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ghy];jPdk;

A+j - rpNahdpr rjpfs; - xU tuyhw;Wg; ghHit


gy];jPd kz;zpy; njhlHe;J nfhLikfs; ,lk; ngw;W tUfpd;wd. A+j rpNahdpr mur me;jg; G+kpapd; ike;jHfis gLnfhiy nra;J tUfpd;wJ. jq;fSf;F gy];jPd kz;zpy; XH mq;Fy chpik $l ghuhl;l Kbahj epiyapy; rpNahdp];Lfs; me;j kz;zpd; xU gFjpia mgfhpj;J ,];Nuy; vdg; ngaH #l;bf; nfhz;ldH. ,d;W ,tHfs; mgfhpj;j G+kpia tp];jhpf;f gaq;futhjj;ij KLf;fp tpl;Ls;shHfs;.

vdpDk; cyfk; Vkhe;J NghAs;sJ. jhd; ,oe;j G+kpia kPl;fg; NghuhLk; gy];jPdg; Nghuhspfis gaq;futhjpfs; vd miof;fpwJ. ,J mnkhpf;fh fw;Wf;   nfhLj;j ghlk;. ,e;jg; ghlg; NghjidapypUe;J tpLgl;L epahakhf rpejpf;fj; jtWNthH jkJ epahaq;fSf;fhf epaha topapy; epd;W Nghuhl Kbahj epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gLtH.

vdNt> gaq;futhjk; vd;why; vd;d> ahH gaq;futhjp vd;gtw;iw tpsq;fpf; nfhs;tjw;fhf gy];jPd; gw;wpa cz;ikfs; rpytw;iw tuyhw;wpypUe;J njhpe;J nfhs;tJ mtrpak;.

gy];jPd kf;fs; jahfnkhd;W ,d;wp jtpj;jtHfs; my;yH. mLj;jthpd; nrhj;ij mgfhpj;J jd; nrhHf;fGhpia mikj;Jf; nfhs;s NghuhbatHfSk; my;yH. mtHfSf;Fj; njhd;ik kpf;f tuyhnwhd;W ,Uf;fpd;wJ. me;j tuyhW gyUf;F njhpahjjhy; A+j rpNahdp]thjpfs; gy];jPid jdjhf;fpf; nfhs;s gpd;fjtpid Clhf gpuNtrpj;J mf;fpukk; Ghpe;J tUfpd;wdH.

 

A+j CLUty;fs;

gy];jPd kf;fspd; %jhijaHfs; aG+]paH vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wdH. fp.K. 4000 Mz;lstpy; tho;e;j mtHfs; Fj;]; efiu epHkhzpj;jtHfshtH. gy];jPdpd; G+HtPf nrhe;jf;fhuHfshd mtHfs; gy];jPdpd; G+HtPf nrhe;jf;fhuHfshd mtHfs; cUthf;fpg; gpd;gw;wpa guk;giu xOq;F mtHfspd;> gpd; re;jjpapduhd gy];jPd; muGf;fshy; $l kpfr; rpwg;ghfg; gpd;gw;wpajw;F Vuhskhd tuyhw;Wr; rhd;Wfs; cs;sd.

me;j xOq;if rpije;J rpd;dhgpd;dkhf;Fk; tifapy; fp.K.1300 mstpy; A+jHfs; (%]h egpapd; r%fk;) Kjd; Kjyhf gy];jPDs; gpuNtrpf;fpd;whHfs;. RkhH 200 tUl fhyk; gy rHr;irfspy; <Lgl;l mtHfs; ,Wjpapy; mq;F tho;tjw;fhd topia mikj;Jf; nfhs;fpwhHfs;.

vdpDk; mtHfsJ me;j tho;T ntFfhyk; ePbf;ftpy;iy. fp.K.8 Mk; E}w;whz;by; mq;F gpuNtrpj;j m]Phpag; gilfSk;> fp.K. 6 Mk; E}w;whz;by; mq;F te;j ghgpNyhdpa kd;dhd e];]hpd; gilfSk; KiwNa A+jHfis tpul;babj;J tpl;L muG kf;fis kPsf; FbNawr; nra;fpd;wd. e];]hpd; gilfs; xU gb Kd;Nd nrd;W igj;Jy; Kfj;ji] cilj;J tpl;L. Riykhd; (miy) mtHfs; epHkhzpj;j i`f;fy; Riykhdp vDk; NfhapiyAk; jiukl;lkhf;fpdH.

gpd;dH <uhdpa Ml;rp tpahgpj;j NghJ A+jHfs; kPz;Lk; gy];jPdpy; te;J FbNawpdH. mj;Jld; i`f;fy; Riykhdp vDk; NfhapiyAk; epHkhzpj;jdH.

Mdhy; mtHfsJ Jujp\;lk; me;jg; GJtho;T RkhH 300 my;yJ 400 tUlq;fSf;F Nky; epiyf;ftpy;iy. mjw;Ff; fhuzkhNdhH mtHfNs. mjhtJ gy];jPdpy; te;J FbakHe;j A+jHfs; fp.gp.70 y; Nuhk rhk;uh[;aj;jpw;F vjpuhff; fpsHr;rp nra;a Muk;gpj;jdH. ,jd; tpisthf igj;Jy; Kfj;jp]{k;> Riykhd; NfhapYk; mopf;fg;gl;ld. A+jHfs; midtUk; ntspNaw;wg;gl;ldH. kPz;Lk;  mq;F tho;e;j mugpaH kPskHj;jg;gl;ldH.

,];yhkpa Ml;rpf;Fs;..!

gpd;dH gy];jPid NuhkHfsplkpUe;J fyPgh ckH (uyp) mtHfs; fhyj;jpy; kPl;nlLf;fg;gl;l NghJ Nuhk ig]he;jpa gilapdH n[&]yj;jpd; jpwTNfhis ckH (uyp) mtHfsplk; ifaspj;j Kiw tuyhw;W rpwg;G kpf;f epfo;r;rpahfj; njhFf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjd; gpd;dUk; ,ilapilNa fpwp];jt CLUty;fs; ,lk; ngw;wd. rpYit Aj;jq;fSk; epfo;e;jd. Kbtpy; Ry;jhd; ]yh`{j;jPd; ma;A+gp (u`;) mtHfs; gy];jPid Koikahf tpLtpj;Jf; nfhz;lhHfs;.

,ilf;fhyj;jpy; gyuJ ,ilA+WfSf;F kj;jpapy; ,];yhkpa tl;lj;ij jhz;lhj gy];jPd;> JUf;fpa rhk;uh[;aj;jpd; xU gFjpahf filrp fyPgh Ry;jhd; mg;Jy; `kPj; fhd; mtHfspd; Ml;rpapDs; mikag; ngw;wpUe;jJ.

A+jHfSf;F K];ypk;fspilNa mikjp

,Nj rk fhyj;jpy; A+jHfs; jkf;nfd xU ehL> jiytd;> r%f mikg;G vJTk; ,y;yhky; cynfq;Fk; rpjwp thOk; epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;bUe;jdH. ,e;j epiyapy; $l mtHfshy; mikjpahf tho Kbe;jJ K];ypk;fspd; Ml;rpg; gFjpapy; khj;jpuNk. Fwpg;ghf ];ngapdpy; ,];yhkpa Ml;rp ,Ue;j 800 tUl fhykk; mtHfs; epk;kjpahf tho;e;jdH vd;gJ mtHfNs xg;Gf; nfhz;l tplak;.

A+jHfs; kpfTk; Gdpjkhd rpd;dkhf fUJk; mOk; RtH (The Wailing Wall) $l K];ypk;fsJ ey;nyz;zk; fhuzkhfNt kPz;Lk; fpilj;jJ vdf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. mJ gw;wp mtHfNs Fwpg;gpLjhtJ>

mOk; RtH Muk;gj;jpy; ghhpa Fg;ig $oq;fshy; rpf;Fz;bUe;jJ. vtUf;Fk; mJ gw;wpa milahsk; $l njhpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. fp.gp.16 k; E}w;whz;by; Ry;jhd; ]yPk; c];khd; mtHfSf;F jw;nrayhf ,r;RtH gw;wpa vz;zk; Vw;gl;lJ. vdNt mt;tplj;ij Rj;jk; nra;J A+jHfSf;F mjidj; jhprpg;gjw;F mDkjpAk; toq;fpdH. News from Israel Bombay 01.07.1967.

fpwp];jtf; nfhLikfs;

,Nj Ntis INuhg;gpa fpwp];jt ehLfNsh A+jHfis gy nfhLikfSf;F Mshf;fpa tuyhw;iwg; ghHf;f KbfpwJ. RkhH 2000 Mz;Lfs; tiu A+jHfs; fpwp];jthpd; nfhLikfSf;F Mshfp te;Js;sdH. n[Hkdpapy; 1933 - 1945 fhyg; gFjpapy; `pl;yhpd; nfhLikfSf;F Mshd A+jHfSs; RkhH 60 yl;rk; NgH rpj;jputij nra;ag;gl;L ,we;Js;sdH. ,J kl;Lky;y> cyfpy; rpjwp tho;e;j mtHfSf;F vk; ehl;by; ,lkspj;J thor; nra;Nthk; vd ve;j Nkw;fj;jpa ehLk; Kd;tutpy;iy. ,jw;F A+jHfspd; ,aw;ifahd Nghf;Fk; xU fhuzNk.

A+j ehL gw;wpa rpe;jid

,tHfsJ epiy ,g;gb njhlUk; NghJ fp.gp.1896 y; jpNahlH n`H];y; (Theodor Herzl 1860-1904) vd;nwhU ehlf vOj;jhsH A+j kf;fSf;F xU jhafk; Ntz;Lk; vd;gij tpthpj;J Der Judenstaat (A+j ehL) vd;w jiyg;gpy; xU E}iy vOjpdhH. fp.gp.1897 y; Kjypy; 6 A+j jdte;jHfs; ,tuJ E}ypd; fUj;Jf;fis Muha;e;jdH. gpd;dH Rtpl;rHyhe;jpy; 29-31/8/1897 y; $ba A+j mwpQHfs; kw;Wk; jdte;jHfs; 204 NgH jq;fSf;F gy];jPdpy; xU jhafk; mika Ntz;Lk; vd;W KbntLj;jdH.

cyf A+j fhq;fpu]; (The World Jewish Congress) vd mioj;Jf; nfhz;l mtHfs; ,j;jpl;lj;ij Ie;J tUlj;jpy; epiwNtw;Wjtjhf KbntLj;jdH. vg;gbAk; 50 tUlq;fis kPwhj ,jd; fhy vy;iy vd;gJ mtHfsJ jplkhd KbT.

,ijj; njhlHe;J ,j;jpl;lj;ij eilKiwg;gLj;j gzk; Ntz;Lk;. mjw;fhf A+jHfspd; Njrpa epjp (Jewish National Fund) vd;nwhU epjpaj;ij Muk;gpj;jdH. tl;b topapd; %yKk; cldbf; fhR nfhLg;gjd; %yKk; epyk; thq;fntd epy tq;fp (Land Bank) xd;iw Muk;gpj;jdH. mNjhL jkf;nfd `Pg;W nkhopapyhd Njrpa fPjnkhd;iwAk; cUthf;fpdH. jkpopy; ek;gpf;if vd;w fUj;ij jUk; mjd; `Pg;U ngaH Hatikvah vd;gjhFk;. ,itaidj;ijAk; M];jphpa ehl;ilr; NrHe;j jpNahlH `H];y; vd;gtNu Vw;ghL nra;jhH vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

,ijj; njhlhe;J cyf ehLfspypUe;J gy];jPd; Nehf;fp A+jHfs; tuyhapdH. mjd;gb 1917 y; gy];jPdpd; rdj;njhif K];ypk;fs; 567>000> A+jHfs; 70>000 kw;Wk; fpwp];jtHfs; 63>000 vd;whapw;W. mNj Ntis cyf kfh Aj;jk; KbTw;W 1917 y; gy];jPd; gphpl;ldpd; fPo; mike;j ehlhf khwpaJld; mtHfsJ gilAk; mq;F te;J Ftpe;jJ.

gphpl;ldpd; rjp

mg;nghOJ gphpl;ldpd; ntspehl;Lr; tptfhuq;fSf;Fg; nghWg;ghd nrayhsuhf ,Ue;j MjH ngy;/gH vd;gtH xU gpufldj;ij ntspapl;lhH. mJ 1917 etk;gH 2 Mk; Njjp ntspaplg;gl;lJ. me;jg; gpufldj;ij ntspapl gphpl;b\; muRf;Fj; njhlHe;J J}z;Ljy; toq;ftpatH nrapk; nta;];Nkd; (Chaim Weisman 1874-1952) vd;w u\;a A+juhthH. ,tH A+j rpadp] mikg;gpd; 1948-1952 fhyg; gphptpd; jiytuhthH. ,];Nuy; cUthd gpd n[&]yk; `Pg;U gy;fiyf;fofj;jpd; jiytuhfTk; flikahw;wpdhH.

,e;j ngy;/gH gpufldj;jpd; Kf;fpa gFjp ,t;thW NgRfpwJ :

A+jHfSf;F gy];jPdpy; xU Njrpaj; jhafk; Vw;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij ,q;fpyhe;J muR kpfTk; ghpTld; ftdpf;fpwJ. ,jid Vw;gLj;j vy;yh Kaw;rpfisAk; ,q;fpyhe;J Nkw;nfhs;Sk;. mNjNtis ,g;NghJ mq;Nf FbapUf;Fk; A+jHfsy;yhj kf;fSila nghJthd chpikfSf;Nfh> kj chpikfSf;Nfh gq;fk; tuhJ ghHj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;!.

,e;jg; gpufldk; gy];jPdpy; gpwe;J tho;e;J tUk; K];ypk;fis ,uz;lhk; ju gpui[ vd;w epiyikf;Fj; js;SfpwJ. mj;Jld; ,d;Dk; Ml;rpNah> ehNlh> r%f mikg;Ngh ngwhj A+jHfs; Kjy; epiyf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gLtij mq;fPfhpf;fpwJ.

,ijj; njhlHe;J gphpl;ldpd; vy;yh tifahd cjtp xj;jhirfSlDk;> mtHfsJ gilgyj;JlDk; A+jHfs; gy ehLfspypUe;J te;J FbNawyhapdH. Muk;gj;jpy; mtHfs; mikjp fhg;gtHfs; Nghy; te;jhYk;> ntF rPf;fpj;jpy; mtHfs; gaq;futhjpfshapdH. mtHfSs; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l ,U gaq;futhj mikg;Gfshd ,Hfk;> `fhdhj; vd;git K];ypk;fis nfhiy nra;tij jkJ ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;L nraw;gl;ld.

1948 [dthp MFk; NghJ K];ypk;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd 400f; Fk; mjpfkhd fpuhkq;fs; A+j rpNahdp]thjpfs; trkhapd. mtw;wpy; tho;e;j K];ypk;fSk; ngUk;ghNyhH nfhiy nra;ag;gl;lJld; vQ;rpatHfs; mfjpfshapdH.

,j;jifa nfhLikfs; epfo;e;J tUk; NghJ kWgf;fk; A+j ehL cUthf;fg;gLtjw;fhd mwpf;iffs; kw;Wk; Mtzq;fs; muq;Nfw;wg;gl;ld.

mnkhpf;f kw;Wk; gphpl;ld; MjuT

fp.gp.1922 y; mnkhpf;fh mjd; ,U rigfspYk; A+jHfSf;fhd xU ehL gy];jPd; kz;zpy; miktjw;F Mjuthd $l;Lj; jPHkhdq;fis epiwNtw;wpaJ. mg;NghJ mnkhpf;fh gd;dhl;Lr; rig apy; mq;fj;Jt ehlhf ,Uf;ftpy;iy. me;jepiyapy; me;j jPHkhdq;fis fp.gp.1924 y; eilngw;w Mq;fpNyh mnkhpf;fh khehL xd;wpy; rkHg;gpj;J mq;fPfhuk; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lJ.

1939-5-17 y; gphpl;ldpd; fhydpj;Jt ehLfs; njhlHghd tptfhuq;fSf;Fg; nghWg;gjpfhhpahd nky;fk; nkf;nlhdhy;l; vd;gtH rkHg;gpj;j nts;isawpf;if xd;wpy; ,d;Dk; 10 Mz;LfSs; jkJ ehL A+jHfisAk; gy];jPd muG kf;fisAk; nfhz;l Rje;jpu gy];jPd; ehnlhd;iw mikf;Fk; Mty; nfhz;Ls;sJ vdf; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;shH.

,J cz;ikapy; gy];jPidf; $W NghLk; jpl;lkhFk;. KOf;f KOf;f gy];jPd kf;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd gy];jPd kf;fSf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd gy];jPd;> te;NjW Fbfshd A+jHfSf;Fk; gq;F itf;Fk; epiy ,jd; %yk; cUthfpwJ. ,t;twpf;if ntspaplg;gl;l NghJ gy];jPdpy; FbNawpapUe;j ntspehl;L A+jHfs; vz;zpf;if 445>000 MFk;.

cz;ikapy; gy];jPd; Jz;lhlg;gLtjpy; Muk;gk; Kjy; ,Wjptiu KO %r;rhf A+jHfs; rhHghf <LghL nfhz;l ehL gphpl;ld; vd;gij vtUk; kWf;f KbahJ. cyfpd; gy ehLfspy; gpur;rpidfs; gy Njhd;Wtjw;Ff; fhuzkhf ,Ue;jJk; gphpl;lNd!

I.eh.rigapd; Nghf;F

If;fpa ehLfs; rig mjd; nghJr; rigapy; epiwNtw;wpa vz; 181(II) jPHkhdj;jpw;nfhg;g 1947 etk;gH 29 k; ehs; gy];jPd G+kp mjd; G+HtPff; Fbfshd gy];jPdUf;Fk; (45.53%) epyk;> vq;Nfh ,Ue;J te;j A+jHfSf;Fk; (56.47% epyk;) ,ilapy; gphpj;Jf; nfhLf;fg;gLtij mq;fPfhpj;jJ. mj;Jld; n[&]yk; efH rHtNjrkakha; mika Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; mj;jPHkhdk; $wpw;W.

,J Ieh rigapd; mg;gl;lkhd JnuhfkhFk;. mJ mjd; mq;fj;Jt ehLfs; kj;jpapy; epahakhf elf;f Ntz;bapUf;f gy];jPd; tptfhuj;jpy; gLNkhrkhf ele;J nfhz;Ls;sJ. fh\;kPH> fpof;F jpNkhH kw;Wk; ehLfspYk; ,];Nuy; cUthd gpd; ,d;W tiuapYk; I.eh. rigapd; Nghf;F epahak; jtwpa topapNyNa mike;Js;sJ. ,jid K];ypk;fspd; ek;gpf;iff;Fhpa rignadf; nfhs;tJ tp\g; ghk;ig fOj;jpy; Nghl;Lf; nfhz;L capuhgj;J tuhJ vd epidg;gjw;F xg;ghd nrayhFk;.

A+j ehL cjak;

,t;thW gy];jPid Jz;lhl fgl ehlfq;fs; muq;Nfwp tUk; Ntis> gy];jPdpy; epiynfhz;L mf;fpukk; Ghpe;J te;j gphpl;b\; gilfs; thg]; ngw;Wr; nry;Yk; fhyk; neUq;fp te;jJ. mtHfs; nry;y Ntz;ba fhyk; 1948 [dthp khjkhFk;. vdpDk; rpw;rpy fhuzq;fisf; fhl;b me;j fhy vy;iyia gpw;Nghl;L 1948-5-14 y; nry;tjw;F Maj;jkhdJ.

mjd;gb me;jj; jpdj;jpy; gphpl;b\; gil thg]; ngwg;gl;lJ. md;W tiu gphpl;b\; J}Jtuhf gy];jPdpy; flikahw;wpa rH.myd; fd;dpd;fk; (Sir Alam Canningham) vd;gtUk; jd; jha;ehL jpUk;gpdhH. md;wpuT 10 kzpastpy; A+j Njrpa rig ,uz;Lk; ,ize;J ,];Nuy; vd;nwhU ehL cUthf;fg;gl;lJ vd;gij cyFf;F mwptpj;jd. md;W mjd; [dhjpgjpahf ]hapk; nta;];Nkd;Dk;> gpujkuhf Nltpl; ngd; FhpaDk; njhpT nra;ag;gl;ldH.

,g;gb gy];jPd; Jz;lhlg;gLtij md;W 56 ehLfspd; eyd;fis ftdpf;fntd cUthf;fg;gl;l I.eh. rig 33 MjuT thf;FfSld; mq;fPfhpj;J 13 ehLfs; vjpHj;J thf;fspj;jd. 10 ehLfs; thf;fspg;gpy; fye;J nfhs;stpy;iy.

mq;fPfhuq;fs;

,];Nuy; cUthfp rpy epkplq;fspy; mij mq;fPfhpj;J MrpHtjpj;jhH mnkhpf;fhtpd; md;iwa [dhjpgjp l;&nkd;. mLj;J mij mq;fPfhpj;j ehL Nrhtpaj; A+dpadhFk;. mJ 18-5-1948 y; eilngw;wJ. mijaLj;J 25-01-1949 y; ,];Nuypa NjHjy; ,lk; ngw;W XH muR cUthdTld;> mNj khjk; 31 y; mnkhpf;f muR mjw;F Kiwahd mq;fPfhuk; toq;fpaJ.

,];Nuypa ehlhSkd;wj;jpw;F ne];]l; vdg; ngahplg;gl;lJ. ,ijj; njhlHe;J Vuhskhd rHtNjr nghUshjhu kw;Wk; mikg;Gf;fspy; I.eh. rig> mnkhpf;fh> gphpl;ld; Mfpat;wpd; rpghhpRld; mq;fj;Jtk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. mLj;J 10 Mz;LfSf;Fs; 63 ehLfs; mjw;F mq;fPfhuk; toq;fpd.

,d;W ,];Nuy; cyfpd; gyk; tha;e;j ehnlhd;whf ghpzkpj;Js;sJ. me;j epiyf;F mijf; nfhz;L tUtjpy; mnkhpf;f muR mjpf rpuj;ij vLj;Jf; nfhz;lJ. cs;@u mnkhpf;fhTf;F kj;jpa fpof;fpy; jdJ epiyahd Mjpf;fj;ij itj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ jhd; gpujhd fhuzpahFk;.

A+j rpadprj;jpd; ,yl;rpaq;fs;

,];Nuypd; - A+j rpNahdp]j;jpd; Mjpf;f ntwpg;ghijapy; mJ mila tpUk;Gk; ,d;Dk; gy mk;rq;fs; cs;sd. mtw;iw ,g;gb tFj;J Nehf;fyhk;.

gue;J tphpe;j A+j uh[;[pankhd;iw epWTtJ> mjd; vy;iyf;Fs; jw;NghJ jd;Ds; itj;Jf; nfhz;Ls;s fh]h> Nfhyhd; Fd;Wg; gFjpfSld; rCjp mNugpahtpd; kjPdh cs;gl ngUk; gFjp> <uhf;fpd; 90% gFjp> Fitj;> rphpah> Juf;fpapd; xU gFjp> N[hHlhd;> nygdhd;> rpdha; ghiytdk;> vfpg;jpd; xU gFjp vd;gdTk; mlq;Fk;. ,ij rpNahdp] mikg;G ghk;G tl;lkpl;ljhf tiue;J fhz;gpj;Js;sJ.

k];[pJy; mf;]hit jiukl;lkhf;fp tpl;L me;j ,lj;jpy; mtHfs; fdT fhZk; I`f;fy; Riykhdpia epHkhzpg;gJ.

n[U]yk; ,];Nuypd; jiyefuhf;FtJ

,tw;iw miltJld; ,Wjpahf mtHfs; mila tpUk;Gk; ,yf;F ,e;j cyif mtHfspd; gpbf;Fs; nfhz;L tUtjhFk;. mjd; %yk; nghUshjhu Nehf;fj;ij epiwT nra;tjhFk;.

cyf A+j mikg;gpd; jiytH nef;`{k; Nfhy;l;Nkd; (Nechum Goldman) vd;gtH fdlhtpy; eilngw;w xU khehl;by; mij ,g;gb tpthpf;fpwhH.

A+jhpd; ,Wjp ,yf;F!

A+jHfs; jt;uhj; Ntjj;jpYk; jkJ kjj;jpdJk; caHT fUjp gy];jPid jkJ ehlhf;fpf; nfhs;s epidf;ftpy;iy. mjd; flw;gug;gpypUe;J ngwg;gLk; fdpg; nghUl;fs; %yk; tUlk; xd;Wf;Ff; fpilf;Fk; %d;W gpy;ypad; lhyHfSf;fhfNth> mnkhpf;fhit tplTk; 20 klq;F mjpfkhd vz;nza; Nrkpg;igf; fUj;jpw; nfhz;Nlh gy];jPidg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s ehltpy;iy. khwhf> gy];jPd; Inuhg;gh> Mrpah> Mg;hpf;fh Mfpa gue;j G+kpfSf;fpilapyhd Nghf;Ftuj;Jg; ghijapy; mike;jpUg;gJk;> vy;yh tifahd cyf rf;jpfSf;fpilapy; kj;jpaj;jskhff mike;jpUg;gJk;> gzg; Gof;fj;jpd; Nfe;jpu ];jhdkhf mike;jpUg;gJk; jhd; gy];jPid ekJ ehlhf Mf;fpf; nfhz;lj;d Nehf;fk; MFk;. (Hamas, The Historical Roots The Pact, page 16).

,];yhkpag; Nghuhl;lk;

cz;ikapy; A+j rpadp]thjpfs; ,d;W nra;J tUtJk; ,dp nra;ag; NghtJk; ,e;j ,yf;if mile;J nfhs;tjw;fhd nfhLQ; nrayhFk;. ,ilapilNa x];Nyh xg;ge;jk; vd;Wk;> Nfk;g; Nltpl; vd;W tUk; xg;ge;jq;fSk;> kw;Wk; rkhjhd Vw;ghLfSk; mtHfs; jk;ik ];jpug;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sTk;> njhlHe;J cyFf;Fj; njhy;iy juTk; cjTNk jtpu NtW ve;j Kd;Ndw;wKk; epahaj;jpd; mbg;gilapy; tuNt tuhJ.

,e;epiyapy; ,d;W ,];yhkpa mikg;Gf;fs; Kd;ndLj;Jr; nry;Yk; rj;jpa topapyhd Nghuhl;lj;ijj; jtpu gy];jPid kPl;nlLf;f NtW topapy;iy. mj;jifa Nghul;lnkhd;iw> jhk; ,oe;jij kPsg; ngw vLf;fg;gLk; Kaw;rpfis gaq;futhjk; vd vtUk; nrhy;tuhapd;> mtH vt;tsT J}uk; mnkhpf;f kw;Wk; Nkw;fj;jpa Clfq;fs; %yk; %isr; ryit nra;ag;gl;Ls;shH vd;gij ehk; Ghpe;J nfhs;s KbAk;.

`kh]; : rpy tuyhw;Wg; gjpTfs;

XH ,dk; eRf;fg;gLk; NghJ eRf;fg;gl;ltHfs; midtUk; xd;W NrHfpwhHfs;. ,e;j xd;wpizg;G XH mikg;gpidAk; xU jiyikj;Jtj;jpidAk; Vw;gLj;jp tpLfpd;wJ. ,g;gbj;jhd; `kh]; ,af;fj;jpd; Njhw;wKkhFk;. vy;yh ,af;fj;jpw;Fk; mit cUthtjw;fhd fhuzq;fSk; #oYk; cz;L. `kh]; mJ nfhz;L ngaiug; NghyNt ,];uNtyH gwpj;njLj;j jha;epyjij kPl;nlLg;gjw;fhd ,];yhkpa vjpHg;G ,af;fkhFk;. ,];yhkpa vjpHg;G ,af;fk; vd;Dk; nghUs; jUk; `ufJy; KfhtkJy; ,];yhkpa;ah vd;gjd; RUf;fkhFk;.

Njhw;wk; :

`kh]; mikg;G rl;lG+Htkhf ,];Nuypy; 1978 y; N\f; m`;kj; ah]Pd; mtHfshy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;ljhFk;. mg;NghJ my; k[;k/ my; ,];yhkp vDk; ngahpy; ,];yhkpa Nghjidfs; kw;Wk; r%f NritfSf;fhd mikg;ghfNt ,aq;fp te;jJ. ,jdhy; epiwa MhtyHfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Kbe;jJ. ,J ,e;jpghohTf;F Ke;jpa fl;lkhFk;. 1988 y; ,J `kh]; vd;W miof;fg;glyhapw;W. 1989 y; `kh]; ,d;jpghohit mwpKfg;gLj;jpa mr;rkak; jdJ gazj;jpd; ,uz;lhk; fl;lj;jpw;F mJ efHe;jpUf;fpwJ.

,uz;lhk; fl;lj;jpy; Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfshd ,];Nuiy Maj hPjpahf vjpHj;jJ. ,jidNa mJ ,d;jpghoh vd miof;fpwJ. ,];yhkpa gy];jPid cUthf;Ftjpy; Majg; Nghuhl;lj;jpid Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;ba jtpHf;f Kbahj epHg;ge;jj;jpw;F mJ cs;shfpaJ.

`kh]; tisFlh Aj;jj;jpd; NghJ gaq;futhj eltbf;ifapid vjpHj;J gy];jPdpYk; ,];Nuypd; cs;Sk; ,aq;Fk; Kd;dzp mikg;ghFk;. ,d;W gjh`; ,af;fj;jpw;Fg;gpd; Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfis vjpHg;gjpy; mjpf gyk; kpf;fjhFk;.

mjd; tsHr;rpf; fl;lj;jpy; jw;nfhiyahspfis mwpKfk; nra;jpUf;fpwJ. jw;nfhiy vd;gij tpl \`Pj;fs; vd;W miog;gNj kpfg; nghUj;jkhFk;. \`Pj;fs; vDk; NghJ vkf;Fk; mtHfSf;Fkpilapyhd XH Mj;kPf cwT neUf;fj;ijf; fhz KbfpwJ.

`kh]pd; jiyikj;Jtk; :

`kh]pd; ];jhgfH N\f; m`;kj; ah]Pd; mtHfNs 1989 tiu jiyik tfpj;J te;jhHfs;. ,Ue;Jk; mtHfNs `kh]; ,af;fj;jpd; Mj;kPfj; je;ijahf ,Ue;J tUfpwhHfs;. ntspaPLfs;> epjp> tpahghuk;> ntspehl;L cwT> mj;JkPwy;> gaq;futhj eltbf;iffs; vd;gtw;iw Nkw;ghHit nra;jy; Mfpad N\f; m`;kj; ah]Pd; jiyikapy; eilngw;wd. N\f; ah]pd; mtHfs; 1936 y; N[huh vDk; fpuhkj;jpy;  gpwe;J> 14 tajpy; cijge;jhl;lj;jpy; xU fhy; fhaKw mf;fhypdhy; vijAk; nra;a KbahJ NghdJ. caHfy;tp jifikNahL MrphpaH njhopypy; <Lgl;ltH> vfpg;jpy; jiyikaplkhf; nfhz;L ,aq;fp te;j ,`;thDy; K];ypkPdpd; mq;fj;Jtj;ij 1955 y; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lhH. 1966 y; rpiwthrk; mDgtpj;jhH. N\f; mtHfs; rpiwgpbf;fg;gl;L 1984 y; ,];Nuypa murhq;fj;jpd; ifjpfs; ghpkhWk; jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; tpLtpf;fg;gl;lhH.

mLj;j jiyikj;Jtj;jpid %]h K`k;kj; mG+ kH]{f; mtHfs;  Vw;whHfs;. mG+ kH]{f; 1951 y; fh]h gs;sj;jhf;fpy; cs;s ugh`; mfjpKfhkpy; gpwe;jtH. vfpg;jpy; nghwpapay; gbg;gpidKbj;Jf; nfhz;L fh]hTf;F te;jhH. m`;kj; ah]pd; mtHfSld; neUq;fpa njhlHG nfhz;ltuhf ,Ue;jhH. 1988 y; `kh]; cUthFk; NghJ mjd; Muk;g mq;fj;jtHfSs; xUtuhfTk; ,Ue;jtH.

mnkhpf;fhtpy; 1981-82 fhyg;gFjpapy; nghwpapaiyj; njhlHe;Jk; gapYk; NghJ jdJ FLk;gj;NjhL NtH[Pdpah Nghy;]; y; tho;e;J te;jhH. 1989 y; `kh]pd; murpay; gphpTf;Fj; jiytuhdhH. KbntLg;gjpYk; mtw;iw eilKiwg;gLj;JtjpYk; Kf;fpa gq;F tfpf;fpwhH. mG+ %]h 1995 [{iy 25 y; mnkhpf;fhtpy; itj;Jf; ifjhdhH. mnkhpf;f ePjpgjpfs; Nk 1996 y;> ,];NuYf;F ehL flj;Jtjw;fhd jPHkhdj;ij epiwNtw;wpdH. vdpDk; mtH N[hHjhDf;Nf mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;lhH. ,J Nk 1997 y; epfo;e;jJ. ,it xd;Wk; mtuJ ,];yhkpa elj;ijiaAk;> ,af;fj;ijAk; jLf;ftpy;iy. mit NkYk; NkYk; cWjpiaAk; kdtypikiaAk; toq;fpAs;sd.

`kh]{k; mjd; fl;likg;Gk;

cs;sff; fl;likg;G : ,JNt j/th> mwpT tpUj;jp vd;wiof;fg;gLfpwJ

,d;jpghohTld; $ba [duQ;rf nraw;ghL

ghJfhg;G : ,J mk;d; vd toq;fg;gLfpwJ. ,g;gphpT re;Njfj;Jf;F ,lkhd eltbf;iffs; njhlHghf jfty;fs; jpul;b mjid mjpHr;rpf; FO tplk; xg;gilf;fpwJ. mJ mt;tpraj;ij tprhhpj;J re;Njfj;Jf;fplkhf ele;J nfhs;gtH njhlHgpy; eltbf;if vLf;fpwJ.

ntspaPLfs; : ,J my;,/yhk; vd toq;fg;gLfpwJ. nra;jpkly;> gug;Giu> cj;jpNahfg;G+Ht mwpf;iffs; vd;gtw;iw ntspapLfpwJ.

,uhZg;gphpT

my; K[h`pJ}d; my; gy];jPdpA+d; vDk; ngahpy; ,uhZtg; gphpit `kh]; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,JNt ,];Nuypa ,uhZtj;jpd; epiyfisj; jhf;fp tUfpwJ. ,g;gphpT 1982 y; cUthf;fg;gl;ljhFk;. ,e;jpghohNthL ,J tp];jhpf;fg;gl;L njhlHe;NjHr;irahd jhf;Fjy;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld Fwpg;ghf fh]hg; gFjpapd; tlgFjpapNy mjpf jhf;Fjy;fs; ,lk; ngWfpd;wd.

my;k[;j; vDk; ghJfhg;Gg; gphpT

1986 y; mk;d; gphpT 1986 y; N\f; ah]Pd; mtHfshy; Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,];yhk; jilnra;j Nghijg; nghUl;fs;> Nkhrb Nghd;wtw;wpy; <LgLNthiu fz;fhzpg;gjw;nfd cUthf;fg;gl;l ,t;tzp gpd;dH K[h`pJfSld; ,izf;fg;gl;lJ.

,`;thd;fSldhd fUj;jpay; cwT

`kh]; fUj;jpaypYk;> topKiwfspYk; vfpg;jpy; ,khk; `]Dy; gd;dh`; (u`;) Njhw;Wtpj;j ,`;thDy; K];ypkPd; vDk; ,];yhkpa ,af;fj;jpid xj;jjhFk;. ,];yhkpag; gy];jPd; cUthFk; tiu `kh]{k; ,Uf;Fk;. eRf;fg;gl;ltHfs; Ml;rpf;F tUthHfs;. mtHfs; ePjpiaAk; kdpjj;ijAk; ,e;jg; G+kpapy; Vw;gLj;JthHfs;.

ahH ,e;j ah]pH mughj;?

K`k;kj; vd;w ,aw;ngaiuf; nfhz;l ahrpH mughj; Mf];L 01> 1929 k; Mz;L gpwe;jhH. n[&]yk; efhpy; gpwe;jjhfTk; mtH Fwpg;gpl;lhYk; mtH gpwg;ghy; vfpg;jpd; jiyefH nfa;Nuhitr; NrHe;jtH vd;w fUj;Jk; cz;L. nfa;Nuh gy;fiyf;fofj;jpy; nghwpapay; gl;lg;gbg;ig Kbj;jhH. 1948 y; gy];jPd; - ,];Nuy; gpsTf;F Kd;dNu gy];jPDf;Fs; Majq;fisf; flj;jpf; nfhz;L tUk; Ntiyiar; nra;J te;jhH.

1956 y; my;gjh`; ,af;fj;ij Muk;gpj;jhH. ,t;tpaf;fk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;l Gjpjpy; vfpg;J> rphpah> N[hHjhd; Nghd;w ehLfs; mjw;F MjuT toq;ftpy;iy. 1968 y; K];ypk; ehLfs; gytw;wpd; MjuTld; gy];jPd tpLjiy ,af;fj;jpd; jiytuhdhH. RkhH 20 tUlq;fshf ,];Nuy; kPJ kpf cf;fpukkhd jhf;Fjy;fis mughj;jpd; elj;jpaJ. ,J njhlHghf mg;NghJ ,];Nuypd; ghJfhg;G mikr;ruhf ,Ue;jtUk;> jw;nghOJ gpujkuhf cs;stUkhd Vhpay; N\Nuhd; (1995) Fwpg;gpLifapy;>

eh]pfSf;Fg; gpd;dH mughj;ij tpl A+jHfspd; ,uj;jj;ijg; G+rpf; nfhz;l NtW xUtiu vdf;Fj; njhpahJ vd;whd;.

MdhYk; 1988 y; ,];Nuiy ,iwikAs;s murhf Vw;Wf; nfhz;ljhf mwptpj;J KO K];ypk; ck;kj;jpd; kPJk; fhpG+rp> gy];jPdg; Nghuhl;lj;ijNa nfhr;irg;gLj;jpdhH. mJtiuf;Fk; gy];jPdg; gaq;futhjj;jpahfj; njhpe;j mughj;> ntFtpiutpy; mnkhpf;fh Kjypa ehLfSf;F neUq;fp ez;guhdhH.

1993 y; ,];Nuypag; gpujkH apl;]f; ugpDld; X];Nyh xg;ge;jj;jpy; ifnfOj;jpl;L Gdpj G+kpia ,];NuYf;Fj; jhiu thHj;J tpl;L 1996 y; gy];jPdpd; Nkw;Ff; fiu> kw;Wk; fh]h it cs;slf;fpa gy];jPd mjpfhu rigapd; [dhjpgjp MdhH. ,e;j xg;ge;jj;ijr; nra;J nfhz;ljd; %yk;> mughj;> apl;]f; uhgpd;> ,];Nuypd; ntspehl;likr;rH \pNkhd; ngu]; MfpNahUf;F 1994 k; Mz;L rkhjhdj;Jf;fhd Nehgy; ghpR fpilj;jJ. x];Nyh xg;ge;jj;ij Kd;dpd;W elj;jpa ehL NehHNt vd;gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fJ.

gy];jPd mjpfhu rig Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;ljd; gpd;dH tpLjiyf;fhfg; NghuhLk; K[h`pJfs; kPjhd mughj;jpd; mbahl;fsJ nfLgpbfs; mjpfkhapd. K[h`pJfisf; ifJ nra;jy;> mtHfs; gw;wp jfty;fis ,];NuypaHfSf;F toq;Fjy; Nghd;w ifq;fhpaq;fs; gy];jPd mjpfhu rigapd; ,];Nuypa tpRthrj;ij ntspg;gLj;jp epw;fpd;wd. vd;d jhd; Mf;fpukpg;ghsHfSf;F ,ire;J ele;j NghJk; mz;ikapy; muhgj;Jf;F Vw;gl;l ifaW epiyia KO cyfKk; fz;L nfhz;lJ.

mJ ,iwtdpd; jpUtrdj;ij nka;gpg;gjhf cs;sJ> ,j;jifNahUf;F ,k;ikapYk; Ntjid> kWikapYk; mtHfSf;F Ntjid jhd;..!

ghy];jPd kz;zpypUe;J.. ..!

xU fz;zPHf; fbjk; !

m];]yhK miyf;Fk; tu`;kJy;yh`p tguf;fhJ`{.

my;yh`;Tf;Nf vy;yhg; GfOk;.

mtDf;Nf ed;wpfsidj;Jk;. vk;ik mtd; tPu kuzj;jpw;nfd;Nw NjHe;njLj;jpUf;fpd;whd;. mJ XuUs;. mtd; mUs;fis vk;kPJ nghope;jhd;. ed;wpfs;..> ed;wpfs;..> midj;Jk; cdf;Nf ah my;yh`;!

cynfq;Fk; gue;J thOk; ,];yhkpar; rNfhjuHfNs!

NjfhNuhf;fpaj;JlDk;> ew;Rfj;JlDk; ,Uf;Fk; epiyapy; ,f;fbjk; cq;fis te;jila Ntz;Lk; vdg; gpuhHj;jpf;fpd;Nwhk;. Js;spg; ghAk; Foe;ijfs; kidtpapd; cjl;by; G+f;Fk; Gd;dif> ez;gHfspd; Nfspf;iffs; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; kfpo;NthL ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vdg; gpuhHj;jpf;fpNwd;.

,];yhkpar; rNfhjuHfNs!

vk;kplk; ew;rpe;jid xd;wpUf;fpwJ. nfhQ;r Neuk; xJf;fp ePq;fs; mjid thrpg;gPHfs; vd epidf;fpNwhk;. ehk; mjidg; Ngdh ikapdhyy;y> vOjpaJ ,ja ikapdhy; rNfhjuHfNs! mDkjpg;gPHfsh? nfhQ;rk; ehk; cq;fisf; fz;bj;jhy;!! cq;fs; ,uj;jj;NjhL fye;jpUf;Fk; Coca Cola itf; fhl;bj; je;jhy;..!

ePq;fs; nra;Jtpl;ltw;iw ePq;fs; nra;tPHfnsd ehk; vjpHghHf;ftpy;iy. XLfpd;w vq;fs; ,uj;jf; fhl;rpfs; cq;fisf; ftUk; fz;fhl;rpfnsd epidj;jpUf;ftpy;iy. vq;fs; Atjpfs;> rNfhjhpfs;> gpwH ifapdhy; my;y jk; ifapdhNyNa khAk; fhl;rpfs; cq;fis kfpo;tpf;Fk; vd epidf;ftpy;iy. Jhuh> <khd;> gpyhy;..>> Nghd;w gr;rpsq; Foe;ijfspd; uzf; fhl;rpfis fiy uridNahL fz;Lfspj;jpUg;gPHfs; vd ehk; epidf;ftpy;iy. cq;fsplk; ehk; ,e;jsT kypthdtHfs; vd epidf;ftpy;iy. vk;ikg; gw;wp Nahrpg;gjpy; $l ePq;fs; cNyhgpfshdPHfs;. mw;gr; rpy;yiwapYkh ePq;fs; vkf;Ff; fQ;rj;jdk; fhl;LfpwPHfs;? vkf;nfjpuhf A+jDf;F cjTfpd;wPHfs;. vk;ik tplTk; cq;fSf;F Pepsi Ak; Coca Cola Tk; ngWkjp kpf;fit vd ehk; njhpe;jpUf;ftpy;iy. mnkhpf;ff; NfhGuq;fs; ,be;j Ntis vOe;j czHr;rpfs; vk; ,uj;jq;fSf;F Kd;dhy; Eiuaha; ,wq;fp tpLk; vd ehk; epidf;ftpy;iy. rj;jpakha; epidf;ftpy;iy.. .. ePq;fs; ,g;gbr; nra;tPHfs;vd;W ehk; epidj;jpUf;fNtapy;iy. Vd; njhpAkh? ehk; cq;fis Nerpf;fpd;Nwhk;. ,J jhd; vkJ rpe;jid vOJifapNyNa vj;jid ,uj;jj; Jspfs; kz;iz Kj;jkpl;bUf;Fk; vd ehk; mwpNahk;. ehk; cq;fisf; f\;lg;gLj;jpapUf;f khl;Nlhk; vd epidf;fpNwhk;. kd;dpAq;fs;. cq;fisf; f\;lg;gLj;jpapUe;jhy; kPz;Lk; cq;fs; Nfspf;iffspy; %o;Fq;fs;. epr;rakhf ehk; vkJ ug;ig vk;kplk; fz;L nfhz;Nlhk;. mtd; cq;fSf;F NkypUg;gijf; fz;Nlhk;. ,J jhd; vkJ top - Gdpjg; NghH!

mjpy; ntw;wp ,y;iyNay; tPukuzk; !!

(ed;wp K[;jk/> jkpopy; : igry;).

mnkhpf;f - ,];Nuypa cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fs; rpy :

1. Coca Cola

2. Pepsi 

3. McDonalds cw;gj;jpfs;

4. KFC cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fs;

5.  Pizza 

6. Nike 

7. Adidas

,];Nuy; xU jPtputhjehL

n[dpd; mfjpKfhk; gLnfhiyf;fhd rhl;rpaq;fs;

mz;ikapy; ghy];jPdj;jpy; n[dpd; vd;Dk; ,lj;jpy; mike;Js;s mfjp Kfhikj; jhf;fp mjpy; cs;stHfis $z;NlhL mopj;j nfhLikia ,];Nuy; nra;jJ. ,we;jtHfis vhpj;Jk;> $l;lkhfg; Gijj;Jk;> jlaq;fNs ,y;yhky; nra;j tuyhw;Wf; nfhLik xd;iw epfo;j;jpaJ. mq;F ele;j gLnfhiyfs; cyifNa mjpHr;rpf;Fs;shf;fpaJ. n[dpd; gLnfhiy njhlHghd rhl;rpaq;fisNah> jfty;fisNah ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Kbahj tz;zk; jilfis ,];Nuy; Vw;gLj;jpaJ. Vd; mtrug; gphpT kUj;JtHfisNah> gj;jphpf;ifahsHfisNah vd vtiuANk me;j mfjp Kfhk; gf;fk; neUq;ff; $l tplhky;> rhl;rpaq;fis mopg;gjpNyNa ,];Nuy; Fwpahf ,Ue;jJ cyfj;jpd; fz;ldj;jpw;Fs;shfpaJ. n[dpd; Fwpj;J rpy Kf;fpag; gpuKfHfs; njhptpj;j fUj;Jf;fis ,q;F jUfpd;Nwhk;. ,J xd;Nw ,];Nuy; jPtputhj ehL vd mwptpg;gjw;Fg; NghJkhd rhl;rpaq;fshf cs;sd.

William Burns - (kj;jpa fpof;fpw;fhd mnkhpf;fj; J}JtH).

ehk; fhz;gJ gaq;fu kdpj mopnthd;iwNa vd epidf;fpd;Nwd;. n[dpd; Kfhkpy; ele;Njwpa rk;gtq;fs;> mg;ghtp ghy];jPdg; nghJkf;fSf;F kpfg; nghpa Jd;gj;ij tpistpj;Js;sJ. (Reuters 20/4/2002)

Migvel Angel - (INuhg;gpa A+dpad; J}JtH)

ehd; nghpJk; mjpHr;rp mile;Js;Nsd;. ehd; fz;ltw;iwg; gw;wpa kpfg; nghpa kdg;gjpit Rke;J nry;fpd;Nwd;. ,J xU JaH epiwe;j kdpj mopNt!

n[dpYs;s gy];jPd mfjp Kfhkpd; mopT> kj;jpa rkhjhd J}JtHfspd; Kaw;rpfspd; Njhy;tpiaNa vLj;Jf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

,t;thwhd epfo;Tfis jtpHg;gjw;fhfTk;> ,g;gFjpapy; rkhjhdj;ij Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhfTk; XahJ Ntiy nra;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; vd;idg;Nghd;w kdpjHfSf;F ,JxU Njhy;tpNa! vjpHfhyj;jpy; ,ij tpl mjpfkhf ehk; Ntiy nra;a Ntz;bAs;sJ. (AFP 29/4/2002)

Terje Roed - Larsen (I.eh. tpd; tpNr\ J}jH)

,J Kw;WKOjhf> Vw;Wf; nfhs;s KbahjJk;> ek;g KbahjJkhd Nfhu epfo;thFk;. mJ (n[dpd;) KojhfNt mopf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. xU G+fk;gk; jhf;fpaopj;jJ Nghy; fhl;rp jUfpd;wJ.

gjpndhU jpdq;fshf NjLjy; Fof;fSf;Fk;> kPl;Gf; Fof;fSf;Fk ,];Nuy; muR tu mDkjpf;fhjpUe;jJ ve;j tpjj;jpYk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl Kbahjnjhd;whFk;. ,J kdpj ePjpf;Fg; nghUe;jhjnjhU tprakhFk;.

Aj;jg; gpuhe;jpaq;fSf;Fk;> G+fk;gk; epfo;e;j gFjpfSf;Fk; nrd;W te;j epGzHfs; vk;kplk; ,Uf;fpd;whHfs;. vdpDk;> ,J Nghd;w XH mopit ehk; fz;ljpy;iy vd mtHfs; $Wfpd;whHfs;. (BBC18/4)

Peter Hansen (ghy];jPd mfjpfSf;fhd I.eh.MizahsH n[duy;)

Nkw;Ff; fiuapypUe;j mfjp Kfhik ,];Nuy; cz;ikapNyNa Kw;whf mopj;J tpl;lJ. mq;F ,lk; ngw;w gaq;fu kdpj mopit gy];jPd re;jjpfs; gy epidtpy; itj;jpUf;Fk;. n[dpdpy; fz;lJ Nghd;w kdpj Jauj;ij ehd; xU NghJk; fz;ljpy;iy.

n[dpDf;F vd;Dld; te;j ];tp]; ehl;ilr; NrHe;j epyeLf;f Ma;thsH $l jpifj;J tpl;lhH. fle;j gy jrhg;jq;fshf ,J Nghd;wNjhH mopit cyfpd; vg;gFjpapYk; jhd; fz;ljpy;iy vdf; $wpdhH. ,k;kdpjg; gLnfhiyfs; kdpj epidtpypUe;J vd;Wk; mfyhJ vd epidf;fpd;Nwd;. gy];jPd re;jjpfs; gy ,tw;wpd; jhf;fj;ij itj;jpUf;Fk;. (AFP) 28/4

Yaffa Yarkoni - (Njrg;gw;Wg;ghly;fSf;F NgHNghd ,];Nuy; ghlfH)

KJFf;Fg; gpd;dhy; jk; iffs; fl;lg;gl;bUe;j gy];jPd rlyq;fis ehd; fz;l NghJ> ehd; $wpNdd; : n`hNyhNfh];l; (n[Hkdpapy; A+jHfs; eh]pfshy; mopf;fg;gl;l epfo;T) fspd; NghJ mtHfs; vkf;Fr; nra;jJ Nghy; ,J ,Uf;fpwJ. ehk; N`hNyhNfh];l;ilj; jhz;batHfs;. vk;khy; ,g;gbg;gl;l tpraj;ij vt;thW nra;a Kbe;jJ? (Independent 3/5)

Francis Wurtz (10 INuhg;gpa A+dpad; ehLfisg; gpujpepjpj;Jtk; nra;Ak; 19 A+Nuh. f;fSf;fhd Ngr;rhsH)

Aj;jf; Fw;wr; nray;fSf;fhd rfy; milahsq;fSk; ,Uf;fpd;wd. Kw;whf rfpf;f Kbahj G+r;rpa epiyf;F mJ miuf;fg;gl;L tpl;lJ. VJk; kPjpapy;iy. jpl;lkplg;gl;l mopT Ntiy> JaH epiwe;j kdpj mopT. (AFP)

Gavier Zuniga - Amnesty (gpuhe;jpag; gzpg;ghsH)

kdpj chpik kPwy;fSf;Fk; kdpjhgpkhd rl;lq;fspd; gaq;fu kPwy;fSf;Fkhd ek;gj;jFe;j Mjhuq;fs; nfhs;s KbAkhd NghHf; Fw;wr; nray;fs;> rl;l tpNuhj nfhiyfs;> nfhiyfhug; gilapd; mghpjkhd nraw;ghL> n`ypfhg;lHfshy; jhf;Fjy; Muk;gpf;F Kd; vr;rhpf;if VJk; nfhLf;fg;glhik...

n[dpd; mfjp Kfhkpy; ,];Nuy; gilapdhpd; kdpj chpik kPwy;fSf;fhd Mjhuq;fs;! jLj;J epWj;jg;gl;l gy];jPdHfis kdpjf; Nflaq;fshfg; gad;gLj;jpaik> n[dpdpy; rHtNjr rl;lq;fs; gLgaq;fukhf kPwg;gl;Ls;sd vd;W G+Hthq;f mbg;gilapy; ehk; KbT nra;Js;Nshk;. NghHf; Fw;wr; nray;fs; Fwpj;J ehk; Ngrp tUfpd;Nwhk;. (Yahoo.com3/5)

Peter Boukaert - (kdpj chpik fz;fhzpg;Gf; FOtpd; %j;j Ma;thsH)

ehk; n[dpdpy; Mtzg;gLj;jpAs;s mj;JkPwy;fs; kpfj; jPtpukhdit. rpy rk;gtq;fspy;> mit NghHf; Fw;wr; nray;fshfj; njd;gLfpd;wd. mNef ghuJ}ukhd kPwy;fSf;F jdpegH nghWg;ig CH[pjk; nra;tjw;F Fw;wg; Gydha;Tfs; Njitg;gLfpd;wd. ,];Nuypa murpd; Kjy; Kf;fpa flik ,JthFk;.

kpfg; gutyhd jpl;lkplg;gl;l> Ntz;Lnkd;Nw nra;ag;gl;l KO khtl;lj;ijAk; jiukl;lkhf;Ffpd;w nray;. ,J ,];Nuy; mila epidj;j ,uhZt Nehf;Ff;Fg; nghUe;jhj mj;JkPwy; vd;gJ njspT.

(,it ek;gj; jFe;j ,izaj; jsq;fis Mjhukhff; nfhz;l jfty;fs; - ed;wp : vq;fs; Njrk;)

,];Nuy; Njhd;wpa ,op tuyhW

  • A+jHfs; egp ]fhpa;ah (miy) mtHfisf; nfhiy nra;fpwhHfs;.

  • kfd; a`;ah (miy) mtHfisAk; nfhiy nra;fpwhHfs;.

  • gpd;dH egp <]h (miy) mtHfisf; nfhiy nra;a Kaw;rpf;fpwhHfs;.

fp.gp. 70

cNuhk Ml;rpf;nfjpuhf A+jHfs; Gul;rp nra;fpwhHfs;. cNuhkr; rf;futHj;jp ill];> mtHfis mlf;fp> ehl;il tpl;Lk; Juj;jp tpLfpwhH. A+jHfspd; ePz;l fhy (2000 tUl) ntspNaw;wk; (Diaspora) ,jpypUe;J Muk;gpf;fpwJ.

fp.gp.118-138

A+jHfs; kPs tu mDkjpf;fg;gl;Lk;> mtHfs; te;J fp.gp.133 y; kPz;Lk; Gul;rp nra;fpwhHfs;. ,jdhy; gy];jPd; efuk; Kw;whf mopf;fg;gLfpwJ. A+jHfs; tpul;lg;gl;lNjhL mbikfshfTk; tpw;fg;gLfpd;whHfs;.

fp.gp. 638

muG K];ypk;fs; gy];jPdj;ijf; ifg;gw;WfpwhHfs;. fyPgh ckH (uyp) mtHfs; Neubahf te;J n[&]j;jpd; jpwT Nfhiyf; ifaspf;fpwhHfs;. ,ilapy; (1099 Kjy; 1187 tiu) rpYit Aj;j tPuHfspd; Ml;rpf;F n[U]yk; cl;gLj;jg;gl;lJ jtpHe;j Vida fhyq;fspy;> cJkhdpa rhk;uh[;ak; (,Wjp fpyhgj;) KbTf;F tUk; tiu (1924) K];ypk;fspd; G+kpahf gy];jPdk; ,Ue;J te;jJ.

fp.gp. 1896

INuhg;gpa ehLfspy; A+j ,dj;Jf;F vjpuhd eltbf;iffspd; tpisit Kd;dpWj;jp vOj;jhsd; jpNahlH N`H]y;> A+jHfSf;fhd xU G+kp Njit vd typAWj;jpdhd;. ,jd; mbg;gilapy; Rtpl;]Hyhe;jpy; A+jj;jiytHfSk; jdte;jHfSk;> mwpQHfSk; xd;W $b KjyhtJ ]pNahdpr fhq;fpu]; khehl;ilf; $l;b>gy];jPdpy; A+j jhafk; miktJ gw;wp Kd;nkhope;jdH.

fp.gp.1903

,e;j Mz;L tiu 25 Mapuk; A+jHfs; gy];jPdpy; gbg;gbahff; FbNawpdH.

fp.gp.1914

,e;j Mz;Lf;Fs; kw;nwhU 40 Mapuk; NgH gy];jPdpw;Fs; cl;Gfe;jdH

fp.gp.1922

,e;j Mz;by; 11 rjtPjkhNdhH A+jHfshapdH.

mLj;j 15 tUlj;Jf;Fs; 3 ,yl;rj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhNdhH jpl;lkpl;Lf; FbNaw;wg;gl;ldH

fp.gp.1916

(Sykes-picot) irf;]; gpnfhl; ,ufrpa cld;gbf;if : gphpl;lDf;Fk; gpuhd;Rf;Fk; ,ilapy; u\;ahtpd; rk;kjj;Jld; ifnaOj;jplg;gl;lJ. ,J cJkhdpa rhk;uh[;aj;jpd; fPopUe;j rphpah> <uhf;> nygdhd;> gy];jPd; Mfpa muGg; gpuhe;jpaq;fis vt;thW jkf;Fs; $WNghl;Lf;nfhs;tJ vd;gJ gw;wpaNj.

,Nj fhy fl;lj;jpy; vfpg;jpypUe;j gphpl;lhdpa fkp\dH n`d;wp kf;kNfhd; cJkhdpa Ml;rpapd; fPopUe;j muG khfhzq;fSf;F Rje;jpuk; toq;f ngha; thf;FWjpaspj;jhH.

fp.gp.1917

ngy;/NghH (Balfour) gpufldk; : 2-11-1917 MHjH N[k;]; ngy;NghH gphpj;jhdpa ntspAwTr; nrayhsH gphpj;jhdpa A+j r%fj; jiytuhd Nyhl; nuhj; iry;l; Lf;F mDg;gpa fbjk; xd;wpd; %yk; A+j Njrpa jhafk; gw;wpa cWjp nkhopia toq;fpdhH.

gy];jPdpy; A+j kf;fSf;fhf xU Njrpa jhafj;ij mikg;gij Nkd;ik jq;fpa murhpd; murhq;fk; rhjfkhf Nehf;FfpwJ. ,e;j Nehf;if mile;J nfhs;s cjTtjw;F jk;khyhd midj;J Kaw;rpfisAk; gad;gLj;Jk; mNjNtis gy];jPdpy; thOk; A+juy;yhj r%fq;fspd; FbAhpik> kj chpikfis ghjpf;ff; $ba my;yJ Vida ehLfspy; A+jHfs; mDgtpf;Fk; chpikfs;> murpay; me;j];Jfisg; ghjpf;ff; $ba vjidAk; Nkw; nfhs;sf; $lhJ vd;w Ghpe;jzHitAk; Kd; itf;fpd;wJ.

fp.gp.1918 gphpl;lhd; gy];jPidf; ifg;gw;wpaJ

fp.gp. 1929

mugpfSf;Fk; A+jHfSf;FkpilNa Nghuhl;lk; Jtq;FfpwJ. 133 A+jHfs; mugpfspd; jhf;Fjy;fSf;F cs;shdhHfs;. mNj Ntis gphpl;ld; Nghyp]; gil 110 ghy];jPdHfisf; nfhd;wJ.

fp.gp.1930

,uz;lhk; cyf Aj;jj;Jf;F Kd; INuhg;ghtpy; eh]pfshy; A+jHfSf;F vjpuhf Jd;GWj;jy;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJk; mtHfs; gy];jPid Nehf;fp ghhpa mstpy; mDg;gg;gl;ldH. ,j;jpl;lkpl;l FbNaw;wj;Jf;F vjpuhf gy];jPdHfs; NghHf; nfhb J}f;f Muk;gpj;jdH.

fp.gp.1936

gy];jPdHfs; nghJ Ntiy epWj;jk; xd;iw Nkw;nfhz;ldH. ,Nj fhyj;jpy; A+jHfspd; gaq;futhj ,af;fkhd ,Hfd; (Irgun) Njhw;wk; ngw;wJ. ,J gy];jPd;> gphpj;jhdpa ,yf;Ffis Fwp itj;jjhf mike;jJ.

fp.gp.1937

Nyhl;gPy; jiyikapy; gphpl;lhdpa ,uh[ Mizf;FO gy];jPdpd; 1/3 gFjpia A+j ehlfTk; kpFjpia muG ehlhftk; gphpf;fg; gpNuhpj;jJ. gy];jPdHfNsh A+jf; FbNaw;wj;ij epWj;Jk;gbAk;> gy];jPd; xNu ehlhf ,Uf;f Ntz;LnkdTk; rpWghd;ik r%fj;jpdhpd; chpikfs; ghJfhf;fg;gLk; vdTk; $wp gphptpidia vjpHj;Jg; Gul;rp nra;jhHfs;. gphpj;jhdpag; gilfshy; mg; Gul;rp mlf;fg;gl;lJ

fp.gp.1947

gy];jPdpd; epHthfg; nghWg;ig gphpj;jhdpaHfs; tpl;Lr; nry;y Maj;jkhfp gpur;rpidia I.eh.Tf;Ff; nfhz;L nrd;wdH. gy];jPd; I.eh. tpd; Nkw;ghHitf;Fs; nfhz;L tug;gl;lJ. I.eh. rig gy];jPid ,U$whf;Fk; Mnyhridia Kd;itj;jJ. mjd;gb 43.53 rjtPj epyg;gug;G gy];jPdHfSf;Fk; 56.47 rjtPj epyg;gug;G  A+jHfSf;Fk; nry;tjhdy; gy];jPdHfs; mjid Vw;f kWj;jhHfs;. A+jHfs; mjid Mjhpj;jdH.

fp.gp.15.5.1948

,jidaLj;J 15.5.1948 y; ,];Nuy; ehL gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. vfpg;J>rphpah>nygdhd; Mfpa mz;il ehLfs; mjw;nfjpuhfg; gilnaLg;G elj;jp Njhy;tp fz;ld. ,];Nuy; I.eh. toq;ftpUe;j vy;iyfis tpl mjpfkhf Mf;fpukpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.

fp.gp.1949

I.eh. jpl;lj;jpw;F NkYk; rpy epyg;gFjpfis ,];Nuy; Mf;fpukpj;Jf; nfhz;lJ.

fp.gp.1956

fkhy; mg;Jy; ehrH vfpg;jpd; [dhjpgjpahf MdTld; rphpa ,uhZtj;Jld; jkJ ,uhZtj;ij ,izj;jJld; Ra]; fhy;thia Njrpakakhf;fpdhH.

,jid vfpg;J> ,q;fpyhe;J> gpuhd;]; Mfpa ehLfSld; ,];NuYk; ,ize;J 29.10.1956 y; rpdha; jPgfw;gj;Jf;Fs; gpuNtrpj;jd. rHtNjr mOj;jk; fhuzkhf ,];Nuy; rpdha; ghiytdj;ijf; iftpl;lJ. ,q;fpyhe;J> gpuhd;]; gilfs; jpUg;gpaiof;fg;gl;ld.

fp.gp.1964

gy];jPd tpLjiy ,af;fk; (PLO) Njhw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lJ. ,];Nuiy mopj;J jkJ G+kpia kPl;fg; NghtjhfTk;> jhNk ghy];jPdHfspd; Vfg; gpujpepjp vdTk; ahrpHmughj; $wpdhH.

fp.gp.1967

mz;il muGehLfs; ,];Nuy; kPJ NghH njhLj;jd. MW ehl;fs; ePbj;j Aj;jj;jpy; ,];Nuy; vfpg;jpd; rpdha;g; ghiytdj;ijAk; kw;Wk; n[&]yk; gioa efiuAk; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJ. 1967 f;F Ke;jpa vy;iyf;Fs; ,];Nuy; kPs Ntz;Lk; vd I.eh. jPHkhdk; (242) epiwNtw;wpaJ

fp.gp.1973

A+jHfspd; ngUehshd Nahd; fpg;G md;W (mf;NlhgH 6) rphpahTk;> vfpg;Jk; ,];NuYf;nfjpuhf kPz;Lk; xU Aj;jj;ij Muk;gpj;jd. ,e;j jpBH jhf;Fjypd; NghJ vfpg;J> 1967 y; (MW ehs; Aj;jj;jpy;) jhd; ,oe;j ngUk; gFjpfis kPz;Lk; ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;lJ.

fp.gp.1979

Nfk;g; Nltpl; cld;gbf;if. mnkhpf;f [dhjpgjp [pk;kp fhHlH Kd;dpiyapy;> vfpg;jpa [dhjpgjp md;tH rjhj;Jf;Fk; ,];Nu; gpujkH (Kd;dhs; gaq;futhj ,af;fj; jiytd;) nkdhnrk; ngfpDf;Fkpilapy; XH cld;ghL ifnaOj;jplg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %yk;> vfpg;J ,];Nuypd; ,Ug;ig mq;fPfhpj;J> ,oe;j rpdha; ghiytdj;ij kPz;Lk; ngw;Wf; nfhz;lJ.

fp.gp.1982

nygdhdpypUe;j I.eh. mfjpKfhk;fshd rg;uh> rj;jpyh Mfpatw;Ws; A+j ,uhZtk;> jw;Nghija gpujkuhd Vhpay; \Nuhdpd; jiyikapy; GFe;J ehrfhu Ntiyfspy; <Lgl;L mfjpfisf; nfhd;W Ftpj;jJ.

fp.gp.1987

A+jf; FbNaw;wq;fs; Nkw;Ff; fiuapy; njhlHe;j epiyapy; PLO Tk; gykpoe;J gy ehlfspypUe;Jk; tpul;lg;gl;l epiyapy;> nygdhdpy; mfjp Kfhk;fs; kpUfj;jdkhf jhf;fg;gl;l mjpHr;rpapy;> gy];jPd K];ypk;fs; jkJ kf;fs; Nghuhl;lkhd ,d;jpghoh it gy];jPDf;Fs; Muk;gpj;jdH.

fp.gp.1993

1993 M];Nyh gpufldk; :

mnkhpf;f nts;is khspifapy; itj;J ngUk; Muhtuj;Jld; ,];NuYf;Fk;> PLO f;Fk; ,ilapy; ifnaOj;jplg;gl;l gpufldk; xU epue;ju cld;gbf;ifahf ,Wjp tiu mq;fPfhpf;fg;gltpy;iy. ,jd; mbg;gilapy; rpy rk;gtq;fs; NkNyhl;lkhf ele;Njwpd.

  • gy];jPdHfSf;Fk; rpy epyg;gug;G (Nkw;Ff; fiu> fh]hg; gFjp) ifaspf;fg;gl;lJ

  • gy];jPd mjpfhu rig PNA cUthf;fg;gl;L ahrH mughj; [dhjpgjp vd gl;lk; #l;lg;gl;lhH.

  • gy];jPd NghyP];gil cUthf;fg;gl;L> `kh]; kw;Wk; ,];yhkpa [p`hj; tPuHfs; eRf;fg;gl;ldH.

milag; ngwhjit :

  • n[&]yj;jpd; me;j];J gw;wp vt;tpj KbTkpy;iy.

  • mfjpfspd; epiygw;wp Kbtpy;iy.

  • gy];jPdpd; vy;iyfs; gw;wp KbT (1967 f;F Kd;Ds;s) ,y;iy.

fp.gp.2000

,jdhy; nrg;lk;gH 2 k; Mz;by; ,uz;lhtJ ,d;jpghoh (kf;fs; Nghul;lk;) Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. M];Nyh gpufldk; ,aw;if kuzk; va;jpajhfNt fUjg;gLfpwJ. ,jidj; njhlHe;J ,];Nuypag; gpujkuhfg; gjtpNaw;w Vhpay; \Nuhd;> 2002 y; n[dpd; mfjp Kfhk;fspy; kPz;Lk; ntwpahl;lk; elj;jpdhd;.

(ed;wp : vq;fs; Njrk;).

yad;];> Nuhl;lhp fpsg;Gfspy; mq;fk; tfpf;fpd;wPHfsh?

,e;j yad;];> Nuhl;lhp Nghd;w mikg;Gfs; gykhd A+j mbj;jsj;ijf; nfhz;l mikg;gpd; mofpa Kfq;fshFk;. ,ijawpahJ mwpTk; MsikAk;> jiyikj;Jtg; gz;Gk; epiwe;j E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd caHnjhopy; GhpAk; K];ypk;fs; ,t;tikg;Gfspd; gfl;lhd eilKiwfspy; kaq;fpf; fplf;fpd;whHfs;. jkJ r%fj;jpd; FiwghLfSf;fhf> mjid tpkHrpf;Fk; ,tHfs; ,t;tikg;Gfspy; mq;fj;Jtk; ngWtijg; ngUikahfTk;> jkJ tho;tpd; xU Kf;fpa rhjidahfTk; fUJfpwhHfs;. X K];ypk; r%fNk!

A+jHfspd; yl;rpaq;fis epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;jtw;fhf K];ypk;fs; jpdKk; 75 Nfhb (,yq;if) &ghia md;gspg;ghf toq;Ffpd;whHfs;. A+jHfspd; Kd;Ndw;j;jpw;fhf jkJ Njwpa ,yhgj;jpy; 12 rjtPjj;ij toq;Fk; cyfpd; kpfg; nghpa rpful; fk;ngdpapy; cw;gj;jpfis cgNahfpg;gjdhNyNa mtHfs; ,jidr; nra;fpd;wdH. ,isQHfSk;> ngz;fs;> KjpNahH vd;w tpj;jpahrkpd;wp Gifgpbf;Fk; muG kf;fSk;> Vida K];ypk;fSNk ,jpy; ngUk;gq;F tfpf;fpd;wdH. mnkhpf;f tq;fpfspy; Nrkpg;Gr; nra;Js;s K];ypk;fspd; 13 bhpy;ypad; lhyH gzk; nfhz;L tUk; gzk; ,e;j md;gspg;Gf;Fg; Gwk;ghdjhFk;. jd;tpid jd;idr; RLk; vd;gJ ,J jhNd?

H 4
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