil nra;atpy;iy. mJNghy MFkhdJ vd Neubahf mDkjpiaj; juhky;> kiwKf mDkjpiaj; jhd; je;J epw;fpwJ.

NkYk;> ,J xU rpwpa mstpyhd rpRf; nfhiy vd;W tUk; NghJ> ntWf;fj;jf;f kf;&`; epiyapy; cs;sJ. mLj;J ngUk;ghyhd mwpQHfspd; fUj;Jk;> m];y; nra;tJ kf;&`; vd;Nw mike;Js;sJ. mJ NghyNt ehd;F kj;`GfSk; m];y; nra;tJ kf;&`; vd;Nw jPHkhdpj;Js;sd.

,Wjpahf> nghJthf m];y; nra;tJ $Lk; vd;w nghJthd mDkjpiag; ngw;wpUe;jhYk;> mij nra;tJ mt;tsT ey;yjy;y vd;w KbTf;Nf ek;khy; tu ,aYfpd;wJ.

 

my;yh`; kpf mwpe;jtd;.

 

10. m];y; gw;wp ehd;F kj;`Gfs;..

1 `dgp kj;`g; :

fztd; jd; kidtpapd; mDkjpapd;wp m];y; nra;tJ kf;&`;. Vnddpy;> clYwtpd; %yk; Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;sf; $bajhd kidtpapd; chpikia m];y; nra;tjd; %yk; fztd; gwpj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;whd;. kidtpapd; mDkjp ngw;W m];y; nra;tJ jtwhd fhhpaky;y. Vnddpy;> ,r;nray; kidtpapd; me;j chpikia jw;fhypfkhfj; jhd; jLj;J epw;fpwJ vd;fpwhH `dgp kj;`gpd; mwpQuhd ,khk; my; f]dp. Ala al Din Ibn Mas’ud al Kasani, Bada’i al Sana’i (cairo, A.H.1322) 2:334

 

2 khypf; kj;`g; :

jd; kidtpapd; rk;kjk; ,d;wp m];y; nra;a fztDf;F chpikapy;iy vd;W ,khk; khypf; gpd; md]; mtHfs; jdJ Ktj;jh vDk; E}ypy; $wpAs;shHfs;. Malik Bin Anas, Al Muwatta, "Kitab al Nikah, Ist Edi. (Beiruth Dal al Nafa’is 1971) 409.

 

3 \hgp< kj;`g; :

m];y; nra;tJ kf;&`;. mij ve; epiyapYk; vjw;fhfr; nra;jhYk; rhpNa. NkYk; mjw;F kidtpapd; rk;kjk; ,Ue;jhYk;> my;yJ ,y;yhtpl;lhYk; m];y; nra;tJ kf;&`; jhd;. Mdhy;> kidtpapd; rk;kjj;Jld; m];y; nra;tJ `uhk; Nghd;w jLf;fg;gl;l nray; my;y. kidtp rk;kjk; nfhLf;ftpy;iyahdhy;> ,uz;L KbTfspy; rhpahd KbT `uhk; Nghd;W jil nra;ag;gl;ljy;y vd;W ,khk; ettp mtHfs; $wpAs;shHfs;. (Abu Zakriyah Yahya Bin Sharaf Al Nawawi, Commentary On Sahih Muslim. Bab Hukm al Azl, Vol. 3, P.612)

 

4 `k;gyp kj;`g; :

fhuzkpd;wp m];y; nra;tJ kf;&`; MFk;. Mdhy; `uhkhdjy;y. kidtpapd; rk;kjk; ,d;wp m];y; nra;jy; $lhJ vd;fpwhH> `k;gyp kj;`g;- d; mwpQuhd ,g;D Fjhkh mtHfs;.(Abu Mohamed Abd Allah Bin Ahmed Bin Mohamed Ibn Qudamah, Al Mughni (Cairo: Maktabah al Jumhyrriyah al Ambiyyah, n.d), 7:23 - 4)

m];y; vd;gJ kf;&`; Md nray; vd ehk; mwpe;j gpd;G> rpy epiyfspy; m];y; nra;tJ MFkhdJ vd rpy mwpQHfs; fUj;Jj; njhptpj;J cs;shHfs;.

mjhtJ> vz;zq;fisg; nghWj;Nj nray;fs; jPHkhdpf;fg;gLfpd;wd> vd;w egp (]y;) mtHfspd; $w;Wg;gb> ve;j Nehf;fj;ij Kd;dpl;L m];y; nra;fpNwhk; vd;gijg; nghWj;Nj mJJ MFkhdjhd epiyiaf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;.

mjhtJ> jd; kidtp fHg;gkhdhy;> mts; capUf;F Mgj;jhFk; vd;w epiyapYk;> njhlHe;J kfg;NgW va;Jtjhy; jd; kidtpapd; cly; eyk; ghjpf;ff; $Lk; vd;gJ Nghd;w> Njit vd;w epHg;ge;jk; fhuzkhf m];y; nra;Jnfhs;tJ khHf;fj;jpdhy; mDkjpf;fg;gl;l xd;W vd;fpd;whHfs;. mjhtJ> ,];yhj;jpy; gd;wp khkprk; cz;gJ (`uhk;) rl;lg;gb cz;zj; jil nra;ag;gl;lJJ. Mdhy;> gd;wp khkprk; jtpu czTf;F NtW top ,y;iy vd;w epHge;jk; epiyapy; vt;thW gd;wp khkprj;ij cz;L jd; capH Nghtijf; fhj;Jf; nfhs;syhk; vd;wp epiyapy; khHf;fk; mdkjpf;fpd;wNjh mJ Nghd;wNj> epHg;ge;j epiyapy; nra;J nfhs;sf; $ba m];y; - k; MFkhdJ vd;w fUj;ijr; rpy khHf;f mwpQHfs; Kd; itf;fpd;whHfs;.

vfpg;jpd; khHf;f mwpQuhd N\f; m`;kJ my; \ugh];]p vd;gtH> vj;jifa gb epiyfspy; m];y; nra;tJ $Lk; vd;w fUj;ij fPo;f;fz;lthW njhptpf;fpd;whH :

,uz;L kfg;Ngw;Wf;F ,ilNa Njitahd ,ilntsp (fhymsT) I kidtp tpUk;Gk; nghOJ>

fztd; - kidtp ,UtUf;Fk; ghuk;ghpa Neha; (Genetic Defect) ,Ue;J> ,tHfs; %yk; gpwf;Fk; Foe;ijf;Fk; me;Neha; njhw;wf; $Lk; vd;w epiy ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ>

xU ngz; rkPgj;jpy; Foe;ij ngw;W> mf; Foe;ijf;Fg; ghY}l;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; fhyj;jpy; fUTWtJ> ghy;Fb Foe;ijapd; guhkhpg;Gf;Fk;> mg; ngz;zpd; clYf;Fk; jPq;F tpistpf;Fk; vd;w epiy ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ>

mjpfg;gb gps;isfis fztdpd; Nghjh tUkhdk; %yk; guhkhpf;f Kbahj epiy ,Uf;Fk; nghOJ

Abortion Birth Control & Surrogate Parenting By Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim; Noted from Ahmed Al Sharabassi, Islam and Family Planning, in Muslim Attitudes Towards Family Planning, ed., Olivia Schieffelin New York: The Population Council – 1973) 110-11.

Nkw;fz;l ,e;j ehd;F gb epiyfspy; 4 tJ epiy fhuzkhf m];y; nra;J nfhs;syhk; vd;w epiy ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;iffSf;F KuzhdJ.

Vnddpy;> ,];yhj;jpd; jiyaha Ie;J flikfspy; xd;whd> Viothp ([fhj;) vd;w flik %yk; nghJ epjpak; mikf;fg;gl;L> ,J Nghd;w epiyfspy; kf;fspd; nghUshjhug; gpur;id jPu cjtpf; nfhs;s KbAk;. NkYk; ,];yhk; my;yhj ehLfspYk; K];ypk;fs; xd;W NrHe;J nghJ epjpak; (igj;Jy; khy;) mikj;J> ,J Nghd;w NjitfSf;F cjtpf; nfhs;s KbAk;.

,jw;fLj;jjhf> Kd;djhfNt fz;lwpag;gl;l guk;giu Neha; jd; Foe;ijf;Fk; gutp ghjpg;gilahky; ,Uf;f m];y; nra;J nfhs;tJ mDkjpf;fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJJ. Vnddpy;> Foe;ij cUthtjw;F Kd;Ng ,r; nray; eilngWtjhy;> fUr;rpijT (Abortion) Nghd;w ghtkhd fhhpaq;fSf;f ,J ,izahdjy;y (my;yh`; kpf mwpe;jtd;)

%d;whtjhf> jd; kidtp fUTWtjdhy;> kidtpf;Fk;> gpwe;jpUf;Fk; Foe;ijf;Fk; jPq;F Neuyhk; vd;w epiyapy; fztd; m];y; nra;J nfhs;tJ vd;w epiy jhd; khHf;f mwpQHfshy; VNfhgpj;j mstpy; MFkhdJ vd;w fUj;ijf; nfhz;ljhFk;.

Mf ,];yhkhdJ> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpw;F ,irthfTk;> MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;Fk;> Foe;ijf;Fk; ve;jtpj jPq;Fk; Neuhj tz;zKk; xU mofhd ,aw;ifahdnjhU FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij toq;fpAs;sJ vdyhk;.

mjhtJ>

xU Foe;ijf;Fk; ,d;ndhU Foe;ijf;Fk; ,ilNa %d;whz;Lfs; ,ilntspia> Foe;ijf;F ,uz;L Mz;Lfs; KOikahfg; ghY}l;Ltjd; %yk; Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tJ. ,jd; %yk; Foe;ijapd; tsHr;rpAk;> MNuhf;fpaKk; ey;y Kiwapy; mika ,];yhk; mwpTWj;Jfpd;w mNj Ntisapy;> ngz;zpd; cly;eyKk;> kdeyKk; ve;jtpj jPq;Ff;Fk; cl;glhj tifapy;> ,aw;ifj; jpl;lkhfTk; ,f;FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L Kiw mike;Js;sJ.

,uz;lhtjhf>

gpwe;J tpl;l Foe;ijapd; guhkhpg;gpd; nghUl;Lk;> ghuk;ghpa Neha;fs; Foe;ijf;fk; gutp Foe;ij ghjpg;gilaf; $Lk; vd;gjd; nghUl;Lk;> Foe;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjhy;> kidtpapd; capUf;F jPq;F Vw;gl;L tpLk; vd;gjd; nghUl;Lk;> ,];yhk; Mz;fis m];y; nra;J nfhs;s mDkjp toq;ftjd; %yKk;> ,];yhk; etPdkhdnjhU> MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;Fk; ve;jg; ghjpg;igAk; Vw;gLj;jhj ,aw;if topf;F cfe;jjhd FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwia toq;Ffpd;wJ.

NkYk;> mJ toq;Fk; topKiwfs; VNdh jhNd vd;wgb ,d;iwa FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lqf;s Nghy; my;yhky;> rpy tiuKiwfSf;F cl;gl;l FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij toq;Ffpd;wJ.

Mdhy;> ,d;iwa FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fs; nghUshjhu Nehf;fk; kl;Lk; nfhz;litfshf ,Ug;gjhy;> mj; jpl;lq;fs; kdpj rKjhaj;jpy; Vw;gLj;Jk; ghjpg;ig czu kWf;fpd;wd. Mdhy; ,];yhKk; mjd; jpl;lq;fSk; Vf ,iwtdhy; mUsg;gl;ljhifahy;> mJ kdpj eyj;ij Kd;dpWj;jpj; jd; jpl;lq;fisAk;> fl;lisfisak; tiuaiw nra;Js;sjd;wp> ,d;iwa ,]q;fs; Nghd;w nghUshjhu Nehf;fk; kl;Lk; nfhz;lnjhU ve;jj;jpl;lj;ijAk; ,];yhk; toq;Ftjpy;iy.

NkYk;> egpNa! ,we;Njhiu ePH nrtpNaw;fr; nra;a KbahJ>

vd;w trdj;jpy;> nrtpg; Gyd; ,Ue;Jk; ,iw trdq;fisr; nrtp kLf;fhky; jphpAk; eilgpzq;fis ctikahf> mtHfis ,we;NjhUf;Fr; rkkhf;fp vt;thW ,iwtd; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whNdh> mJ Nghd;wnjhU epiyia> ctikia fPo;f;fhZk; trdj;jpw;Fk; ehk; rhpghHg;gJ ed;W.

tWikf;fhf (mijg; gae;J) cq;fs; Foe;ijfis ePq;fs; nfhiy nra;Jk; tplhjPHfs; (6:151).

Nkw;fz;l trdk; md;iwa mNugpaHfspd; %lg;gof;fkhd> tWikf;Fg; gae;J ngz; Foe;ijfis capUld; Gijj;j ,op epiyiar; Rl;bf; fhl;Ltjhf> fUj;Jr; nrhy;yg;gl;lhYk;> Vw;fdNt ehk; ghHj;j FHMd; trdk; vt;thW ,we;NjhHfSf;Fr; rkkhf> capH ,Ue;Jk; nrtplHfshdtHfSf;F ctkhdk; $wp> kiwKfkhd nghUs; je;J epw;fpwNjh> mJ Nghy tWikf;Fg; gae;JJ Foe;ijg; Ngw;iwj; Jz;bj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;lhk; vd;Nw ,iwtd; mwpTWj;Jtjhf ehk; vLj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

NkYk;>

kdpjHfNs!) ePq;fs; tWikf;Fg; gae;J> cq;fs; Foe;ijfisf; nfhiy nra;ahjPhfs;> mtHfSf;Fk; cq;fSf;Fk; ehNk czit (tho;f;ifj; Njitfis) toq;FfpNwhk;. epr;rakhf> mtHfisf; nfhiy nra;tJ Fw;wkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ (17:31)

Nkw;fz;l ,iwtrdj;jpd; %yk;> nghUshjhuk; kl;LNk Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;L> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL nra;J nfhs;tij> nfhiyf; Fw;wk; vd;W $wp> me;j Nehf;fj;jpw;fhf nra;ag;gLtij ,iwtd; jil nra;Js;shd;.

khwhf> Kd;dH ehk; ghHj;j fhuzq;fSf;fhf m];y; vd;w FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiwia jtpHj;J> Vida Nyg;uh];Nfhgpf;> th]f;lkp Nghd;w epue;ju fUj;jil Kiwfis FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lkhfg; gad;gLj;Jtjw;F ,];yhk; mDkjpaspf;ftpy;iy.

mLj;J fhg;ghH b> Y}g; nghUj;jpf; nfhs;tJJ MZiw mzpe;J nfhs;Sjy;> Nghd;wit jw;fhypf fUj;jil rhjdq;fs;> tpe;jZTk;> fU Kl;ilAk; ,izA Kd;Ng fUj;jhpg;igj; jil nra;tjhYk;> ,k; Kiwfs; m];y; nra;tjd;mbg;gil Nehf;fj;ij ,itfSk; ngw;wpUg;gjhYk;> m];y; f;fhd ,];yhkpa mDkjp KiwfSld;> Nkw;fz;l jw;fhypff fUj;jil rhjdq;fis cgNahfpg;gJk; $Lk;.

mLj;J> ngz;fSf;f fHg;gg;igapd; RtHfspy; fl;L tsHe;J> mf;fl;bapd; %yk; ngz;zpd; capUf;F Mgj;J Vw;gLk; vd;w epiyapy; fHg;gg; igia kUj;JtHfspd; MNyhridapd; Nghpy;> ePf;fp> epue;ju fHg;gj;jil nra;J nfhs;tJ> Nkw;fz;l FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;Jld; NruhJ. vdNt> mt;thW capiuf; fhf;Fk; nghUl;L rpfpr;ir nra;J nfhs;tJ ,];yhj;jpdhy; jLf;fg;gl;ljy;y vd;Wk; mwpe;J nfhs;tJ mtrpak;. my;yh`; kpf mwpe;jtd;.

 

11. fUtpd; epiygw;wpa ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;if.. ..

tsHe;j xU kdpjdpd; chpikfs; vd;d vd;d vd;gJ gw;wp ,d;Dk; jPHkhdpf;fg;glhj ,e;j ehspy;> ,];yhkhdJ 1422 tUlq;fSf;F Kd;Ng fUtpy; tsuf; $ba rpRTf;F vd;d vd;d chpikfs; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;gJ gw;wp ,];yhk; njspthdnjhU nfhs;ifia> rl;l tiuKiwfisf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. ,J ,];yhk; ,iwtdhy; tFj;jspf;fg;gl;Ls;s khHf;fk; vd;gjw;nfhU rhd;WkhFk;.

ngz;zhdts; fUTw;W> mts; tapw;wpy; tsuf; $ba rpRit> ,];yhkhdJ ntWk;,uj;jf; fl;b my;yJ gpz;lk; vd;w epiyapy;> ,d;iwa nghUshjhuf; nfhs;if nfhz;l ,]q;fs; nfhz;Ls;s msTNfhspd;gb ,];yhk; ghHg;gjpy;iy. khwhf> fUthdJ ,iwtdJ Gjpa gilg;G> mJ ,iwtdhy; kl;LNk epfo;j;jf; $ba mw;Gjk; vd;w mirf;f Kbahj ek;gpf;ifapd;ghy; nfhz;lJ. VdNt> vtd; mt;Taphpiag; gilj;jhNdh mtd; xUtDf;F kl;LNk mjd; kPJ chpik ,Uf;fpd;wJ. Kw;w vtUf;Fk; mjd; epiy vd;dntd;W jPHkhdpf;fNth my;yJ jpl;lq;fs; tFf;fNth chpik fpilahJ.

RpR vd;w nrhy;Yf;F mwptpay; ,t;thW tpsf;fk; jUfpd;wJ. MjthJ> ngz; fUTw;w 8 tJ thuj;jpypUe;J mJ rpR cUthtjw;Fj; Njitahd midj;J Muk;g fl;lepiyfis mile;J tpLfpd;wJ. Mf> 8 tJ thuf; fUtpypUe;J mjd; gpwg;G tiu cs;s fUTf;F rpR vd;w ngaiur; #l;Lfpd;wJ.

,];yhKk;> mjd; mwpQH ngUkf;fSk; rpRitAk; mjd; tsHepiyfisAk; ,iwkiwapd; kw;Wk; egp (]y;) mtHfspd; `jP];fspd; thapyhf %d;W gphpTfshfg; gphpj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;whHfs; :

mjhtJ fUg; igapy; ,Uf;ff; $ba rpRit nghJthf [dpd; (Janin) vd;w nrhy;yhy; miof;fpd;whHfs;.

mtd; cq;fisg; G+kpapypUe;J cz;lhf;fpa NghJ> ePq;fs; cq;fs; md;idahpd; tapWfspy; rpRf;fshf ,Ue;j NghJk;> cq;fis ed;F mwpe;jtd;.(53:32)

gpd;dH ehk; (kdpjidg; gilg;gjw;fhf) mtid xU ghJfhg;gd ,lj;jpy; ,e;jphpaj; Jspahf;fp itj;Njhk;. gpd;dH me;j ,e;jphpaj; Jspia myf; vd;w epiyapy; Mf;fpNdhk;; gpd;dH me;j myf;if xU jirg; gpz;lkhf;fpNdhk;; gpd;dH mj;jirg;gpz;lj;ij vYk;GfshfTk; Mf;fpNdhk;; gpd;dH> mt;ntYk;GfSf;F khkprj;ij mzptpj;Njhk;; gpd;dH ehk; mjid NtW xU gilg;ghf (kdpjdhfr;) nra;Njhk;. (,t;thW gilj;jtdhd) my;yh`; ngUk; ghf;fpaKilatd; - (gilg;ghsHfspy; vy;yhk;) kpf mofhd gilg;ghsd;. (23:14-14)

ehk; epr;rakhf cq;fis (Kjypy;) kz;zpypUe;Jk; gpd;dH ,e;jphpaj;jpypUe;Jk;> gpd;G myf;fpypUe;Jk;; gpd;G cUthf;fg;gl;lJk;> cUthf;fg;glhjJkhd jirf; fl;bapypUe;Jk; gilj;Njhk;; cq;fSf;F tpsf;Ftjw;fhfNt (,jid tpthpf;fpNwhk;). (22:05).

ehk; NkNy fz;l FHMdpd; trdk; %yk; tpe;jhdJ ngNyhgpad; Fohapd; fU Kl;ilAld; xl;bf; nfhz;bUf;ff; $ba epiyf;F Ej;/gh vd;Wk; gpd; mJ fUg;igf;F efHe;J> xl;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; ml;ilg; G+r;rp vd;w epiyahd myf;fh vd;w epiyiaAk;> gpd; fbj;Jj; Jg;gpg; Nghlg;gl;l rijj; Jz;L Nghd;w vYk;Gk; rijAk; Njhd;w Muk;gpf;ff; $ba Kj;fh vd;epiyiaAk; Fwpg;gpl;L> fUit rpR vd;w xU ngahpl;L kl;Lk; miof;fhky;> mtw;wpd; %d;W epiyfisf; Fwpg;gpl;L miof;fpd;wJ.

NkYk; egpnkhopfspYk; Nkw;fhZk; thHj;ijg; gpuNahfq;fSld; jhd; cs;sd> vd;gjpypUe;J ,];yhkhdJ> fUtpy; tsUk; rpRit ntWk; ,uj;jf; fl;b my;yJ rijj;Jz;L vd;W ghuhky;> tpQ;Qhdj;Jld; xd;wp> jd; Qhdj;ij toq;Ftjd; %yk; epr;rakhf FHMdhdJ ,iwtdpd; thHj;ijfs; vd;gij ek;gpf;if nfhz;L> mjd; %yk; vd;d topfhl;Ljy;fis ,iwtd; ehb ,Uf;fpd;whd; vd;gijAk; mwpe;J> mjd;gb elf;f Kw;gl Ntz;baJ jhd; cz;ikahd kdpjDf;F> MwwpT nfhz;l kdpjDf;F ,Uf;f Ntz;ba mofhd ew;gz;ghFk;. Mj;jifa topfhl;Ly;fspd; %yk; kl;LNk mtd; epk;kjpahf tho KbAk;.

fPo;f;fhZk; egp nkhopAk; FHMdpy; fhzg;gLk; mNj thHj;ijg; gpuNahfq;fSlDk;> fUj;Jf;fSlDk; te;Js;sJ ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ.

mg;Jy;yh ,g;D k];Cj; (uyp) mtHfs; mwptpj;jhHfs; :

rj;jpaKk; mjd;ghy; czHT+l;lg;gl;ltUkhd egp (]y;) mtHfs; etpd;whHfs;. (xU tpjitapd; cUtpy;) cq;fSs; xt;nthUtUk; cq;fs; jhapd; fHg;gg; igapy; ehw;gJ ehl;fs; NrHj;J itf;fg;gLtPHfs;. gpd;dH mjw;Fr; rkkhd (ehw;gJ ehl;fs;) fhyj;jpy; XH ,uj;jf; fl;bahf khw;wg;gLtPHfs;. gpd;dH mjw;Fr; rkkhd (ehw;gJ ehl;fs;) fhyj;jpy; xU rijj; Jz;lhf khw;wg;gLtPHfs;. gpd;dH (capiu mjw;F Cjp tpLk;) xU thdtiu my;yh`; mDg;Gthd;. ,e;j `jPi] K];ypkpYk;> GfhhpapYk; (ghfk; 8 gf;fk; 387> `jP]; vz; : 593) capiu mjw;F ahH Cjp tpLfpd;whHfNuh vd;w gFjp K];ypk; `jP]; E}ypy; gjpthfp cs;sJ.

Nkw;fz;l ,iwtrdj;ijAk;> egpnkhopfisAk; Muha;r;rp nra;j mwptpayhsH kw;Wk; kUj;Jtuhd khhP]; Gify; vd;gtH fPo;f;fz;lthW Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH :

mjhtJ> clYwtpd; NghJ ntspaplg;gLk; mj;jid tpe;jZf;fSk;> ngz; rpid Kl;ilia fUf; nfhs;sr; nra;aj; Njitg;gLtjpy;iy. xNu xU tpe;jZ xd;Nw NghJk; vd;w mwptpaypd; nfhs;ifia KotJkhf FHMd; G+uzg;gLj;Jtjhf> mJ ngahpl;L milf;Fk; Ej;/gh vd;w nrhy; tpsq;Ffpd;wJ vd;fpwhH. Ej;/gh vd;gJ tpe;jZthdJ fU Kl;ilAld; xl;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; epiyiaf; Fwpf;Fk;.

Mf> gilg;ghw;wiyg; gw;wp njspthd nfhs;ifiaf; nfhz;Ls;s ,];yhk;> me;jg; gilg;Gf;Fj; Njitahd tho;thjhuk; kw;Wk; topKiwfisAk; njspthff; nfhz;bUf;Fk; vd;gjpy; Iankd;d!

 

12. ,];yhj;jpy; rpR(fU)tpd; chpikfs;

NkNy ehk; fz;l tpsf;fj;jpd;gb> Mz; ngz; ,y;yw cwTf;Fg; gpd; ngz;zpd; tapw;wpy; tsuf; $ba caphpahdJ fU vd;Wk mjd; gpd; rpR vd;Wk; miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ vd;gij mwpe;Njhk;. NkNy cs;s ,];yhj;jpy; rpR(fU)tpd; chpikfs; vd;w jiyg;igf; fz;lJk; rpyUf;F Mr;rhpak; Vw;glyhk;. tpQ;Qdhk; Kd;Ndwpa ,e;j 21 k; Ehw;whz;by; ehfhPf kdpjDf;F vd;ndd;d chpikfs; cs;sd vd;W mwpag;glhj> mwpag;glhkYk;> Nghuhl;lq;fs; %yk; rhjpj;Jf; nfhs;s ,d;Wk; Kad;W nfhz;bUf;fpd;w ,e;jr; r%fr; re;ijapy;> fUtpw;F - cyf kf;fs; njhifapy; ,d;Dk; te;J Nruhj xU capUf;F chpikfsh? Mr;rhpakha; ,Uf;fpwjy;yth? mJ jhd; Vf ,iwtdhfpa my;yh`;thy; tFj;jspf;fg;gl;l ,];yhk; vd;gJ>. Vnddpy;> ,t;Tyifg; gilj;jtd; mtd;. mtd; xUtdhy; jhd; fUtpy; ,Uf;Fk; rpRTf;Fk; kz;zpy; mbapy; fy;ypy; kiwe;jpUf;Fk; Njiuf;Fk;> flypd; mbapd; Moj;jpy; ePe;jpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; caphpf;Fk; tho;itAk; mjw;fhd tho;tpay; rl;lq;fisAk; tFf;f KbAk;. mj;jifa rl;lq;fis> Kuz;ghLfs; fhztpayhj msTf;F cUthf;f KbAk;. ,dp fU(rpR)Tf;F vd;ndd;d chpikfs; ,];yhj;jpdhy; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sd vd;gijg; ghHg;Nghk;.

 

tho;tjw;F chpik

MjKila kf;fisj; jpl;lkhf ehk; fz;zpag;gLj;jpNdhk; (17:70)

,iwkiwahdJ MjKila re;jjpapdHfshfpa ,e;j kdpjg; gilg;G mj;jidiaAk; fz;zpaj;jpw;FhpaJ vd;W $Wk; nghOJ> mtHfsJ capUk; fz;zpakhdJ vd;gjhfpd;wJ.

mLj;J>

- vtndhUtd; xU kdpjidf; nfhiy nra;jjw;Fg; gfukhf md;wp - my;yJ G+kpapy; Fog;gj;ij gug;gpa fhuzj;jpw;fhf md;wp NtW fhuzj;jpw;fhf kw;wtidf; nfhiy nra;fpwhNdh mtd; kdpjhfs; vy;yhiuAk; nfhiy nra;jtd; Nghy; Mthd;. (5:32)

NkNy cs;s trdkhdJ epahakhd fhuzq;fis nfhiyf;Fr; rl;lj;jpd; %yk; gop thq;Fjy;> kdpjHfspdy; Vw;gLk; Fog;gk; kw;Wk; NghHfis mlf;f Nghd;witfsd;wp Ntz;Lnkd;Nw Rakhf xU kdpjidf; nfhiy nra;tJ vd;gJ> kdpj ,dj;ijNa nfhiy nra;tjw;Fr; rkkhdJ vd;fpwJ. ,iwkiw. ,jd; %yk; mepahakhf xU caphpiaf; nfhiy nra;tJ ngUk; ghtq;fspy; xd;whf ,];yhk; fUJfpd;wJ.

 

mLj;Jf; fPo;fz;l trdk; >

kdpjd; kdpjid chpikapd;wp nfhiy nra;Ak; chpikia Kw;wpYkhfj; jLj;Js;sJ.

NkYk;>my;yh`; jLj;Js;s ve;j capiuAk; chpikapd;wpf; nfhiy nra;ahjPHfs;. (17:33).

NkYk; fPo;f;fz;l trdk; nrhe;jg; gps;isahf ,Ue;jhy; $l cq;fSf;F mtHfisf; nfhy;y chpikapy;iy vd;fpwJ.

(kdpjHfNs!) ePq;fs; tWikf;Fg; gae;J> cq;fs; Foe;ijfisf; nfhiy nra;ahjPHfs;. (17:31)

capUld; Gijf;fg;gl;l (ngz; Foe;ijahd) tSk; tpdtg;gLk; nghOJ (81:8)

mjw;Fk; Nkyhf> jd; capiu jhNd kha;j;Jf; nfhs;tjw;Fk; - jw;nfhiyf;Fk; $l ,];yhk; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

cq;fisNa ePq;fs; nfhiy nr;aJ nfhs;shjPHfs;. (4:29)

Nkw;fz;l trdq;fs; %yk; midtUf;Fk; tho chpikAz;L. ahUk; ahUila capiuAk; ePjpapd; mbg;gilapyd;wp> Ntw R Nehf;fq;fSf;fhf nfhiy nra;a ,];yhk; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

mJNghyNt fUtpy; tsuf; $ba rpRitAk; xU capuhfj; jhd; ,];yhk; mstpLfpwJ. mjw;F fPo;f;fhZk; ,];yhkpar; rl;lk; rhd;whf epw;fpwJ.

fHg;gpzpg; ngz; Fw;wk; nra;J> Fw;wk; rhl;lg;gl;l mtSf;f nfhiyj; jz;lid jPHg;ghFk; vdpy;> mg; ngz; fHg;gkhf ,Uf;Fk; fhyk; fope;J> Foe;ijia <d;nwLj;J> mf; Foe;ijf;F ghY}l;Lk; fhyk; fope;Njh my;yJ mjw;Fg; ghY}l;Ltjw;F nrtpypj; jha; xUj;jpia Vw;ghL nra;J tpl;l gpd;G jhd;> mg;ngz;izf; nfhiy nra;a KbAk; vd;W midj;J khHf;f mwpQHfSk;> kj;`G cykhf;fSk; xUkpj;j mstpy; fUj;Jj; njhptpj;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. (Abortion, Birth Control, Surrogate Parenting)

Nkw;fz;l rl;l tpsf;fk; %yk; jha; nra;j nfhiyf;Ff; fUtpy; ,Uf;Fk; rpR ghjpf;fg;glf; $lhJ> mjw;F tho;tjw;F chpik ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;fpwJ ,];yhk;.

mLj;J xU ngz; fHg;gkhd epiyapy; ,we;J tpl;lhnsd;why;> mts; tapw;wpy; ,Uf;Fk; Foe;ij capUld; ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;w mwpFwp njd;gLkhdhy;> mWit rpfpr;ir nra;J mfw;wp> mr;rpRit tho itf;f Kbe;j msT kUj;Jtk; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwhH> \hgp< kj;`g; mwpQuhd ,g;D Fjhkh vd;gtH. (Mohamed Ibn Qudamah, Al-Mughni op.lit. 2:551)

Mf> ve;j epiyapYk; ve;j capUk;> mJ tsHe;j kdpj capuhf ,Ug;gpDk;> my;yJ rpRthf ,Ug;gpDk; tho chpik cz;L. me;j tho;Thpikapy; jiyapl ahUf;Fk; ,];yhk; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy.

 

fU(rpR)tpd; nrhj;Jhpik

,];yhkpa rl;ltpay; eilKiwfspd;gb rpRthdJ tapw;wpy; ,Uf;Fk; fhyq;fspy;> mf; Foe;ijapd; je;ijapd; nrhj;jpy; mJ chpikiag; ngWtjpy;iy. khwhf> mf; Foe;ij gpwf;F Kd;Ng je;ij ,we;J tpl;l epiyapy;> mf; foe;ij gpwf;Fk; tiu nrhj;Jg; gq;fPL nra;tij ,];yhk; mDkjpg;gjpy;iy. vnddpy;> gpwf;Fk; Foe;ij capUld; gpwf;Fkh? my;yJ ,we;J gpwf;Fkh vd;gJ njhpahJ> mLj;J gpwf;Fk; Foe;ij Mzh my;yJ ngz;zh? vd;gJk; njhpahJ. (Fwpg;G : ,];yhj;jpy; MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;Fk;> nrhj;Jg; gq;fPl;by; tpfpjhr;rhj mbg;gilapy; tpj;jpahrk; cs;sJ vd;gij epidtpy; nfhs;f).

,jd; %yk;> mJ rpR jhNd> fU jhNd vd;w Vsdj;Jld; mjd; chpikia ghjpf;fr; nra;a KbahJ. khwhf> vt;thW tsHe;J tpl;l jd; rNfhju> rNfhjhp nrhj;Jg; gq;fPl;by; chpik cs;stuhf cs;shHfNsh mJ Nghyj; jhd; fUtpy; ,Uf;Fk; rpRTk; chpik cs;sjhf> mJ jhapd; tapw;iw tpl;L capUld; ntspj;js;sg;gl;l gpd; me;j chpik mjd; kPJ epr;rapf;fg;gl;ljhfTk; mike;J tpLfpwJ. vdNt> ,jd; %yk; ,];yhk; vd;gJ xU G+uzg;gLj;jg;gl;l khHf;fk; vd;gij czuyhk;.

 

,we;J tpl;l fU(rpR)Tk; mjd; fz;zpaKk;

Fiwkhj tsHr;rpapy; ,we;J gpwe;j rpRTk;> ,we;Nj gpwe;j rpRTk; Gijf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> Foe;ij gpwf;Fk; rkaj;jpy; mOifr; rj;jk; ,y;yhky; ,we;Nj gpwe;jpUf;Fkhdhy;> me;jf; Foe;ijiaf; Fspg;ghl;b (my; F];y;)> fgdpl;L> [dh]h njhOifapd;wpg; Gijf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;fpwJ ,];yhkpa rl;lKiw. Nkw;fz;l Kiwia Fiwkhj kw;Wk; epiwkhjj;jpy; ,we;J gpwe;j Foe;ijfSf;Fk; nghUe;Jk; vd;W ,];yhkpar; rl;lq;fs; $Wfpd;wd.

Mf ,];yhkhdJ> fUtpy; tsUk; rpRTf;F thof; $ba chpikiaAk;> nrhj;J chpikiaAk;> mJ ,we;Nj gpwe;J tpl;lgpd; mij xU ,uj;jg; gpz;lkhf epidf;fhky;> mJTk; xU capH vd;w mstpy; fz;zpag;gLj;jg;gl;l mlf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjd; %yk;> vd; tapw;wpy; tsUk; Foe;ij jhNd ehd; vd;d Ntz;LkhdhYk; nra;J nfhs;Ntd; vd;W vtUk; mjd; tho;Thpikapy; jiyapl KbahJ. vd;fpwJ ,];yhk;. mj;jifa tho;Thpikiag; gwpg;gJ jhd; FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;L KiwFsk; mjd; rhjdq;fSk;. kw;Wk; mghH\d; fpspf;FfSk;. Vnddpy;> ,j;jifa FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L rhjdq;fSk;> mjdi cgNahfpg;ghsHfSk; fUit xU caphp vd;Wk;> mjw;Fk; kdpjd; Nghy midjJ chpikfSk; cz;L vd;W epidg;gjpy;iy. khwhf> mtw;iw xU ,uj;jg; gpz;lk; vd;w epiyapNyh my;yJ tpuy; efj;ijg; Nghd;w epiyapNyNa jhd; itj;Js;sJ.

 

13. fUf;fiyg;Gk; mjw;fhd jz;lidfSk;

,];yhkhdJ fUtpy; tsuf; $ba caphpia (rpRit) kdpj capUf;Fr; rkkhf mjhtJ cyfpy; gpwe;J elkhLk; kdpjdpd; capUf;F ve;j msT chpik cs;sNjh mNj msT chpikia toq;Ftjhy;> me;j caphp (rpR)f;F vjpuhfr; nra;ag;gLk; nray;fisAk; fLk; Fw;wkhfNt ,];yhk; fUJfpwJ. NkYk; mj;jifa nraiy xU nfhba nfhiyf; Fw;wk; vd;w epiyapy; my;yhJ> fLk; Fw;wkhf> rl;lj;jpw;F tpNuhjkhd nrayhff; fUJfpwJ.

ve;jr; nray; fUtpd; tsHepiyfisg; ghjpj;J> Fiwg; gpurtk; epfor; nra;J tpLfpwNjh mj;jifa nraYk;> me;jr; nray; ,uz;lhk; egH %ykhfNth my;yJ jd; Ra czHtpdhy; Ntz;Lnkd;Nw nra;tjd; %ykhfNth fUf;fiyg;ig Vw;gLj;jp> Fiwg; gpurtk; epfOkhNwh my;yJ fUf;fiyg;G nra;ag;gLfpwNjh mj;jifa nray;fs; fUTf;F vjpuhfr; nra;ag;gl;l Fw;wkhff; fUjg;gLk;. ,j;jifa Fw;wk; %d;W epiyfspy; epfOfpd;wJ.

 

1 gak; kw;Wk; jpl;Ljy; %yk; :

fHg;gpzpiaj; jpl;Ltjd; %yNkh my;yJ jbj;j fdkhd thHj;ijfs; %yk; mts; cs;sj;ij ghjpg;gilar; nra;J capH gaj;ij Vw;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; mj;jifa gaj;jhy; Vw;gLk; Fiwg;gpurtk;

 

2 Neubahd nray;fs; %yk; :

Ntz;Lnkd;Nw fUf;fiyg;Gr; nra;Ak; Nehf;fj;Jld; kUe;Jfis cgNahfpj;jy; my;yJ kUj;Jthpd; cjtpia ehb fUf;fiyg;Gr; nra;J nfhs;sy;

 

3 kiwKfkhd nray;fs; %yk; :

fHg;gf; fhyq;fspy; cz;z cztpd;wp tWikapy; thLjy;> Nehd;gpUj;jy; my;yJ nfl;l JHthilia Efu NeHjy;> vjpHghuhj tpjkhf Mgj;Jf;fisr; re;jpf;f NeHjy; %ykhf fUf;fiyg;G epfo;jy;

Nky; cs;stw;wpw;fhd ,og;gPLfSk; jz;lidfSk; %d;W tiffshfg; gphpf;fg;gl;Ls;sd.

 

1 - FHuh :

fUtpy; cs;s rpRitf; fiyj;jw;fhf Fhuh vd;w ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

mG`{iuuh (uyp) mwptpf;fpd;whHfs; :

`{ijy; vd;w Fyj;ijr; NrHe;j ,U ngz;fspd; tha;j; jfuhW Kw;wp> xU ngz; ,d;ndhU ngz;zpd; tapw;wpy; fy;nywpe;J> mjdhy; Fiwg; gpurtk; epfof; fhuzkhfp tpl;lhs;> ,e;j tof;f ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; Kd;dpiyapy; te;j nghOJ> xU Mz; my;yJ ngz; mbikia rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;whtspg; ngz; tpLjiy nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;w ,iwj;J}jH (]y;) mtHfs; $wpdhHfs; (Gfhhp)

,d;W mbik ,dk; xopf;fg;gl;L tpl;ljhy;> Rdd; my; e]aP apy; tUk; `jPi] Mjhukhff; nfhz;L E}W ML my;yJ Rdd; mG+jhT+j; y; tUk; `jPi] Mjhukhff; nfhz;L 500 jpH`k; vd;w mstpYk; my;yJ Ie;J xl;lfq;fspd; kjpg;ig mguhjkhf ghjpf;fg;gl;ltUf;Ff; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk;.

NkYk;> xU fHg;gpzpg; ngz; kUe;J cl;nfhz;L> mjd; %yk; Fiwg;gpurtk; epfOkhdhy;> mg; ngz; Nkw; nrhd;d Fhuh vd;w ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia jhdkhf toq;f Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; me;j mghuhjj; njhifapypUe;J mts; vijAk; mDgtpf;fj; jil nra;ag;gl;ltshfpwhs;.

,khk; khypf; mtHfspd; fUj;Jg;gb> KO tsHr;rpailahj fUtpd; kPJ jPq;fpiof;fg;gl;L Fiwg;gpurtk; MdhYk; Fhuh vd;w ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> ,khk; mG+`dPgh kw;Wk; ,khk; \hgp< MfpNahHfspd; $w;Wg;gb> Fiwg;gpurtk; Md fUthdJ ve;j epiyapy; ,Ug;gpDk; rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk;> `k;gyp kj;`g; ,khk;fspd; $w;Wg;gb> 40 ehl;fs; tsHepiyiaf; nfhz;l fUtpd; kPJ> mJ fiyf;fg;gLtjw;fhf nra;ag;gLk; ve;jr; nraYf;Fk; (kUe;Jfs; %yk; fiyj;jhYk; rhpNa!) rk;ge;jg;gl;ltH my;Fhuh ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia toq;f Ntz;bajpy;iy vd;fpd;wdH.

 

2 - jpa;ah (KO ,uj;j ,og;gPL)

,];yhkpa mwpQHfSk;> cykhg; ngUkf;fSk;> egp (]y;) mtHfspd; xU `jPi]f; Fwpg;gpl;L> 4 khjk; Mfp tpl;l epiyapy; cs;s rpRtpd; kPJ> mJ fUr;rpijT MFk; msTf;F nra;Ak; Fw;wj;Jf;F> rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp KO ,uj;j ,og;gPl;Lj; njhif (jpa;ah)ia rk;ge;jg;gl;l thjpf;f toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W fUj;Jj; njhptpj;J cs;sdH.

NkYk;> ,j;jifa Fw;wk; Neubahf epfo;e;jhYk;> kiwKfkhf epfo;e;jhYk;> rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp KO ,uj;j ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W> fPo;f;fz;l FHMdpd; trdj;ij Mjhukhff; Fwpg;gpl;L> fUj;Jj; njhptpf;fpd;whHfs;.

jtWjyhf md;wp xU tpRthrpf;F kw;nwhU tpRthrpiaf; nfhiy nra;tJ> Mfkhdjy;y. ,d;Dk; (cq;fspy;) vtH ahnjhU tpRthrpiaj; jtWjyhff; nfhiy nra;J tpl;lhy;> (mjw;f e\;l <lhf) tpRthrpahfpa XH mbikia tpLjiy nra;jyhFk;. ,d;Dk; mtH FLk;gj;jhH ghy; xg;gilf;fg;gLk; e\;l <lhFk;. (4:92)

me;j ,uj;j ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifahdJ ghjpf;fg;gl;ltUf;F> Fw;wthspahy; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifahf> 100 xl;lfk; my;yJ 200 fhy;eilfs; my;yJ 2000 MLfs; my;yJ 1000 jpdhHfs; my;yJ 12000 jpH`k; vd;w mstpy; nfhLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. NkYk;> Nkw;fz;l Fw;wj;Jf;F fUTw;w ngz;Nz fhuzkhf ,Ue;jhy;> mg; ngz;Zk; jpa;ah - it jhdkhf toq;f Ntz;Lk;. me;j ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifapy; vijAk; mts; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Kaw;rpf;ff; $lhJ. (Syed Sabiq, Fiqh Al Sunnah, op. cit.2:466-7 (Abortion Birth Control, Surrogate Parenting. Abul Fadl Mohsin Ebrahim)

 

3 - f/g;/ghuh

NkYk;> rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp (jpa;ah) KO ,uj;jg;gzk; nfhLj;j gpwF> K/kpdhd xU Mz; my;yJ ngz; mbikia tpLjiy nra;a Ntz;Lk;. ,d;iwa epiyapy; mbikfs; ,y;yhjjhy; Nkw;nrhd;d 4:92 FHMd; trdj;ijf; Fwpg;gpl;L> rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp njhlHe;J ,uz;L khjq;fs; Nehd;G Nehw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;fpd;wdH cykhg; ngUkf;fs;.

.. .. mtH FLk;gj;jhH ghy; xg;gilf;fg;gLk; e\;l <Lk;> tpRthrpahd XH mbikia tpLjiy nra;jYkhFk;. (,t;thW nra;Ak; trjpia) ahH ngwtpy;iyNah mtH my;yh`;tplk; ght kPl;rp ngWtjw;fhf (kd;dpf;ff; Nfhhp) ,uz;L khjk; njhluhf Nehd;G Nehw;f Ntz;Lk;... (4:92).

my; [];]h]; vd;w cykhg; ngUe;jifapd; $w;Wg;gb> ,t;thW xUtH f/g;/ghuhf nra;tjw;fhf vz;zp> Nehd;G Nehw;Fk; fhyq;fspd; ,ilapy; Neha; tha;g;gl;ltuhdhy;> Neha; Fzkhd gpd;G kPz;Lk; ,uz;L khjk; njhluhf Nehd;G Nehw;f Ntz;Lk;. Neha;tha;g;gLtjw;F Kd; Nehw;w Nehd;Gfis fzf;fpy; NrHj;jy; $lhJ.

mLj;J> rk;ge;jg;gl;l Fw;wthsp ngz;zhf ,Ug;gpd;> khjtplha;f; fhyq;fspy; Nehd;G Nehw;f mDkjp ,y;iyahjyhy;> tpl;l Nehd;ig khjtplha; fopj;J njhluhf Nehw;f Ntz;Lk;. (Abu Bakr Ahmad Bin Ali Al Razi Al Jassas, op. cit., 2:246).

 

14. fUr;rpijT - mDkjpAk; epge;jidfSk;

xU jhapd; fHg;gg;igapy; cs;sij ePf;fp tpl epidg;gJ vd;gJ fUr;rpijT MFk;. me;jf; fUg;igapy; cs;s rpRTf;F cap&l;lg;gl;lijj; njhlHe;J> fUr;rpijT nra;aj; jpl;lkpLjy; vd;gJ rl;l KuzhdJ. rpy khHf;f mwpQHfs; myf;fh vd;w epiyapy; cs;s fUitAk;> 40 ehs; tsHe;Js;s fUitAk; fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;syhk; vd;fpd;wdH. NtW rpyH fUj;jphpj;J 40 ehl;fSf;Fs; cs;s fUit fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;syhk; vd;Wk;> NtW rpyH fU kdpj cUtpd; mikg;igg; ngwhj epiy tiu ,J mDkjpf;fg;glyhk; vdf; $Wfpd;wdH. vt;thwhapDk; epahakhd fhuzkpd;wp fUitr; rpijf;fhky; ,Ug;gJ mtrpakhdjhFk;.

Vnddpy; mtrpakpy;yhj Nehf;fpy;; fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;tJ> nfhiy nra;jjw;f epfuhd nfhba nrayhFk;. Vnddpy;> ,J xU jil nra;ag;gl;l nray;> ,e;j rKjhak; ngUf Ntz;Lk; vd;W egp K`k;kJ (]y;) mtHfsJ fUj;Jf;F KuzhdjhFk;. ,J K];ypk;fisg; gytPdg;gLj;jp ,opitf; nfhz;L tUk; fhuzpfspy; xd;whFk;. NkYk;> FHMd;> egp (]y;) mtHfsJ eilKiw kw;Wk; mwpQHfspd; fUj;Jg;gb> rpy epge;jidfspd;gb fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;syhk; vd;w epiy cs;sJ. me;j epiyahdJ> Njit vd;gij tpl epHg;ge;jk;> mtrpak; vd;w caHe;jgl;r fhuzj;ijf; nfhz;ljhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mj;jifa mj;jpahtrpakhd epiyapy; jhd; ,];yhk; mDkjpf;fpwNj xopa> ,d;iwa #o;epiyapy; nra;J nfhs;sg;gLk; fUr;rpijTf;fhd fhuzq;fSf;F ,];yhk; mDkjp mspg;gjpy;iy.

lhf;lH A+Rg; my; fHshtp mtHfs; ,J gw;wpf; $Wk; nghOJ> Njit ,y;yhky; mtrpakpd;wpr; nra;ag;gLk; fUr;rpijthdJ xU `uhkhdJk;> tsHe;J tpl;l rpRtpd; kPJ GhpAk; fLk; Fw;wKkhFk; vd;W Fwpg;gpLfpd;whH.

NkYk;> fPo;f;fz;l fhuzq;fSf;fhf fUr;rpijT mDkjpf;fg;glyhk; vd;W khHf;f mwpQHfs; fUj;Jj; njhptpf;fpd;whHfs;.

Kjyhtjhf> fUit mopf;Fk; vz;zk; rpwpjsTk; ,Uj;jy; $lhJ.

mg;ngz; fUTWtjhy;> mtSf;Fk;> gps;isf;Fk; gpurt fhyq;fspd; NghJ jPq;F Vw;glf; $Lk; vd;w gak; ,Ug;gpd;> my;yJ mg;ngz;zpd; capUf;F Mgj;jhf KbAk; vd;w epiy ,Ug;gpd;.

gpwf;ff; $ba Foe;ij> kugpay; Neha;fSlNdh my;yJ NtW VjhtJ mq;ffPdkhfg; gpwf;Fk; epiy tuyhk; vd mwpag;gLk; nghOJk;> (,jpy; rpy mwpQHfSf;F cld;ghL fpilahJ) my;yh`; kpf mwpe;jtd;.

jha; capUld; ,Ue;J> Nra; ,we;J tpl;ljhf kUj;JtHfs; KbT nra;Ak; nghOJ> nghpa capiuf; fhg;gjw;F vd;w mtrpa NkyPl;lhy; fUr;rpijT nra;tJ

Vw;fdNt cs;s Foe;ijf;F> cz;lhf jha;g;ghy; tw;wp tpLk; vd;w epiy ,Ug;gpd;.

 

15. fUr;rpijT gw;wp kj;`Gfs;

`dgp kj;`G :

fUr;rpijT nra;tJ vd;gJ> mJ vjw;fhfr; nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ vd;w fhuzj;ijg; nghWj;jJ. mj;jifa fhuzq;fs; ehd;F khj rpR tiu jhd; nghUe;Jk;.

mg; ngz; fUTw;why; ghy; Fb epiyapy; cs;s Foe;ijiag; ghjpf;Fk; vd;w epiyapy;

Gjpjjhff; fUTWtJ> Vw;fdNt cs;s Foe;ijf;Fj; Njitahd ghy; Rug;ig fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; vd; epiyapYk;

Foe;ijf;F nrtpypj; jha; %yk; ghY}l;l nrtpypj; jha; fpilf;fhj epiyapYk; (,J md;iwa mNugpag; gof;f Kiw> ,d;iwf;F ,J eilKiwapy; ,y;iy)

mj;jifa epiyapy;> mf; Foe;ij ,we;J tplyhk; vd;w epiyapYk;>

,d;Dk; Vw;fdNt gpwe;J tpl;l Foe;ijiaf; fhg;ghw;w fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;syhk; vd;fpwhH> `dgp kj;`gpd; rl;l mwpQuhd> ,g;D MgpjPd;.

 

khypf;fp kj;`G

tpe;jhdJ fUg;igapy; epiy ngw;wpUf;Fk; epiyapy;> fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;s mDkjp ,y;iy. NkYk;> mf;fUtpd; tsHr;rp 40 ehl;fs; Md epiyapy; $l fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;s mDkjp ,y;iy. mf; fUthdJ capH ngw;w gpd;> fUr;rpijT nra;tJ jil nra;ag;gl;lJ. `uhkhdJ vd;W khypf;fp kj;`G E}yhd `\pah my; j]{f;fp $Wfpd;wJ. (HASHIYA AL DASUQI, MOHAMED IBN ARAFAH DASUQI, Op. cit., 2:266-7)

 

\hgp< kj;`G

capH ngw;W tpl;l fUit fUr;rpijtpd; %yk; fiyg;gJ vd;gJ Fw;wkhdJ. fUtpd; tsHr;rpahdJ> Kjypy; tpe;jhdJ fUg;igapy; rpid Kl;ilAld; xl;bf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; epiyapypUe;J> gpd; ngz;zpd; fUg;igapy; cs;s Rug;gpfSld;> ,ize;J mJ jd; tsH epiyfs; Muk;gpg;gJ Kjy; Muk;gkhfpwJ. mjd; gpd; mJ capHf; nfhs;fpd;wJ. ,j;jifa epiyapy; fUr;rpijTf;F fUitj; J}z;LtJ Fw;wkhFk;. vg;nghOJ mf; fU capH ngw;W tpl;lNjh> mf; fUtpd; gilg;G KOikaile;J tpl;lJ. mjd; gpd; mf;fUitf; fiyg;gJ vd;gJ fLk; Fw;wkhFk;. NkYk;> mf; fUit jhapd; fUtpypUe;J capUld; gphpj;njLj;J tpl;lgpd;> ,f; Fw;wk; kpff; fLikahdjhf MfpwJ vd;fpwhH> ,khk; f];]hyp mtHfs;. Al Ghazali, op. cit. 2:51, Ihya, ‘Ulum al Din’.

 

`k;gpyp kj;`G

fUTw;wpUf;Fk; ngz;izf; fhag;gLj;jp> (mjhtJ tapw;wpy; mbj;J vd te;Js;sJ) mjd; %yk; fUr;rpijTf;F xUtH fhuzkhfp tpl;lhy;> fhuzkhdtH ,uj;j ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia ghjpf;fg;gl;ltUf;F toq;f Ntz;Lk;. mJ NghyNt> fUTw;w ngz; fUitf; fiyf;f Ntz;b> kUe;Jfis cl;nfhz;L mjd; %yk; fUf;fiyg;G nra;jhnud;why;> mg; ngz;Zk; ,uj;j ,og;gPl;Lj; njhifia jhdkhf toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W ,g;D Fjhkh mtHfs; jdJ my; Kf;dP vd;w ehspy; Fwpg;gpLfpd;whHfs;.

Nkw;fz;l khHf;f mwpQHfspd; fUj;Jf;fspy; `dgp ,khk; mtHfspd; fUj;jhdJ ,d;iwa khHf;f mwpQHfspd; fUj;NjhL njspthf xd;wpg; Nghtij mwpayhk;.

,d;iwa etPd fhy mwpQHfspy; xUtuhd lhf;lH my; G+l;b vd;gtH fPo;f;fz;l %d;W epiyfspy; fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;Sjy; MFkhdJ vd;fpwhH. NkYk;> mf; fUthdJ 4 khj fhy msTf;Fs; ,Ug;gJ mtrpak; vd;fpwhH.

gpurt fhyj;jpy; jhapd; capUf;F Mgj;J Vw;gLk; vd kUj;JtHfs; jPHkhdpj;jhy;

ngz; fUTWtJ> mg; ngz;iz NehAwr; nra;Ak; vd;W kUj;JtHfs; jPHkhdpj;jy;

Vw;fdNt cs;s Foe;ijf;Fj; Njitahd jha;g;ghy; mtsplk; FiwAk; epiyapYk;> NkYk; mf; Foe;ijapd; czTf;F jha;g;ghiy kl;LNk ek;gp ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy; mg; ngz; fUTWtJ> Vw;fdNt cs;s Foe;ijiag; ghjpf;Fk; vd;w epiyapYk;>

xU ngz; fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;tJ MFkhdJ vd;fpd;whH. my;yh`; kpf mwpe;jtd;.

NkYk;> fUtpy; ,Uf;Fk; Foe;ijia tpl jhapd; capUf;Fj; jhd; Kd;Dhpik nfhLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ehd;F khjj;jpw;Fg; gpd;> mg;ngz; fUitr; Rke;jpUg;gJ mg; ngz;zpd; capUf;F Mgj;J Vw;gLk; vd;w epiyapy;> fUr;rpijTf;F mDkjpf;fyhk; vd;w fUj;Jk; cs;sJ. ,q;Nf> Kf;fpakhff; ftdpf;f Ntz;baJ vd;dntd;why;> ,];yhkpa mwpQHfspd; fUj;Jg;gb> xU fUthdJ jdJ tsHepiyapy; 120 ehspy; Md;khit> capiug; ngWfpwJ. ,f;fUj;Jg;gb> mJTk; xU capH vDk; mbg;gilapy;> mf;fUTk;> jhAk; rk chpik ngw;wtHfshfpd;whHfs;. ,e;j epiyapy; fUr;rpijT vd;gJ vg;gb MFkhdJ vd;w Nfs;tp vOk;. ,q;Nf \hPmj; ,];yhkpa rl;lj; JizAld; ,jw;fhd topiaf; fhz;gJ eyk;. ,];yhkpar; rl;lg;gb> ,uz;L jPikfspy;> kdjp eyk; nghUl;L kpfr; rpwpa jPikiaj; NjHe;njLg;gJ MFkhdJ. vt;thnudpy;> ,uz;L capHfSk; Mgj;jhd epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy; VjhtJ xd;iwf; fhg;ghw;wp tplyhk; vDk; epiyapy;> \hPmj; rl;lg;gb nghpa capuhd mg; ngz;zpd; capiuf; fhg;ghw;WtJ vd;gJ jhd; rpwe;jJ vd;w epHg;ge;j epiyapy;> nghpa capUf;fhd Kd;Dhpikapy;> rpwpa `uhkhd fUitf; fiyg;gJ MFk; vd;w fUj;J njhptpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. Vnddpy;> mg; ngz;zhdts; ,g; G+kpapy; mf; fUTf;F Kd;NdNkNa epiy ngw;W tpl;l capH. mtSf;fhd flikfSk;> nghWg;GfSk;> mjDld; FLk;gk; vDk; mikg;gpy; xU JizahfTk; ,Ug;gts;. Mdhy;> fUTf;nfd;W ve;j nghWg;Gk;> flikfSk; ,y;iy. me;j epHg;ge;j epiyapy;> fUr;rpijT nra;tjd; %yk;> mg; ngz; fhg;ghw;wg;gl;L> mtSf;nfd;W cs;s nghWg;GfSk;> flikfSk;> FLk;gk; vdk; mikg;gpy; tpLglhky; fhg;ghw;wg;gLfpwJ.

Nkw;fz;l epHg;ge;j epiyia mLj;J fUr;rpijT nra;tJ vd;gJ K];ypk;fSf;F Mfkhdjy;y.

K];ypk;fspd; ngUf;fj;ij ,J Fiwj;J tpLk;. ,];yhkpar; rl;lj;jpd; Nehf;fk; K];ypk;fs; ngUf Ntz;Lk; vd;gNj.

,J K];ypk;fisg; gytPdg;gLj;jf; $baJk; MFk;. Vnddpy;> K];ypk;fspd; vz;zpf;if $Lk; NghJ mtHfs; typikailtjpypUe;Jk;> ,J jLf;fpd;wJ.

mjdhy; jhd; my;yh`; ,];uhaPy; kf;fis Nehf;fp ,t;thW Ngrpdhd; :

NkYk; nghUl; nry;tq;fs;> kf;fs; nry;tq;fs; %yk; cq;fSf;F cjtp nra;Njhk;. cq;fs; vz;zpf;ifia Kd;ig tplg; ngUfr; nra;Njhk;. (my;FHMd; : 17:6)

egp \{I`g; (miy) mtHfs; jkJ kf;fSf;F ,t;thW epidT+l;bdhd; :

ePq;fs; vz;zpf;if Fiwthf ,Ue;j Neuj;ij epidj;Jg; ghUq;fs;. gpwF my;yh`; cq;fisg; ngUfr; nra;jhd; (7:86)

vz;zpf;ifapy; mjpf kf;fisf; nfhz;l r%fk; jdJ Ra Njitfisg; G+Hj;jp nra;J nfhs;s Kbfpwd;w mNj Ntis> mjidf; nfhz;L vjphpfSk; mr;rKWtH vd;gJ mwpe;J nfhs;s Ntz;ba mk;rkhFk;. vdNt> epahakhd fhuzkpd;wp gps;is ngWk; tha;g;ig mopg;gJ mDkjpf;ff; $bajy;y. cjhuzkhf xU ngz; fUj;jhpg;gJ mtsJ capUf;F Mgj;jhapd; my;yJ mtsJ fUg;igia gaq;fukhd Neha; xd;W jhf;fp> mJ mtsJ clypy; gutp mts; mope;J tpLk; Mgj;J ,Uf;Fkhapd; md;wp gps;is ngWk; tha;g;ig ,oe;J tplf; $lhJ.

 

Kf;fpakhd epge;jid :

fUr;rpijT nra;tjw;F mDkjpf;fg;glf; $ba vy;yh fl;lq;fspYk; (Foe;ijapd;) je;ijapd; mDkjpiag; ngWtJ mtrpakhFk;. rpy Ntis xU fHg;gpzpf;F fUr;rpijT nra;tjd; epahakhd Njit ,Ue;Jk;> mtspd; fztdpd; mDkjpiag; ngWtJ rhj;jpakpy;iy vd;wpUe;jhy; mg;NghJ mts; fUr;rpijT nra;J nfhs;s KbAkh? vd;why;> ,f;fl;lj;jpy; Njit vd;gjhdJ mDkjp ngw Ntz;Lk; vd;gjid kPwp epw;fpwJ. (,];yhj;jpd; topapy; ngz;fs; Rj;jk;. N\f; K`k;kJ gpd; ]hyp`; my; cijkPd;. jkpopy; v];.vk;.kd;#H> hpahj; j/th ika ntspaPL. nrsjp mNugpah.)

 

16. FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL gw;wp ,];yhkpa jPHg;G (FATWA)

nrsjp mNugpahtpd; jiyik K/g;jpahf ,Ue;j> N\f; gpd; gh]; mtHfs; toq;fpa khHf;fj; jPHg;G:

FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghLk; mjw;fhf kUe;Jfis cgNahfpg;gJk; ,];yhj;jpy; jil nra;ag;gl;lJ vd;gJ cykhf;fspd; VNfhgpj;j fUj;jhFk;. Vnddpy;> my;yh`{j;jMyh kdpj cw;gj;jpia mjpfg;gLj;jp> mJ %yk; kpfg; nghpa K];ypk; r%fj;ij ehb ,Uf;fpd;whd;.

NkYk; egp (]y;) mtHfs; ,t;thW $wpdhHfs;.

Foe;ijg; NgW cilatisAk;> ,d;ghditisAk; jpUkzk; nra;Aq;fs;. cq;fspypUe;J ntspg;gl;Nlhiuf; nfhz;L> kWik ehspy; cq;fis vOg;GNthk;. (,g;D `pg;ghd;> mj;jguhdp> m`;kj;)

,iwtid tzq;Ftjw;fhfTk;> mtDila topay; nry;tjw;fhfTk;> K];ypk;fisg; ghJfhf;fTk;> vjphpfspd; rjpfis Kwpabg;gjw;Fk; K];ypk; r%fkhdJ vz;zpf;ifapy; ngUf Ntz;ba mtrpakhf cs;sJ. Njit ,y;yhjgl;rj;jpy;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L jpl;lj;jpw;F cjTk; mj;jid fhuzpfisg; gad;gLj;JtjpypUe;J fz;bg;ghf jtpHe;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Njit ,Ug;gpd;> mJ rl;lg;gb (`uhk;) jilnra;ag;gl;ljy;y. cjhuzkhf> fHg;gk; jhpg;gjhy; mts; fHg;gg;ig ghjpf;fg;gLk; my;yJ NkYk; mts; fHg;gk; miltjhy;> mtsJ cly;epiy ghjpf;fg;gLk; vd;gJ ,Ue;jhy;> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij gad;gLj;JtJ jtwpy;iy. NkYk;> mjpff; Foe;ijfs; ,Ue;J> rkPgj;jpy; xU Foe;ijiag; ngw;W kPz;Lk; fHg;gkhdhy;> Foe;ijfs; guhkhpg;G Nghd;wtw;wpw;F rpukk; cz;lhFk; vdpy;> ,];yhj;jpy; ghY}l;l epHzapf;fg;gl;l fhyk; tiuapYk; mjhtJ xd;W my;yJ ,uz;L tUl msT tiuapYk;> mjd;gpd; vg;nghOJ mts; rpukk; jzpe;J kPz;Lk; Foe;ijg; Ngw;Wf;Fj; Njitahd jFjpiag; ngw;W tpLthNsh md;W tiu FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij (jw;fhypf fUj;jil Kiwfis)g; gad;glj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;. mJ jtpHj;J> jdJ nghWg;GfspypUe;J tpLgl;L Rje;jpukhf ,Uf;fTk; my;yJ Ntiy nra;tij vspjhf;fpf; nfhs;sTk; my;yJ Rfkhd tho;tpw;fhfTk; ,d;Dk; ,J Nghd;w fhuzq;fSf;fhfTk; ,d;W kf;fs; cgNahfg;gLj;JtJ Nghy cgNahfg;gLj;jJtjw;F mDkjp ,y;iy. (Islamic Fatwa Regarding Women Page, 163-164)

 

17. FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lf; vjpuhf Vida kjq;fSk;> mwpQHfSk;

fpwp];jtk; :

fpwp];jtHfspd; Ntjkhd iggpspy; Xzhzpd; ghtk; (sin of Onan). n[d]p]; 38:9 vd;w mjpfhuj;jpy; ,t;thW Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ.

Xzhd; vd;gtd; nfhy;yg;gl;lhd;. Vnddpy; mtd; mtDila tpe;ij ntspNa nfhl;bdhd;.(iggps;)

nghJthf fpwp];Jtj;jpYk;> A+j kjj;jpYk; tpe;ij tpiuakhf;FtJ xU jtwhd nrayhf Muk;g fhyj;jpy;i fUjg;gl;L te;jJ. Mdhy;> ngz;fs; rhg;gplf; $ba fUj;jil khj;jpiufs; te;jJk;> mtHfs; vz;zj;jpYk;> rpe;jidapYk; khw;wj;ij Vw;gLj;jpaJ. Vnddpy;> ngz;fs; rhg;gpLk; khj;jpiufs; MzpDila tpe;ij Neubahf ve;j tpjj;jpYk; ghjpg;gjpy;iy. (tpe;J tPhpakhfj; jhd; ,Uf;Fk;> fU Kl;il jdJ tPhpaj; jd;ikia> khj;jpiu cz;gjd; %yk; ,oe;J tpLfpwJ MH) D.M.Feldman, Birth Control in Jewish Law, (New York University Press, 1968). Chapter 13, An Oral Contraceptive PP.244-247).

1920 y; ele;j yhk;gj; khehl;by; (Lambeth Conference) y; ,aw;iff;F khw;wkhf> vjpuhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; midj;J fhuzpfSf;Fk; vjpuhd vr;rhpf;if mwpf;if ntspaplg;gl;lJ. mjd;gpd; 1930 Yk; mij mLj;J 1958 Yk; ele;j khehl;by; fztd;-kidtp ,Uthpd; rk;kjj;jpd; Nghpy;> mtHfSila rhpahd Ghpe;JzHT kw;Wk; Kbtpd;gb> jq;fSf;F ve;j FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;L Kiw rpwe;jNjh mijj; NjHe;njLj;Jf; nfhs;s mDkjp toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

1951 y; mf;NlhgH 29 y; Nghg; XII mtHfs; tha; nkhopahf ntspapl;l nra;jpapy;> Rhythm* Kiwia kl;Lk; fpwp];jtHfs; gad;gLj;JkhW Nfl;Lf; nfhz;lhH. (Norman Anderson, Issues of Life and Death (London : Hodder and Stoughton, 1976). 63-4, and Mussallam op.cit., 27). (Both are taken from Abul Fahd Mohsin Ebrahim, ABORTION, BIRTH CONTROL AND SURROGATE PARENTING).

* clYwtpd; cr;rf;fl;lj;jpy; tpe;ij ntspNa nfhl;b tpLtJ - ,];yhkpa Kiwg;gb ,jid m];y; vd;W miog;ghHfs;.

 

,e;J kjk; :

gfthd; = fpU\;zUf;F 16>008 kidtpaHfs; ,U;ejdH. kidtpf;F xU Foe;ij vDk; mbg;gilapy; ghHj;jhYk;> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij epidj;Nj ghHf;f KbahJ.

 

kfhghujj;jpy; ghz;ltHfspd; je;ij ghz;LTf;F 5 Foe;ijfs; (gQ;r ghz;ltHfs;). NkYk; midj;J nja;tq;fSk; gy jhukzk; Ghpe;jtHfshfTk; cs;sdH.

gpuhkz k`h rq;f; vd;w mikg;G> xt;nthU gpuhkz ,dj;jtUk; 6 Foe;ijfs; tPjk; ngw;nwLj;Jf; nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W mwpf;if ntspapl;ljhf 1991 mf;NlhgH khjk; jp `pe;J];jhd; gj;;jphpf;ifapy; ntspahd xU nra;jpapd; jiyg;G $WfpwJ.

MHv];v]; d; Njhw;wj;jpw;F fhuzkhd FUNfhy;thy;fH> `pe;Jf;fs; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL nra;J nfhs;tijf; fLikahd vjpHj;J te;Js;shH. NkYk;> mtH G+kpapy; gpwf;fpd;w midj;J Foe;ijfisAk; thq;fpf; nfhs;tjw;F chpa NghJkhd tprhykhd ,l trjpfs; G+kpf;F ,Uf;fpwJ vd;gij ehd; KOikahf ek;GfpNwd; vd;whH.

NkYk;> czT nfhLj;J tsHf;f Kbatpy;iy vd;w xU fhuzj;jpw;fhf xU kdpjd; jd; FLk;gj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;j Kay;tJ r%fj;jpy; epytp tUk; tof;fkhd nrayhFk;. ,jw;fhd jPHT FLk;gj;jpd; gpwg;G tpfpjj;ijf; Fiwg;gjy;y. khwhf> mtUf;F Ntiytha;g;G toq;FtjhFk;.

NkYk; 1967 k; tUlk; murpd; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijf; fLikahf tpkHrpj;j Nfhy;thy;f;fH gpd;tUkhW Fwpg;gpl;lhH.

,j;jpl;lk; eilngw Ntz;Lnkdpy;> FLk;gj;ijf; fl;Lg;gLj;JtJld;> gpwe;J tpl;l Foe;ijfspd; MNuhf;akhd> rfytpj tsHr;rpf;Fj; Njitahd midj;J cjtpfisAk; muNr nra;J ju Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy;> ,j; jpl;lj;ijf; nfhz;L tuNtapy;iy. NkYk;> murpd; kf;fs; njhiff; fzf;nfLg;G jUk; mwpf;ifiag; ghHf;fpd;w NghJ> [dj; njhif mjpfhpg;G Fwpj;J muR nfhs;Sk; mr;rk; mHj;jkw;wjhfNt njhpfpwJ.

xU Kiw yf;Ndhtpy; eilngw;w FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghL Fwpj;j fUj;juq;fnkhd;wpy; fye;J nfhz;lhH Rg;ukzpa Rthkp. mtH Mw;wpa nrhw;nghopT 1971 etk;gH khjk; 13 k; Njjp MHfid]H (MHv];v];-d; mjpfhug;G+Ht Mq;fpy khj ,jo;) ,jopy; ntspahfp ,Ue;jJ. md;W ,e;j Rg;ukzparhkp> MHv];v]; ghrp] ,af;fj;jpd; jPtpu cWg;gpduhf ,Ue;jhH vd;gij ehk; epidtpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

FLk;gf; fl;LghL nra;J nfhs;tJ> ehl;by; nghUshjhu tsHr;rpia kpf Nkhrkhd tpisTfspd; ghy;> ,l;Lr; nry;Yk;. NkYk; ,j; jpl;lk; Mq;fpNyahpd; rjpj; jpl;lkhFk; vd;Wk; Fwpg;gpl;lhH.

mwptpay; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpw;Fk; mjd; mjPj tsHr;rpf;Fk; fhuzk; mjpf kf;fs; rf;jpapd; ciog;G> Kaw;rpAk; MFk;. Fiwe;j kf;fshy;> tsHr;rpg; gzpfSf;Fk;> Nkk;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fSf;Fk; cjt KbAnkdpy;> mijtpl mjpf kf;fs; ,Ug;gpd; mtHfshYk; midj;Jj; JiwfspYk; tsHr;rpf;fhd cjtpfisr; nra;a KbAky;yth? vd;W Nfl;l mtH njhlHe;J> [dj; njhifg; ngUf;fKk;> nghUshjhu tsHr;rpAk; xNu ghijapy; rhprkkhf tsHr;rpaile;J cs;sJ vd;gJ fle;j fhy tuyhwhFk;. ,t;thW Rg;ukzpaRthkp NgrpAs;shH. (MHfid]H : 13-11-1971)

1971 Mf];L 21 y; MHfid]H ,jopy; fhfh G+\hz;b vd;w gj;jphpf;ifahsH FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; gw;wp xU fl;Liu vOjp ,Ue;jhH. mjd; jiyg;Ng..> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL gw;wp mope;j ehLfs; vd;gjhFk;.

Foe;ijfs; gpwg;igf; fl;Lg;gLj;jpa vj;jidNah ehLfs;> mopitj; jOtpAs;sd. Mdhy;> Foe;ijfs; ngUf;fj;jhy;> ,Jtiu ve;j ehLk; mope;J Nghdjhf tuyhW ,y;iy vd;W thjhLfpwhH.

rq;f; ghpthH mikg;gpd; gpur;rhu gPuq;fp vd;wwpag;gLk; gp\d; ];t&g; Nfhay; vd;gtH> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL `pe;J rKjhaj;jpw;nfjpuhd khngUk; rjpj; jpl;lkhFk; vd;W jiyg;gpy; xU Jz;L gpuRuNk ntspapl;bUe;jhH.

,e;Jf;fNs! ,e;Jf;fNs! murpd; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpy; tpOe;J tplhjPH vd;w jPHkhdj;jpd; %yk; 1974 Nk khjk; eilngw;w `pe;J uh\;l;uh jsk; mikg;gpdH `pe;Jf;fNs vr;rhpj;jdH (ed;wp : fhLthA+H [mgH ]hjpf; ghftp> MSA fy;Y}hp - J}j;Jf;Fb - FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghLk; rq;f; ghpthuKk; - cq;fs; J}Jtd; khj ,jo; 5 Mf];L 1997. gf; 4-7)

 

18. FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL - K];ypk;fSf;nfjpuhd rjpNa!

,J tiu FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lq;fSk;> mjdhy; vOe;j r%f mtyq;fisAk; fz;Nlhk;. FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij vjw;fhf mky;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhf FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuTthjpfs; vLj;j itj;j jtwhd rpj;jhe;jq;fshd tho;thjhuk; ghjpf;fg;gLk;> czTg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk;> nghUshjhu neUf;fb Vw;gLk;> ,l neUf;fb Vw;gLk; vd;gJ Nghd;w mtHfs; njhptpj;j fhuzq;fSf;F epjHrzkhd cz;ikfis> Gs;sptpgug;gb vLj;Jf;fhl;b> mtHfsJ thjq;fs; jtwhdit vdr; Rl;bf; fhl;b cs;Nshk;.

mj;Jld; ,];yhk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj;jpl;lj;Jf;F vjpuhdJ!? vd;w fUj;jpidj; jfHf;Fk; tifapy;> ,];yhk; vt;thW jd;Dila xt;nthU tho;tpay; eilKiwapYk; FHMidAk;> egp (]y;) mtHfspd; eilKiwfisAk; Kd;Djhuzkhff; nfhz;L nray;gLfpwNjh mJ Nghy FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL vd;w tUk;NghJ> ,];yhj;jpw;Nf chpa jdpj;Jtkhd nfhs;if kw;Wk; tpjpfSld; $ba FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij kl;Lk; Mjhpf;fpwJ vd;w cz;ikfis typAWj;jpf; fhl;bAs;Nshk;.

NkYk; ,d;iwa FLk;gf; fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lkhdJ nghUshjhu Nehf;fk; nfhz;lJ. mjdhy;; mjpy; Md;kPfj;jpw;F Ntiy ,y;iy. mjdhy; jhd; ,d;W mf; nfhs;ifiaf; filgpbj;j ehLfs;> mf; nfhs;ifiaf; Fop Njhz;bg; Gijf;f ehLfpd;wd. mj;jid nghpa rPuopTfis me;j ehLfspy; ,j;jpl;lk; Vw;gLj;jp cs;sJ vdyhk;. vdNt> ,];yhkhdJ jdJ tprhykhd mUl;nfhilr; rl;lq;fs; %yk; mj;jifa rPuopTfis Vw;gLj;jhj> gpd;tpisT Vw;gLj;jhj ,aw;ifahdnjhU mUikahd jPHit Kd; itf;fpwJ. mNj Ntisapy;> kf;fis NeHtopg;gLj;jj; Njitahd Md;kPfr; rl;lq;fisAk; ,jD}Nl toq;Ftjhy;> ,d;W fpof;fpYk;> Nkw;fpYk; Vw;gl;Ls;s Md;kPf ntw;wplj;ijAk; ePf;f kUj;Jtk; nra;fpwJ.

Nkw;fz;l FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij mLj;J> ,iwtd; ,aw;ifahd fhuzpfisf; nfhz;Lk; kdpj ,d tsHr;rpiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jpNa te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;whd;. mjhtJ ,aw;ifr; rhTfs;> Neha;fs;> gQ;rk;> tWik> Gay;> kio> nts;sk;> G+fk;gk;> fhw;W> NghHfs; Nghd;wtw;wpd; fhuzkhfTk; kdpj ,dk; Fwpg;gpl;l msT mope;Nj te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ vdyhk;.

,q;Nf gQ;rk;> tWik vd;W ehk; Fwpg;gpLtijf; fhl;b> mjw;Fj; jhNd ehq;fs; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij typAWj;Jfpd;Nwhk; vd;w Nfs;tpiaj; njhLf;fyhk;. Mdhy;> cyfyhtpa mstpy; ,];yhkpar; rl;lq;fis mKy;gLj;Jk; NghJ mq;Nf> Njr tiuglq;fs; Njit ,y;yhjnjhd;whfp tpLk;. vy;iyfs; mopf;fg;gLk;. ,d> nkhop> epw> Fy Ngjq;fs; Kw;whf Jilj;njwpag;gLk;. mq;F ahJk; CNu ahtUk; NfspH vd;w jj;Jtj;Jld; $ba cz;ikahd rkj;JtGuk; epWtg;gLk;. cyfk; KOtJk; xNu ,];yhkpa fyp/ghtpd; fPo; Ml;rp eilngWk; NghJ> Nuhl;by; njhpAk; eha; $l grpahy; rhFk;epiy vd;gJ mq;Nf ,uhJ.

,];yhkpa rkj;JtGuj;jpy; mjD}Nl [fhj; Kiw Ngzg;gLk; NghJ> nghUshjhuk; xNu ,lj;jpy; Ftptijj; jil nra;Ak; mNj Ntisapy; nghUshjhug; gq;fPL rk mstpy; nfhz;L tug;gLk;. jkpoff; Foe;ijfs; ghYf;F Vq;Fk; NghJ> k`huh\;buh muR vQ;rpa ghiyf; flypy; nfhl;Lk; mtyk; tuhJ. cyfshtpa mstpy;> vj;jpNahj;jpg;gpah ehL gQ;rj;jhy; thbf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ> mnkhpf;fhtpYk;> mHn[d;bdhtpYk; vQ;rpa NfhJikia flypy; nfhl;bAk;> mopj;Jk; ehrk; nra;Ak; mtyk; eilngWfpwJ. Vnddpy;> cyfshtpa K];ypk; rKjhaj;jpy; Njr vy;iyfSk;> khepy vy;iyfSk;> epwq;fSk;> nkhopfSk;> ,dq;fSk; Ngjg;gl;L epw;fhky;> K];ypk; vd;w ,];yhj;jpd; jj;Jtj;jpy; Nkw;fz;litfs; mope;J> cyfyhtpa rNfhjuj;Jtk; fhzg;gLk;. mj;jifa ,];yhkpa Ml;rpapd; %yk; jhd; gQ;rk;> tWik> kw;Wk; r%f Neha;fis Kw;whf xopf;f KbAk;.

NkYk;> khy;j;j]; md;W $wpaJ Nghy; czT cw;gj;jpahdJ 1>2>3>4>5>6.. .. .. vd;w mstpYk; kf;fs; njhifahdJ 1>2>4>16>32>.. .. tpfpjj;jpYk; nry;tjhy;> czTg; gw;whf;Fiw ,lg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;whH. Mdhy; ,d;W elg;gJ vd;d? 1950 y; 361.1 kpy;ypadhf ,Ue;j kf;fs; njhif ,d;W 1 gpy;ypaid neUq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j msT $bAk;> ,e;jpah ,lg;gw;whf;Fiwahy; tpop gpJq;fplTk; ,y;iy. czTg; gw;whf;Fiwahy; gl;bdpr; rhTfSk; eilngwtpy;iy. khwhf> vypAk;> G+r;rpAk;> ghJfhf;f trjpAk; ,y;yhky; mope;jJ Nghf> ,d;Dk; xU tUlk; gQ;rkhdhYk;> czTf; ifapUg;ig itj;J rkhspf;ff KbAk; vd;w epiy Vw;gl;Ls;sNj! Mf! khy;j;j]; - d; thjq;fs; ngha;ahdit vd;gJ ep&gzkhfp tpl;ljy;yth!?

NkYk;> nghUshjhug; ghjpg;G tUk; vd;W ,e;jf; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;L MjuTthjpfs; $f;FuypLfpd;whHfs;. ,d;iwa ehLfs; ngw;Ws;s nghUshjhuk;> tho;f;if trjpfs; vq;Nf ,Ue;J te;jd. gpwf;Fk; NghNj ifAld; mtHfs; nfhz;L te;jhHfsh? ,iwtd;> kdpjid vd;W ,g;G+kpapy; cyt tpl;lhNdh md;wpypUe;J ,d;Wtiu mJ jd; tsj;ij ,iwtd; fUizapdhy; thhp toq;fpf; nfhz;bUf;fpwJ. New;W tiu Vio ehlhf ,Ue;j ,e;jpah> ,d;W cyfpd; tsHe;j ehLfspd; gl;baypy;> kpfg; ngUk; [hk;gthd;fSf;Fg; gf;fj;jpy; 6 tJ ,lj;ij Nehf;fpr; nrd;W nfhz;bUf;fpwNj! ,e;j khw;wk; vt;thW epfo;e;jJ. rpe;jpf;f Ntz;Lk;!

tsUk; [dj; njhif vd;gJ mjpfhpf;Fk; cw;gj;jpahsHfisAk;> EfHNthiuAk; Fwpf;Fk;. vt;thnudpy;> tsUk; kf;fs; njhiff;F Vw;g cw;gj;jpg; ngUf;fk; Njit. me;j cw;gj;jpg; ngUf;fj;jpw;F ciog;G> tplh Kaw;rp kw;Wk; tsUk; [dj; njhiff;F Vw;g mtHfspd; Njitia epiwNtw;Wk; nghUl;L> mtw;iw miltjw;fhd ce;Jjy;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; gadhf Gjpa Gjpa tpQ;Qhdj; njhopy; El;g Kiwfs; Nghd;w fz;Lgpbg;Gfis fz;Lgpbf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w epHg;ge;jj;ij Vw;gLj;jp> Gjpa Kiw cw;gj;jpiaAk;> cw;gj;jpahsHfisAk; ntspf; nfhzu itj;jJ. kdpjdpd; Njitapd; tphpthf;fk; jhd; ,d;iwa tpQ;Qhd njhopy; rhjdq;fSk; kw;Wk; FWfpa fhy czT cw;gj;jpAk; vd;gij ahUk; kWf;ftpayhJ. NkYk;> kf;fs; njhif tsu tsu EfHNthH vz;zpf;ifAk; NrHe;Nj tsUfpd;wd. EfHNthH ngUfg; ngUf cw;gj;jpf; $lq;fs; mjpfhpf;Fk;. cw;gj;jpf; $lq;fs; mjpfhpf;f Ntiytha;g;G mjpfhpf;Fk;. Ntiytha;g;G ngUfg; ngUf> Ntiy ,y;yhj; jpz;lhl;lk; xope;J> kf;fs; jd;dpiwTld; thOk; epiy Vw;gLk;. mNj Ntis ehLk; nghUshjhuj;jpy; Kd;NdWk;. NkYk;> ,d;iwa nghUshjhu epGzHfspd; Gjpa Ma;Tg;gb> kf;fspd; thq;Fk; rf;jpiaf; nfhz;L me;ehl;bd; nghUshjhu tsk; epHzapf;fg;gLfpwJ. mjd;gb> ,d;iwa ruhrhp ,e;jpahtpd; jdp egH tUkhdk; 1250 lhyuhf caHe;Js;sJ. ,e;j msthdJ INuhg;gpa ehLfSld; ,izahd msthf ,Uf;fpwJ. ,e;j Kd;Ndw;wj;ij ,e;jpahthy; vt;thW mila Kbe;jJ.

NkYk;> ,d;iwa gphpl;ldpd; ruhrhp jdpegH tUkhdk; Fiwe;Js;sJ. Vd;? Fiwe;J tUk; gpwg;G tpfpjKk;> mjpfhpj;J tUk; KjpNahHfSk; jhd; fhuzkhFk;. fle;j 50 Mz;Lfspy; vd;Wk; ,y;yhj msT gphpl;ld; KjpNahHfshYk;> NehahspfshYk; mtjpg;gl;L tUfpwJ. 1998 y; mWitr; rpfpr;irf;fhf kl;Lk; 1 kpy;ypaDf;Fk; mjpfkhNdhH 18 khjq;fSf;Fk; Nkyhff; fhj;Jf; fple;jpUf;fpd;whHfs;. ,tw;iwr; rkhspf;f ,d;W xJf;fg;gLk; epjpia tpl 1 gpy;ypad; gTz;l; epjpia mjpfkhf 1998 gl;n[l;by; xJf;f KbT nra;jpUe;jJ gphpl;b\; muR. mtHfs; ,jw;F vd;d jhd; fuhzk; nrhd;dhYk;> mjd; Kf;fpa fhuzk; r%f khw;wKk;> mjDld; vOe;j Fiwe;j gpwg;G tpfpjKk; MFk;. Mf gpwg;G tpfpjf; FiwTk;> KjpNahH vz;zpf;if mjpfhpg;gJk; nghUshjhug; gpd;dilitj; jhd; Vw;gLj;Jk;.

NkYk;> Nkiy ehLfspy; gpwg;G tpfpjk; Fiwaf; Fiwa> EfHNthH vz;zpf;ifAk; mNj mstpy; Fiwe;J nfhz;L tUtjhy;> tsHe;j ehLfspy; cs;s tpahghuf; fk;ngdpfs; EfHNthH mjpfk; cs;s ,e;jpah> rPdh> jha;yhe;J> ,e;NjhNd\pah> gpypg;igd;]; Nghd;w ehLfis Nehf;fp gilnaLf;f Muk;gpj;Js;sd. NkYk;> ,d;W Nkiy ehLfspy; Ntiy ,y;yhj; jpz;lhl;lKk; rpWfr; rpWf mjpfhpj;Nj te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. Vd; ,e;j Nkiy ehl;L epWtdq;fs; ,e;jpah Nghd;w ehLfis Nehf;fpg; gilnaLf;fpd;wd> ,jd; fhuzk;> kf;fspd; thq;Fk; rf;jp. vdNt> kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpahdJ> nghUshjhu tsj;Jf;F cuk; NrHf;FNk xopa> Fop Njhz;lhJ vd;gJ epjHrdkhd cz;ikahFk;.

NkYk;> ,e;jpahtpYk; rhp> cynfq;fpYk; rhp mjpf kf;fs; njhif kl;Lk; jhd; nghUshjhug; gpur;idf;Ff; fhuzk; vd;W $wp tpl KbahJ. ,d;iwa cyfpy;> rpdpkh> kJ> Nghij> rpfpnul;> tpsk;guq;fs;> gl;lhR ntbfs;> ,uhZtj; jsthlq;fs;> tpgr;rhuk; Nghd;wtw;wpy; tpiuakhf;fg;gLk; gzj;ij rKjha tsHr;rpf;Fk;> kf;fs; eyg; gzpj; jpl;lq;fSf;Fk; nrytopj;jhNy NghJk;> ,d;iwa ,e;jpah vd;d?! midj;J ehLfspd; nghUshjhug; gpur;idfisAk; vspjpy; rkhspj;J tplyhk;.

cyfpy; nghUshjhuk; vt;thW tPzbf;fg;gLfpwJ vd;gij Adpnr/g; epWtdk; elj;jpa Ma;T ,t;thW njhptpf;fpwJ.

Nfhy;/g; tpisahl;bw;F 40 gpy;ypad; lhyH

kJ> gPH tiffSf;F 245 gpy;ypad; lhyH

rpfpnul;bw;F 400 gpy;ypad; lhyH

tpsk;guq;fSf;F 250 gpy;ypad; lhyH

,uhZtj;jpw;F 800 gpy;ypad; lhyH

,jw;F khwhf 1735 gpy;ypad; lhyH

Foe;ij eyk;> rj;JzT 13 gpy;ypad; lhyH

Muk;gf; fy;tp 06 gpy;ypad; lhyH

J}a;ikahd FbePUf;F 09 gpy;ypad; lhyH

nkhj;jk; 28 gpy;ypad; lhyH

- ed;wp rkurk; : nrg; 16-30> 1996.

Adpnrg; epWtdk; rhk;gpshfr; Rl;bf; fhl;Lk; Nfhy;/g; tpisahl;bw;F kl;Lk; 40 gpy;ypad; vdpy; kw;w fhy;ge;J> $ilg;ge;J> fphpf;nfl;> mnkhpf;fd; fhy;ge;J> uf;gp Nghd;w tpisahl;Lf;fSf;Fk; ,d;Dk; vz;zw;w nghOJ Nghf;F mk;rkhff; fUjg;gLk; rpdpkh Nghd;w mehr;rhuq;fSf;Fr; nrytplg;gLk; njhifiaf; fzf;fpl;lhy;> ghohFk; nghUshjhuk; gw;wpa cz;ik epiyia mwpa KbAk;.

NkYk; 1735 gpy;ypad; lhyH tpiuakhFk; mNj Neuj;jpy;> r%f tsHr;rpg; gzpfSf;fhf cyfkhdJ ntWk; 28 gpy;ypad; lhyH kl;LNk nryT nra;fpd;wJ. Mf> rhpahf jpl;lkply; ,y;yhky; Fwfpa Nehf;fpy; kdpjd; jd; tho;it mikj;Jf; nfhz;L tUtij czuyhk;.

NkYk;> Nkw;fz;l Jiwfs; kf;fspd; tpUg;gkhd [duQ;rfkhd kw;Wk; nghOJ Nghf;Fj; Jiwfshf ,Ug;gjhy;> mtw;wpy; tPzbf;fg;gLk; nghUshjhuk; kf;fs; fz;fSf;Fj; njhptjpy;iy. Mdhy;> kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpapy; nghUshjhuk; ghjpf;fg;gLk; vd;w twl;Lj; jj;Jtk; kl;Lk; G+jfukhfj; njhptJ Vd;? Vnddpy;> %isr; ryit nra;ag;gl;L> kOq;fbf;fg;gl;l> kyl;Lj; jdk; nfhz;l kf;fshf kf;fs; ,Ug;gjhy;> Ra rpe;jidapd;wp> jq;fsJ tpiuthd mtrukhd tho;f;if Xl;lj;jpy; rpe;jpf;fj; jpuhzpaw;wtHfsha;> gj;jphpf;iffshTk;> mtHfshy; mwpT[Ptp?fs; vd Kj;jpiu Fj;jg;gl;NlhH nrhy;tnjy;yhk; Ntj thf;F vd;w epiyia kf;fs; kdjpy; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;L> mtHfsJ rpe;jdh rf;jp kOq;fbf;fg;gl;bUg;gNj ,jd; fhuzkhFk;.

NkYk;> ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vd;gnjy;yhk; ntWk; fw;gidNaad;wp Ntwpy;iy vd;gij ,dp tUk; jiyg;Gfspy; ehk; ep&gpf;ff; fhj;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;. ,d;\h my;yh`;!

,iwtd; jd; mUl;nfhil %yk; mUikahd jpl;lk; %yk; kf;fs; njhif tsHr;rpiaf; fl;Lg;gLj;jpNa te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;whd;. xU Kiw kdpjd; ntspapLk; tpe;jpy; 220 kpy;ypad; Kjy; 500 kpy;ypd; tpe;jZ (Spermatozoa) f;fs; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jpy; xd;Nw xd;W jhd; fUKl;ilia rpidj;jhpf;fg; gad;gLfpd;wJ. NkYk;> gUtkhd ngz;zplk; RkhH 4 yl;rk; tsHr;rpailahj fUKl;ilfs; ,Uf;Fk;. ,jpy; xt;nthU khjtplhapd; NghJ xU fU Kl;il jhd; rpidf;Fj; jahuhfp tUk;. ngz;zpd; tho;ehspy; mtsJ gUt taij Njhuhakhf 12-48 vd itj;Jf; nfhz;Nlhk; vdpy;> nkhj;jk; 430 Kl;ilfs; kl;LNk ntspaplg;gLfpd;wd. ,jpy; rhpahd jUzj;jpy; tpe;JTk;> fU Kl;ilAk; re;jpg;gJ vd;gJ kpfTk; Fiwthd re;jHg;gj;jpy; jhd; epfOfpd;wJ. khjtplha;f;F Kd; cs;s 14 ehs; tiu fU Kl;ilahdJ fUTWjYf;fhfj; jd;idj; jahHgLj;jpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;Fk;. mJ jahuhfp> fUTWjYf;fhfd mtfhrk; vd;gJ> 24 kzp Neu fhyj;jpy; tpe;jZ re;jpf;Fk; NghJ jhd; epfOfpd;wJ. NkYk; ngz;zpd; gUt tajpy; ntspaplg;gLk; 430 rpid Kl;ilfSk; fUTWjYf;F Vw;wit jhd; ,Ug;gpDk;> mts; jd; tho;ehspy; mjpfg;gl;rk; 16 Foe;ijfs; Kjy; 20 Foe;ijfs; ngwyhk;. Mdhy;> ,t;tsT Foe;ijfisg; ngWNthiu mhpjhfNt fhz KbAk;. ,d;W FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL jpl;lj;ij mwNt filgpbf;fhj FLk;gq;fspy; 608 gps;isfSf;F Nky; fhz KbahJ. vdNt> ,JTk; xU ,aw;ifNahL ,ize;j FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lk; jhd;.

NkYk;> kdpjHfspy;> jk;gjpfspy; nghJthf kyl;Lj; jdk; vd;gJ 10 rjtPjk; msT fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. NkYk;> Foe;ijg; NgW ,y;yhikf;F Mz;fs; jhd; 40 rjtPj fhuzfHj;jhf;fshf cs;sdH. kPjp cs;stw;wpw;F ,UtUk; nghJthd fhuzfHj;jhf;fshf ,Uf;fpd;wdH.

(Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment – Gynecology and Obstetrics. Chap. Infertility By Alan J. Margolis MD., Sadja Green Wood MD, And Ralph c. Benson.MD)

Mf> FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ijf; filgpbf;fhkNyNa ,aw;ifapd; %yk; ,iwtNd kdpj ,d tsHr;rpia fl;Lg;gLj;jpNa te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;whd; vdyhk;.

NkYk;> ,d;W ,e;jpahit vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> ,e;J kjj; jPtputhjpfs; K];ypk;fSf;nfjpuhd thjg; nghUshf FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij Kd; itf;fpd;whHfs;. mjhtJ> Njr eyd; nghUl;L K];ypk;fs; Vd; FLk;gf;fl;Lghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;jf; $lhJ vd;fpwhHfs;. cj;jpug;gpuNjr ghujPa [djh mikr;rH 57 kidtpfisj; jpUkzk; nra;jpUg;gJ> mJ gpN[gp vd;gJ flTspd; mtjhuf; fhl;rp vd;W $wg;gLfpd;wJ. mNj Ntisapy; K];ypk;fSf;F 4 kidtpfs; tiu jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;syhk; vd;w jpUkiwapd; mDkjpf;F> ngz;fSf;F vjpuhd nfhLikahfr; rpj;jphpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

Kd; jiyg;Gfspy; ,e;J kjf; FLk;gf;fl;LghL gw;wp vd;d $Wfpd;wJ vd;w jiyg;gpy; MHv];v]; d; ];jhgfH FUNfhy;thy;fH kw;Wk; MHv];v]; gpur;rhufH fhfh G+\hz;b> Kd;dhs; MHv];v]; kw;Wk; ,e;ehs; [djh jsj; jiytH Rg;ukzpa Rthkp MfpNahuJ fUj;Jf;fSk;> gpuhkz kfhrigapd; jPHkhdq;fSk; FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;jpw;F vjpuhfNt ,Uf;ff; fz;Nlhk;. ,tHfs; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;lhk; vd ,e;Jf;fis vr;rhpf;if nra;jpUf;Fk; NghJ> K];ypk;fis kl;Lk; FLk;gf; fl;Lg;ghL nra;J nfhs;sj; J}z;LtNjd;?

xU fz;zpy; ntz;izAk;> ,d;ndhU fz;zpy; Rz;zhk;Gkh? ,J jhd; ,e;Jj;Jthtpd; Njrpaf; nfhs;ifah? ehl;by; 80 rjk; ,Uf;Fk; ,e;Jf;fs; ngUf Ntz;Lk;> 15 rjtPjk; ,Uf;Fk; K];ypk;fs; mopa Ntz;Lkh? ,tHfs; my;yth ,e;jpahtpd; eyd; tpUk;gpfs;?!

ghgH k#jp ,bg;gpd; %yk; ,;e;jpahitAk;> ,e;jpa [dehafj;ijAk;> ,e;jpa kjr;rhHgpd;ikj; jj;Jtj;ijAk; Fop Njhz;bg; Gijj;jtHfs; my;yth ,tHfs;! md;W m`pk;irg; Gwhitf; nfhd;whHfs;. ,d;W cyfr; rkhjhdj; J}jdhd ,];yhj;ijAk;> mijg; gpd;gw;Wk; K];ypk;fisAk; mopf;fg;ghHf;fpd;whHfs;. ,tHfs; my;yth kdpj ,d ey MHtyHfs;? nkhj;j Kuz;ghLfspd; cUtk; my;yth ,e;j ,e;Jj;JthTk; mjd; NrtfHfSk;! md;wpypUe;J ,d;Wtiu Njr eyd; fhg;gjpy; K];ypk;fSf;F <lhf vtUk; jpahfj;ijr; nra;J tpltpy;iy. vy;yh rKjhaKk; jpahfk; nra;jpUe;jhYk;> K];ypk;fs; jq;fsJ rjtPjj;jpw;F NkNyNa jpahfk; nra;jhHfs; vd;gij tuyhW ,d;Wk; ep&gpj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ.

nghJthf 16 k; E}w;whz;bypUe;J mwptpay; mwpQHfSf;Fk; kjj; jj;Jtq;fSf;Fk; ,ilNa xU nfhs;ifg; NghH ele;J te;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ. jq;fs; Guhzf; fl;Lf;fijfSf;F vjpuhf> mwptpay; nfhs;iffs; mikAk; NghJ> mj;jifa nfhs;iffisAk;> mwpQHfisAk; vjpHf;fj; Jzpe;j kjthjpfs; rpy rkaq;fspy; fypypNah Nghd;Nwhiuf; nfhd;wJ Nghy;> nfhiyAk; nra;J te;jdH. mj;jifa Gul;L thj> tho;tpaYf;F xj;Jtuhj kjj; jj;Jtq;fspd; thpirapy; ,];yhj;ijAk;> mjd; rl;lq;fisAk; ,d;iwa mwptpay; cyfk; ,izj;Jg; ghHj;Nj te;jJ jhd; JujpU\;lkhdJ. Mdhy;> ,d;iwa mwptpay; cyfkhdJ> ,];yhj;jpd; nfhs;iffs; jdpj;Jtk; tha;e;jJ> mwptpaYld; mjd; ep&gzkhd Nfhl;ghl;Lld; ,iae;J Nghff; $ba khHf;fk; vd;w cz;ikia czHe;J tUfpwJ. mwptpay; cz;ikfSf;Fk; FHMdpa jj;Jtq;fSf;Fk; xU rpwpa khWghl;ilf; $l fhztpayhj mwptpayhsHfs; gyH ,];yhj;ij Vw;Wf; nfhz;L tUk; epfo;thdJ> Vida kj thjpfSf;F vhpr;riy cz;L gz;zpAs;sJ. jq;fs; Guhzf; fijfSf;Fk;> ,];yhj;jpd; G+uzj;Jtf; nfhs;iffSf;Fk; ,ilNa fUj;Jg; ghpkhw;wk; nra;J Ghpe;JzHit Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tij tpl;L tpl;L> ,];yhj;jpd; kPJk;> mjd; nfhs;iffs; kPJk; NghH njhLj;Jg; ghHj;jdH. vy;yhk; Kid Kwpe;j mk;Gfshf Njhw;W tpOe;jd. ,dp ,J Nghd;w MAjq;fshy; ,];yhj;ij vJTk; nra;J tpl KbahJ vd;w vz;zj;jpy; Gjpjhf Njrpa eyd; vd;w Gjpa Nfhl;ghl;bd;gb> FLk;gf;fl;Lg;ghl;Lj; jpl;lj;ij K];ypk;fs; kPJ typaj; jpzpf;fg; ghHf;fpd;whHfs;. mtHfsJ ,e;jf; nfhs;ifj; jpzpg;igAk; mjd; jpl;lq;fisAk; jfHg;gNj ,e;j Gj;jfj;jpd; gpujhd Nehf;fkhFk;.

NkNy ehk; nfhLj;Js;s jfty;fs;> mtHfs; rhHe;jpUf;Fk; Guhzg; Gul;Lf; fijfspypUe;J vLj;jitfs; my;y. khwhf> nra;jp Clfq;fspypUe;Jk;> mwpQH ngUkf;fspd; Ma;TfspypUe;Jk; jpul;lg;gl;lit.

NkYk;> mths;fs; mtHfsJ Guhzj;jpd; kPJ ek;gpf;if ,oe;jpUf;fyhk;. mjpy; epahakpUf;fpwJ. Mdhy; mijNa K];ypk;fsplk; vjpHghHg;gJ ey;yjy;yNt. Vnddpy; K];ypk;fshfpa ehq;fs; gw;wpg; gpbj;jpUg;gJ> Vf ,iwNahdhfpa my;yh`;tpd; jpUkiw vDk; mWe;J tplhj fapw;iw my;yth!! me;j my;yh`;tpd; kPjy;yth G+uz ek;gpf;if nfhz;bUf;fpd;Nwhk;.

Vnddpy;>

thdq;fspYk; G+kpapYk; mt;tpuz;bw;Fk; ,ilapYk; cs;s mj;jidAk; my;yh`;Tf;Nf chpadthFk;. (20:6)

me;j>

my;yh`; jhd; cq;fisg; gilj;jtd;> mtNd czT toq;Ffpd;whd; (30:40)

vd;w Md;kPf ek;gpf;ifiag; ngw;wtHfs; K];ypk;fshfpa ehq;fs;> nghUshjhuk; ghjpf;Fk;> tho;thjhuk; ghjpf;Fk; ,l neUf;fb Vw;gLk;> czTg; gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gLk; vdg; gag;gl Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy. mjw;fhd NjitAk; ,y;iy.

mtDila gilg;Gfspy; K];ypk;fs; my;yhjhufpa ePq;fSk; xUtH jhd;. cq;fSf;Fk; mtNd czitAk; tho;thjhuj;ijAk; toq;Ffpd;whd; vd;w ek;gpf;ifiag; ngw;Wtpl;Bhfshdhy;> ePq;fSk; ,];yhkpa ek;gpf;ifia mjd; Ritia Ritj;jtHfs; MtPHfs;. mJ NghyNt ,t;TyfpYk;> kW cyfpYk; ntw;wp ngWtNjhL> mjd; fdg; nghOJ Kjy; r%f mikjpiaAk;> r%f ePjpiaAk; ngw;W tplyhk;!! ,iwtd; ehbdhy;!!!

my;`k;Jypy;yh`;!! vy;yhg; GfOk; Vf ,iwNahdhfpa my;yh`;Tf;Nf!!

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