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Nejh[p ,uhZtj;jpy; K];ypk;fs;

nr.jpthd;


murpay; jPHf;fjhprp> mQ;rhj NghHtPuH> fHkNahfp Nejh[p. ''fhHiyy;"" vOjpa 'gpuQ;Rg; Gul;rp" iag; Nghy;> ePz;L tphpe;J gue;J fplf;fpd;w ,e;jpa jpUehl;bd; neba tuyhw;wpy; Nejh[papd; ,e;jpa Rje;jpug; Gul;rpia vOjpl KOikahf ,J tiuapYk; ahUk; Kd;tutpy;iy.

ghujj; jpUehl;by; Rje;jpu Nts;tpia elj;jpatHfspy; Nejh[pf;F ,izahd tPuj;jpUkfid rhpj;jpuj;jpy; re;jpg;gJ mwpjpDk; mhpJ.

jd;Ndhpy;yhj jiytH :

,e;jpa tpLjiyg; Nghhpd; jd;Ndhpy;yhj jiytuhfj; jpfo;e;j Nejh[p Rgh]; re;jpu Ngh]; tq;fj;jpy; [hdfpehj; Ngh]; - gpughtjp Njtp jk;gjpaUf;F xd;gjhtJ Foe;ijahfg; gpwe;jtH. (23-01-1897)

1913 ,y; fy;fj;jhtpNyNa gbg;gpidj; Jtq;fpa Nejh[p ,yz;ld; nrd;whH. I.rp.v];. gbg;gpy; NjwpdhH. Rje;jpug; Nghhpy; gq;Nfw;wpl gl;lg; gbg;igj; J}f;fp vwpe;jhH. 1927 y; nrd;idapy; $ba mfpy ,e;jpa fhq;fpu]; rigapd; nghJr; nrayhsuhfg; gzpahw;wpdhH. 1938 y; `hpGuh fhq;fpu]py; jiytuhdhH. 1939y; jphpGuh fhq;fpu]py; fhe;jpabfspd; vjpHg;igAk; kPwp mfpy ,e;jpa fhq;fpu]; jiytuhdhH. cl;fl;rpf; Fog;gj;jhy; kdk; tUj;jKw;W gjtpia tpl;L tpyfpdhH. ahUf;Fk; njhpahky; ,e;jpahit tpl;L jiykiwthdhH. n[Hkdpapy; `pl;yiur; re;jpj;jhH. Nlhf;fpNah nrd;whH. ntspehLfspy; ,e;jpa Rje;jpuj;jpw;fhfg; Nghuhbl giltPuHfisj; jpul;bdhH. gil jahuhdJ. Mq;fpNyNa Vfhjpgj;jpaj;jpid vjpHj;Jg; Nghhpl;lhH. tpkhd tpgj;jpy; ,Wjpapy; mfhy kuzKw;whH. (18-08-1945) mg;NghJ cldpUe;jtH Nk[H `gPGH u`;khd;.

,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtk;

Nejh[p n[Hkdpapy; ,Ue;jNghNj ,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtk; kNyah ehl;by; cUthfp tpl;lJ. Nkhfd;rpq;> fpahdp gphPjk; rpq;> [g;ghdpauhd gpA+[pahkh Nghd;wtHfs; mjw;F mbj;jsk; mikj;jpUe;jdH. ,e;jpag; Gul;rp ,af;fj;jpd; gpjhkfuhd uh\; gpfhhp Ngh]{k; mhpa gzpahw;wpdhH. 1943 [{iyapy; jhd; Nejh[p Rgh\; re;jpu Ngh]; ,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtj;jpy; jiyikg; nghWg;ig Vw;Wf; nfhz;lhH.

Rje;jpu jhfk; :

Nejh[papd; ,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtj;jpy; ,e;J> K];ypk;> ird> A+j> ngsj;jH vd;w rhjp NtWghby;iy. nfhs;if NtWghby;iy. gphpT NtWghby;iy. Nrhk;gypy;iy. NrhHtpy;iy.

RWRWg;Gld; Rje;jpu jhfq;nfhz;L nrj;joptJ rhyr; rpwe;jJ vd;W rHtghpj; jpahfj;jpw;F jq;fis mHg;gzpj;Jf; nfhz;l K];ypk; jPuHfs; fzf;fw;NwhH.

mgpj; `]d;

n[Hkd; ePH%o;fpf; fg;gypy; 'MHyz;Nlh nk]hl;Nlh" vd;w ngahpy; miy flYf;fbapy; %d;W khjk; gazpj;jtH Nejh[p. mg;NghJ cldpUe;jtH mtuJ cjtpahsH fHdy; mgpj; `]d;.

mg;Jy; `gPg; :

gHkhtpd; jiyefuhd ,uq;$d; efhpy; xU khiyg; nghJf;$l;lj;jpy; epjp Ntz;b ciuahw;wpa Nejh[paplk;> jdJ xU Nfhb &gha; kjpg;Gs;s nrhj;J KOtijAk; jhafj;jpd; tpLjiyg; gzpf;fhf toq;fpa Nfhb nfhLj;j nfhil ts;sy; mg;Jy; `gPg;. 'N]tf; - fp - `pe;j;"" vd;w gl;lj;ij Nejh[p mtUf;F mspj;jhH.

vk;.Nf.vk;.mkPH `k;]h :

nrd;idapy; jw;NghJ ngd;\d; ngw;W tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; vk;.Nf.vk;.mkPH `k;]h ngU tzpfH. Nejh[paplk; vl;L yl;r &gha; epjp jpul;bf; nfhLj;jtH. jdJ tpiyAaHe;j Nkhjpuj;ij mspj;jtH. ,tuJ je;ijAk; Nejh[paplk; thhp toq;fpatH. nry;tj;ij ms;spj; je;J mjd; %yk; gil jpul;l nghUs; cjtp Ghpe;j K];ypk;fspy; gyH ,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtj;jpYk; gq;fhw;wpdH. epjp ms;spj; je;j mkPH `k;]hTk; Nejh[papd; ,uhZtj;jpy; gzpGhpe;jtH jhd;.

kd;dH gfJ}H\h :

1857 rpg;gha; vOr;rpapy; rpwg;ghd jiyik tfpj;j Kfyha kd;dH gfJ}H\htpd; fy;yiw ,uq;$d; efhpNy ,Ue;jJ. mq;F nrd;W kyH tisak; itj;J mQ;ryp nrYj;jpa Nejh[p gfJ}H \htpd; jpahfj;jpidg; Nghw;wpg; Gfo;e;jhH.

M]hj; `pe;j; murpy; :

21-10-1943y; rpq;fg;G+hpy; jw;fhypf Rje;jpu ,e;jpa murhq;fj;ijg; gpufldk; nra;jhH Nejh[p. 21 NgH nfhz;l me;j mikr;ruitapy;> nyg;bdz;l; fHdy; m[P]; m`kJ> nyg;bdz;l; fHdy; ,\hd; fhjpH> nyg;bdz;l; fHdy; \h eth]; fhd;> my;yhkh fhPk;fdp> gp.vk;.fhd; Mfpa K];ypk; jiytHfs; ,lk; ngw;wpUe;jdH.

\h eth];fhd; :

1944y; gpg;uthp 4 y; Rje;jpu ,e;jpa ,uhZtj;jpd; Kjy; jhf;Fjy; Muk;gkhapw;W. miuf;fhdpy; gphpl;b\hhpd; JUg;Gf;fisj; jhf;fpdhHfs;. 3200 giltPuHfs; nfhz;l Rgh\; Rje;jpu Ngh]; gilg;gphptpw;F \h eth];fhd; jiyik tfpj;Jr; nrd;whH. gpd;dhy; ifJ nra;ag;gl;lhH. nly;yp nrq;Nfhl;ilapy; tprhuiz eilngw;wJ. 31 tUlk; 11 khjk; epuk;gpa Nfg;ld; \h eth];fhDf;Fk; fhg;ld; NrfYf;Fk;> nyg;bdz;l; jpy;yhDf;Fk; MAs; jz;lidia Mq;fpy muR tpjpj;jJ. gpd;dH eilngw;w kf;fs; fpsHr;rpapdhy; 1946 [dthp 3 y; mtHfs; tpLjiyahdhHfs;.

J}f;fpNy njhq;fpatHfs; :

Nejh[papd; Rje;jpu ,uhZtj;jpy; gzpahw;wpajw;fhf 10-09-1945 y; nrd;id n[apypy; J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhH K`k;kJ mg;Jy; fhjH. mJNghy; 23-08-1945 y; nly;yp nrq;Nfhl;ilapy; J}f;fpyplg;gl;lhH rhFy; `kPJ.

,uhZtj;jpy; :

fHdy; `gPg; cH u`;khd;> nyg;bdz;l; fHdy; m[P]; m`kJ> nyg;bdz;l; fHdy; vk;.,rl;. fpahdp> nyg;bdz;l; fHdy; v];fd; fhjpH> X.vk;. fhd;> fHdy; u\Pf; myp> fHdy; v];.vk;.<rhf;> nyg;bdz;l; m];ugpke;jy;> vk;.vk;.myp> mg;Jy; m[P];> mf;fg; myp> Kfk;kJ myp \h> my;lhg; `{Nrd;> ml;lh K`k;kJ> m`k;kJ fhd;> V.Nf.kPH\h> mA+g;fhd;> v];.mf;jHmyp> K`k;kJ mg;gh];> K`k;kJ md;tH> jh[;K`k;kJ>

kzpnkhop nksyhdh> cigJy;yh`; my;yhkh fhPk; fdp

gs;sg;gl;b vr;.vk;.N[. fyPYH u`;khd; ghftp vd;w kzpnkhop nksyhdh> jQ;rhT+H ,uh[fphp cigJy;yh`; lhk;[Plj;Njh> ,isahd;Fb Nrhj;Jf;Fbapy; gpwe;j my;yhkhfhPk; fdp ,tHfisg; gw;wpa tuyhW tphpthfNt vOjg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZt tPuHfs;

,isahd;Fb m.mg;Jy; fG+H> NkY}H `.mg;Jy; `kPJ> Nrhorf;fuey;Y}H (khA+uk;) R.mg;Jy; fhjH rf;fnuy;yp (rptnfq;if) m.mg;Jy; fhjH fy;Y}uzp (rptnfq;if) k.mg;Jy; fhjH K.K`k;kJ ,g;uh`pk;> k.K`k;kJ> gl;Lf;Nfhl;il K.mg;Jy;fhjH (gpur;rhug; gphpT) jpUg;gj;J}H fhe;jpefH mg;Jy;yh vd;w mg;Jy;urhf; jHkGhp fhNthpg;gl;bzk; m.mg;Jy; k[Pj;> jHkGhp F&k;gs;sp mg;Jy; k[Pj;> ,uhkehjGuk; fd;dj;jhd;gl;b E}.mg;Jy; Kj;jypg;> nyg;igf;Fbf;fhL ,.V.v];. mg;Jy; ]yhk;> ,uhkehjGuk; e.v];.vk;.vd;. mg;Jy; t`hg;> jpUtplr;Nrhp A+.mg;Jy; tfhg;> m.N\f; jhT+J> khdhkJiu Nr.mg;Jy; th]pj;> jpUg;gj;J}H K.mGgf;fH> m.fhjH ghl;rh> gP.gPH K`k;kJ> ,uhkehjGuk; mj;jpA+j;J m.mGgf;fH> gz;Ul;b gf;fphpg;ghisak; K.mfk;kJ fhd; rhfpg;> ,uhkehjGuk; jpUg;gj;J}H m.jh[{j;jPd;> fk;gk; rpf;fe;jH> nrd;id m.K`k;kJ ckH> nrd;id nrq;Fd;wk; K.fdp> nrd;id gP. `gPj;> nrd;id ts;StH Ngl;il nrd;id rhypfpuhkk; m.K`k;kJ A+Rg;> jpUr;rp fy;Y}H vk;.Nf.`ahj;fhd;> ,uhkehjGuk; GJtyir m.,g;uh`Pk; m.K`k;kJ lhy;fhd;> gukf;Fb ghHj;jpgD}H rp.,g;uh`Pk;> nkh.fl;rp ikjPd;> ghzhf;Fb nr.,g;uh`Pk;> ,uhkehjGuk; mj;jpA+j;jp rp.,g;uh`Pk; \h> F.nra;aJ fdp> nrd;id rpg;gha; [hgH u]Pk;> jpUthlid rpq;fkq;fyk; MH.vd;.,.n[apDy;yhg;jPd;> jQ;rhT+H Jiwf;fhL N\.K`k;kJ jhT+J> mwe;jhq;fp N\. K`k;kJ n\hPg;> jpUr;rp tufNdhp N\.K`k;kJ Ry;j;jhd;> J}j;Jf;Fb rp.Nf. K`k;kJ> kJiu f.Ki`ajPd; gPH> gl;Lf;Nfhl;il K.K`k;kJ kPuhrh> Fk;gNfhzk; K. u`;kj;Jy;yh`;> ,.Ry;j;jhd;> Fbahj;jk; u.nu[p Ky;yh> fpU\;zfphp rhG rh`pg;> KJFsj;J}H e.Riykhd;> gwq;fpg;Ngl;il gh.\hGjPd;> kd;dhHFb e.rpf;fe;jH.

,uhkehjGuk; khtl;lk; mofd;Fsk; vd;w mofhGhpiar; NrHe;j gy K];ypk; tPuHfs; vd Nejh[papd; ,uhZtj;jpy; gzpahw;wpa jkpof K];ypk; tPuHfspd; ngaHfisr; nrhy;ypf; nfhz;Nl nry;yyhk;. murpd; Mtzq;fspy; mfg;glhky; rhpj;jpuj;jpd; gf;fq;fspy; thHj;ijfshff; $l tuhky; kiwe;J Nghd jpahfpfs;> giltPuHfs; gyH ,Ue;jpUf;ff; $Lk;.

Rje;jpuKk;> RakhpahijAk; ,U fz;fs; vdf; fUjf; $ba ,e;ehl;L K];ypk;fs; ,e;jpaj; jpUehl;bd; tpLjiyf;F gy;NtW topfspy; gy Kidfspy; ghLgl;Ls;shHfs;. Jwtpahf> Qhdpahf> tPudhf> jpahfpahf> vhpel;rj;jpukhf cjpHe;J Nghd cj;jkj; jiytH Nejh[papd; ,e;jpa Njrpa ,uhZtj;jpy; gzpahw;wpa K];ypk;fspd; tuyhW kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; epidj;Jg; Nghw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mtHfspd; KOtptuq;fisAk; tuyhw;wpy; gjpT nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk;. tuyhw;wpd; xspglhky; fy;yiwapy; JapYk; tpLjiy tPuHfspd; tuyhw;iw ,isa rKjhak; mwpa Ntz;Lk;. mg;NghJ jhd; cz;ikj; jpahfpfis kPz;Lk; kPz;Lk; cUthf;fpg; Gjpa tuyhWfisg; gilf;Fk;!.. ..

H 4
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